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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111771, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348253

RESUMO

Excessive molybdenum (Mo) has adverse effects on animals. To elucidate the effects of autophagy on Mo-induced nephrotoxicity, the duck renal tubular epithelial cells were cultured in medium in absence and presence of (NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O (0, 480, 720, 960 µM Mo), 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) (2.5 µM), and the combination of Mo and 3-MA for 12 h. After 12 h exposure, the MDC staining, morphologic observation, LC3 puncta, cell viability, autophagy-related genes mRNA and proteins levels, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, antioxidant indices, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) and oxidative phosphorylation rate (OPR) were determined. The results showed that excessive Mo exposure significantly elevated the number of autophagosome and LC3 puncta, upregulated Beclin-1, Atg5, LC3A and LC3B mRNA levels, and LC3II/LC3I and Beclin-1 protein levels, decreased mTOR, p62 and Dynein mRNA levels and p62 protein level. Besides, co-treatment with Mo and 3-MA dramatically increased LDH release, ROS level, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents as well as cell dam age, reduced cell viability, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), MMP, mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial RCR and OPR compared to treatment with Mo alone. Taken together, these results suggest that excessive Mo exposure can induce autophagy in duck renal tubular epithelial cells, inhibition of autophagy aggravates Mo-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by regulating oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Autofagossomos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13461, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020974

RESUMO

The effects of heat stress on lipid oxidation and volatile compounds in duck meat were investigated. To simulate heat stress on ducks, room-temperature was controlled at 25°C, except that a raised temperature of 32°C for 8 hr each day was conducted. After stress for 1 and 3 weeks, respectively, the birds were euthanized and the breast meat was separated to evaluate the changes of lipid oxidation and volatile flavor compounds. Results showed that heat stress significantly increased the lipoxygenase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and reduced the contents of free unsaturated fatty acids in duck meat. A total of 85 volatile flavor compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Interestingly, when exposed to heat stress, the volatiles generation in raw duck meat was promoted, which was then inhibited after cooking. These data reveal meat oxidative changes and flavor loss caused by heat stress and provide useful information for potential labels and meat flavor preservation against the negative effects of heat stress.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne/análise , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Lipoxigenase/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/análise
3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5658, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221415

RESUMO

Duck plague virus (DPV), a member of the alphaherpesviruses subfamily, causes massive ducks death and results in a devastating hit to duck industries in China. It is of great significance for us to analyze the functions of DPV genes for controlling the outbreak of duck plague. Thus, glycoproteins E (gE) of DPV, which requires viral cell-to-cell spreading and the final envelopment in herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), was chosen herein. The gE mutant virus BAC-CHv-ΔgE was constructed by using a markerless two-step Red recombination system implemented on the DPV genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC). Viral plaques on duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells of BAC-CHv-ΔgE were on average approximately 60% smaller than those produced by BAC-CHv virus. Viral replication kinetics showed that BAC-CHv-ΔgE grew to lower titers than BAC-CHv virus did in DEF cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that deleting of DPV gE resulted in a large number of capsids accumulating around vesicles and very few of them could bud into vesicles. The drastic inhibition of virion formation in the absence of the DPV gE indicated that it played an important role in virion morphogenesis before the final envelopment of intracytoplasmic nucleocapsids.


Assuntos
Alphaherpesvirinae/metabolismo , Capsídeo/metabolismo , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/metabolismo , Citoplasma/virologia , Vesículas Citoplasmáticas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Humano 1/metabolismo , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/metabolismo , Mardivirus/metabolismo , Montagem de Vírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral/fisiologia
4.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(5): 1052-1059, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096287

