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1.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13617, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405917

RESUMO

Granulosa cells (GCs) play an important role in the development of follicles. In this study, we investigate the impact of heat stress at 41°C and 43°C on duck GCs' proliferation and steroids secretion. And, the transcriptomic responses to heat treatment were examined using RNA-sequencing analysis. Digital gene expression profiling was used to screen and identify differentially expressed genes (fold change ≥ 2 and Q value < 0.05). Further, the differential expression genes (DEGs) were classified into GO categories and KEGG pathways. The results show that duck GCs blocked in the G1 phase were increased on exposure to heat stress. Meanwhile, the expression of proliferative genes, which were essential for the transition from G1 to S phase, was inhibited. At the same time, heat stress inhibited the estradiol synthesis of GCs by decreasing CYP11A1 and CYP19A1 gene expression. A total of 241 DEGs including 181 upregulated and 60 downregulated ones were identified. Transcriptome result shows that heat shock protein and CXC chemokines gene were significantly activated during heat stress. While collagenases (MMP1 and MMP13) and strome lysins (MMP3) were downregulated. And, the hedgehog signaling pathway may be a prosurvival adaptive response under heat stress. These results offer a basis for better understanding the molecular mechanism underlying lay-eggs-less in ducks under heat stress.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/genética , Patos/fisiologia , Estradiol/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Expressão Gênica , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Ovulação/fisiologia , Animais , Aromatase/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/genética , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/genética , Enzima de Clivagem da Cadeia Lateral do Colesterol/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 1 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17065, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426624

RESUMO

Different Mycoplasma species have been reported in avian hosts. However, the majority of studies focus on one particular species of Mycoplasma or one host. In our research, we screened a total of 1141 wild birds representing 55 species, 26 families, and 15 orders for the presence of mycoplasmas by conventional PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Selected PCR products were sequenced to perform the phylogenetic analysis. All mycoplasma-positive samples were tested for M. gallisepticum and M. synoviae, which are considered the major pathogens of commercial poultry. We also verified the influence of ecological characteristics of the tested bird species including feeding habits, habitat types, and movement patterns. The presence of Mycoplasma spp. was confirmed in 498 birds of 29 species, but none of the tested birds were positive for M. gallisepticum or M. synoviae. We found possible associations between the presence of Mycoplasma spp. and all investigated ecological factors. The phylogenetic analysis showed a high variability of Mycoplasma spp.; however, some clustering of sequences was observed regarding particular bird species. We found that wild migratory waterfowl, particularly the white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) could be reservoirs and vectors of mycoplasmas pathogenic to commercial waterfowl.


Assuntos
Patos/microbiologia , Gansos/microbiologia , Mycoplasma/patogenicidade , Animais , Dieta , Patos/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Gansos/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
3.
Anim Genet ; 52(4): 536-541, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013574

RESUMO

Egg internal quality traits are important traits related to egg production in poultry industry. To better understand the genetic architecture of egg internal quality traits in ducks, we performed genetic parameters estimates and a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The phenotypic values of egg weight, yolk color, albumin height (AH), yolk weight, and Haugh unit (HU) were collected individually from 352 F2 laying ducks produced by reciprocal crosses between mallards and Pekin ducks, and their genotypes were assayed by whole genome re-sequencing. The results showed that the AH and HU traits have a clear coefficient of variance, around 15% for both mallards and Pekin ducks. The pedigree-based genetic parameters estimates rane from 0.26 to 0.71 for all eight egg quality traits, while the highest heritability was 0.71 for egg weight. The GWAS showed that a clear signal was associated with AH and HU traits. The locus zoom analysis and conditional GWAS helped to narrow the candidate region to ~5.8-Mb spanning from 14.7 to 20.5 Mb on Chromosome 5, which harbored 111 candidate genes. MUC6 and LDLRAD3 were finally promised as the major candidate genes affecting albumen composition. Our data revealed the egg internal quality traits for the first time in ducks, which provides a theoretical basis and technological support for improving duck egg internal quality.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Óvulo/fisiologia , Animais , Patos/genética
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 217: 112225, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864983

