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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9950-9957, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403788

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification that modulates protein properties, thereby influencing bioactivities within a system. Duck egg white (DEW) proteins exhibit diverse biological properties compared with their chicken egg white (CEW) counterparts, which might be related to glycosylation. N-Glycoproteome analysis of DEW was conducted, and a total of 231 N-glycosites from 68 N-glycoproteins were identified. Gene ontology analysis was used to elucidate the biofunctions of DEW N-glycoproteins and compare them with those of CEW, which showed that the differences mostly involved molecular functions and biological processes. The biological functions of DEW N-glycoproteins were illuminated through bioinformatics analysis and comparison with CEW orthologues, which showed different allergenicities and antibacterial abilities. These divergences might be initiated by specific alterations in glycosylation, which can enhance the proteolysis resistance and protein steric hindrance. These results provide new insights for discovering the effects of N-glycosylation on biofunctions during the divergence of homologous proteins.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Proteômica
2.
Food Chem ; 295: 129-137, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174741

RESUMO

Heat stress causes oxidative damage and quality reduction in poultry. Here, a tandem mass tag proteomic approach was applied to investigate the proteomic differences in duck meat from birds exposed to heat stress. Altogether 212 differential proteins were identified, including 178 down-regulated and 34 up-regulated proteins, compared to the control. Malondialdehyde and carbonyl content and cooking loss of the chest muscle significantly increased under heat stress. The proteomic analysis indicated that heat stress suppressed mitochondrial functions and respiratory chains, which might be responsible for the higher oxidation level. The results also revealed potential protective proteins involved in the defensive mechanisms against heat stress in duck muscles, such as sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPases, Mn-superoxide dismutase, heat shock protein family B member 7, methyltransferase like 21C, myosin-binding protein C, and carbonic anhydrase 3. These results provide potential targets for the research and identification of oxidative meat products due to heat stress.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica/métodos , Animais , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/genética , ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio/metabolismo , Culinária , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3257-3267, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064004

RESUMO

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is a catalytic subunit of telomerase that adds TTAGGG repeats to the 3'-overhang of telomeres. In the present study, we detected that the duck TERT (dTERT) gene was highly expressed in small intestine and kidney, followed by heart, leg muscle, spleen, pancreas, gonad, and liver at neonatal stage. From embryonic to neonatal stage, the highest dTERT mRNA in liver appeared at stage E19 (19 days at embryonic stage), while for the leg muscle the maximum expression occurred at E26. We also measured the relative telomerase activity (RTA) and relative telomere length (RTL) in the examined tissues and found that the changed tendency of RTA and RTL was not very consistent with that of TERT. In silico analysis revealed that there were three CpG islands (S1, S2, and S3) within the 5' regulatory region of the dTERT gene. Bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP) assay showed that liver (D7, 7 days after birth) which expressed significantly lower dTERT mRNA had an obviously higher methylation level of S1 compared with small intestine (D7) or liver (E19). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1 in liver (D7) was significantly higher than that in small intestine (D7) or in liver (E19). In vitro, dTERT expression was upregulated and the methylation status of S1 decreased in both duck embryonic fibroblasts and small intestinal epithelial cells following treatment with the demethylation reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC), further suggesting that dTERT is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation. This work lays a solid foundation for further study of TERT function and regulation in avian species.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Patos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Telomerase/genética , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Simulação por Computador , Ilhas de CpG , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , Decitabina/farmacologia , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero , Telômero
4.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 202-208, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968708

