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1.
Virus Res ; 306: 198566, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582833

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first reported in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread throughout the world. This newly emerging pathogen is highly transmittable and can cause fatal disease. More than 35 million cases have been confirmed, with a fatality rate of about 2.9% to October 9, 2020. However, the original and intermediate hosts of SARS-CoV-2 remain unknown. Here, 3160 poultry samples collected from 14 provinces of China between September and December 2019 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. All the samples were SARS-CoV-2 negative, but 593 avian coronaviruses were detected, including 485 avian infectious bronchitis viruses, 72 duck coronaviruses, and 36 pigeon coronaviruses, with positivity rates of 15.35%, 2.28%, and 1.14%, respectively. Our surveillance demonstrates the diversity of avian coronaviruses in China, with higher prevalence rates in some regions. Furthermore, the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 originated from a known avian-origin coronavirus can be preliminarily ruled out. More surveillance of and research into avian coronaviruses are required to better understand the diversity, distribution, cross-species transmission, and clinical significance of these viruses.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Columbidae/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Gansos/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
2.
Arch Virol ; 166(11): 3105-3116, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482448

RESUMO

Several outbreaks of duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1), which were characterized by yellow coloration and hemorrhage in pancreatic tissues, have occurred in China. The causative agent is called pancreatitis-associated DHAV-1. The mechanisms involved in pancreatitis-associated DHAV-1 infection are still unclear. Transcriptome analysis of duck pancreas infected with classical-type DHAV-1 and pancreatitis-associated DHAV-1 was carried out. Deep sequencing with Illumina-Solexa resulted in a total of 53.9 Gb of clean data from the cDNA library of the pancreas, and a total of 29,597 unigenes with an average length of 993.43 bp were generated by de novo sequence assembly. The expression levels of D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, phosphoserine aminotransferase, and phosphoserine phosphatase, which are involved in glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism pathways, were significantly downregulated in ducks infected with pancreatitis-associated DHAV-1 compared with those infected with classical-type DHAV-1. These findings provide information regarding differences in expression levels of metabolism-associated genes between ducks infected with pancreatitis-associated DHAV-1 and those infected with classical-type DHAV-1, indicating that intensive metabolism disorders may contribute to the different phenotypes of DHAV-1-infection.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite do Pato/patogenicidade , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Patos/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Hepatite Viral Animal/genética , Hepatite Viral Animal/metabolismo , Hepatite Viral Animal/patologia , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/patologia , Pâncreas/virologia , Pancreatite/patologia , Pancreatite/virologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Picornaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA
3.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMO

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Anseriformes/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Columbiformes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Galliformes/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
4.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2495-2504, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232400

RESUMO

Short beak and dwarfism syndrome (SBDS) emerged in Cherry Valley duck flocks in China in 2015, and novel goose parvovirus (NGPV) was shown to be the etiological agent of SBDS. To date, it is not known whether SBDS-related NGPV isolates possess common molecular characteristics. In this study, three new NGPV strains (namely, SDHT16, SDJN19, and SDLC19) were isolated from diseased ducks showing typical signs of SBDS and successfully passaged in embryonated goose or Cherry Valley duck eggs. The complete genome sequences of these NGPV strains were 98.9%-99.7% identical to each other but showed slightly less similarity (95.2%-96.1% identity) to classical GPV strains. A total of 16 common amino acid substitutions were present in the VP1 proteins of six NGPV strains (SDHT16, SDJN19, SDLC19, QH, JS1, and SDLC01) compared with the classical Chinese GPV strains, nine of which were identical to those found in European GPV strain B. The non-structural protein Rep1 of the six NGPV strains had 12 common amino acid substitutions compared with the classical GPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Chinese NGPV strains clustered with the European SBDS-related NGPV strains, forming a separate branch that was distinct from the group formed by the classical GPV strains. The present study shows the common molecular characteristics of NGPV isolates and suggests that the Chinese NGPV isolates probably share a common ancestor with European SBDS-related NGPV strains.