RESUMO

Long-term exposure to excessive fluoride causes chronic damage in the body tissues and could lead to skeletal and dental fluorosis. Cartilage damage caused by excessive fluoride intake has gained wide attention, but how fluoride accumulation blocks the development of chondrocytes is still unclear. Here, we report a negative correlation between the length and growth plate width after NaF treatments via apoptosis and autophagy, with shrinkage of cells, nuclear retraction, dissolution of chondrocytes. Whereas, fluoride exposure had no significant effect on the number and distribution of the osteoclasts which were well aligned. More importantly, fluoride exposure induced apoptosis of tibial bone through CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways via targeting Caspase3, Caspase9, Bak1, and Bax expressions. Meanwhile, the Beclin1, mTOR, Pakin, Pink, and p62 were elevated in NaF treatment group, which indicated that long-term excessive fluoride triggered the autophagy in the tibial bone and produced the chondrocyte injury. Altogether, fluoride exposure induced the chondrocyte injury by regulating the autophagy and apoptosis in the tibial bone of ducks, which demonstrates that fluoride exposure is a risk factor for cartilage development. These findings revealed the essential role of CytC/Bcl-2/P53 pathways in long-term exposure to fluoride pollution and block the development of chondrocytes in ducks, and CytC/Bcl-2/P53 can be targeted to prevent fluoride induced chondrocyte injury.


Assuntos
Condrócitos/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese , Fluoretos/metabolismo , Lâmina de Crescimento
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 256: 109044, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836389

RESUMO

Avian Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a newly emerging avian pathogenic flavivirus that spreads rapidly, has an expanding host range and undergoes cross-species transmission. Our previous study identified avian monocytes/macrophages as the key targets of TMUV infection, since the infection of host monocytes/macrophages was crucial for the replication, transmission, and pathogenesis of TMUV. The polarization of host macrophages determines the functional phenotypes of macrophages; however, the effect of TMUV infection on macrophage polarization remains unclear. Here, we analysed the expression spectra of the marker genes of macrophage polarization upon TMUV infection in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and primary monocytes/macrophages isolated from the peripheral blood of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and ducks. We found that viral replication mainly induced M1 marker genes and triggered nitric oxide (NO) release at different levels, suggesting that TMUV infection led mainly to host macrophages polarizing into the classically activated (M1) type. The NO that was increased upon infection did not function as an antiviral agent against TMUV, since the replication of TMUV in HD11 cells was not affected by the addition of an organic NO donor. Furthermore, upon TMUV infection, polarized HD11 cells exhibited increased migration but reduced phagocytosis, as evidenced by scratch assay and neutral red uptake assay, respectively. Our present study characterized the polarization of host monocytes/macrophages upon TMUV infection, which may lay a foundation for further research on the immune escape mechanism and pathogenic mechanism of TMUV.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Flavivirus/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Antivirais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Polaridade Celular , Galinhas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Monócitos/virologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Replicação Viral
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1098-1108, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518069