RESUMO

1. The slow skeletal muscle troponin I (TNNI1) gene has been found to be specifically expressed in slow muscle fibres and plays an important role in muscle development. The aim of this study was to determine the active control area of duck TNNI1 and identify the potential cis-regulatory elements in the promoter. 2. In this study, the TNNI1 promoter was first cloned by genome walking and the sequences were analysed using bioinformatics software. Firefly luciferase reporter gene vectors, driven by a series of constructs with progressive deletions, were used to identify the core transcriptional regulatory region of the duck TNNI1 gene. The methylation status of the CpG island in the TNNI1 promoter was detected in skeletal muscle on embryonic days 21 and 27, by bisulphite sequencing PCR (BSP). 3. The results showed two CpG islands presented in the promoter region, with one of the CpG islands located in the core transcriptional regulatory region (-2078/-885 bp). The total methylation levels of the 14 CpG sites were not altered between breast and leg muscles on embryonic days 21 and 27. However, four CpG sites (loci of positions 4, 11, 13, and 14) showed dramatically different methylation levels between breast and leg muscles at embryonic days 21 and 27. Analysis showed that multiple CpG sites had a significant correlation between the methylation levels of the CpG sites and mRNA expressions in skeletal muscle. Multiple transcription factor binding sites including Sp1, c-Myc, Oct-1 and NF-kB motifs were identified and might be responsible for transcriptional regulation of the TNNI1 gene. 4. These findings contribute to further understanding of the fundamental mechanism for transcriptional regulation of the TNNI1 gene in ducks.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Metilação de DNA , Patos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Troponina I/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Ilhas de CpG , Patos/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Troponina I/metabolismo
5.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 287-292, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994195

RESUMO

Plasma cholinesterase (PCHE) activity is an important auxiliary test in human clinical medicine. It can distinguish liver diseases from non-liver diseases and help detect organophosphorus poisoning. Animal experiments have confirmed that PCHE activity is associated with obesity and hypertension and changes with physiological changes in an animal's body. The objective of this study was to locate the genetic loci responsible for PCHE activity variation in ducks. PCHE activity of Pekin duck × mallard F2 ducks at 3 and 8 weeks of age were analyzed, and genome-wide association studies were conducted. A region of about 1.5 Mb (21.8-23.3 Mb) on duck chromosome 9 was found to be associated with PCHE activity at both 3 and 8 weeks of age. The top SNP, g.22643979C>T in the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene, was most highly associated with PCHE activity at 3 weeks (-logP = 21.45) and 8 weeks (-logP = 27.60) of age. For the top SNP, the strong associations of CC and CT genotypes with low PCHE activity and the TT genotype with high PCHE activity indicates the dominant inheritance of low PCHE activity. Problems with block inheritance or linkage exist in this region. This study supports that BCHE is a functional gene for determining PCHE levels in ducks and that the genetic variations around this gene can cause phenotypic variations of PCHE activity.


Assuntos
Colinesterases/genética , Patos/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Colinesterases/sangue , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Patos/sangue , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
6.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(3): 355-360, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912167

RESUMO

Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of fowl cholera, and florfenicol (FF) has potent antibacterial activity against P. multocida and is widely used in the poultry industry. In this study, we established a P. multocida infection model in ducks and studied the pharmacokinetics of FF in serum and lung tissues after oral administration of 30 mg/kg bodyweight. The maximum concentrations reached (Cmax) were lower in infected ducks (13.88 ± 2.70 µg/ml) vs. healthy control animals (17.86 ± 1.57 µg/ml). In contrast, the mean residence time (MRT: 2.35 ± 0.13 vs. 2.27 ± 0.18 hr) and elimination half-life (T½ß : 1.63 ± 0.08 vs. 1.57 ± 0.12 hr) were similar for healthy and diseased animals, respectively. As a result, the area under the concentration curve for 0-12 hr (AUC0-12 hr ) for FF in healthy ducks was significantly greater than that in infected ducks (49.47 ± 5.31 vs. 34.52 ± 8.29 µg hr/ml). The pharmacokinetic differences of FF in lung tissues between the two groups correlated with the serum pharmacokinetic differences. The Cmax and AUC0-12 hr values of lung tissue in healthy ducks were higher than those in diseased ducks. The concentration of FF in lung tissues was approximately 1.2-fold higher than that in serum both in infected and healthy ducks indicating that FF is effective in treating respiratory tract infections in ducks.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Patos/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antibacterianos/sangue , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Masculino , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pasteurella/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Tianfenicol/sangue , Tianfenicol/farmacocinética , Tianfenicol/uso terapêutico
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(11): 11300-11313, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796664