RESUMO

Waterfowl are often exposed to and readily accumulate anthropogenic contaminants when foraging in polluted environments. Settling impoundments containing coal combustion waste (CCW) enriched in trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) are often used by free-ranging migratory and resident waterfowl and represent potential sources for contaminant uptake. To assess accumulation of CCW contaminants, we experimentally restricted waterfowl to a CCW-contaminated impoundment and quantified trace element burdens in blood, muscle, and liver tissues over known periods of exposure (between 3 and 92 d). From these data we developed models 1) to predict elemental bioaccumulation with increased exposure time, and 2) to predict muscle/liver burdens based on concentrations in blood as a nondestructive sampling method. Although Hg and As did not bioaccumulate in our waterfowl, we observed an increase in Se concentrations in muscle, liver, and blood tissues over the duration of our experiment. Furthermore, we found that blood may be used as an effective nondestructive sampling alternative to predict muscle and liver tissue concentrations in birds contaminated with Se and As through dietary exposure. These data provide unique insights into accumulation rates of contaminants for waterfowl utilizing habitats contaminated with CCW and demonstrate the efficacy of nonlethal sampling of waterfowl to quantify contaminant exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1052-1059. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Patos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/análise , Resíduos , Animais , Arsênico/sangue , Patos/sangue , Geografia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/sangue , Músculos/metabolismo , Selênio/sangue
5.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 12, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070432

RESUMO

High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) shows endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and is also an early warning protein that activates the body's innate immune system. Here, the full-length coding sequence of HMGB1 was cloned from the spleen of Cherry Valley duck and analyzed. We find that duck HMGB1(duHMGB1) is mostly located in the nucleus of duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells under normal conditions but released into the cytoplasm after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Knocking-down or overexpressing duHMGB1 had no effect on the baseline apoptosis rate of DEF cells. However, overexpression increased weakly apoptosis after LPS activation. In addition, overexpression strongly activated the IFN-I/IRF7 signaling pathway in DEF cells and significantly increased the transcriptional level of numerous pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), IFNs and antiviral molecules (OAS, PKR, Mx) starting from 48 h post-transfection. Overexpression of duHMGB1 strongly impacted duck virus replication, either by inhibiting it from the first stage of infection for novel duck reovirus (NDRV) and at late stage for duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) or duck plague virus (DPV), or promoting replication at early stage for DTMUV and DPV infection. Importantly, data from duHMGB1 overexpression and knockdown experiments, time-dependent DEF cells transcriptional immune responses suggest that duHMGB1 and RIG-I receptor might cooperate to promote the expression of antiviral proteins after NDRV infection, as a potential mechanism of duHMGB1-mediated antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Patos/genética , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Proteína HMGB1/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antivirais , Proteínas Aviárias/química , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Flavivirus , Infecções por Flavivirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Proteína HMGB1/química , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Mardivirus , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(2): 801-811, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029162

RESUMO

Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) is a well-recognized and widely distributed traditional plant that is used successfully in Indian Ayurveda medicine. T. cordifolia has shown many promising biological activities, such as antioxidative, antimicrobial, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, osteoprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrheal, and antistress effects. Guduchi is a rich source of protein and micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, copper, calcium, phosphorus, and manganese. It also contains many secondary plant metabolites, such as terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. Based on previous studies in poultry, the supplementation levels of Guduchi range from 1 to 5 g/kg of diet (different sources, such as powder, extracts, roots, and leaves, have been used). It was suggested that this variation in supplementation levels depends on different factors, including the extraction method, the supplementation proposed, the method of supplementation (either in feed or drinking water), and the species and physiological status of the birds. Generally, dietary supplementation of poultry broilers with T. cordifolia yielded positive impacts on growth performance, body gains (increased by 4.8%), dressing percentage (increased by 7.1%), meat quality traits, and the shelf life of the meat. In addition, T. cordifolia exerted a palliative effect on the general health status of the birds through reducing live enzymes and plasma uric acids and enhancing the immune response, as indicated by the leukocyte count, hemagglutinin titer, interleukin activity, and mortality levels. Further investigations concluded that T. cordifolia showed strong antimicrobial effects against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis, with subsequent reductions in mortality. Moreover, T. cordifolia showed an ability to improve humoral and cell-mediated immunity against Newcastle disease, infectious anemia, gout, and aflatoxicosis. The current review discusses many beneficial properties of T. cordifolia, although the lack of pharmacological trials limits the use of this extract in poultry. Further research should be performed regarding the composition of the active compound, the possible mechanisms of action, and the effective doses to fully understand the activities and benefits of T. cordifolia as a growth performance improvement supplement.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Tinospora/química , Perus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Medicina Ayurvédica , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(2): R453-R467, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913683