RESUMO

In contrast to the later stages of follicle development, little is known about the characteristics and mechanisms associated with early folliculogenesis in avian species. The objectives of the present study were to examine and compare the histomorphological and molecular changes of primordial, primary, and secondary follicles from duck and goose ovaries during the first 6 post-hatching week. Morphological analysis showed that the length and width of both duck and goose ovaries increased steadily during weeks 1 to 5 but increased acutely at week 6, whereas a greater increment was observed in the ovarian length of ducks than that of geese during weeks 4 to 5. Furthermore, smaller diameters of the 3 categories of follicles were observed in ducks than those in geese at the first appearance, but they reached a similar size at week 6. More importantly, secondary follicles were found in the ovaries of ducks 1 wk earlier than in those of geese. These results indicated a more rapid growth rate for ovarian follicles in ducks than in geese during early post-hatching development. At the molecular level, it was found that the mRNAs encoding follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2, and cysteine-dependent aspartate specific protease 3 (CASPASE3) were ubiquitously expressed in all ovarian follicles of ducks and geese with different expression profiles in each follicular category during the first 6 post-hatching week. Notably, transcript levels of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 changed differently between ducks and geese during weeks 5 to 6, which was postulated to be one of the mechanisms inducing more rapid growth of ovarian follicles in ducks rather than in geese. In conclusion, our results revealed, for the first time, differences in early folliculogenesis, including the rate of growth of each follicular category and the timing of transition of primary to secondary follicles, between ducks and geese, and these differences could result from different expression profiles of FSHR, AMH, and CASPASE3 during early post-hatching development.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Folículo Ovariano/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Animais , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/genética , Feminino , Gansos/anatomia & histologia , Gansos/genética , RNA/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111528, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Excess molybdenum (Mo) is harmful to the body, and the kidney is the vital target organ for Mo exposure. This study focused on the impacts of excess Mo on pyroptosis and the relationship between pyroptosis and apoptosis in kidney. METHODS: The duck renal tubular epithelial cells were treated with (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O (0, 480, 720 and 960 µM Mo), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) (100 µM), Z-YVAD-fluoromethylketone (YVAD) (10 µM) and the combination of Mo and NAC or YVAD for 12 h. The LDH release and IL-1ß, IL-18 contents of cell supernatant were detected by LDH and ELISA kits. The MMP and ROS level were measured using MMP and ROS kits by flow cytometry. The apoptotic rate of cell was detected by AO/EB counterstaining. Pyroptosis and apoptosis-related factors mRNA and protein levels were assayed by real-time qPCR and western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Excessive Mo markedly increased LDH, IL-18, IL-1ß releases and induced overproduction of ROS, pyroptosis-related factors mRNA and protein levels. NAC and YVAD dramatically decreased pyroptosis induced by Mo. Simultaneously, YVAD significantly changed apoptosis-related factors mRNA and protein levels, and reduced cell apoptotic rate. CONCLUSION: Excessive Mo exposure can induce pyroptosis by the ROS/NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, and restraining pyroptosis of Caspase-1 dependence might weaken excess Mo-induced apoptosis. The study provides theoretical basis for excess Mo exposure nephrotoxic researches on waterfowl and the interplay between pyroptosis and apoptosis highlights a new sight into the mechanism of Mo-induced nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Caspase 1/metabolismo , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Piroptose/fisiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Acetilcisteína/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo
8.
Gene ; 769: 145183, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007371

RESUMO

In order to explore the influence of egg-laying regulatory genes on egg production in ducks at different laying stages, Pekin duck and Black Muscovy duck were used in this study, including early laying stage (20-30 weeks old), peak laying period (31-48 weeks old) and late laying stage (49-66 weeks old). Relative quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA transcription level of selected egg-laying regulatory genes in the ovary tissues of ducks at different laying stages. Study shows: during the laying period of Pekin duck, ESR1, LRP1, IGF-1 and LHR were involved in the regulation of egg-laying, and the high expression of LRP1 in the late stage could inhibit egg production. Still, the expression products of the other three genes showed promoting effect. During the laying period of Black Muscovy duck, FSH, VLDLR, IGF-1, PRLR, LHR and LRP1 participated in the regulation of egg-laying, in which the expression products of the first five genes could promote egg production, while LRP1 showed inhibitory effect. Through our experiments, these data will provide strong theoretical support for the breeding of Pekin duck and Black Muscovy duck.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Genes Reguladores , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Patos/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Óvulo , RNA/isolamento & purificação , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Seleção Artificial
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321176

RESUMO

For illustrative purposes, in this article we use "Johansen Plots" as a graphical way of simultaneously visualizing the inter-connected variables that compose the convective steps of the gas transport cascade. These plots are used to reflect on some of the physiological characteristics seen in five species of birds, four of which sojourn to, or are native to, high altitudes (the barnacle goose, bar-headed goose, Andean goose, speckled teal and ruddy duck). These species were chosen to emphasize the diversity of responses to hypoxia that can exist within a single family. This diversity likely arose for many possible reasons, including local adaptation to hypoxia, differences in flight or diving abilities, or as a result of other phylogenetically-based differences across waterfowl in physiology, behaviour, and/or life style.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Altitude , Patos/fisiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Animais , Mergulho/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111771, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348253