Assuntos
Nanismo/veterinária , Nanismo/virologia , Parvovirinae/classificação , Parvovirinae/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China , Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(6)2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200798

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in gallinaceous poultry are associated with viral infection of the endothelium, the induction of a 'cytokine storm, and severe disease. In contrast, in Pekin ducks, HPAIVs are rarely endothelial tropic, and a cytokine storm is not observed. To date, understanding these species-dependent differences in pathogenesis has been hampered by the absence of a pure culture of duck and chicken endothelial cells. Here, we use our recently established in vitro cultures of duck and chicken aortic endothelial cells to investigate species-dependent differences in the response of endothelial cells to HPAIV H5N1 infection. We demonstrate that chicken and duck endothelial cells display a different transcriptional response to HPAI H5N1 infection in vitro-with chickens displaying a more pro-inflammatory response to infection. As similar observations were recorded following in vitro stimulation with the viral mimetic polyI:C, these findings were not specific to an HPAIV H5N1 infection. However, similar species-dependent differences in the transcriptional response to polyI:C were not observed in avian fibroblasts. Taken together, these data demonstrate that chicken and duck endothelial cells display a different response to HPAIV H5N1 infection, and this may help account for the species-dependent differences observed in inflammation in vivo.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Patos/imunologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Patos/virologia , Células Endoteliais/imunologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Transcriptoma
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 260: 109180, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271303

RESUMO

H2N2 subtype low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) have persisted in live bird markets (LBMs) in the Northeastern United States since 2014. Although unrelated to the 1957 pandemic H2N2 lineage, there is concern that the virus could have animal and public health consequences because of high contact with humans and numerous species in the LBM system. The pathogenicity, infectivity, and transmissibility of six LBM H2N2 viruses isolated from three avian species in LBMs were examined in chickens. Two of these isolates were also tested in Pekin ducks and guinea fowl. Full genome sequence was obtained from all 6 isolates and evaluated for genetic markers for host adaptation and pathogenicity in poultry. Clinical signs were not observed in any host with any of the isolates, however one recent isolate was shed at higher titers than the other isolates and had the lowest bird infectious dose of all the isolates tested in all three species. This isolate, A/chicken/NY/19-012787-1/2019, was also the only isolate with a deletion in the stalk region of the neuraminidase protein (NA). This supports the theory that the NA stalk deletion is evidence of adaptation to gallinaceous poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H2N2/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Virulência
7.
J Virol ; 95(18): e0095521, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232725

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses from the H5Nx Goose/Guangdong/96 lineage continue to cause outbreaks in domestic and wild bird populations. Two distinct genetic groups of H5N8 HPAI viruses, hemagglutinin (HA) clades 2.3.4.4A and 2.3.4.4B, caused intercontinental outbreaks in 2014 to 2015 and 2016 to 2017, respectively. Experimental infections using viruses from these outbreaks demonstrated a marked difference in virulence in mallards, with the H5N8 virus from 2014 causing mild clinical disease and the 2016 H5N8 virus causing high mortality. To assess which gene segments are associated with enhanced virulence of H5N8 HPAI viruses in mallards, we generated reassortant viruses with 2014 and 2016 viruses. For single-segment reassortants in the genetic backbone of the 2016 virus, pathogenesis experiments in mallards revealed that morbidity and mortality were reduced for all eight single-segment reassortants compared to the parental 2016 virus, with significant reductions in mortality observed with the polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2), nucleoprotein (NP), and matrix (M) reassortants. No differences in morbidity and mortality were observed with reassortants that either have the polymerase complex segments or the HA and neuraminidase (NA) segments of the 2016 virus in the genetic backbone of the 2014 virus. In vitro assays showed that the NP and polymerase acidic (PA) segments of the 2014 virus lowered polymerase activity when combined with the polymerase complex segments of the 2016 virus. Furthermore, the M segment of the 2016 H5N8 virus was linked to filamentous virion morphology. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that gene segments related to the more virulent 2016 H5N8 virus have persisted in the contemporary H5Nx HPAI gene pool until 2020. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of H5Nx HPAI viruses from the goose/Guangdong/96 lineage continue to occur in many countries and have resulted in substantial impact on wild birds and poultry. Epidemiological evidence has shown that wild waterfowl play a major role in the spread of these viruses. While HPAI virus infection in gallinaceous species causes high mortality, a wide range of disease outcomes has been observed in waterfowl species. In this study, we examined which gene segments contribute to severe disease in mallards infected with H5N8 HPAI viruses. No virus gene was solely responsible for attenuating the high virulence of a 2016 H5N8 virus, but the PB2, NP, and M segments significantly reduced mortality. The findings herein advance our knowledge on the pathobiology of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl and have potential implications on the ecology and epidemiology of H5Nx HPAI in wild bird populations.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Virulência
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 671471, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079553

