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1.
Pathologe ; 40(Suppl 3): 306-310, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807842

RESUMO

The article offers a new approach to the retirement of Herxheimer as head of the German Society of Pathology in 1933 and frames it in a new context. The result is that the German Society of Pathology of the time contributed to National Socialism and supported it. Herxheimer became a victim, but his tragic fate was partly self-inflicted. This article is based on the methods of historical and cultural studies.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional , Patologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
2.
Pathologe ; 40(Suppl 3): 288-292, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on recent historical research, the context of mentality plays an important role in understanding the history of medicine and pathology in Nazi Germany. OBJECTIVES: What impact did the "Age of Violence" have on the work of pathology in Germany between 1914 and 1945? What does that mean for modern recent pathology? METHODS: Based on printed as well as archival material (City and University Archives, Mainz), the history of pathology in Mainz is presented as a case study. RESULTS: Mainz, as a part of a borderland region, faced experiences of verbal and bodily violence, which moulded the work of pathologists in the German Empire extensively. These developments bolstered the collaboration of pathologists with the Nazi state. CONCLUSIONS: Inquiries regarding medical ethics should not be restricted to the dispositions of actors and consequences for the suffering. In contrast, influences of mentality-driven contexts should be considered equally. The latter should be supportive to the maintenance of a democratic medicine.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional , Patologia/história , Violência , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
3.
Pathologe ; 40(Suppl 3): 228-231, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754789

RESUMO

Michael Mihatsch, born in 1943 in Gleiwitz, studied medicine in Bonn and Freiburg, and then went to Basel to begin studying pathology. In 1978, he became Assistant Professor at the University of Basel, and led the Institute there from 1988 until 2007. Mihatsch made Basel a center for prospective renal pathologists.His most significant achievement is the description of the connection between phenacetin administration and nephropathy with renal atrophy and the concomitant occurrence of urothelial carcinoma. His campaign against phenacetin finally contributed to a ban on the medication.His textbook Renal Pathology in Biopsy is a classic of medical literature.As a leading nephropathologist worldwide, Prof. Dr. Med. Michael J. Mihatsch received the Rudolf Virchow Medal of the German Society of Pathologists in 2019.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Patologia , Academias e Institutos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Patologia/história , Estudos Prospectivos , Sociedades Médicas
4.
Pol J Pathol ; 70(1): 51-56, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556553

RESUMO

Between 1793 and 1914, there were many internationally recognised physicians active in Gdansk. Their scientific activities included, among other things, anatomopathological research, constituting a determinant of progress in medical sciences during this period. One of the most important people was Martin Heinrich Rathke (1793-1860). He is recognised as one of the founders of modern embryology. In Gdansk Rathke's successor was Wilhelm Baum (1799-1883). Baum introduced compulsory post-mortem examinations in the city hospital even after the outbreak, and he was mentor to Theodor Billroth (1829-1894). The successor of Baum as the head of the city hospital was Emil Friedrich Götz (1806-1858). He took up an important topic, which was the consent of the family of the deceased to perform an autopsy. Furthermore, it described the gradual broadening of the scope of anatomopathological activities, consistent with the postulates of the first and second Viennese school, performed in Gdansk in the nineteenth century. However, a detailed analysis of the relationship between the discoveries of nineteenth-century medicine, especially in the field of pathological anatomy, and research carried out in Gdansk, remains in the sphere of research to be done.


Assuntos
Anatomia/história , Autopsia/história , Patologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Polônia
5.
Int J Exp Pathol ; 100(4): 208-221, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515863

RESUMO

Congo red was discovered to stain amyloid by accident in 1922, and Congo red-stained amyloid was shown to be birefringent on polarization microscopy in 1927. Colours, namely green and yellow, were reported under these conditions in 1945, although these are only two of various anomalous colours that may be seen, depending on the optical set-up. In 1953 there began a dogmatic insistence that in Congo red-stained amyloid between crossed polarizer and analyser green alone should be seen, and the finding of any other colour was a mistake. The idea that green, and only green, is essential for the diagnosis of amyloid has persisted almost universally, and virtually all mentions of Congo red-stained amyloid say that it just shows "green birefringence" or "apple-green birefringence." This idea is wrong and is contrary to everyday experience, because green is seldom seen on its own under these conditions of microscopy, and often, there is no green at all. How observers maintain this unscientific position is explained by a study of its historical origins. Most of the early literature was in German or French and was usually quoted in English at second hand, which meant that misquotations, misattributions and misunderstandings were common. Few workers reported their findings accurately, hardly any attempted to explain them, and until 2008, none gave a completely satisfactory account of the physical optics. The history of Congo red-stained amyloid is an instructive example of how an erroneous belief can become widely established even when it is contradicted by simple experience.