RESUMO

The Baltic Sea is known to be severely polluted by a range of chemicals, one group of which being PCBs. Although the use and production of PCBs were limited or banned in many countries in the 1970s, their presence is still observed in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCBs concentration in four species of diving sea ducks, interspecies and tissues differences, and in the case of game species, comparison of the obtained results with maximal residue levels (MRLs) and tolerable weekly intake (TWI). The level of Σi-PCBs was noted in most examined samples (liver, muscle, fat tissue) at levels ranging between < LoD and 2315.45 ng/g lw. The dominant congener was PCB 153, followed by PCB 180 and 138. The mean dl-PCB-TEQ value in the muscles of the tested tufted ducks and common pochards was 0.31 and 0.71 pg-TEQ/g lw, respectively, which is 8-25 and 18-57% of the TEQ maximum limit (ML) value for farm animal muscles. The average decrease in i-ΣPCB concentration in the fat tissue of ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea southern coast was found to be 2.9-3.3%/year. The analysis of PCB residues indicates that the common pochard and tufted duck are not suitable for consumption due to high Σi-PCB concentrations. However, the regular consumption of muscle and liver of game birds does not result in an unacceptable intake of dl-PCBs, i.e., above the TWI value.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/química , Patos/metabolismo , Fígado/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Polônia , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 13, 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Duck species are known to have different susceptibility to fatty liver production in response to overfeeding. In order to better describe mechanisms involved in the development of hepatic steatosis and differences between species, transcriptome analyses were conducted on RNAs extracted from the livers of Pekin and Muscovy duck species and of their reciprocal hybrids, Mule and Hinny ducks fed ad libitum or overfed to identify differentially expressed genes and associated functions. RESULTS: After extraction from the liver of ducks from the four genetic types, RNAs were sequenced and sequencing data were analyzed. Hierarchic clustering and principal component analyses of genes expression levels indicated that differences between individuals lie primarily in feeding effect, differences between genetic types being less important. However, Muscovy ducks fed ad libitum and overfed were clustered together. Interestingly, Hinny and Mule hybrid ducks could not be differentiated from each other, according to feeding. Many genes with expression differences between overfed and ad libitum fed ducks were identified in each genetic type. Functional annotation analyses of these differentially expressed genes highlighted some expected functions (carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms) but also some unexpected ones (cell proliferation and immunity). CONCLUSIONS: These analyses evidence differences in response to overfeeding between different genetic types and help to better characterize functions involved in hepatic steatosis in ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Ração Animal , Animais , Patos/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(5): 2189-2192, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597070

RESUMO

A dose-response experiment with 8 supplemental vitamin A levels (0, 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,500, 3,500, 7,000, and 14,000 IU/kg) were conducted to examine the effects of vitamin A on growth performance and tissue retinol of starter White Pekin ducks. A total of 512 one-day-old male Pekin ducks were randomly divided into 8 treatments and each treatment contained 8 replicate pens of 8 ducks. All these ducks were reared in raised wire-floor pens from hatch to 21 D of age. At 21 D of age, growth performance and retinol concentration in plasma and liver were measured. Among all ducks, the birds fed basal diet with no supplemental vitamin A had the lowest weight gain, feed intake, and plasma and liver retinol (P < 0.05). As supplemental vitamin A increased, weight gain and feed intake increased quadratically (P < 0.05) and plasma and liver retinol increased linearly or quadratically (P < 0.05). The weight gain and plasma retinol showed broken-line response to increasing supplemental vitamin A (P < 0.05). According to broken-line regression, the minimum supplemental vitamin A requirements for weight gain and plasma retinol were 2606 and 4371 IU/kg, respectively. It was concluded that vitamin A deficiency could lead to a reduction in growth performance and tissue retinol retention and plasma or liver retinol was available biomarker to assess duck vitamin A status.