RESUMO

Excessive molybdenum (Mo) has adverse effects on animals. To elucidate the effects of autophagy on Mo-induced nephrotoxicity, the duck renal tubular epithelial cells were cultured in medium in absence and presence of (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O (0, 480, 720, 960 µM Mo), 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) (2.5 µM), and the combination of Mo and 3-MA for 12 h. After 12 h exposure, the MDC staining, morphologic observation, LC3 puncta, cell viability, autophagy-related genes mRNA and proteins levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant indices, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) were determined. The results showed that excessive Mo exposure significantly elevated the number of autophagosome and LC3 puncta, upregulated Beclin-1, Atg5, LC3A and LC3B mRNA levels, and LC3II/LC3I and Beclin-1 protein levels, decreased mTOR, p62 and Dynein mRNA levels and p62 protein level. Besides, co-treatment with Mo and 3-MA dramatically increased LDH release, ROS level, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as well as cell dam age, reduced cell viability, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), MMP, mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial RCR and OPR compared to treatment with Mo alone. Taken together, these results suggest that excessive Mo exposure can induce autophagy in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, inhibition of autophagy aggravates Mo-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 687, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Common Pekin and Muscovy ducks and their intergeneric hinny and mule hybrids have different abilities for fatty liver production. RNA-Seq analyses from the liver of these different genetic types fed ad libitum or overfed would help to identify genes with different response to overfeeding between them. However RNA-seq analyses from different species and comparison is challenging. The goal of this study was develop a relevant strategy for transcriptome analysis and comparison between different species. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were first assembled with a reference-based approach. Important mapping biases were observed when heterologous mapping were conducted on common duck reference genome, suggesting that this reference-based strategy was not suited to compare the four different genetic types. De novo transcriptome assemblies were then performed using Trinity and Oases. Assemblies of transcriptomes were not relevant when more than a single genetic type was considered. Finally, single genetic type transcriptomes were assembled with DRAP in a mega-transcriptome. No bias was observed when reads from the different genetic types were mapped on this mega-transcriptome and differences in gene expression between the four genetic types could be identified. CONCLUSIONS: Analyses using both reference-based and de novo transcriptome assemblies point out a good performance of the de novo approach for the analysis of gene expression in different species. It also allowed the identification of differences in responses to overfeeding between Pekin and Muscovy ducks and hinny and mule hybrids.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Fígado/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Animais , Patos/fisiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/normas , Hibridização Genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/normas
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(12): 1735-1746, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989837

RESUMO

Males of Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) are mainly used for mule duck production via artificial insemination of females originated from wild mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos); therefore, the quantity and quality of drake semen play a crucial role. The assessment results of male reaction to sexual stimulation by dummy female and basic semen characteristic (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and morphology) of 12 individually kept Muscovy drakes carried out during the entire reproductive season are described. The male and period of the reproductive season effect on scored semen traits are documented. In total, 792 individual semen collections and evaluations were performed. The average of positive reaction in the entire reproductive season varied from 90.6% in December and April to 50.0% in July, while for individual males, it varied between 97.1% and 29.0%. Throughout the season, the ejaculate volumes ranged from 0.05 to 2.45 ml, sperm concentration from 0.15 × 109 ml-1 to 4.44 × 109 ml-1 , total number of live spermatozoa from 68.0% to 100% and live normal (properly formed, with any deformations) from 51.0% to 99.0%. Our study indicates the necessity of male breeders pre-selection before the onset of the reproductive season, and the need to leave an appropriate number of males to ensure adequate amount of semen for female insemination, especially when using Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata) for interspecies crossing with Anas platyrhynchos ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides/veterinária
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810175

