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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 229: 115474, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826438

RESUMO

Ultrasonication is an emerging nonthermal process to extract pectins and pectic-polysaccharides from natural sources. This review aimed to highlight recent results of techno-functional (e.g., water and oil holding capacities, foaming capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, rheological and pasting properties, and tin corrosion inhibitory activity) and biofunctional (e.g., antioxidant, antiradical, antiglycation, anticoagulant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and analgesic activities) properties of pectins extracted using both single and combined sonication modes. Integrating the ultrasound with other techniques (e.g., microwave heating and enzymatic digestion) can significantly increase the cell disruption, better penetration, and mass transfer of pectins at a shorter time. The ultrasound-microwave (UMAE) and ultrasound-enzyme (UEAE) assisted extraction systems compared to the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) can more improve the techno-functional quality of pectins and their body's healing capacity to accomplish optimum health and functioning. The current opportunities and promising perspectives are also presented to enhance the pectin bioavailability in clinical studies.


Assuntos
Pectinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Verduras/química
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(5): 1949-1961, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The postharvest application of pectic-oligosaccharides (POS) as an elicitor to improve the postharvest shelf-life and nutritional quality by stimulating natural defense mechanisms in strawberries was studied. Strawberries (cv. Festival) were treated with POS (at 0, 2, 5, and 9 g L-1 ) and evaluated for firmness, weight loss, color, soluble solids, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic and anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity, decay, and some defense-related enzyme activity during storage at 2 ± 0.5 °C for 14 days. RESULTS: Treatment with POS significantly delayed (P < 0.05) strawberry decay, and reduced the water loss and softening of fruit during storage. Strawberries treated with POS showed a significant increase in total phenolic and anthocyanin content, and antioxidant capacity when compared with controls. Interestingly, POS induced higher activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase, and ß-1,3-glucanase in strawberries. Compared to the control, the activity of enzymes was markedly increased in fruit treated with all tested POS concentrations, particularly chitinase, and ß-1,3-glucanase activities, but 5 and 9 g L-1 POS were the most effective treatments for maintaining the quality attributes and improving anthocyanin accumulation and antioxidant capacity of strawberries. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that POS treatment could potentially be applied to maintain quality attributes, reduce decay, and further enrich the anthocyanin content and antioxidant capacity of strawberries during postharvest storage. The results also suggest that the positive effects of POS on strawberries could be associated with the rapid accumulation of chitinase and ß-1,3-glucanase activities, and the increase of PAL enzyme activity leading to the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 309: 125768, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727512

RESUMO

There is interest in extending the functionality of natural polymers using simple chemical derivatization methods. In this study, the ability of pectin to react with various amino acids (40 °C) in aqueous solution without a catalyst was investigated, including glutamic acid, glycine, cysteine, lysine, and arginine. Only glycine, lysine, and arginine could form conjugates with pectin under these conditions. Amino acid-amidated pectin (AAAP) conjugates with a degree of amidation of 6.50% were prepared and characterized using elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H NMR. Size exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle light scattering and refractive index detection indicated pectin degradation occurred during the reaction. These results were supported by measurements of apparent viscosities. Scanning electron microscopy showed appreciable differences among the surface topographies of samples. Cell culture experiments showed the AAAP conjugates exhibited no cytotoxic effects. Our results suggested the AAAP conjugates may be suitable for use as new functional ingredients in food industry.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aminoácidos/química , Pectinas/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Pectinas/farmacologia , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 224: 115140, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472853

RESUMO

A new source of pectin with a cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells is presented. A homogeneous GWP-FP-S fraction (Mw of 29,170 g mol-1) was obtained by fractionating the crude pectin extract (GW) from Campomanesia xanthocarpa pulp. According to the monosaccharide composition, the GWP-FP-S was composed of galacturonic acid (58.8%), arabinose (28.5%), galactose (11.3%) and rhamnose (1.1%), comprising 57.7% of homogalacturonans (HG) and 42.0% of type I rhamnogalacturonans (RG-I). These structures were characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods; GW and GWP-FP-S fractions were evaluated by MTT and crystal violet assays for their cytotoxic effects. Both fractions induced cytotoxicity (15.55-37.65%) with concomitant increase in the cellular ROS levels in human glioblastoma cells at 25-400 µg mL-1, after 48 h of treatment, whereas no cytotoxicity was observed for normal NIH 3T3 cells. This is the first report of in vitro bioactivity and the first investigation of the antitumor potential of gabiroba pectins.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/patologia , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Pimenta/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Espaço Intracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Monossacarídeos/análise , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115104, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426957

