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1.
Food Chem ; 362: 130181, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082291

RESUMO

The effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), high-methoxyl pectin (HMP), konjac glucomannan (KGM), and xanthan gum (XG) on the physicochemical, structural properties, and digestibility of rice starch were investigated and compared. The four viscous soluble dietary fibers (VSDFs) increased the viscosity, storage modulus and loss modulus while decreased the pasting temperature and gelatinization enthalpy. Moreover, XG produced the lowest peak viscosity and dynamic modulus compared with the other VSDFs. Furthermore, the degree of short-range ordered structure of starch with KGM increased from 0.8448 to 0.8716; and the relative crystallinity of starch with XG increased by 12%. An ordered and reunited network structure was observed in SEM. In addition, VSDF inhibited the digestibility of rice starch and significantly increased the resistant starch content. This study compared the effect of four VSDFs on the physicochemical, structural and digestion properties of rice starch to fully understand and develop their application to starchy foods.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Oryza/química , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Digestão , Mananas/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Amido Resistente , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Viscosidade
2.
Food Chem ; 362: 130196, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091165

RESUMO

This review examines the nutritional and functional aspects of some representatives of the Cactaceae family, as well as its technological potential in the most diverse industrial fields. The studied species are good sources of nutrients and phytochemicals of biological interest, such as phenolic compounds, carotenoids, betalains, phytosterols, tocopherols, etc. They also have shown great potential in preventing some diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others. As to technological applications, the Cactaceae family can be explored in the production of food (e.g., cakes, yogurts, bread, ice cream, and juices), as natural dyes, sources of pectins, water treatment and in animal feed. In addition, they have great potential for many technological domains, including food chemistry, pharmacy, biotechnology, and many others.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Alimentos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Betalaínas/química , Betalaínas/farmacologia , Pão , Cactaceae/classificação , Corantes/química , Humanos , Sorvetes , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Iogurte
3.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3001-3013, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146415

RESUMO

Softening is one of the main factors affecting market value and consumer preferences for jujubes, and it was closely related to the modification and depolymerization of pectin. Changes in characteristics of three pectins (water-soluble pectin (WSP), sodium carbonate-soluble pectin (SSP) and chelate-soluble pectin (CSP)), including their contents, degree of methylesterification (DM), neutral sugar compositions, the molecular weight (Mw ) distributions and nanostructures, from two jujube fruits cv Dongzao (DZ) and Jinsixiaozao (JS) during cold storage were assessed. The results showed that variation in pectin characteristics during cold storage was similar between DZ and JS. The reduction of firmness corresponded to a conversion of water-insoluble pectin to WSP during cold storage. DM of WSP presented an increase trend in the late storage. Rhamnose (Rha), arabinose (Ara) and glucose (Glc) were the crucial compositions in three pectins, and most neutral sugar compositions in three pectins first increased and then decreased during cold storage. Changes in the ratio of (galactose (Gal)+Ara)/Rha and Ara/Gal represented that the branch chains of rhamnogalacturonan-I in three pectins depolymerized after storage. The high Mw in WSP and SSP of jujubes were solubilized and extensively depolymerized into pectin with lower Mw after storage. AFM images showed an increase in short chains and branch structures of three pectins after storage. Overall, three pectins in DZ and JS depolymerized and solubilized during cold storage. WSP and SSP were more contributed to the softening of jujubes compared to CSP, and they played the critical role for regulating the softening of jujube fruits during cold storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Softening is one of the main factors affecting market value and consumer preferences for jujubes, and it was closely related to the modification and depolymerization of pectin. Changes in characteristics of three pectins (WSP, SSP, CSP), including their contents, degree of methylesterification, neutral sugar compositions, the molecular weight distributions and nanostructures, from two jujube fruits cv Dongzao (DZ) and Jinsixiaozao (JS) during cold storage were assessed. Three pectins in DZ and JS depolymerized and solubilized during cold storage. WSP and SSP were more contributed to the softening of jujubes compared to CSP, and they played the critical role for regulating the softening of jujube fruits during cold storage. This study would elucidate the mechanism of jujube softening and help to regulate the postharvest quality during cold storage.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Pectinas/química , Ziziphus/química , Parede Celular/química , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/classificação , Peso Molecular , Ziziphus/classificação
4.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3148-3158, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146423