RESUMO

Bowel health is an important factor for duck rearing that has been linked to feed uptake and growth and death rates. Because the regulatory networks associated with acute stress-mediated injury in the duck gastrointestinal tract have not clearly elucidated, we aimed to explore potential miRNA-mRNA pairs and their regulatory roles in oxidative stress injury caused by transport stress. Here, 1-day-old mallard ducklings from the same breeder flock were collected and transported for 8 h, whereas the control group was not being transported. Various parameters reflecting oxidative stress and the tissue appearance of the intestine were assessed. The data showed that the plasma T-AOC and SOD concentrations were decreased in the transported ducklings. The intestine of the transported ducklings also displayed significant damage. High-throughput sequencing of the intestine revealed 44 differentially expressed miRNAs and 75 differentially expressed genes, which constituted 344 miRNA-mRNA pairs. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the metabolic, FoxO signaling, influenza A and TGF-ß signaling pathways were mainly involved in the mechanism underlying the induction of intestinal damage induced by simulated transport stress in ducks. A miRNA-mRNA pair, miR-217-5p/CHRDL1, was selected to validate the miRNA-mRNA negative relationship, and the results showed that miR-217-5p could influence CHRDL1 expression. This study provides new useful information for future research on the regulatory network associated with mucosal damage in the duck intestine.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Transportes , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(7): 3445-3451, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616238

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera stem (MOS) meal in ducks. A total of 225 ducklings at 1 D of age were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatment groups with 3 replicates of 25 each. The growth experiment lasted 63 D . The egg experiment started from 23 to 27 wk of age. Ducks were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 3 replications of 15 each. The following dietary treatments were applied: 1) Control (CON), basal diet + 0% MOS meal; 2) basal diet + 2% MOS meal; 3) basal diet + 4% MOS meal. During 0 to 4 wk of age, ducks fed 2% MOS diet showed significantly increase in average daily feed intake (ADFI) and average daily gain (ADG; P < 0.05) and ducks fed 4% MOS diet had a significant improvement in feed conversion rate (FCR; P < 0.05). However, ADFI, ADG, and FCR were not affected significantly during 5 to 9 wk of age (P > 0.05). In egg production experiment, ADFI, average egg weight, laying rate, and FCR showed significant increase in 4% MOS diets (P < 0.05). Laying ducks fed 4% MOS diet had a higher egg shape index, whereas a lower yolk color compared with CON (P < 0.05). The proportion of broken shell eggs were zero in experimental diets, whereas 3% of which occurred in CON (P < 0.05). However, no significant effects in proportion of soft shell eggs, proportion of abnormal-shape eggs, albumen height, haugh unit, and eggshell thickness were observed among all treatments (P > 0.05). For serum biochemical parameters, total protein and albumin were increased in MOS diets during 0 to 4 wk of age, but decreased during 5 to 9 wk of age. For serum antioxidant index, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase values were increased whereas malondialdehyde values were decreased in MOS diets from 0 to 9 wk of age. The results suggest that MOS positively affects early growth performance and laying performane of duckling but partially affects egg quality. The antioxidative activity and immunological index may be improved.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Caules de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(7): 3557-3566, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616252

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate to the effects of dietary CP levels and protease supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, nutrients utilization, and standardized ileal digestibility of amino acid in Pekin ducks fed a complex diet. A total of 960 14-day-old male ducks were weighed and randomly allotted to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of 10 treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 16 ducks per pen fed to 49 D of age. Experimental factors included five dietary CP levels ranging from 13.5 to 17.5% and with or without protease (200 mg/kg) supplementation. Between day 28 to 34, the digestible and metabolizable trials were performed. Significant CP × protease interactions (P < 0.05) on breast meat yield, DM, energy and nitrogen utilization, as well as standardized ileal digestibility values of 7 amino acids were observed. Regardless of protease supplementation, ducks fed 13.5, 14.5, and 15.5% CP had a poorer (P < 0.05) growth performance and breast meat yield than ducks fed with 16.5 and 17.5% CP. Ducks fed 13.5% CP had a positive effect (P < 0.05) on meat quality, dietary DM, energy and nitrogen utilization as well as standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids. Protease supplementation increased (P < 0.05) DM and phosphorus retention and decreased (P < 0.05) shear force of breast meat, regardless of CP level; when CP = 14.5%, protease significantly increased (P < 0.05) breast muscle yield. The optimal CP requirement without or with protease supplementation for BWG and FI were 17.02 or 16.53% and 16.64 or 16.75%, respectively, based on linear broken-line regression.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Patos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0226532, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716933