RESUMO

Crude polysaccharides were obtained from fruits of Lycium ruthenicum Murr using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. A homogeneous polysaccharide, LRP3-S1 with a relative molecular weight of 114.8 kDa was purified by anion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose™Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-300 HR column. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that LRP3-S1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 14.4: 17.7: 26.6: 16.4: 24.9. LRP3-S1 contained a rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) backbone partially substituted at C-4 of rhamnose units by side chains, which included T-linked ß-D-Galp, 1,3-linked ß-D-Galp, 1,6-linked ß-D-Galp, 1,3,6-linked ß-D-Galp, 1,5-linked α-L-Araf, 1,3,5-linked α-L-Araf, T-linked α-L-Araf and T-linked ß-D-Xylp. Biological activity tests showed that LRP3-S1 could inhibit the growth of pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, LRP3-S1 could attenuate invasion ability of BxPC-3 cells and down-regulate protein expression of p-FAK, p-AKT, p-GSK-3ß and p-p38 MAP kinase.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Lycium/química , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Configuração de Carboidratos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pectinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 223: 115077, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426994

RESUMO

A novel polysaccharide designated SLP-4 with the Mw of 19681 Da was purified from the petal of Saussurea laniceps. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that SLP-4 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.825:2.030:14.998:0.841:8.260:4.039:6.009. Structural features indicated that SLP-4 was a typical pectin polysaccharide with a backbone containing →3,6)-Galp-(1→, →4)-GalpA-(1→, →6)-Galp-(1→, →4, 6)-Galp-(1→ and →2, 4)-Rhap-(1→ with the branches of →4)-Galp-(1→, T-Galp-(1→, →3)-Galp-(1→, T-Rhap-(1→, T-Araf-(1→, →5)-Araf-(1→, T-Glcp-(1→, →4)-Xylp-(1→ and →4)-Manp-(1→. Additionally, SLP-4 could effectively inhibit the secretion of HBsAg and HBeAg in HepG2.2.15 cells, but had little effect on the replication of HBV DNA. This inhibition didn't involve cellular pathways, and was due to the interaction between SLP-4 and HBsAg or HBeAg, which may block the ELISA detection of HBsAg and HBeAg. The present study may provide useful information for further study of SLP-4 and understanding of anti-HBV activity of polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Vírus da Hepatite B/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Saussurea/química , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4844-4853, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322160

RESUMO

Three olive modified pectin extracts have been produced by heat and acid treatment of the major by-product of olive oil production. Their effect on proliferation of the colon carcinoma Caco-2 and the leukemia monocytic THP-1 cell lines has been studied in order to determine possible anti-tumor properties. All extracts inhibited proliferation at some of the concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mg ml-1. Interestingly none of the extracts inhibited the growth of confluent Caco-2 cells, showing the specificity of the antiproliferative effect for the transformed Caco-2 phenotype. All the extracts inhibited agglutination of red blood cells by galectin-3, a lectin involved in tumor growth, metastasis, and immune cell regulation that has been proposed as a mediator of the anti-tumor effects of modified pectins. In addition, activation of caspase-3 in THP-1 cells indicates that treatment with the pectin-rich extracts triggers apoptosis. These results point to a possible use as health-promoting food ingredients or supplements.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Olea/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células THP-1 , Resíduos/análise
8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 114992, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320048