Assuntos
Amiloide , Vermelho Congo/história , Patologia/história , Birrefringência , Diagnóstico por Imagem , História do Século XX , Humanos , Microscopia de Polarização
10.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 57-66, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183849

RESUMO

Santiago Ramón y Cajal created histological images using a variety of artistic techniques and methods. In order to contextualise his practice, I have selected a set of drawings and prints of cartilage cells that were used in Cajal’s reference handbooks. I then introduce a lithograph representing an inflamed cartilage included in Cajal’s first publication. This technique enabled the publishing of graphic information in colour. By reviewing images included in the material that Cajal consulted during his pre-graduate years, I show that he participated in the transnational production of drawing and made use of the printing techniques available to present his research. By analysing a set of original drawings included in Cajal´s notebook, Diario de Observaciones, and his first published lithographs of cartilage cells and neurons, I reveal the graphic specificities of his transition from handmade drawings to print representations. Cajal´s drawing and lithographing relate directly to artistic interests developed in his youth (López Piñero, 1985), and these skills facilitated the technical transit between notebook and published images, enabling him to formalise his knowledge by including histological results in printed material. A determining factor in Cajal’s graphic production relating to the nervous system was his expertise in using chemical silver nitrate, resulting from his interest in photography. Finally, his colour selection is discussed, in order to demonstrate that, even when Cajal drew black lines, he was using black as a specific colour, one he observed through the microscope after staining histological samples


No disponible


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Conhecimento , Neurociências/história , Patologia/educação , Patologia/história , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Neuroglia , Neurociências/educação , Gravuras e Gravação/classificação , Gravuras e Gravação/história
11.
Hamostaseologie ; 39(2): 107-114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31132799

RESUMO

Among the pioneers in platelet research, Gustav Born was perhaps the most prominent representative, just a real "plateleteer". He achieved scientific fame for the invention and application of light transmission aggregometry. Importantly, he paved the way for contemporary antiplatelet therapy. Integrating his fundamental knowledge of platelet biology into the pathology of vascular disorders, Born provided seminal contributions to the understanding of atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. He also generated visions for pharmacological strategies that, nowadays, are translated into reality. Inside and outside of science, Born was a great man. He had a deeply held belief in humanity. In this article, his life, scientific career and achievements are appreciated together with personal reminiscences of this outstanding personality.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Patologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
13.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(5): 995-1002, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852044

RESUMO

The pathologist Walther Berblinger (1882-1966) became famous for his scientific studies on internal secretion, namely on the pathology of the pituitary and the pineal gland. The results of his research on the hormonal control of the reproductive system contributed significantly to the consolidation of the young discipline of endocrinology. His later pioneering work on the use of chemotherapeutics in tuberculosis was similarly important. Despite his "Aryan" ancestry, Berblinger was targeted by the National Socialists and forced to emigrate to Switzerland due to the pressure of political events - a fact that has only been partially investigated by researchers to date. Accordingly, this essay focuses on Berblinger's professional exclusion and on the implications and consequences associated with it. It also examines why Berblinger decided not to return to Germany after 1945. Primary documents from the University Archives Jena and the Main State Archives Weimar served as the central source for this study; they were supplemented and compared with the research literature available to date on Walther Berblinger and on the history of pathology and medicine under National Socialism. The study documents that Berblinger - unlike his Jewish colleagues - was initially able to continue his career in the Third Reich almost without restriction, but was dismissed from service when he refused to separate from his Jewish wife in 1937. Subsequently, the National Socialists' victimization of Berlinger even reached him in Swiss exile. Notwithstanding the hostile treatment and harassment from Germany, Berblinger succeeded in continuing his scientific career in Switzerland. After 1945, he decided against remigration - not least because negative experiences with German authorities made led him doubt the rule of law in post-war Germany. It was not until the last phase of his life that Berblinger was "rediscovered" by his homeland, as is shown by a series of late honors.