RESUMO

Our previous studies reported that duck Tembusu virus nonstructural protein 2A (NS2A) is a major inhibitor of the IFNß signaling pathway through competitively binding to STING with TBK1, leading to a reduction in TBK1 phosphorylation. Duck TMUV NS2B3 could cleave and bind STING to subvert the IFNß signaling pathway. Here, we found that overexpression of duck TMUV NS4B could compete with TBK1 in binding to STING, reducing TBK1 phosphorylation and inhibiting the IFNß signaling pathway by using the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System and the NanoBiT protein-protein interaction (PPI) assay. We further identified the E2, M3, G4, W5, K10 and D34 residues in NS4B that were important for its interaction with STING and its inhibition of IFNß induction, which were subsequently introduced into a duck TMUV replicon and an infectious cDNA clone. We found that the NS4B M3A mutant enhanced RNA replication and exhibited significantly higher titer levels than WT at 48-72 hpi but significantly decreased mortality (80%) in duck embryos compared to WT (100%); the NS4B G4A and R36A mutants slightly reduced RNA replication but exhibited the same titer levels as WT. However, the NS4B R36A mutant did not attenuate the virulence in duck embryos, whereas the G4A mutant significantly decreased the mortality (70%) of duck embryos. In addition, the NS4B W5A mutant did not affect viral replication, whereas the D34A mutant slightly reduced RNA replication, and both mutants exhibited significantly lower titer levels than the WT and significantly decreased mortality (90% and 70%, respectively) in duck embryos. Hence, our findings provide new insight into the development of attenuated flaviviruses by targeting the disabling viral strategies used to evade the innate defense mechanisms.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Patos/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Interferon beta/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Animais , Patos/imunologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/imunologia , Virulência
9.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067187

RESUMO

Low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) introduced by migratory birds circulate in wild birds and can be transmitted to poultry. These viruses can mutate to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses causing severe disease and death in poultry. In March 2019, an H7N3 avian influenza virus-A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3)-was isolated from spot-billed ducks in South Korea. This study aimed to evaluate the phylogenetic and mutational analysis of this isolate. Molecular analysis revealed that the genes for HA (hemagglutinin) and NA (neuraminidase) of this strain belonged to the Central Asian lineage, whereas genes for other internal proteins such as polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1), PB2, nucleoprotein, polymerase acidic protein, matrix protein, and non-structural protein belonged to that of the Korean lineage. In addition, a monobasic amino acid (PQIEPR/GLF) at the HA cleavage site, and the non-deletion of the stalk region in the NA gene indicated that this isolate was a typical LPAIV. Nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (99.51%) of this isolate is to that of A/common teal/Shanghai/CM1216/2017 (H7N7), and amino acid sequence of NA (99.48%) was closely related to that of A/teal/Egypt/MB-D-487OP/2016 (H7N3). An in vitro propagation of the A/Spot-billed duck/South Korea/WKU2019-1/2019 (H7N3) virus showed highest (7.38 Log10 TCID50/mL) virus titer at 60 h post-infection, and in experimental mouse lungs, the virus was detected at six days' post-infection. Our study characterizes genetic mutations, as well as pathogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo model of a new Korea H7N3 viruses in 2019, carrying multiple potential mutations to become highly pathogenic and develop an ability to infect humans; thus, emphasizing the need for routine surveillance of avian influenza viruses in wild birds.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N3/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N3/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , História do Século XXI , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N3/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/história , Camundongos , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/patologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Vírus Reordenados , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Replicação Viral
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(7): 2011-2016, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080052

RESUMO

Recently, a novel duck-origin goose parvovirus (N-GPV) was reported to cause short beak and dwarfism syndrome in ducks. In this study, we performed complete genome sequencing and analyzed three different duck-derived parvoviruses that infected different breeds of ducks. Phylogenetic trees based on gene sequences indicated that they were classical goose parvovirus (C-GPV), Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV), and N-GPV. Furthermore, potential recombination events were found. These results improve our understanding of the diversity of duck-derived parvoviruses in Anhui province, eastern China, and provide a reference for the prevention of associated diseases.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirus/genética , Animais , Bico/virologia , China , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 150-158, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975194

