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1.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2508-2518, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359587

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic selection and threonine levels on meat quality in Pekin ducks. At 15 D of age, 192 lean ducks and 192 fatty ducks were selected and allotted to one of three treatments with 8 replicates with similar BW (8 ducks/cage), respectively. All ducks were fed the experimental diets (0.00, 0.15, and 0.30% added threonine) for 21 D from 15 to 35 D of age. The results showed that fatty ducks had higher (P < 0.001) feed intake, feed/gain ratio, abdominal fat percentage, and sebum percentage and lower (P = 0.001) breast muscle percentage compared with that of lean ducks. The fatty-type and lean-type ducks had similar weight gain and BW. Dietary threonine supplementation improved (P < 0.05) growth performance and increased breast muscle percentage in lean-type ducks, but it did not affect (P > 0.05) those indices in fatty-type ducks. Lean ducks had higher (P < 0.001) hepatic contents of total lipids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and dietary threonine supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic total lipid, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents in lean ducks, but it had no influence on hepatic lipids in fatty ducks (P > 0.05). Lean ducks had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and C18-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the liver, PUFA in the breast muscle, and C18:3n6 and C18:3n3 in plasma and lower C20-PUFA and C22-PUFA in the liver and MUFA in plasma, compared with fatty ducks. Threonine supplementation increased PUFA, N3-PUFA, and n6-PUFA in plasma and hepatic fatty acids profiles in lean ducks (P > 0.05) but had on influence on total MUFA and total PUFA in the liver, breast muscle, and plasma in fatty ducks (P > 0.05). In conclusion, genetic selection toward meat production and threonine supplementation increases meat production and PUFA contents, which would influence eating quality, but it is benefit for human health.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Seleção Genética , Treonina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Patos/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Músculos Peitorais/química , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Treonina/administração & dosagem
2.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 39(5): 1052-1059, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096287

RESUMO

Waterfowl are often exposed to and readily accumulate anthropogenic contaminants when foraging in polluted environments. Settling impoundments containing coal combustion waste (CCW) enriched in trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg) are often used by free-ranging migratory and resident waterfowl and represent potential sources for contaminant uptake. To assess accumulation of CCW contaminants, we experimentally restricted waterfowl to a CCW-contaminated impoundment and quantified trace element burdens in blood, muscle, and liver tissues over known periods of exposure (between 3 and 92 d). From these data we developed models 1) to predict elemental bioaccumulation with increased exposure time, and 2) to predict muscle/liver burdens based on concentrations in blood as a nondestructive sampling method. Although Hg and As did not bioaccumulate in our waterfowl, we observed an increase in Se concentrations in muscle, liver, and blood tissues over the duration of our experiment. Furthermore, we found that blood may be used as an effective nondestructive sampling alternative to predict muscle and liver tissue concentrations in birds contaminated with Se and As through dietary exposure. These data provide unique insights into accumulation rates of contaminants for waterfowl utilizing habitats contaminated with CCW and demonstrate the efficacy of nonlethal sampling of waterfowl to quantify contaminant exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:1052-1059. © 2020 SETAC.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Patos/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Oligoelementos/análise , Resíduos , Animais , Arsênico/sangue , Patos/sangue , Geografia , Fígado/metabolismo , Mercúrio/sangue , Músculos/metabolismo , Selênio/sangue
3.
Genomics ; 112(1): 379-387, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818062

RESUMO

Blood components are considered to reflect nutrient metabolism and immune activity in both humans and animals. In this study, we measured 12 blood components in Pekin ducks and performed genome-wide association analysis to identify the QTLs (quantitative trait locus) using a genotyping-by-sequencing strategy. A total of 54 QTLs were identified for blood components. One genome-wide significant QTL for alkaline phosphatase was identified within the intron-region of the OTOG gene (P = 1.31E-07). Moreover, 21 genome-wide significant SNPs for the level of serum cholinesterase were identified on six different scaffolds. In addition, for serum calcium, one genome-wide significant QTL was identified in the upstream region of gene RAB11B. These results provide new markers for functional studies in Pekin ducks, and several candidate genes were identified, which may provide additional insights into specific mechanisms for blood metabolism in ducks and their potential application for duck breeding programs.