RESUMO

Induced by overfeeding, hepatic steatosis is a process exploited for the "foie gras" production in mule ducks. To better understand the mechanisms underlying its development, the physiological responses of mule ducks overfed with corn for a duration of 11 days were analyzed. A kinetic analysis of glucose and lipid metabolism and cell protection mechanisms was performed on 96 male mule ducks during overfeeding with three sampling times (after the 4th, the 12th, and the 22nd meal). Gene expression and protein analysis realized on the liver, muscle, and abdominal fat showed an activation of a cholesterol biosynthetic pathway during the complete overfeeding period mainly in livers with significant correlations between its weight and its cholesterolemia (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001) and between the liver weight and the hmgcr and soat1 expression (r = 0.4, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.67; P < 0.0001, respectively). Results also revealed an activation of insulin and amino acid cells signaling a pathway suggesting that ducks boost insulin sensitivity to raise glucose uptake and use via glycolysis and lipogenesis. Cellular stress analysis revealed an upregulation of key autophagy-related gene expression atg8 and sqstm1(P < 0.0001) during the complete overfeeding period, mainly in the liver, in contrast to an induction of cyp2e1(P < 0.0001), suggesting that autophagy could be suppressed during steatosis development. This study has highlighted different mechanisms enabling mule ducks to efficiently handle the starch overload by keeping its liver in a nonpathological state. Moreover, it has revealed potential biomarker candidates of hepatic steatosis as plasma cholesterol for the liver weight.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Cinética , Lipogênese/genética , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Tamanho do Órgão
8.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(8): 1229-1239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902053

RESUMO

Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative behavioral, immunological, and reproductive effects in wildlife and human populations. We examined the role of wetland water-management on mercury bioaccumulation in songbirds and ducks at Kellys Slough National Wildlife Refuge Complex, near Grand Forks, North Dakota USA. We assessed mercury concentrations in blood of wetland-foraging songbirds (80 common yellowthroats [Geothlypis trichas] and 14 Nelson's sparrows [Ammospiza nelsoni]) and eggs of upland-nesting ducks (28 gadwall [Mareca strepera], 19 blue-winged teal [Spatula discors], and 13 northern shoveler [S. clypeta]) across four wetland water-management classifications. Nelson's sparrow blood mercury concentrations were elevated (mean: 1.00 µg/g ww; 95% CL: 0.76-1.31) and similar to those reported 6 years previously. Mercury in songbird blood and duck eggs varied among wetland water-management classifications. Songbirds and ducks had 67% and 49% lower mercury concentrations, respectively, when occupying wetlands that were drawn down with water flow compared to individuals occupying isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Additionally, songbirds within impounded and partially drawn-down wetland units with water flow had mercury concentrations that were 26-28% lower, respectively, than individuals within isolated-depressional wetlands with no outflow. Our results confirm that mercury concentrations in songbirds at Kellys Slough continue to be elevated and suggest that water-management could be an important tool for wetland managers to reduce bioaccumulation of mercury in birds.