RESUMO

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused huge economic losses to the duck industry in China since 2010. Moreover, the infection has spread rapidly, resulted in a potential public health concern. To improve our understanding of the host cellular responses to virus infection and the pathogenesis of DTMUV infection, we used RNA-Seq to detect the gene changes in DF-1 cells infected and mock-infected with DTMUV. A total of 663 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in DTMUV-infected compared with mock-infected DF-1 cells at 24 h post-infection (hpi), among which 590 were up regulated and 73 were down regulated. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly involved in cellular process, immune system processes, metabolic processes, and signal-organism process. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that the DEGs were mainly involved in several signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptor signaling, Jak-STAT signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and AGE-RAGE signaling pathway. Moreover, some selected DEGs were further confirmed by real-time PCR and the results were consistent with the sequencing data. To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the transcriptomic change in DF-1 cells following DTMUV infection. We believe that our research provides useful information in better understanding the host response to DTMUV infection and the inherent mechanism of DTMUV replication and pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Flavivirus/fisiologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , China , Fibroblastos/virologia , Flavivirus/patogenicidade , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , RNA-Seq , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
12.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 52-58, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020141

RESUMO

This is the first study to clone duck CCCH-type zinc finger antiviral protein (duZAP) from Jingjiang duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Full-length duZAP cDNA was 2154 bp and encoded a 717-amino acid polypeptide containing four highly conserved CCCH-type finger motifs, a WWE domain and a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) domain. duZAP was expressed in multiple duck tissues, with the highest mRNA expression in the spleen. Overexpression of duZAP in duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) led to activation of the transcription factors IRF1 and NF-κB, and induction of IFN-ß. Analysis of deletion mutants revealed that both the WWE and PARP domains of duZAP were essential for activating the IFN-ß promoter. Knockdown of duZAP in DEFs significantly reduced poly (I:C)- and duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV)-induced IFN-ß activation. Our findings further the understanding of the role of duZAP in the duck innate immune response.


Assuntos
Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Fator Regulador 1 de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Dedos de Zinco , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Células Cultivadas , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Patos/genética , Patos/imunologia , Patos/virologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Interferon beta/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais
13.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038460

RESUMO

Outbreaks of avian influenza virus (AIV) infection included the spread of highly pathogenic AIV in commercial poultry and backyard flocks in the spring of 2015. This resulted in estimated losses of more than $8.5 million from federal government expenditures, $1.6 billion from direct losses to produces arising from destroyed turkey and chicken egg production, and economy-wide indirect costs of $3.3 billion from impacts on retailers and the food service industries. Additionally, these outbreaks resulted in the death or depopulation of nearly 50 million domestic birds. Domesticated male ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were trained to display a specific conditioned behavior (i.e. active scratch alert) in response to feces from AIV-infected mallards in comparison to feces from healthy ducks. In order to establish that ferrets were identifying samples based on odors associated with infection, additional experiments controlled for potentially confounding effects, such as: individual duck identity, housing and feed, inoculation concentration, and day of sample collection (post-infection). A final experiment revealed that trained ferrets could detect AIV infection status even in the presence of samples from mallards inoculated with Newcastle disease virus or infectious laryngotracheitis virus. These results indicate that mammalian biodetectors are capable of discriminating the specific odors emitted from the feces of non-infected versus AIV infected mallards, suggesting that the health status of waterfowl can be evaluated non-invasively for AIV infection via monitoring of volatile fecal metabolites. Furthermore, in situ monitoring using trained biodetectors may be an effective tool for assessing population health.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Furões/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Odorantes/análise , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Perus/virologia
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009561, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905456