Assuntos
Patos/sangue , Patos/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cálcio/sangue , Colinesterases/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(6): 713-721, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435964

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone was performed in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after single bolus injections of 10 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (IM; n = 10) or intravenously (IV; n = 10), in a randomized cross-over design with a washout period between doses. Mean (±SD) Cmax following IM injection was 1.6 (±0.8) µg/ml with Tmax at 15.0 (±10.5) min. Area under the curve (AUC) was 84.66 and 104.58 min*mg/ml following IV and IM administration, respectively. Volume of distribution (VD ) after IV dose was 3.0 L/kg. The mean plasma clearance after 10 mg/kg IV was 139.5 (±67.9) ml min-1  kg-1 . Elimination half-lives (mean [±SD]) were 15.0 and 16.1 (±3.0) min following IV and IM administration, respectively. Mean bioavailability at 10 mg/kg IM was 108.6%. None of the ducks achieved a sufficient anesthetic depth for invasive procedures, such as surgery, to be performed. Heart and respiratory rates measured after administration remained stable, but many ducks were hyperexcitable during recovery. Based on sedation levels and duration, alfaxalone administered at dosages of 10 mg/kg IV or IM in mallard ducks does not induce clinically acceptable anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacocinética , Patos/sangue , Pregnanodionas/farmacocinética , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/sangue
5.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3523-3532, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329991

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary graded raw potato starch (RPS) levels on growth performance, plasma cytokines concentration, ileal barrier function, and cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in meat ducks from 1 to 35 D of age. This study included 2 experiments. In experiment (Exp.) 1, sixteen 35-day-old meat ducks were used to evaluate the AME of RPS by orogastric administration. Results showed the AME value of RPS on ducks is 2.76 kcal/g. In Exp. 2, a total of 600 one-day-old ducklings were randomly assigned to 5 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic dietary treatments that included 0 (control), 6, 12, 18, and 24% RPS, respectively. Samples were collected at both of 14 and 35 D. Neither growth performance nor ileal parameters (length, weight, and pH) at both of 14 and 35 D was affected by dietary RPS. However, the mucosal thickness (14 D), villus height (except for 18% RPS at 14 D), and the villus height: crypt depth ratio (14 and 35 D) of the ileum were increased in the 12 and 18% RPS diets when compared to 0% RPS diet. Meanwhile, proinflammatory factors such as plasma interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 (14 D) reduced in 12% RPS diet and tumor necrosis factor α decreased in 12% (except for 14 D) and 18% RPS groups. When compared with the control group, diets with 18% RPS significantly increased mucin 2 gene expression at 14 D, and 12% RPS elevated the mRNA expression of tight junction proteins including Zonula occludens-1 and Claudin 1 (except for 14 D) in the ileal mucosa of birds. Furthermore, ducks fed 12% RPS diet had higher concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in cecal digesta than other groups. These findings indicated that diets with 12 and/or 18% RPS increased the cecal SCFA concentration, which subsequently enhanced the barrier function and improved intestinal health in the ileum for 14 and 35-day-old meat ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Patos/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/administração & dosagem
6.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6888-6896, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347686

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the inclusion levels of different types of rapeseed meal (RSM) on performance, organ weight, and serum biochemical parameters in Cherry Valley ducks in the starter period and grower-finisher period. In Exp. 1, a total of 750 seven-day-old male ducklings were divided into 5 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 25 birds per pen. The starter diets with the inclusion of 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% of double-low RSM contained 0, 1.37, 2.15, 3.46, or 5.31 µmol glucosinolates (GLS)/g in the finished feed (from day 7 to 21). In Exp. 2, a total of 900 fifteen-day-old male ducklings were divided into 6 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens of 25 birds per pen. The grower-finisher diets with the inclusion of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25% of Indian RSM contained 0, 7.67, 15.34, 24.66, 31.21, or 38.44 µmol GLS/g in the finished feed (from day 15 to 42). For ducklings in the starter period (Exp. 1), body weight gain and feed intake decreased linearly as the dietary double-low RSM inclusion level increased at day 7 to 14, while growth rate was not influenced by dietary double-low RSM inclusion levels at day 15 to 21 and day 7 to 21. For ducks in the grower-finisher period (Exp. 2), growth performance decreased linearly as the dietary RSM inclusion level increased from 5 to 20%. In addition, dietary RSM inclusion levels induced liver enlargement in ducklings at day 21 (5 to 20% double-low RSM with 1.37 to 5.31 µmol/g GLS) and thyroid enlargement accompanied by increased serum AST and ALP activities in ducks at day 42 (5 to 15% Indian RSM with 7.67 to 23.66 µmol/g GLS). Therefore, our results indicated that the upper limit of using RSM sources in feed formulation should consider the anti-nutritional factor of GLS content at different stages of duck growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Brassica napus/química , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5636-5647, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237336