Assuntos
Patos/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Aves Canoras/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Áreas Alagadas
9.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 58, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatty acid composition contributes greatly to the quality and nutritional value of meat. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying fatty acid accumulation in poultry have not yet been cleared. The aims of this study were to characterize the dynamics of fatty acid accumulation in duck breast muscle and investigate its correlations with gene expression. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the fatty acid profile and transcriptome of breast muscle derived from Pekin ducks and mallards at the ages of 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks. Twenty fatty acids were detected in duck breast muscle, with palmitic acid (C16:0, 16.6%~ 21.1%), stearic acid (C18:0, 9.8%~ 17.7%), oleic acid (C18:1n-9, 15.7%~ 33.8%), linoleic acid (C18:2n-6, 10.8%~ 18.9%) and arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6, 11.7%~ 28.9%) as the major fatty acids. Our results showed that fatty acid composition was similar between the two breeds before 6 weeks, but the compositions diverged greatly after this point, mainly due to the stronger capacity for C16:0 and C18:1n-9 deposition in Pekin ducks. By comparing the multistage transcriptomes of Pekin ducks and mallards, we identified 2025 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Cluster analysis of these DEGs revealed that the genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid degradation and the PPAR signaling pathway were upregulated in mallard at 8 weeks. Moreover, correlation analysis of the DEGs and fatty acid composition traits suggested that the DEGs involved in lipogenesis, lipolysis and fatty acid ß-oxidation may interact to influence the deposition of fatty acids in duck breast muscle. CONCLUSIONS: We reported the temporal progression of fatty acid accumulation and the dynamics of the transcriptome in breast muscle of Pekin ducks and mallards. Our results provide insights into the transcriptome regulation of fatty acid accumulation in duck breast muscle, and will facilitate improvements of fatty acid composition in duck breeding.


Assuntos
Patos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Patos/anatomia & histologia , Patos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Músculos Peitorais/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Peitorais/química , Fatores Sexuais
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 229: 118009, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927237

RESUMO

A novel surface enhanced-Raman spectroscopy (SERS) assay for marbofloxacin was developed based on ß-cyclodextrin-modified silver nanoparticles (ß-CD-AgNPs). The marbofloxacin could interact with ß-CD-AgNPs and a new assembly was formed by AgN covalent bond. This assembly was characterized by the spectra of FT-IR and UV-vis. The optimal measurement conditions were studied in detail. In 0.033 mol L-1 HCl solution, marbofloxacin had a sensitive SERS signal at 806 cm-1. The enhancement factor (EF) was 2.11 × 107. There was a good linear correlation between the concentration of marbofloxacin and SERS intensity: the linear range was 0.003-0.03 µmol L-1 (r2 = 0.996). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N = 3) was 1.7 nmol L-1 (S/N = 3). Moreover, the influence of some interferences including Cu2+, K+, Zn2+, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, glucose and tiamulin on the determination were studied. The developed SERS method was used to detect the content of marbofloxacin in chicken and duck, the recovery was 101.3%-103.1% with RSD 4.07%-6.83%.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Fluoroquinolonas/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Limite de Detecção
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729108

RESUMO

Magnolol rich in Magnolia officinalis is a bioactive polyphenolic compound. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of magnolol additive (MA) on carcass and meat quality, biochemical characteristics and antioxidative capacity of Linwu ducks, by comparing it to that of antibiotic additive (colistin sulphate, CS). A total of 275 49-d-old ducks were randomly assigned to 5 groups with 5 cages of 11 ducks each and fed by the diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg of MA/kg and 30 mg of CS/kg for 3 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that MA administration not only increased dressed percentage (calculated as a percentage of live weight), percentage of breast muscle, leg muscle and lean meat (calculated as a percentage of eviscerated weight), but also remarkably increased a*45 min and pH45 min of leg muscle. Moreover, MA administration decreased the percentage of abdominal fat (calculated as a percentage of eviscerated weight), 45-min cooking loss, water loss rate of leg muscle, 45-min cooking loss and drip loss of breast muscle at 24 hr and 48 hr. Furthermore, MA administration enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in serum or liver, serum total antioxidant capacity and hepatic reduced glutathione concentration significantly, compared with the basal diet or CS group (p < .05). On the other hand, triglyceride, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine contents in serum and liver were significantly increased in Linwu ducks fed with CS, compared with MA groups (p < .05). Taken together, these data demonstrated that magnolol could effectively improve the carcass and meat quality of Linwu ducks by regulating the in vivo antioxidant status and would be a potential candidate to replace antibiotic.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Compostos de Bifenilo/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Lignanas/administração & dosagem , Lignanas/farmacologia , Carne , Animais , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Polifenóis , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109736, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654909