RESUMO

The H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) that emerged in China have caused five waves of human infection. Further human cases have been successfully prevented since September 2017 through the use of an H7N9 vaccine in poultry. However, the H7N9 AIV has not been eradicated from poultry in China, and its evolution remains largely unexplored. In this study, we isolated 19 H7N9 AIVs during surveillance and diagnosis from February 2018 to December 2019, and genetic analysis showed that these viruses have formed two different genotypes. Animal studies indicated that the H7N9 viruses are highly lethal to chicken, cause mild infection in ducks, but have distinct pathotypes in mice. The viruses bound to avian-type receptors with high affinity, but gradually lost their ability to bind to human-type receptors. Importantly, we found that H7N9 AIVs isolated in 2019 were antigenically different from the H7N9 vaccine strain that was used for H7N9 influenza control in poultry, and that replication of these viruses cannot, therefore, be completely prevented in vaccinated chickens. We further revealed that two amino acid mutations at positions 135 and 160 in the HA protein added two glycosylation sites and facilitated the escape of the H7N9 viruses from the vaccine-induced immunity. Our study provides important insights into H7N9 virus evolution and control.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Camundongos , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 256: 109044, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836389

RESUMO

Avian Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a newly emerging avian pathogenic flavivirus that spreads rapidly, has an expanding host range and undergoes cross-species transmission. Our previous study identified avian monocytes/macrophages as the key targets of TMUV infection, since the infection of host monocytes/macrophages was crucial for the replication, transmission, and pathogenesis of TMUV. The polarization of host macrophages determines the functional phenotypes of macrophages; however, the effect of TMUV infection on macrophage polarization remains unclear. Here, we analysed the expression spectra of the marker genes of macrophage polarization upon TMUV infection in the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line and primary monocytes/macrophages isolated from the peripheral blood of specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and ducks. We found that viral replication mainly induced M1 marker genes and triggered nitric oxide (NO) release at different levels, suggesting that TMUV infection led mainly to host macrophages polarizing into the classically activated (M1) type. The NO that was increased upon infection did not function as an antiviral agent against TMUV, since the replication of TMUV in HD11 cells was not affected by the addition of an organic NO donor. Furthermore, upon TMUV infection, polarized HD11 cells exhibited increased migration but reduced phagocytosis, as evidenced by scratch assay and neutral red uptake assay, respectively. Our present study characterized the polarization of host monocytes/macrophages upon TMUV infection, which may lay a foundation for further research on the immune escape mechanism and pathogenic mechanism of TMUV.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Flavivirus/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Antivirais , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Polaridade Celular , Galinhas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Macrófagos/virologia , Monócitos/fisiologia , Monócitos/virologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Replicação Viral
16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525360

RESUMO

As compared to other Anseriformes, data related to influenza A virus (IAV) detection and isolation, and IAV antibody detection in whistling ducks (Dendrocygna spp. and Thalassornis leuconotus; subfamily Dendrocygninae) are limited. To better evaluate the potential role of whistling ducks in the epidemiology of IAV, we (1) conducted surveillance for IAV from black-bellied whistling ducks (BBWD, Dendrocygnaautumnalis) sampled in coastal Louisiana, USA, during February 2018 and 2019, and (2) reviewed the published literature and Influenza Resource Database (IRD) that reported results of IAV surveillance of whistling ducks. In the prospective study, from 166 BBWD sampled, one H10N7 IAV was isolated (0.6% prevalence), and overall blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) antibody seroprevalence was 10%. The literature review included publications and data in the IRD from 1984 to 2020 that reported results from nearly 5000 collected samples. For any given collection, the IAV isolation rate never exceeded 5.5%, and seroprevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 42%. Results from our prospective study in Louisiana are consistent with this historic literature; however, although all data consistently demonstrated a low prevalence of infection, the potential role of this species in the epidemiology of IAV should not be totally discounted. In sum, whistling ducks can be infected with IAV, they represent important species on many areas where waterfowl winter, and their distribution across the globe appears to be changing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Patos/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Patos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H10N7/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H10N7/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
17.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525386