RESUMO

Four operating parameters in ultrasound-microwave assisted extraction (UMAE) process including sonication time (ST, 10-30 min), microwave power (MP, 300-600 W), irradiation time (IT, 5-15 min), and the liquid to solid ratio (LSR, 10-30 mL/g) on the extraction yield of pectin from fig skin were optimized. The yield (13.97%) of pectin with an average molecular mass of 6.89 × 103 kDa was maximized at 21.35 min ST, 580.9 W MP, 11.67 min IT, and 24.66 mL/g LSR based on a second-order polynomial model (R2 = 0.986) with a high level of significance (p < 0.0001). Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) imaging and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectra of the pectin extracted under optimal conditions exhibited a disintegrated network in structural morphology and the main functional groups, respectively. The extracted low-methoxyl pectin (DE = 33.65%) with high lightness contained considerable amounts of uronic acids and neutral monosaccharides (glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and mannose). A strong dose-depended behavior for antioxidant functions and cytotoxic inhibitory activities of pectin against HepG2 and A549 cells was found.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Ficus/metabolismo , Pectinas , Sonicação/métodos , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sequência de Carboidratos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Monossacarídeos/química , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Ácidos Urônicos/química
9.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324040

RESUMO

Intestinal barrier function is suggested to decrease with aging and may be improved by pectin intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of four weeks pectin supplementation on gastrointestinal barrier function in vivo and ex vivo in different age groups. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study, 52 healthy young adults (18-40 years) and 48 healthy elderly (65-75 years) received 15 g/day pectin or placebo for four weeks. Pre- and post-intervention, in vivo gastrointestinal permeability by a multisugar test, and defense capacity in mucosal samples were assessed. Sigmoid biopsies were collected post-intervention from subgroups for Ussing chamber experiments and gene transcription of barrier-related genes. Pectin intervention did not affect in vivo gastroduodenal, small intestinal, colonic, and whole gut permeability in young adults nor in elderly (p ≥ 0.130). Salivary and fecal sIgA and serum IgA were not significantly different between pectin versus placebo in both age groups (p ≥ 0.128). In both young adults and elderly, no differences in transepithelial electrical resistance and fluorescein flux (p ≥ 0.164) and relative expression of genes analyzed (p ≥ 0.222) were found between pectin versus placebo. In conclusion, intestinal barrier function was not affected by four weeks pectin supplementation neither in healthy young adults nor in healthy elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Alimento Funcional , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pectinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Permeabilidade , Adulto Jovem
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 275-283, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181275

RESUMO

Four extraction methods of hot-water (HWE), ultrasound-assisted (UAE), microwave-assisted (MAE), and ultrasound-microwave assisted (UMAE) were utilized to determine the best technique to extract pectin from the common fig (Ficus carica L.) skin. UMAE (11.71%) significantly showed a more extraction yield than MAE (9.26%), UAE (8.74%), and HWE (6.05%). A significant dose-dependent antioxidant capacity for pectins 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonicacid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was found. The UMAE-pectin with the maximum galacturonic acid content (76.85%) and molecular weight (6.91 × 103 kDa) presented the highest emulsifying activity (61.2-61.3%) and emulsion stability (94.3-95.2%) with a monomodal droplet size distribution at cold and ambient storage temperatures. A non-Newtonian shear-thinning behavior was detected at 1.5-3.0% pectic-solutions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed a non-crystalline nature for pectins extracted by UMAE. FTIR spectroscopy and HPLC photodiode array detector revealed that conventional and novel extraction technologies do not change the chemical structure and monosaccharide composition of pectin significantly.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fenômenos Químicos , Ficus/química , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Reologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Pectinas/farmacologia , Viscosidade
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 219: 121-129, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151509

RESUMO

Galectin-3 (Gal-3) can induce T-cell activation and apoptosis and plays a role in tumor immune tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that ginseng pectins selectively inhibit Gal-3-induced T-cell apoptosis, while not affecting T-cell activation. This finding stands in contrast to that from the use of modified citrus pectin (MCP) and potato galactan (P-galactan) that inhibit both. Whereas PKC/ERK and ROS/ERK pathways are involved in both T-cell activation and apoptosis, the Ras/PI3K/Akt pathway is unique to T-cell activation. Ginseng pectins selectively inhibit the ROS/ERK pathway. Using the Sarcomar-180 mouse model in which Gal-3 expression is increased, we found that ginseng pectins (but not MCP or P-galactan) significantly promote T-cell proliferation and IL-2 expression, and inhibit tumor growth by 45%. These in vivo data correlate well with selective effects of pectins on Gal-3-mediated T-cell apoptosis and activation. Our study suggests a novel approach for the development of polysaccharide-based agents that target Gal-3 function.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Galactanos/farmacologia , Galectina 3/metabolismo , Panax/metabolismo , Pectinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 134: 361-367, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059740