RESUMO

Overwintering canvasbacks were collected in the Lake St. Clair region of the Great Lakes in the winter of 2008/09 and livers were analyzed for organochlorines, mercury (Hg), and selenium (Se). We found dramatic increases in hepatic concentrations of Hg, Se, sum PCBs, p,p'-DDE, and other organochlorines in canvasbacks in which concentrations in February were greater than concentrations in November when overwintering ducks arrived in the study area. Increases in contaminant burdens were generally greatest between December and January which also coincided with the period when ducks from Lake St. Clair (LSC) moved following freeze-up of the Lake to forage on the St. Clair River (SCR), an area of known historic contamination, and upstream of LSC. Body condition estimated using body metrics and measured using lipid reserves (after controlling for body size) increased in LSC ducks but subsequently decreased in SCR ducks. This rapid loss of body condition through loss of lipid reserves was one factor likely driving the dramatic increase in contaminant burdens and particularly for organochlorines which were inversely related to body condition in SCR ducks. Increased exposure due to foraging in closer proximity to contaminant sources and changes in diet associated with the movement of ducks may have also contributed to temporal trends. Concentrations overall were below those associated with toxicity with the exception of Se for which 30% of ducks exceeded the Se threshold that is considered elevated and one duck exceeded the threshold associated with possible toxicity. Fitness consequences of reduced lipid reserves include reduced survival, delayed migration, reduced breeding propensity, and transfer of contaminant burdens to eggs. Food availability, ice cover, and movements of canvasbacks are additional factors influencing contaminant accumulation and lipid reserves in waterfowl utilizing this important wintering location.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Lagos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Carga Corporal (Radioterapia) , Patos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 688, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pekin duck is an important animal model for its ability for fat synthesis and deposition. However, transcriptional dynamic regulation of adipose differentiation driven by complex signal cascades remains largely unexplored in this model. This study aimed to explore adipogenic transcriptional dynamics before (proliferation) and after (differentiation) initial preadipocyte differentiation in ducks. RESULTS: Exogenous oleic acid alone successfully induced duck subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation. We explored 36 mRNA-seq libraries in order to study transcriptome dynamics during proliferation and differentiation processes at 6 time points. Using robust statistical analysis, we identified 845, 652, 359, 2401 and 1933 genes differentially expressed between -48 h and 0 h, 0 h and 12 h, 12 h and 24 h, 24 h and 48 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively (FDR < 0.05, FC > 1.5). At the proliferation stage, proliferation related pathways and basic cellular and metabolic processes were inhibited, while regulatory factors that initiate differentiation enter the ready-to-activate state, which provides a precondition for initiating adipose differentiation. According to weighted gene co-expression network analysis, pathways positively related to adipogenic differentiation are significantly activated at the differentiation stage, while WNT, FOXO and other pathways that inhibit preadipocyte differentiation are negatively regulated. Moreover, we identified and classified more than 100 transcription factors that showed significant changes during differentiation, and found novel transcription factors that were not reported to be related to preadipoctye differentiation. Finally, we manually assembled a proposed regulation network model of subcutaneous preadipocyte differentiation base on the expression data, and suggested that E2F1 may serve as an important link between the processes of duck subcutaneous preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time we comprehensively analyzed the transcriptome dynamics of duck subcutaneous preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation. The current study provides a solid basis for understanding the synthesis and deposition of subcutaneous fat in ducks. Furthermore, the information generated will allow future investigations of specific genes involved in particular stages of duck adipogenesis.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Patos/genética , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição E2F1/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Ácido Oleico/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
15.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 105: 110052, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546360