RESUMO

Flaxseed cake (FSC) is a potential alternative feed source in poultry. However, cyanogenetic glycosides limit its widespread use in feed. In this study, we optimized the parameters of fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Candida utilis and compared the growth performance, serum lipid parameters, and organ indexes of Cherry Valley duckling feed with unfermented FSC (UFSC) or fermented FSC (FFSC). A total of 420 one-day-old male Cherry Valley ducklings were randomly assigned into a 1 plus 2 × 3 factorial design including 2 different FSC resources (UFSC and FFSC) at 3 levels (50, 100, or 150 g/kg) for 3 wk. Each treatment group included 6 pens with 10 ducklings per pen. The hydrocyanic acid (HCN) level was reduced under the following conditions: 1:0.8 FSC:water (w:v), inoculum ratio of 1 mL:1 mL, 30°C, and 60 h. FFSC had higher crude protein (CP) and calcium (Ca) levels and lower HCN levels compared with UFSC (P < 0.05). There was no interactive effect between FSC sources and levels on growth performance. Final body weight (FBW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and average daily gain (ADG) in UFSC groups and ADFI in FFSC groups decreased linearly with increasing FSC levels (P < 0.01). There were no differences in FBW, ADG, or feed:gain ratio (F/G) among FFSC groups, and all 7 FSC groups had no differences in the F/G ratio (P > 0.05). Dietary FSC supplementation decreased triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.01). No interactive effect between FSC levels and sources was observed for serum TG, TC, HDL, or LDL. Ducklings fed FFSC had lower TG (P < 0.01), TC (P = 0.05), and LDL (P < 0.01) levels compared with ducklings fed UFSC. The 150 g/kg FFSC group had the lowest TG, TC, HDL, and LDL levels among all 7 groups. Flaxseed cake supplementation decreased the relative weight of the left breast, but FFSC increased the relative weight of the gizzard compared with UFSC. In conclusion, fermentation could increase the nutritional value and usage of FSC in ducklings.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Fermentação , Linho/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(2): 123-132, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251499

RESUMO

Venous blood samples were collected from 129 apparently healthy, rehabilitated juvenile black-bellied whistling ducks (Dendrocygna autumnalis) immediately before release from rehabilitation. Blood gas, electrolyte, and select biochemical and hematologic values were analyzed by using a point-of-care analyzer, and complete blood cell counts and osmolality were determined. Most biochemical analyte values were distributed parametrically, while most hematologic values were nonparametrically distributed. Calculated osmolality values were in poor agreement with measured osmolality values, and values of packed cell volume had poor agreement with hematocrit values determined with the i-STAT 1. The physiologic values reported provide vital information to assess individual duck health and guide fluid therapy in captivity and may prove useful to assess free-living population health of this duck species.


Assuntos
Patos/sangue , Animais , Glicemia , Temperatura Corporal , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Eletrólitos/sangue , Hematócrito/veterinária , Hemoglobinas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Minerais/sangue , Concentração Osmolar , Valores de Referência
9.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 287-292, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994195

RESUMO

Plasma cholinesterase (PCHE) activity is an important auxiliary test in human clinical medicine. It can distinguish liver diseases from non-liver diseases and help detect organophosphorus poisoning. Animal experiments have confirmed that PCHE activity is associated with obesity and hypertension and changes with physiological changes in an animal's body. The objective of this study was to locate the genetic loci responsible for PCHE activity variation in ducks. PCHE activity of Pekin duck × mallard F2 ducks at 3 and 8 weeks of age were analyzed, and genome-wide association studies were conducted. A region of about 1.5 Mb (21.8-23.3 Mb) on duck chromosome 9 was found to be associated with PCHE activity at both 3 and 8 weeks of age. The top SNP, g.22643979C>T in the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene, was most highly associated with PCHE activity at 3 weeks (-logP = 21.45) and 8 weeks (-logP = 27.60) of age. For the top SNP, the strong associations of CC and CT genotypes with low PCHE activity and the TT genotype with high PCHE activity indicates the dominant inheritance of low PCHE activity. Problems with block inheritance or linkage exist in this region. This study supports that BCHE is a functional gene for determining PCHE levels in ducks and that the genetic variations around this gene can cause phenotypic variations of PCHE activity.