RESUMO

In the present study, high-methoxyl pectin (HMP) was extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus peel's using physico-chemical process. In addition, the hypolipidemic activity of HMP was investigated at different concentration and time corresponding to its adsorption ability. FTIR and contact angle analysis were used to determine the sorbent characterization. A high degree of esterification (63.8%) and the contact angle (95.5°) confirmed hydrophobic nature and resulting bad wetting of the HMP extract, respectively. The methoxyl content in the pectin acted as an affinity-precursor of the pectin towards cholesterol due to its increased hydrophobicity. The maximum equilibrium uptake capacity of cholesterol of 370.5mg/g (0.96mmol/g) was observed by HMP. The experimental data showed good fitting for Freundlich isotherm equation and followed pseudo-first-order kinetic model with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.89-0.97 due to physisorption mechanism. Intra-particle model confirmed that the cholesterol sorption rate by HMP was significantly influenced by external mass transfer (surface diffusion) and intra-particle diffusion (diffusion control). It was also revealed that the HMP extracted from Hylocereus polyrhizus peels possess a high affinity towards cholesterol, making it an ideal hypolipidemic agent.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Hipolipemiantes/química , Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adsorção , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Esterificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 215: 119-129, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981336

RESUMO

A new pectin (ALP-2) was extracted from the roots of Arctium lappa L. with the molecular weight of 1.84 × 106 Da. ALP-2 was composed of rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose. Results of NMR revealed that the dominant linkage types of ALP-2 were →4-α-GalpA-6-OMe-(1→, →2-α-Rha-(1→, →5-α-Araf-(1→ and →3,6-ß-Galp-(1→. The ELISA results indicated ALP-2 was a typical pectin with HG chain and RG-I chain. The rheological experiments showed that ALP-2 fluid exhibited shear thinning behavior. The viscosity of ALP-2 was mainly affected by concentration, temperature, and pH. The ALP-2 fluid with elastic properties at high frequencies could be used as a thickener in the food industry. Moreover, ALP-2 with the dosages of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg exhibited strong anti-constipation activity in vivo. ALP-2 treated groups could improve small intestinal movement rate and increase the weight of feces significantly in constipation mice. Therefore, ALP-2 could be considered as the active component for functional food or therapeutic agent in constipation therapy.


Assuntos
Arctium/química , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Laxantes/química , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/uso terapêutico , Raízes de Plantas/química , Animais , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Laxantes/isolamento & purificação , Laxantes/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/farmacologia , Reologia
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 133: 284-293, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004632

RESUMO

The present study aimed to enhance the shelf life of tomatoes at pink-red stage through pectin (P), corn flour (CF) and beetroot powder (B) based coatings. PCF11 coating was resulted in significant enhancement of shelf life and quality retention of tomato in terms of physiological weight loss (PWL), decay per cent, ripening index, respiration rate, hue angle, firmness and DPPH antioxidant activity. Lower amounts of glucose and fructose quantified through HPLC indicated lesser cell wall components degradation in tomatoes coated with P and PCF11. Edible coatings also protected loss of phenolic acids like gallic and p-coumaric acid in tomato. All three coatings P, PCF11 and PCF11B in tomatoes showed higher retention of gloss and overall flavour scores. Further, the minimum shrinkage (18%) in tomatoes coated with PCF11 on 30th day evinced the uniformity and little hydrophobicity of pectin-corn flour-based coatings as observed through z-average particle size (d.nm)/WVP of coating solutions. Principal component analysis revealed significant correlation of several treatments and storage effects on tomatoes during shelf life study. The least separation among different points of PCF11 in score plot showed least deviation at subsequent storage intervals, revealing retention of quality of tomatoes during storage.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris/química , Farinha , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/química , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pectinas/farmacologia , Pós
15.
J Med Food ; 22(5): 451-459, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897013