RESUMO

Novel duck reovirus (NDRV) disease is a serious infectious disease for poultry, for which no effective therapy has been established. Therefore, development of novel antivirals against NDRV is urgently needed. In present study, we developed a complex wherein hypericin (HY), which shows broad-spectrum antiviral activity, was loaded onto graphene oxide (GO), which has a high drug-loading capacity and low cytotoxicity. The antiviral activity of the complex (GO/HY) was studied in DF-1 cells and in ducklings infected with the NDRV TH11 strain. GO/HY showed a dose-dependent inhibition of NDRV replication, which may be attributed to direct virus inactivation or inhibition of virus attachment. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed markedly suppressed protein expression in GO/HY-treated NDRV-infected DF-1 cells. Moreover, GO/HY prolonged the survival time of the ducklings by reducing pathological lesions caused by the infection and inhibiting viral replication in the liver and lungs. These results suggest that GO/HY has antiviral activity against NDRV both in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Patos , Grafite , Orthoreovirus Aviário/metabolismo , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Reoviridae , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/virologia , Grafite/química , Grafite/farmacologia , Perileno/química , Perileno/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Reoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Reoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11556, 2019 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399610

RESUMO

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are classified into 16 hemagglutinin (HA; H1-H16) and 9 neuraminidase (NA; N1-N9) subtypes. All AIV are low pathogenic (LP) in birds, but subtypes H5 and H7 AIV can evolve into highly pathogenic (HP) forms. In the last two decades evolution of HPAIV H7 from LPAIV has been frequently reported. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and evolution of HP H7 from LP ancestors particularly, in non-chicken hosts. In 2015, both LP and HP H7N7 AIV were isolated from chickens in two neighbouring farms in Germany. Here, the virulence of these isogenic H7N7 LP, HP and LP virus carrying a polybasic HA cleavage site (HACS) from HP (designated LP-Poly) was studied in chickens, turkeys and different duck breeds. The LP precursor was avirulent in all birds. In contrast, all inoculated and contact chickens and turkeys died after infection with HP. HP infected Pekin and Mallard ducks remained clinically healthy, while Muscovy ducks exhibited moderate depression and excreted viruses at significantly higher amounts. The polybasic HACS increased virulence in a species-specific manner with intravenous pathogenicity indices of 3.0, 1.9 and 0.2 in chickens, turkeys and Muscovy ducks, respectively. Infection of endothelial cells was only observed in chickens. In summary, Pekin and Mallard were more resistant to HPAIV H7N7 than chickens, turkeys and Muscovy ducks. The polybasic HACS was the main determinant for virulence and endotheliotropism of HPAIV H7N7 in chickens, whereas other viral and/or host factors play an essential role in virulence and pathogenesis in turkeys and ducks.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/virologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Perus/metabolismo , Perus/virologia , Replicação Viral
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9950-9957, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403788

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification that modulates protein properties, thereby influencing bioactivities within a system. Duck egg white (DEW) proteins exhibit diverse biological properties compared with their chicken egg white (CEW) counterparts, which might be related to glycosylation. N-Glycoproteome analysis of DEW was conducted, and a total of 231 N-glycosites from 68 N-glycoproteins were identified. Gene ontology analysis was used to elucidate the biofunctions of DEW N-glycoproteins and compare them with those of CEW, which showed that the differences mostly involved molecular functions and biological processes. The biological functions of DEW N-glycoproteins were illuminated through bioinformatics analysis and comparison with CEW orthologues, which showed different allergenicities and antibacterial abilities. These divergences might be initiated by specific alterations in glycosylation, which can enhance the proteolysis resistance and protein steric hindrance. These results provide new insights for discovering the effects of N-glycosylation on biofunctions during the divergence of homologous proteins.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Proteômica
18.
J Food Biochem ; 43(5): e12841, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353522