Assuntos
Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/metabolismo , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Distribuição Tecidual , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(5): 2260-2271, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624718

RESUMO

The blue-shelled egg not only plays a key role in helping birds to avoid predation as a result of crypsis and mimetism, but it also provides eggshell strength and filters solar radiation; moreover, it has an important economic trait for poultry. However, the source of biliverdin for blue-shelled egg remains unsolved in ducks. The current study detected the biliverdin content and localization of heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) in duck shell gland; moreover, RNA-seq analysis was performed in the shell gland of blue-shelled and white-shelled ducks. Results indicated that biliverdin is a primary pigment for blue-shelled egg in ducks, and the HMOX1 protein showed high expression in ciliated epithelial cells of shell gland between blue-shelled and white-shelled ducks. In the pathway of biliverdin synthesis, only 5-aminolevulinate synthase 1 expression level was significantly upregulated in blue-shelled ducks, and nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 1 and period circadian clock 2 may be the essential elements in biliverdin synthesis of duck shell gland. Furthermore, some of the transporter genes, such as activator-Like and solute carrier family 13 member 5, may be involved in the formation of blue egg in duck. Results of the current study suggested that the biliverdin is most likely synthesized and secreted from epithelial cells of shell gland. In addition, ALAS1 may play a key role in the formation of blue egg in ducks.


Assuntos
Biliverdina/genética , Patos/genética , Oviductos/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biliverdina/metabolismo , Cor , Patos/metabolismo , Casca de Ovo/fisiologia , Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Feminino
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 75-83, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098508

RESUMO

To investigate the toxic effects of Molybdenum (Mo) and Cadmium (Cd) on trace elements in digestive organs of Shaoxing duck (Anas platyrhyncha), 120 Shaoxing ducks were randomly divided into control group and 5 treatment groups which were treated with a commercial diet containing different dosages of Mo and Cd. On the 60th and 120th days, the beak, esophagus, glandular stomach, muscular stomach, small intestine, large intestine and feces were collected to determine contents of Mo, Cd, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), then correlation analysis was performed. The results showed that Cd content in digestive organs significantly increased in co-treated groups compared to single treated groups and Mo concentration increased in Mo-treated groups compared to control group, whereas Cu, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations in digestive organs decreased in co-treated groups. Furthermore, Cd and Mo were mainly accumulated in the small intestine and esophagus, respectively. There was a strongly positive correlation between Cd and Mo while they had negative correlation with Cu, Fe, Zn and Se, respectively. In feces, Mo and Fe contents in high dose of Mo group and high Mo combined with Cd group were significantly higher than those in control group, and Cu content in all treated groups significantly increased and Cd, Zn and Se concentrations had no difference. The results indicated that dietary Mo or/and Cd might disturb homeostasis of trace elements in digestive organs of Shaoxing duck. Moreover, the two elements presented a synergistic relationship.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 100(6): 754-759, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713751

RESUMO

Eighty ducks (Sheldrake, Anas platyrhynchos) from Zhejiang Province, China were fed capsules containing commercialized hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) at low (0.8 mg/kg/day) or high (1.6 mg/kg/day) exposure level, or only maize starch for 21 days. Then the next 21 days was set as depuration period. Ducks were euthanizated at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days after last dose and ten duck tissues including skin, tongue, intestines, heart, gizzard, muscle, liver, lung, brain and blood were sampled, separately. Three HBCDs including α-HBCD, ß-HBCD and γ-HBCD in duck tissue samples were analyzed. At the end of depuration period, the total HBCDs concentration in skin was significantly higher than those in the other tissues (p < 0.05). The elimination rates of the three isomers in skin, tongue, intestines, heart, gizzard and brain were in the order ß- > γ- > α-HBCD. The enantioselectivity of three HBCDs enantiomers was also studied in ten duck tissues. It was shown that the EF (enrichment factor) for two γ-HBCD enantiomers was significant lower than 0.5 (p < 0.05) in gizzard, heart, muscle, tongue, intestinal and liver at the end of depuration day, showing a selective accumulation of (+)-γ-HBCD in these tissues. This study provided a reference for evaluation on the accumulation of the persistent contamination of HBCDs in edible poultry.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/metabolismo , Animais , China , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/química , Estereoisomerismo
13.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196371, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771917