RESUMO

To examine the anti-metastatic activities of polysaccharides in broccoli, purified polysaccharides (BCE-I, -II, and -III) were isolated by fractionation of broccoli enzyme extracts and subsequent ethanol precipitation. BCE-I mainly consisted of galactose and arabinose, whereas BCE-II mainly consisted of galacturonic acid and rhamnose, and BCE-III mainly consisted of rhamnose and galactose. Of the three fractions, stimulation of murine peritoneal macrophages by BCE-I showed the greatest enhancement of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-6 secretion. In addition, intravenous (i.v.) administration of BCE-I enhanced the lethal activity of natural killer (NK) cells on YAC-1 tumor cells significantly and dose-dependently in an ex vivo experiment of NK cell activity. In an experimental model using lung metastasis of Colon26-M3.1 carcinoma cells, prophylactic i.v. and oral administration of BCE-I significantly and dose-dependently inhibited lung metastatic activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of BCE-1 on lung metastasis partially disappeared when NK cell function was removed through treatment of rabbit anti-asialo GM1. These results indicated that BCE-I has potent antitumor metastatic activity, and that its anti-metastatic activity has relevance to the stimulation of NK and other immune cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Brassica/química , Neoplasias do Colo/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Pectinas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
16.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(2): 216-222, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838503

RESUMO

Shortbread biscuits have become one of the most desirable snacks in all population groups but due to its high fat content it is searching for new solutions of fat reduction such as the use of carbohydrate-based fat mimetics. However, the thermal processing of food containing lipids in the presence of certain carbohydrates can contribute to the formation of toxic compounds or alter its levels. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate the use of inulin and pectin gels as partial fat replacers (10-40%) in classical shortbread biscuits in a view of the changes of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol ester (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl ester (GE) levels after baking, and also after a two-months storage. The experiment showed that the amount of inulin gel higher than 10% promoted the endogenous formation of 3-MCPDE probably due to the higher amount of Maillard products formed in the biscuits, but after two months the levels decreased and were comparable with those transferred from shortening. Pectin did not demonstrate such phenomenon, owing to the presence of bound water in gel. Glycidyl esters were partially decomposed during baking and also during storage, particularly in the samples with the addition of pectin gel, which presumably caused by low stability of GE under acidic conditions resulting from the occurrence of galacturonic acid in pectin.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/farmacologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Compostos de Epóxi/análise , Substitutos da Gordura/farmacologia , alfa-Cloridrina/análise , Pão , Ésteres/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Inulina/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 211: 141-151, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824074

RESUMO

While chemically and thermally modified citrus pectin (MCP) has already been studied for health benefits, it is unknown how size-fractionated oligo- and polysaccharides differentially affect cancer cell behavior. We produced thermally MCP and fractionated it by molecular size to evaluate the effect these polymers have on cancer cells. MCP30/10 (between 30 and 10 kDa) had more esterified homogalacturonans (HG) and fewer rhamnogalacturonans (RG-I) than MCP and MCP30 (higher than 30 kDa), while MCP10/3 (between 10 and 3 kDa) showed higher amounts of type I arabinogalactans (AGI) and lower amounts of RG-I. MCP3 (smaller than 3 kDa) presented less esterified HG and the lowest amount of AGI and RG-I. Our data indicate that the enrichment of de-esterified HG oligomers and the AGI and RG-I depletions in MCP3, or the increase of AGI and loss of RGI in MCP30/10, enhance the anticancer behaviors by inhibiting migration, aggregation, and proliferation of cancer cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/química
18.
Carbohydr Polym ; 212: 323-333, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832864