RESUMO

We analysed intraclutch egg-size variation over the laying sequence in relation to clutch size, and the relation between clutch size and female body condition, in the Common Eider Somateria mollissima during an 8-year period. The aim was to assess if eiders adjusted egg size within the laying sequence depending on clutch sizes in response to body condition, as such an adjustment could have adaptive implications on reproductive success through a size advantage for the hatchlings. The analyses were performed on a population level; and then at the individual level using data from recaptured females that changed clutch size between years. Based on 1,099 clutches from 812 individual females, population clutch size averaged 4.13 eggs (range: 1-6), with 4- and 5-egg clutchesconstituting c.70% of all clutches, taking turns in being the most represented clutch size. Clutch size was positively related to female pre-laying body condition at both the population and individual levels. Egg size varied significantly within and between clutch sizes and changes were significantly related to the laying sequence. First eggs were significantly larger in 4-egg clutches and second eggs marginally smaller than in 5-egg clutches, a pattern also found among individual females changing clutch size between years. The relationship between female pre-laying body condition and clutch size, and the intraclutch egg-size pattern indicate that both clutch size and egg size are actively adapted to the pre-breeding body condition of the female. As egg size potentially optimise reproductive success through a size advantage in hatchlings, the observed pattern of intraclutch egg-size variation suggests that female eiders possesses a finely tuned conditional dependent mechanism that may optimize reproductive output in years were females are in suboptimal body condition for breeding.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Ovos/análise , Animais , Cruzamento , Tamanho da Ninhada/fisiologia , Feminino
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15397-15399, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571940

RESUMO

Fish have somehow colonized isolated water bodies all over the world without human assistance. It has long been speculated that these colonization events are assisted by waterbirds, transporting fish eggs attached to their feet and feathers, yet empirical support for this is lacking. Recently, it was suggested that endozoochory (i.e., internal transport within the gut) might play a more important role, but only highly resistant diapause eggs of killifish have been found to survive passage through waterbird guts. Here, we performed a controlled feeding experiment, where developing eggs of two cosmopolitan, invasive cyprinids (common carp, Prussian carp) were fed to captive mallards. Live embryos of both species were retrieved from fresh feces and survived beyond hatching. Our study identifies an overlooked dispersal mechanism in fish, providing evidence for bird-mediated dispersal ability of soft-membraned eggs undergoing active development. Only 0.2% of ingested eggs survived gut passage, yet, given the abundance, diet, and movements of ducks in nature, our results have major implications for biodiversity conservation and invasion dynamics in freshwater ecosystems.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Carpas/embriologia , Patos/fisiologia , Água Doce , Espécies Introduzidas , Óvulo , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fezes , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 39-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416824

RESUMO

In a previous study, we demonstrated that a 15% feed restriction (FR) during the first 2 wk after hatch could improve gait in Pekin meat ducks, but did result in reduced breast mass. We hypothesized that feed restriction after day 5 following muscle satellite cell development would allow the full growth of the breast meat. To accomplish this goal, 300 1-day-old ducklings (Maple Leaf Farms Inc.) were randomly allocated to 1 of the 3 groups (n = 4 pens, 25 ducks per pen): (1) Control group fed to ad libitum; (2) 85% daily feed intake from days 1 to 14 (FR 85% 1-14); 85% daily feed intake from days 5 to 14 (FR 85% 5-14). All ducks were vaccinated with inactivated Salmonella enteritidis on day 14 and boosted on day 26. The FR 85% 5-14 did show similar production standards to controls, and improved gait characteristics (P < 0.05). To determine if the partial feed restriction would have an impact on intestinal epithelial tight junction integrity, we treated ducks on days 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 with 8.32 mg/kg FITC-d in water per os and blood samples were obtained via the tibial vein 1 h later. Serum samples were analyzed for presence and quantification of FITC-d. Feed restriction elicited a significant increase in FITC-d permeability at all points of evaluation. Anti-S. enteritidis specific IgY responses were assessed by ELISA from serum collected at 14 D, 28 D, and 35 D. Although all ducks showed an increase humoral immune response to the S. enteritidis, both feed restricted groups showed reduced IgY production compared to ad lib controls. Our data suggest that although the FR 5-14 feed restriction paradigm may reduce gait abnormalities without affecting production rates, some challenges exist due to increased gut leakiness or decreased acquired immune activity. Future studies will look at altering the feed restriction milieu to ameliorate these challenges.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Patos/fisiologia , Marcha , Imunidade Humoral , Músculos Peitorais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marcha/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carne/análise , Músculos Peitorais/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 454-462, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416830