Assuntos
Colinesterases/genética , Patos/genética , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/sangue , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Butirilcolinesterase/genética , Colinesterases/sangue , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Patos/sangue , Patos/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Animal ; 13(10): 2216-2222, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914073

RESUMO

Nowadays, there is much legislation in the world devoted to restrict the use of synthetic antibiotics in the poultry industry, which could reduce performance rate and production profits. Various phyto-biotic growth promoters have been proposed to serve as antibiotic alternatives with emphasis on plant extracts and essential oils. This study was conducted to assess the impacts of using the oregano essential oil (OEO) (comprised of 5% thymol and 65% carvacrol) and Enviva essential oil (EEO) (4.5% cinnamaldehyde and 13.5% thymol) as phytobiotic feed additives (PFA) on growth performance, cecal microbiota and serum biochemicals of growing ducks. In total, 800 11-day-old ducklings, housed in 20 floor pens, were allotted randomly into five dietary treatments: (i) A basal diet (BD) (control), (ii.) BD+50 mg EEO/kg, (iii.) BD+100 mg EEO/kg, (iv.) BD+150 mg OEO/kg and (v.) BD+300 mg OEO/kg diet. The growth performance traits were studied between 11 and 42 days of age. At the experiment end, 40 ducks were slaughtered (eight/ treatment) and cecal digesta and blood samples were collected to estimate the cecal bacterial populations and serum blood biochemicals. The results indicated that the tested levels of OEO and EEO did not display any significant effect (P>0.05) on the duck's final BW, BW gain, growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio or survivability rate. Besides, the different levels of EEO and OEO decreased the cecal populations of Coliforms (P<0.01), total aerobes (P<0.01) and lactose-negative Enterobacteria (P<0.05) in comparison with those of the control group. Finally, the tested EEO and OEO levels did not show any significant effect on the serum variables; in terms of total protein, albumin, globulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. In conclusion, the antimicrobial effect of the OEO and EEO against the cecal microbiota has been proven, while they did not display significant effects on the growth performance or blood variables of growing ducks.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Patos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Origanum/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Cimenos/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Timol/administração & dosagem
11.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 380-384, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656715

RESUMO

This study documents the pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol in Muscovy ducks. Six ducks received a single 30 mg/kg dose of tramadol, orally by stomach tube, with blood collection prior to and up to 24 hr after tramadol administration. Plasma tramadol, and metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (M1), and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5) concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence (FL) detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a one-compartment model with first-order input. No adverse effects were noted after oral administration. All ducks achieved plasma concentrations of tramadol above 0.10 µg/ml and maintained those concentrations for at least 12 hr. Elimination half-life was 3.95 hr for tramadol in ducks, which is similar to other avian species. All ducks in this study produced the M1 metabolite and maintained plasma concentrations above 0.1 µg/ml for at least 24 hr.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Patos/sangue , Tramadol/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Meia-Vida , Tramadol/administração & dosagem , Tramadol/sangue
12.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 67: 21-27, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660024

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to establish a sandwich ELISA for the determination of prolactin (PRL) concentrations in the plasma of domestic fowls. The assay uses a recombinant goose PRL as the reference standard, expressed in a eukaryotic system, and as the antigen for raising a polyclonal antibody in rabbit. This rabbit anti-goose PRL polyclonal antibody was used for coating the wells of the ELISA plate, and its biotinylated form served as the detection antibody. An avidin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was used to bind the detection antibody and to catalyze the chromogenic reaction using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as the substrate. The assay showed a linear relationship between the optical density and concentration of the standard PRL in the 0 to 12.5 ng/mL range, and the assay was sensitive to a concentration as low as 0.39 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay CVs were <7% and 11%, respectively. The response curves of the serially diluted plasma samples from goose, duck, and chicken exhibited similar parallel relationships to that observed for the reference standards. Consistent with previous findings, the assay effectively detected differences in PRL concentration in plasma samples from chicken, duck, and goose at various reproductive stages.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Aves Domésticas/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Galinhas/sangue , Patos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Gansos/sangue , Prolactina/imunologia , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodução/fisiologia
13.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(1): 116-120, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242846