RESUMO

The study was aimed to investigate characteristics of emulsion containing pectin, wax, maltodextrin, and carotenoid enriched flaxseed oil by means of stability, rheology, particle size, and low-resolution of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry measurements. Emulsions were prepared with different carotenoid enriched-flaxseed oil concentrations (6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% w/w) and ratios of maltodextrin/(pectin+wax) (3:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1 g/g). Percentage separation of 12% oil 12:1 ratio of maltodextrin/(pectin+wax) (g/g), 15% oil 9:1, and 12:1 ratios of maltodextrin/(pectin+wax) (g/g) of emulsions was determined as 2.0 ± 0.5%, 4.0 ± 0.5%, and 8.0 ± 0.5%, respectively. No separation was observed in other emulsions. The rheological behavior of emulsions was best described by the power law model. When the concentration of pectin+wax in the emulsion decreased, the n values of the emulsions were close to 1, indicating that the fluid behavior approaches Newtonian behavior. Moreover, the emulsion viscosity was observed to increase when pectin and wax concentrations in the emulsion increased. The increase in pectin and wax concentration in emulsions with oil contents of 6% and 9% resulted in a reduction in the average particle size. However, if the oil concentration in the emulsions was 12% or more, the increase in the ratio of maltodextrin/(pectin+wax) (g/g) led to a decrease in the average particle size. NMR transverse relaxation times (T2 ) of emulsions were measured and results showed that T2 values for almost all formulations decreased when the ratio of maltodextrin/(pectin+wax) reduced. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Study results demonstrated that the combination of pectin and wax together with maltodextrin as a filling material could be an alternative way to improve emulsion stability. Findings of this study provided useful guidance for the future studies about the potential use of pectin, wax, and maltodextrin as wall material in encapsulation of oils or in producing edible films.


Assuntos
Emulsões , Óleos/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Água/química , Ceras/química , Reologia , Viscosidade
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3137-3147, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155640

RESUMO

Hemp seed protein has the potential to be used in food systems as an emulsifying agent; however, there are still some shortcomings associated with hemp seed protein, such as poor solubility and tendency to aggregate. This study aims to improve the dispersibility of hemp seed protein as an emulsifier by complexing with pectin, driven by electrostatic force. Three protein to pectin ratios were used for complexation, from 1:1, 2:1 to 4:1. The complexation improved the polydispersity of hemp seed protein when dispersed in the aqueous phase. The hemp seed protein displayed multimodal size distribution in water at pH = 3.0 due to aggregation, while the incorporation of pectin helped to diminish those aggregated proteins. When the hemp seed protein was used to stabilize the oil-in-water emulsion, its stabilized emulsion showed promising homogenous droplet size distribution after emulsification. However, during the accelerated storage conditions (55°C), the emulsion stabilized solely by hemp seed protein was subjected to extensive coalescence. From day 0 to 9, the droplet size (d4,3 ) increased by 50 folds from 3.215 to 161.6 µm. In contrast, the hemp seed protein-pectin complex exhibited extraordinary stability during the storage test, where size evolution in all three samples was negligible compared to the emulsion stabilized by hemp seed protein. Rheological characterization suggests that pectin provided physical strength, which may help the emulsion droplets to maintain structural integrity under environmental stress. The underlying mechanism could be associated with the formation of a three-dimensional structure by pectin through bridging adjacent emulsion droplets. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Hemp seed protein is gaining more and more attention as an emerging plant protein. Recently, hemp seed protein has been explored as an emulsifier, but its stabilized emulsion encounters instability issues during storage. Our study suggests pectin could be used as a co-stabilizer for hemp seed protein emulsions.