RESUMO

Egg albumen is a potential source of trypsin inhibitor (TI), which has been widely used to improve textural property of surimi or surimi-based food products. TI from duck albumen was isolated and purified using ammonium sulfate precipitation at 20%-40% saturation and affinity chromatography using trypsin-CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B column. TI was purified with purity and yield of 111.8-fold and 0.6%, respectively. The purity of inhibitor was confirmed using Native-PAGE as indicated by the presence of single band. Molecular weight of purified TI was 43 kDa based on SDS-GAGE and gel filtration. The purified TI remained unchanged at temperatures below 60°C and the pH in the range of 7-9. The inhibitory activity of TI was decreased with the addition of salt higher than 5%. Inhibition kinetic study revealed that purified TI from duck albumen was uncompetitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) was 508 nM. TI from duck egg albumen could serve as a food grade inhibitor for controlling undesirable proteolysis. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Duck egg albumen has been known to be rich in protease inhibitors, which can be used as a protein additive to enhance gelling properties of surimi or surimi-based products. Therefore, it is of interest to isolate and purify TI from duck egg albumen. Information regarding characteristics of TI from duck albumen could be beneficial for further applications, in which duck albumen is better exploited.


Assuntos
Albuminas/química , Patos/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Géis , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Óvulo/química , Temperatura , Tripsina/metabolismo , Inibidores da Tripsina/isolamento & purificação
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5734-5745, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265113

RESUMO

This study investigated whether dietary lysine (Lys) affects productive performance and expression of genes related to protein and lipid metabolism in laying duck breeders. Longyan duck breeders (n = 540, 19 wk of age) were randomly assigned to 6 groups with 6 replicates of 15 birds each. Breeders were fed diets with 6 total Lys levels (6.4, 7.2, 8.0, 8.8, 9.6, and 10.4 g/kg) for 26 wk duration. Egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, hatchability, hatchling weight, albumen weight, eggshell weight, yolk weight, and yolk proportion increased with dietary Lys levels (P < 0.05). Dietary Lys level had a linear (P < 0.05) and quadratic (P < 0.05) effects on maternal hepatic expression of mechanistic target of rapamycin, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2K (UBE2K), cathepsin B (CTSB), and quadratically (P < 0.05) increased the concentrations of plasma Lys, leucine, threonine, and tryptophan in duck breeders. In contrast, maternal dietary Lys suppressed expression of proteasome 26S subunit, UBE2K, and CTSB in the liver of hatchlings. Moreover, relative expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A, and very low density apolipoprotein-II increased linearly (P < 0.05) and quadratically (P < 0.05), and that of VLDL receptor (VLDLR) decreased quadratically (P < 0.05) in the liver of duck breeders with increasing dietary Lys levels; hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were reduced. Maternal dietary Lys suppressed hepatic expression of VLDLR in the hatchlings. A diet containing 8.6 g Lys/kg promoted protein turnover and lipid metabolism in laying duck breeders, which positively reflected in the productivity and reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Patos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem
20.
J Proteomics ; 206: 103436, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265922

RESUMO

We report the effects of protein from different duck products on the intestinal flora and physiology of rats. After 30 days of feeding, rats fed water-boiled salted duck protein had the lowest gut microbial diversity and richness. Allobaculum, Lactobacillus, Coprococcus and Eubacterium increased in rats fed wine-cured duck protein, while rats fed water-boiled salted and wine-cured duck protein showed increased serum urea (UREA) concentrations and serum cholesterol (CHOL) to HDL-cholesterol (HDLC) ratios, but decreased retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (rWAT) and perirenal white adipose tissue (pWAT) to body weight ratios. The changes in gut bacteria were mainly associated with the fat-mass index (weight of rWAT or pWAT to body weight ratio), accompanied by the opposite correlation with UREA content. SIGNIFICANCE: It showed that protein from different duck products impacted the intestinal flora and caused physiological changes in rats. Different sources of processed protein vary in their digestibility and digestive kinetics, all of which can affect the intestinal microbiota and physiology. We report the effects is an effort to map the complex interactions of "host physiology-nutrition-microbiota" in order to provide some insights into that food processing can be improved to promote beneficial gut microbes and enhance human health.


Assuntos
Patos , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Carne/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta , Patos/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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