RESUMO

The pharmacokinetics of florfenicol (FF) and thiamphenicol (TP) after single intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) administration was investigated in Mulard ducks. Both antibiotics were administered at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight, and their concentrations in plasma samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a noncompartmental method. After IV administration, significant differences were found for the mean residence time (2.25 ± 0.21 hr vs. 2.83 ± 0.50 hr for FF and TP, respectively) and the general half-life (1.56 ± 0.15 hr vs. 1.96 ± 0.35 hr for FF and TP, respectively) indicating slightly slower elimination of TP as compared to FF. The clearance, however, was comparable (0.30 ± 0.07 L/hr/kg for FF and 0.26 ± 0.04 L/hr/kg for TP). The mean volume of distribution was below 0.7 L/kg for both drugs. Pharmacokinetics after PO administration was very similar for FF and TP suggesting minor clinical importance of the differences found in the IV study. Both antimicrobials showed rapid absorption and bioavailability of more than 70% indicating that PO route should be an efficient method of FF and TP administration to ducks under field conditions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Patos/metabolismo , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/veterinária , Patos/sangue , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Masculino , Tianfenicol/administração & dosagem , Tianfenicol/sangue
14.
Anaerobe ; 54: 72-74, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30118893

RESUMO

This report describes an outbreak of botulism occurred among a free-living population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and geese (Anser anser) in an urban park. Mortality rate among investigated population was 86,8% (118 dead out of 136). Twenty-seven carcasses were collected for macroscopic examination and screened for microbiological, virological, toxicological investigations. A sick mallard was captured and neurological symptoms were observed. No causative agent of viral avian diseases was found in the examined animals and screening for environmental neurotoxic substances proved negative as well. In contrast, microbiological cultures from specimens tested positive for botulinum toxin-producing clostridia. Blood serum and fecal extract of the sick mallard proved positive for botulinum neurotoxin in the standard mouse protection test using reference Clostridium botulinum type C antitoxin. Gene content of cultured strains showed a mosaic composition of bont/C and bont/D sequences, defining them as type C/D chimeric organisms.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Botulismo/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Toxinas Botulínicas/sangue , Toxinas Botulínicas/genética , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Botulismo/microbiologia , Clostridium botulinum/genética , Clostridium botulinum/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium botulinum/metabolismo , Patos/sangue , Patos/microbiologia , Gansos/sangue , Gansos/microbiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos
15.
Poult Sci ; 97(9): 3218-3229, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762790

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on the performance, serum lipid metabolism, muscle morphology, meat quality, and fatty acid profiles of Peking ducks. A total of 1,500 Peking ducks were randomly divided into five groups with five replicates and were fed a non-antibiotic basal diet (Control) or a basal diet supplemented with either 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg of C. butyricum (2.0 × 109 CFU/g) or 150 mg of aureomycin/kg for 42 d. Compared with the control group, supplementation with C. butyricum increased the average daily weight gain but reduced the feed/gain ratio from 1 to 42 d of age. Similarly, dietary C. butyricum increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes but decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid metabolites concentration. C. butyricum supplementation increased the muscle pH value at 45 min postmortem, the redness of the meat, and the contents of inosine acid (IMP) and intramuscular fat (IMF) in Peking ducks. By contrast, C. butyricum supplementation lowered the lightness, drip loss, and the shear force of breast meat. Supplementation with C. butyricum increased the concentrations of essential amino acids and flavor amino acids, as well as arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in breast muscle. Dietary C. butyricum could positively improve performance, lipid metabolism, meat quality, and the amino acid and fatty acid composition in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, C. butyricum is proposed as a feasible alternative feed additive for the production of healthier Peking duck meat with favorable properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clostridium butyricum/química , Patos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Probióticos/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Músculos Peitorais/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(6): 1231-1238, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479661

RESUMO

The cassava root meal (CRM) has been utilized as a cheap energy alternative to replace maize in poultry diets. Recently, the CRM in turn has an increasing demand for starch extraction industry, which renders large amounts of residues. This study evaluated the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, and feeding value of cassava starch extraction residue meal (CReM) for growing ducks. A total of 960, 11-day-old, ducklings were housed in 24 floor pens and allocated randomly into four dietary treatments: (i) 0CReM (control), (ii) 50 g CReM/kg, (iii) 100 g CReM/kg, and (iv) 150 g CReM/kg. The analyses (/kg) of CReM showed high gross energy (3306.88 kcal), ME (2109.54 kcal), and starch (514.0 g), with poor crude protein (20.9 g) and moderate crude fiber (140.0 g) and ash (60.0 g) contents. The total amino acid (AA) content amounted to 19.9 g/kg of CReM DM, in which the methionine, lysine, cystine, and isoleucine were present in low levels. The dietary inclusion of CReM up to 150 g/kg, between 11 and 42 days of age, had no significant effects (P > 0.05) on duck growth parameters, mortality, dressed weight, internal organs, or abdominal fat. Besides, the tested CReM levels did not show any significant effect on the blood proteins or liver enzymes. The results, therefore, revealed that the CReM contains a considerable amount of energy and could be incorporated successfully up to 150 g/kg in the diets of growing ducks.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Manihot/química , Valor Nutritivo , Aminoácidos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Patos/sangue , Lisina/análise , Carne/estatística & dados numéricos , Metionina/análise
17.
Poult Sci ; 97(5): 1588-1594, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462361