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of different dietary zinc (Zn) levels on productive and reproductive performance, egg quality, tibial characteristics, plasma biochemical and antioxidant indices, and zinc deposition in laying duck breeders. A total of 504 Longyan duck breeders aged 21 wk were randomly allocated to 6 treatments and fed a basal diet (Zn, 27.7 mg/kg) or that basal diet supplemented with Zn (as ZnSO4·H2 O) at 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 mg Zn per kg of feed for 20 wk. Each group had 6 replicates of 14 ducks each. Dietary Zn supplementation affected (P < 0.05) the egg production, FCR, and shell thickness of laying duck breeders from 21 to 40 wk, and there was a quadratic (P < 0.05) effect between them. Dietary Zn supplementation affected (P < 0.05) and quadratically (P < 0.001) increased the breaking strength, density, and dry defatted weight of tibias. Alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus, total superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activities or content in plasma were affected (P < 0.05), and quadratically (P < 0.01) changed by dietary Zn levels. Dietary Zn supplementation affected (P < 0.01) and increased the Zn deposition in egg yolk (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic, P < 0.001) and tibia (linear, P < 0.05). The dietary Zn requirements, in mg/kg for a basal diet containing 27.7 mg/kg Zn, for Longyan duck breeders from 21 to 40 wk of age were estimated to be 65.4 for optimizing egg production, 68.6 for FCR, 102 for hatchling BW, 94.7 for eggshell thickness, 77.2 for tibial breaking strength, 81.4 for tibial density, 78.9 for tibial dry defatted weight, 69.5 for plasma GSH-Px activity, 72.4 for plasma MDA content, and 94.6 for Zn content in tibia. Overall, dietary Zn supplementation, up to 160 mg/kg feed, affected the productive performance, eggshell thickness, tibial characteristics, plasma antioxidant status, and Zn deposition of layer duck breeders. Supplementing this basal diet (27.7 mg/kg Zn) with 70 to 80 mg/kg additional Zn was adequate for laying duck breeders during the laying period.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Óvulo/química , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/fisiologia , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/administração & dosagem
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 499-504, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416836

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the influence of dietary lipid sources on growth performance, carcass traits and taste scores in Pekin ducks. A total of 1,500 fifteen-day-old ducks (820 ± 22 g) were blocked based on body weight (BW), and randomly allotted to 3 treatments with 10 replicates of 50 birds each (25 males and 25 females). The experiment lasted for 4 wk, and dietary treatments included 3 different lipid sources (soybean oil, duck fat, and palm oil), which were evaluated in corn-soybean meal diets (3250 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 16.5% crude protein for grower diet and 3350 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and 15.5% crude protein for finisher diet). During days 15 to 28, feeding soybean oil and palm oil diets increased (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG), but decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, feed-to-gain ratio (F/G) and caloric conversion compared with duck fat. During days 29 to 42, birds fed duck fat diet had higher BWG, but lower (P < 0.05) F/G and caloric conversion than those fed soybean oil and palm oil diets. Overall, feeding soybean oil diet increased (P < 0.05) BWG and final BW, but decreased (P < 0.05) F/G compared with palm oil. Birds fed duck fat diet had higher (P < 0.05) skin, subcutaneous fat and abdominal fat yield compared with palm oil. Left breast meat yield in soybean oil group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in duck fat and palm oil groups. Birds in soybean oil group had lower (P < 0.05) roasting loss, but higher (P < 0.05) comprehensive score compared with duck fat and palm oil. In summary, birds fed soybean oil diet had the best growth performance and taste scores for roasting, whereas the duck fat was better in abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat yield than soybean oil and palm oil in Pekin ducks from 15 to 42 d of age under the same nutritional level.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Óleo de Palmeira/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Óleo de Palmeira/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo
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