Assuntos
Endocrinologia/história , Patologia/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Socialismo Nacional/história
15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(4): 832-841, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626488

RESUMO

Herwig Hamperl is undoubtedly one of the most influential and prominent representatives of German pathology in the 20th century. Interestingly, he left behind an autobiography (1972) which provides information not only about pathology in the Third Reich and in post-war Germany, but above all about his own life and work. His memoirs primarily served the purpose of recording his life's work for posterity and of retaining it in collective memory. This article focuses specifically on Hamperl's description of the Third Reich. The overriding aim of the paper is to elaborate on his political role and his relationship to National Socialism, which has hardly been investigated to date. Hamperl's autobiographical statements on this very question are therefore compared with the historical facts and - where necessary - contrasted and corrected. The same applies to the image that Hamperl draws of those pathologists who were part of his professional and personal network. The study is partly based on previously unevaluated archive sources and on a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper concludes that Hamperl practised pronounced "self-fashioning": His memoirs give the impression of being formally and linguistically smoothened out and are clearly misleading in terms of content. They are characterised by omissions, ornamentation, and embellishments. Thus Hamperl makes false statements on the question of his NSDAP membership and depicts himself as a politically uninvolved university teacher. Furthermore, even in retrospect, he makes hardly any critical remarks on Nazi ideology and Nazi crimes.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Alemanha , História do Século XX , Humanos
16.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(3): 611-618, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455126

RESUMO

There is no doubt that Walter Pagel (1898-1983) is one of the most outstanding figures in the history of pathology. Not only his fundamental research on tuberculosis and various other fields of pathology but also his historicomedical publications set international standards and earned him numerous honors throughout the scientific world. Far less known is the fact that Pagel, as a German Jew, was one of the victims of the "Third Reich": He was dismissed from his job in Heidelberg, felt forced to emigrate in 1933 and fought for reparation after 1945. Accordingly, this article deals with Pagel's role and fate as a politically persecuted and disenfranchised Jew. It focuses on the general circumstances of his dismissal and forced emigration, but also on Pagel's treatment in post-war Germany. In addition, the influences of this biographical break on Pagel's further research career are investigated. The study is based on archival sources and on a re-analysis of the relevant research literature. It points out that Pagel's emigration took place under difficult circumstances and without clear job prospects. Enormous discipline and mental strength as well as successful networking with supporting mentors allowed Pagel to continue his career in his exile country of England despite poor health. The way in which Pagel was treated in post-war Germany, on the other hand, was less satisfactory: the University of Heidelberg did not offer him any prospect of employment and the "reparation procedure" ("Wiedergutmachungsverfahren") resulted in only small pension payments. Instead, Pagel was awarded an honorary doctorate at his home university in 1966. Of the numerous "stumbling blocks" (n = 183) laid in Heidelberg, not one reminds us of Walter Pagel to date.


Assuntos
Patologistas/história , Patologia/história , Tuberculose/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
17.
Pathol Res Pract ; 215(2): 395-403, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30553604

RESUMO

The name of the Hamburg pathologist Carl August Krauspe (1895-1983) is closely linked to the history of the "European Society of Pathology" (ESP) and the "German Pathological Society" (DGP): He was one of the founding fathers of the ESP, became its vice president, and was appointed an honorary member in 1983. From 1953-1962 he also served as secretary of the DGP and editor of the association's proceedings. In 1962/63 he finally held the chairmanship of the DGP. Most of the publications about Carl Krauspe accordingly pay tribute to these professional functions and offices. Hardly mentioned - let alone critically discussed - is the fact that Krauspe joined the "Nazi Party" (NSDAP), the Storm Detachment (SA) and other Nazi organizations after Hitler's "seizure of power". The content and tenor of Krauspe's reports on politically exposed colleagues have also hardly been examined. With this in mind, the present study pursues the goal of exploring Krauspe's political role and his possible involvement in National Socialism. It is based on previously unexamined archival sources and a reanalysis of the relevant research literature. The paper points out that Krauspe willingly served the Nazi regime during the Third Reich. Thanks to his "loyalty to the party" he was able to significantly advance his own career after 1933. In addition, individual examples show that Krauspe's "expert reports" on colleagues before 1945, but also in post-war Germany, were obviously ideologically influenced. After 1945 he failed to make a late personal contribution to the making of amends for Nazi injustice.


Assuntos
Socialismo Nacional/história , Patologia/história , Sociedades Médicas/história , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
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