RESUMO

Gut pathogenic enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) release Shiga toxins (Stxs) as major virulence factors, which bind to globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4 Galß1-4Glcß1-1Cer) on human target cells. The aim of this study was the production of neoglycolipids (neoGLs) using citrus pectin-derived oligosaccharides and their application as potential inhibitors of Stxs. The preparation of neoGLs starts with the reduction of the carboxylic acid group of the pectic poly(α1-4)GalUA core structure to the corresponding alcohol, followed by hydrolytic cleavage of resulting poly(α1-4)Gal into (α1-4)Galn oligosaccharides and their linkage to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Thin-layer chromatography overlay assays of the produced (α1-4)Galn-PE and corresponding Amadori (α1-4)Galn=PE neoGLs revealed distinguishable binding patterns for Stx1a, Stx2a, and Stx2e. Furthermore, prepared neoGLs protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of Stxs when applied as multivalent glycovesicles. The produced neoGLs are applicable for differentiation of Stx subtypes and represent a promising approach to combat infections of EHEC by blocking their major toxins.


Assuntos
Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Toxina Shiga/antagonistas & inibidores , Toxina Shiga/toxicidade , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicolipídeos/química , Pectinas/química , Toxina Shiga/classificação , Células Vero
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(13): 12283-12297, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864429

RESUMO

The emergence of nontoxic, eco-friendly, and biocompatible polymers derived from natural sources has added a new and exciting dimension to the development of low-cost and scalable biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Here, we have developed a mechanically strong and durable hydrogel composed of an eco-friendly biopolymer that exists within the cell walls of fruits and plants. Its trade name is pectin, and it bears many similarities with natural polysaccharides in the native extracellular matrix. Specifically, we have employed a new pathway to transform pectin into a ultraviolet (UV)-cross-linkable pectin methacrylate (PEMA) polymer. To endow this hydrogel matrix with cell differentiation and cell spreading properties, we have also incorporated thiolated gelatin into the system. Notably, we were able to fine-tune the compressive modulus of this hydrogel in the range ∼0.5 to ∼24 kPa: advantageously, our results demonstrated that the hydrogels can support growth and viability for a wide range of three-dimensionally (3D) encapsulated cells that include muscle progenitor (C2C12), neural progenitor (PC12), and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Our results also indicate that PEMA-gelatin-encapsulated hMSCs can facilitate the formation of bonelike apatite after 5 weeks in culture. Finally, we have demonstrated that PEMA-gelatin can yield micropatterned cell-laden 3D constructs through UV light-assisted lithography. The simplicity, scalability, processability, tunability, bioactivity, and low-cost features of this new hydrogel system highlight its potential as a stem cell carrier that is capable of bridging the gap between clinic and laboratory.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Células Imobilizadas , Gelatina , Hidrogéis , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Metacrilatos , Pectinas , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Células Imobilizadas/citologia , Células Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Células Imobilizadas/transplante , Matriz Extracelular/química , Gelatina/química , Gelatina/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Metacrilatos/química , Metacrilatos/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Ratos
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 131: 273-281, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876895

RESUMO

In this paper, the effects of ultrasonic on the degradation kinetics, structure properties, and antioxidant activity of hawthorn pectin were studied. According to our study, as ultrasonic time extended, the intrinsic viscosity for different hawthorn pectin concentrations decreased. The ultrasonic degradation of hawthorn pectin reaction conformed to the first-order kinetic equation. As the reaction rate constant (k) decreased, hawthorn pectin concentration increased. When ultrasonic time was 10 min, the Gal A increased by 10.62% and the DE decreased by 45.57% compared with control, additionally, the particle size, turbidity and gel properties of hawthorn pectin decreased. Hawthorn pectin molecular weight and its distribution all decreased after ultrasonic treatment. FTIR analysis indicated that ultrasonic treatment did not change pectin's primary structures, and SEM analysis showed that the surface characteristic of ultrasonic treatment pectin was different from native pectin. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity assays indicated that ultrasonic treatment significantly improved the antioxidant activity of pectin. It was concluded that ultrasonic treatment not only affected the properties of pectin, but also affected its antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Crataegus/química , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Fenômenos Químicos , Hidrólise , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Análise Espectral , Viscosidade
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