RESUMO

Meat quality is closely related to adipose tissues in ducks, and adipogenesis is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors tightly acting at different stages of differentiation especially in ducks. The aim of this study was to establish the preadipocyte in vitro culture system and understand the biological characteristics of expansion of duck adipocyte tissue at the cellular and molecular level. We isolated pre-adipocytes from the subcutaneous fat of three breeds of duck and differentiated them into mature adipocytes using a mixture of insulin, rosiglitazone, dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and oleic acid over 0,2, 4, 6, and 8 days. Successful differentiation was confirmed from the development of lipid droplets and their response to Oil Red O, and increasing numbers of lipid droplets were stained red over time. The expression of key marker genes, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBPα), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), gradually increased during pre-adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, it was verified by interference experiments that the knockdown of PPARγ directly reduced lipid production. Meanwhile we analyzed the role of unsaturated fatty acids in the production of poultry fat using different concentrations of oleic acid and found that lipid droplet deposition was highest when the concentration of oleic acid was 300 µM. We also compared the level of differentiated pre-adipocytes that were isolated from Jianchang ducks (fatty-meat duck), Cherry Valley ducks (lean-meat duck) and White-crested ducks (egg-producing duck). The proliferation and differentiation rate of pre-adipocytes derived from Jianchang ducks was higher than that of White-crested ducks. These results provide the foundation for further research into waterfowl adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Patos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Carne , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , PPAR gama/antagonistas & inibidores , PPAR gama/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
14.
Gene ; 661: 126-132, 2018 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29604463

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are considered key players in the regulation of a broad range of biological processes. Specifically, miRNAs have been reported to play an important role in the process of adipogenesis. In this study, we constructed a model of adipogenesis by isolating preadipocytes (WCC) derived from adipose tissue and preadipocytes after 72 h differentiation (WCT) in vitro. Deep sequencing of miRNAs expressed in WCT and WCC cells was conducted; we identified 105 differentially expressed miRNA candidates (fifty up-regulated and fifty-five down-regulated). Among them, twelve were novel miRNAs, and ninety-three were previously known miRNAs. Furthermore, seven miRNAs were selected for expression confirmation by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR); the results showed that the differential expression of miRNAs between the two groups was consistent with our sequencing results. Of them, miR-223, miR-184-3p, and miR-10b-5 showed a strong correlation to adipogenesis. Using target prediction, we predicted that the 105 differentially expressed miRNAs targeted 4155 unique mRNAs. The prediction of targets of differentially expressed miRNAs revealed that the miRNAs participated in the regulation of multiple adipogenesis-related signalling pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signalling pathway, insulin signalling pathway, fatty acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid degradation. Overall, our findings provide a background for further research into miRNAs and lay a foundation for the prediction and analysis of miRNAs related to adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Adipogenia/genética , Patos/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Patos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , MicroRNAs/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
Poult Sci ; 97(7): 2441-2450, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617914

RESUMO

The study was conducted to distinguish the effect of dietary non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) levels on the community diversity and structure of the cecal microbiota in meat duck based on 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing. In total, 525 1-d-old ducklings were fed diets (105 ducklings, 7 pens of 15 ducklings, on each diet) containing five levels of NPP (0.22, 0.34, 0.40, 0.46, and 0.58%) for 21 days. The results showed that dietary NPP levels linearly and quadratically increased (P < 0.05) 21 d body weight, 1 to 21 d feed intake and NPP intake, and contrarily, linearly decreased (P < 0.05) ß-diversity of cecal microbial population in ducks. ß-diversity analyses showed that microbiota clustering based on dietary NPP levels occured, with 0.22% NPP groups distinctly different from the 0.46% and 0.58% NPP group samples. Moreover, dietary NPP levels could change the relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria (linear, P < 0.05), genera Eubacterium coprostanoligenes (quadratic, P < 0.05), Ruminococcaceae UCG-014 (quadratic, P < 0.05) and Subdoligrannulum (linear, P < 0.05), and Lachnospiraceae family (quadratic, P < 0.05) in cecal microbiota of ducks. Increasing the dietary NPP level influenced the cecal microbiota and positively affected the growth of meat ducks.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácido Fítico/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 221-222: 29-43, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29684538