RESUMO

Parvoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses that can infect both vertebrates and invertebrates. We report here the full characterization of novel viruses we identified in ducks, including two viral species within the subfamily Hamaparvovirinae (duck-associated chapparvovirus, DAC) and a novel species within the subfamily Densovirinae (duck-associated ambidensovirus, DAAD). Overall, 5.7% and 21.1% of the 123 screened ducks (American black ducks, mallards, northern pintail) were positive for DAC and DAAD, respectively, and both viruses were more frequently detected in autumn than in winter. Genome organization and predicted transcription profiles of DAC and DAAD were similar to viruses of the genera Chaphamaparvovirus and Protoambidensovirus, respectively. Their association to these genera was also demonstrated by subfamily-wide phylogenetic and distance analyses of non-structural protein NS1 sequences. While DACs were included in a highly supported clade of avian viruses, no definitive conclusions could be drawn about the host type of DAAD because it was phylogenetically close to viruses found in vertebrates and invertebrates and analyses of codon usage bias and nucleotide frequencies of viruses within the family Parvoviridae showed no clear host-based viral segregation. This study highlights the high parvoviral diversity in the avian reservoir with many avian-associated parvoviruses likely yet to be discovered.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvoviridae/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Uso do Códon , DNA Viral/genética , Patos/classificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Parvoviridae/classificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 171: 448-456, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421472

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of Hericium erinaceus polysaccharide (HEP) on immunity in Muscovy duck reovirus (MDRV)-infected ducklings and explore its mechanism of action, an MDRV contact-infection model was established. Then, we investigated the influence of HEP on morphology of main immune organs in MDRV-infected ducklings by HE staining, while antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, MDA), serum protein levels (TP, ALB, GLO), complement levels (C3, C4) and antibody levels (IgA, IgM, IgG) were detected. Apoptotic indexes (apoptosisi rate and FAS-L) were also quantified by TUNEL method and immunohistochemical staining. Meanwhile, FADD and CytC (apoptosis-related genes), were tested by quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that HEP could reduce the injuries of immune organs caused by MDRV. Additionally, HEP markedly diminished MDA (p < 0.01), while significantly increased T-AOC, TP, ALB, GLO, C3, C4, IgA, IgM and IgG (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05). Then, HEP shifted apoptosis time to an early MDRV-infected stage and reduced apoptosis at later MDRV-infected stage. This was associated with changes of FADD and CytC. Collectively, our data suggested that HEP could reduce the immunesuppression by many ways, such as decreasing organs' injuries, improving antioxidant capacity, serum proteins levels, antibody levels and complement levels, while diminish the apoptosis by lowering the FADD and CytC.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Hericium/química , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Citocromos c/análise , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína de Domínio de Morte Associada a Fas/análise , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Linfoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Linfoide/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide/patologia , Tecido Linfoide/virologia , Oxirredução , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Infecções por Reoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/virologia
19.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 559-569, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409548

RESUMO

Marek's disease (MD) is an important disease of avian species and a potential threat to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 dead commercial chickens from flocks with suspected MD were necropsied immediately after death. Pathological findings were compatible with MD, and gallid alphaherpesvirus 2 was identified in PCR of spleen samples. Virus isolation was performed in primary cell culture, and partial sequencing of the meq gene of the isolate revealed >99% nucleotide sequence identity to virulent and very virulent plus strains from a number of European countries, placing it in the same subclade of clade III as two virulent Italian strains and a very virulent plus Polish strain as well as virulent strains of geese and ducks. The data reported here indicate that a virulent strain of Marek's disease virus is circulating in Turkey and has not been stopped by the current national vaccination programme.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/isolamento & purificação , Doença de Marek/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases/genética , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas/virologia , Patos/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Itália , Filogenia , Polônia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Turquia , Virulência/genética
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498851

RESUMO

Wild birds are considered the natural reservoir of influenza A viruses (IAVs) making them critical for IAV surveillance efforts. While sea ducks have played a role in novel IAV emergence events that threatened food security and public health, very few surveillance samples have been collected from sea duck hosts. From 2014-2018, we conducted surveillance focused in the Mississippi flyway, USA at locations where sea duck harvest has been relatively successful compared to our other sampling locations. Our surveillance yielded 1662 samples from sea ducks, from which we recovered 77 IAV isolates. Our analyses identified persistence of sea duck specific IAV lineages across multiple years. We also recovered sea duck origin IAVs containing an H4 gene highly divergent from the majority of North American H4-HA with clade node age of over 65 years. Identification of IAVs with long branch lengths is indicative of substantial genomic change consistent with persistence without detection by surveillance efforts. Sea ducks play a role in the movement and long-term persistence of IAVs and are likely harboring more undetected IAV diversity. Sea ducks should be a point of emphasis for future North American wild bird IAV surveillance efforts.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Genômica , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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