Assuntos
Cannabis/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões , Pectinas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Sementes/química , Reologia , Solubilidade
6.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062995

RESUMO

A single ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation of the colonic mucosa at the distal colon and rectum. The mainstay therapy involves anti-inflammatory immunosuppression based on the disease location and severity. The disadvantages of using systemic corticosteroids for UC treatment is the amplified risk of malignancies and infections. Therefore, topical treatments are safer as they have fewer systemic side effects due to less systemic exposure. In this context, pH sensitive and enzymatically triggered hydrogel of pectin (PC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) has been developed to facilitate colon-targeted delivery of budesonide (BUD) for the treatment of UC. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), swelling ratio, and drug release. FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the grafting as well loading of BUD in hydrogel. XRD showed the amorphous nature of hydrogel and increment in crystallinity after drug loading. On the other hand, SEM showed that the hydrogels exhibited a highly porous morphology, which is suitable for drug loading and also demonstrated a pH-responsive swelling behaviour, with decreased swelling in acidic media. The in-vitro release of BUD from the hydrogel exhibited a sustained release behaviour with non-ficken diffusion mechanism. The model that fitted best for BUD released was the Higuchi kinetic model. It was concluded that enzyme/pH dual-sensitive hydrogels are an effective colon-targeted delivery system for UC.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Budesonida/farmacologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Hidrogéis/química , Pectinas/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Hidrogéis/síntese química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063632

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the critical factors affecting gene expression in bacteria. Despite the general interest in the link between bacterial phenotypes and environmental temperature, little is known about temperature-dependent gene expression in plant pathogenic Pectobacterium atrosepticum, a causative agent of potato blackleg and tuber soft rot worldwide. In this study, twenty-nine P. atrosepticum SCRI1043 thermoregulated genes were identified using Tn5-based transposon mutagenesis coupled with an inducible promotorless gusA gene as a reporter. From the pool of 29 genes, 14 were up-regulated at 18 °C, whereas 15 other genes were up-regulated at 28 °C. Among the thermoregulated loci, genes involved in primary bacterial metabolism, membrane-related proteins, fitness-corresponding factors, and several hypothetical proteins were found. The Tn5 mutants were tested for their pathogenicity in planta and for features that are likely to remain important for the pathogen to succeed in the (plant) environment. Five Tn5 mutants expressed visible phenotypes differentiating these mutants from the phenotype of the SCRI1043 wild-type strain. The gene disruptions in the Tn5 transposon mutants caused alterations in bacterial generation time, ability to form a biofilm, production of lipopolysaccharides, and virulence on potato tuber slices. The consequences of environmental temperature on the ability of P. atrosepticum to cause disease symptoms in potato are discussed.


Assuntos
Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Pectobacterium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/genética , Pectobacterium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Temperatura , Transposases/genética
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 564-588, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933542

RESUMO

Biofabrication by three-dimensional (3D) printing has been an attractive technology in harnessing the possibility to print anatomical shaped native tissues with controlled architecture and resolution. 3D printing offers the possibility to reproduce complex microarchitecture of native tissues by printing live cells in a layer by layer deposition to provide a biomimetic structural environment for tissue formation and host tissue integration. Plant based biomaterials derived from green and sustainable sources have represented to emulate native physicochemical and biological cues in order to direct specific cellular response and formation of new tissues through biomolecular recognition patterns. This comprehensive review aims to analyze and identify the most commonly used plant based bioinks for 3D printing applications. An overview on the role of different plant based biomaterial of terrestrial origin (Starch, Nanocellulose and Pectin) and marine origin (Ulvan, Alginate, Fucoidan, Agarose and Carrageenan) used for 3D printing applications are discussed elaborately. Furthermore, this review will also emphasis in the functional aspects of different 3D printers, appropriate printing material, merits and demerits of numerous plant based bioinks in developing 3D printed tissue-like constructs. Additionally, the underlying potential benefits, limitations and future perspectives of plant based bioinks for tissue engineering (TE) applications are also discussed.