RESUMO

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, ß, δ (C/EBP α, ß, δ) are essential transcriptional factors in regulating adipose development. However, information about their sequence characteristics and functions during adipocyte development still remains scarce in birds. In present study, we found that duck C/EBP α, ß, δ differed in their phosphorylation sites and low complexity regions (LCRs) among their orthologs and paralogs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that C/EBP α, ß, δ had different evolutionary patterns, and each of duck C/EBP α, ß, δ was strikingly diverged from orthologs of other Aves. Results of quantitative real-time PCR exhibited that C/EBP α, ß, δ were all highly expressed in duck adipose tissues. Indeed, investigations of changes in both their mRNA levels and lipid droplet content during duck adipocytes differentiation showed that their expression profiles were closely related to cellular lipid accumulation. Furthermore, hierarchical clustering analysis of the C/EBPs and lipid metabolism-related genes expression profiles showed that C/EBP α was clustered with genes related to lipolysis, lipogenesis and fatty acid desaturation, whereas C/EBP ß, δ were clustered with genes related to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid elongation, which were different from mammals. In summary, C/EBP α, ß, δ of duck differ from other species in their structures and have different effects on lipid metabolism during adipocytes differentiation. This research serve as a foundation for further investigations about avian C/EBP α, ß, δ in adipocytes differentiation and adipose development.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Proteínas Aviárias , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT , Clonagem Molecular , Patos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Adipócitos/citologia , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/biossíntese , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/biossíntese , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Patos/genética , Patos/metabolismo
17.
Poult Sci ; 97(6): 2139-2143, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554334

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, tissue α-tocopherol, and lipid peroxidation of White Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 d of age. The 6 supplemental vitamin E levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg) and 4 supplemental vitamin E levels (0, 10, 20, and 100 mg DL-α-tocopheryl acetate/kg) were utilized in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. All treatments were replicated 8 times using 7 ducklings per pen in experiment 1 and 6 times using 8 birds per pen in experiment 2. All ducks were raised from hatch to 21 d of age. In both experiments, compared with ducks fed vitamin E-supplemented diets, the birds fed basal diets with no supplemental vitamin E had less weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05) but these two criteria showed no linear or quadratic response to increasing supplemental vitamin E levels (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the plasma or liver α-tocopherol was dependent on supplemental vitamin E levels. The plasma or liver α-tocopherol increased linearly or quadratically as supplemental vitamin E increased gradually in both experiments (P < 0.05). In addition, supplementation of vitamin E in basal diets could reduce liver lipid peroxidation but the further reduction did not take place when supplemental vitamin E level was above 5 mg/kg in experiment 1 or 10 mg/kg in experiment 2 due to no linear or quadratic response to increasing supplemental levels of this vitamin (P > 0.05). Therefore, when including the vitamin E content of basal diets, the dietary total vitamin E should not be less than 10 mg/kg in order to keep optimal growth performance and antioxidant capacity of starter Pekin ducks from hatch to 21 days of age. Plasma or liver α-tocopherol were sensitive indicators for the status of this vitamin.