RESUMO

In an attempt to alleviate the deleterious effects of high summer temperatures, the present study investigated the effects of wet feed and cold water on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality, leg problems, physiological responses, and blood parameters of growing Muscovy ducklings. A total of 180 4-week-old ducklings was randomly divided into 6 experimental groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design that included 3 feed systems (AD: ad libitum dry; DW: diurnal wet; and AW: ad libitum wet) and 2 systems of water (TW: tap water; and CW: cold water). Access to wet feed and cold water affected the growth performance, dressed carcass, gizzard, meat quality (tenderness, juiciness, and susceptibility), tonic immobility, body temperature, and blood parameters [albumin: globulin (A: G) ratio and levels of glucose, alanine transferase (ALT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of the ducklings but had no significant effect on plumage condition, shank length, keel bone length, leg problems, or breast blisters. The body weight (BW) of the DW group was 1.97 and 3.12% greater than that of the AD and AW groups, respectively, and the BWG of the DW group was 6.91 and 10.72% greater than that of the AD and AW groups, respectively. Therefore, providing access to wet feed and cold water is highly recommended when raising Muscovy ducks in open houses under high-temperature conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(9): 2129-2135, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29417821

RESUMO

Ochratoxin A (OTA, 0.25 mg/kg body weight) was absorbed rapidly ( Tmax = 0.31-1.88 h) in all avian species (broiler chickens, laying hens, turkeys, and Muscovy ducks) but more slowly in broiler chickens ( Tmax = 1.43-4.63 h). The absolute oral bioavailability was complete in these bird species (88.0-109.6%). Ducks have a significantly higher volume of distribution ( Vd) and turkeys a lower Vd compared to chickens and layers (broiler chickens, 0.27 ± 0.12 L/kg; layers, 0.23 ± 0.08 L/kg; turkeys, 0.18 ± 0.04 L/kg; ducks, 0.76 ± 0.44 L/kg). This difference in Vd can be attributed to the species-dependent differences in plasma protein binding of OTA, namely ranging between 82.2 and 88.9% in ducks and between 96.5 and 98.8% in turkeys. No significant gender differences were found in toxicokinetics or plasma protein binding.


Assuntos
Galinhas/sangue , Patos/sangue , Ocratoxinas/sangue , Perus/sangue , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ocratoxinas/química , Plasma/química , Plasma/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxicocinética
19.
Poult Sci ; 97(4): 1163-1169, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361144

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of high dietary calcium (Ca) level on growth performance, Ca and phosphorus (P) metabolism, and nutrient utilization in ducklings subjected to normal and low P levels in diets. A completely randomized design was used with a factorial arrangement of 2 total dietary P levels [normal-P (0.60%) and low-P (0.45%) groups] × 4 dietary Ca levels [low-Ca (0.55%), normal-Ca (0.75%), medium-Ca (0.95%) and high-Ca (1.15%) groups)]. Compared to normal-P group, low-P group had lower (P < 0.05) final body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), and average daily feed intake (ADFI) and reduced (P < 0.05) serum Ca and P levels, bone Ca, P, and ash content, and bone mineral density in ducklings during the starter period. Under the low-P group, birds from high-Ca group had lower (P < 0.05) final BW, ADG, ADFI, bone ash content, bone mineral density, and the utilization of energy, Ca, and P than those from low-Ca, normal-Ca, and medium-Ca groups. Our results indicate that high-Ca diet induced greater growth suppression and bone mineralization loss in ducklings fed a low-P diet. The aggravated negative effect of high dietary Ca level with a low P level might be related to the elevated serum alkaline phosphatase activity and the reduced utilization of energy, Ca, and P.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Tíbia/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Anim Sci J ; 89(4): 672-678, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29318707

RESUMO

This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Animais , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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