Assuntos
Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Vitaminas/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Distribuição Tecidual , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Poult Sci ; 97(6): 2005-2010, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554357

RESUMO

Sheldrake is a duck breed widely used for its meat and eggs. In this study, the quantities of abdominal fat, sebum, intramuscular fat and liver fat, meat quality (pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force), and expression and activity of several enzymes at different ages were determined. The results showed that the fat content increased (P < 0.05) during the aging process (90 d, 180 d, 270 d, and 360 d). Fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were chosen to represent the activity of lipid biosynthesis in Sheldrake ducks. The quantitative real-time PCR and enzymic activity data showed that the expression of both FAS and ME were generally up-regulated along with aging. Based on these results, the individual ducks were selected at 180 d and 360 d for analyzing the changes of serum lipid levels and related enzymic activities in liver. The contents of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in serum were found not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, we thought that the variation of TG/HDL (P < 0.05) might explain the increased fat deposition. Moreover, the activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) were both detected significantly up-regulated at 360 d (P < 0.05). The meat quality results of breast muscles indicated that pH, cooking loss, drip loss, and shear force values could all be affected by aging. Considering these results, we concluded that the best quality of Sheldrake duck meat occurs between 180 d and 270 d. These results might provide useful information for Sheldrake cultivation and research on lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Patos/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Carne/análise , Gordura Subcutânea/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/fisiologia
19.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 185(1): 177-184, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330823

RESUMO

Miankaleh and Gomishan International Wetlands are important wintering areas for waterbirds in the Caspian Sea region. Previous studies revealed increased exposure to metals in some species of waterbirds using these wetlands. In this study, we examined concentrations of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in kidneys, liver, and pectoral muscle of wintering Gadwall (Anas strepera) and Common Teal (Anas crecca) collected in 2012. In addition, we measured concentrations of these elements in water and sediments from the collection sites. The genders differed in only one element/tissue combination, i.e., concentrations of Fe were greater in the livers of males. Concentrations of elements observed in Gadwall were generally higher than in Common Teal; only renal Cr and muscle Zn did not differ between species. Mean Cd concentrations in Gadwall exceeded background levels, reaching 1.94 µg/g ww in kidneys and 1.09 µg/g ww in liver. Similarly, Pb concentrations in Gadwall were also elevated (4.14 µg/g ww in kidneys, 3.22 µg/g ww in liver). Concentrations of other metals were within ranges commonly found in waterfowl. Concentrations of elements in the environment were elevated above background and comparable with the data obtained for this region by other scientists. However, these levels were deemed to not be great enough to pose an acute health risk to waterfowl. Given increased concentrations of some metals in duck tissues, further inquiry into the source of the exposure is needed for this area.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cromo/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Irã (Geográfico) , Ferro/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 97(3): 946-950, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281068

RESUMO

A dose-response experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of excess DL-methionine (DLM) and L-methionine (LM) on growth response of starter Pekin ducks from 7 to 21 days of age. A total of 462 seven-day-old male Pekin ducklings were allotted to 77 wire-floor pens with 6 birds per pen. There were 11 treatments including a methionine-adequate control diet (containing 0.49% methionine) and control diets supplemented with 5 levels of crystal DLM or LM (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25%) based on equal product weight. At 21 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain of ducks from each pen were measured. In our study, the weight gain and feed intake did not change markedly and kept a plateau when supplemental DLM or LM was below 0.50%, but the weight gain and feed intake decreased further as supplemental DLM or LM increased from 0.50 to 1.25%. When the maximum safe level (MSL) of supplemental methionine sources and methionine content of the control diets were combined, the total tolerable upper limits of methionine for weight gain and feed intake were 0.91 and 0.85% when DLM was used, respectively, and the corresponding values were 0.89 and 0.84% when LM was used, respectively. On the other hand, both excess DLM and LM reduced weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05) but there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in weight gain and feed intake between the ducks fed DLM- and LM-supplemented diets. Furthermore, linear slope-ratio assay was also used to evaluate the relative toxicity of excess DLM and LM. According to this assay, the efficiencies of DLM relative to LM for depression of weight gain and feed intake were 97 and 95%, respectively. In summary, excess DL- and L-methionine were toxic for starter Pekin ducks and both methionine sources were equally growth depressing.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metionina/metabolismo , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
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