Assuntos
Nanocompostos , Polissacarídeos/química , Impressão Tridimensional/tendências , Medicina Regenerativa/tendências , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Alginatos/química , Animais , Carragenina/química , Celulose/química , Difusão de Inovações , Previsões , Humanos , Pectinas/química , Sefarose/química
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 908-917, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965489

RESUMO

The biological activity of neohesperidin (NH, a flavanone glycoside) is limited due to instability in the physiological environment. Thus, the current study aimed to explore the protective effect of NH-loaded pectin-chitosan decorated liposomes (P-CH-NH-NL) against palmitic acid (PA)-induced hepatic oxidative injury in L02 cells. The particles were characterized using DLS, TEM, HPLC, DSC, and cellular uptake study. Then, the protective effect of NH-loaded liposomal systems (NH-NLs) against PA-induced oxidative injury was evaluated in terms of cell viability study, intracellular ROS, superoxide ions (O2-), MMP, and cellular GSH determination. Our results exhibited that NH-NLs significantly lessened the PA-induced hepatic oxidative injury in L02 cells via decreasing ROS and O2- generation, reducing MMP collapse, and attenuating GSH reduction, whereas the free NH samples were ineffective. Furthermore, the coated NH-NLs were more effective than that of uncoated nanoliposome. Overall, our study confirmed that P-CH-NH-NL was capable of reducing PA-induced hepatic oxidative injury. Therefore, the pectin-chitosan decorated nanoliposome can be considered as an efficient delivery system for enhancing cellular uptake of lipophilic compound with controlled release and greater biological activity.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Hesperidina/análogos & derivados , Lipossomos/química , Ácido Palmítico/toxicidade , Pectinas/química , Hesperidina/química , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2445-2456, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963549

RESUMO

The interactions between polysaccharides and phenolics in foods affect their physicochemical properties and bioactivity. Pectin and catechin/procyanidin present in plants ubiquitously and attracting more attentions for the potential health benefits. This work investigates the interactions between high methoxyl pectin and catechin/procyanidin in a simulative juice model using multiple microscopic and spectroscopic approaches and their influences on the antioxidant activity of phenolics were evaluated in the Caco-2 cells model. The results showed that pectin with either of phenolic compunds exhibited lower transmittance, zeta potential, viscosity, and larger particle size than it alone. The morphology of pectin complexes with either of phenolics under experimental conditions (pH = 3.5) was observed. The ΔH° (-6.821 kJ mol-1 ) and ΔS° (6.357×10-2  kJ mol-1 ) indicated that pectin interacts with procyanidin via electrostatic interaction, whereas hydrophobic interaction was the dominant drive force between pectin and catechin (ΔH° = 1.422 kJ mol-1 ; ΔS° = 13.048 × 10-2  kJ mol-1 ). The antioxidant activities of catechin/procyanidin decreased while binding with pectin based on indexes of glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this work indicated that the physicochemical property of pectin and the antioxidant activity of catechin/procyanidin were influenced by the interactions between pectin and catechin/procyanidin in a simulative food system. This study provides insights into the molecular interactions between pectin and phenolics in a simulative food system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Interações Medicamentosas , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Pectinas/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Biflavonoides/química , Células CACO-2 , Catequina/química , Humanos , Pectinas/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1832-1842, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051257

RESUMO

A series of nanocomposites made of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and 10 wt% zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) were produced by extrusion and injection molding. The nanoparticles were prepared via a green way using the pectin-based banana peel extract as the stabilizer and a proper dispersion-providing agent. The fillers were well-dispersed in the matrix and the composites exhibited improved functional characteristics such as increased thermal stability and mechanical properties. The presence of the pectin-organophilized filler had a significant impact on the crystallization process of HDPE. The kinetics of the degradation process was also altered in comparison to the pure polymer. The fire properties of the composites were enhanced as the amount of the gas products produced during their degradation was reduced, what was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis coupled with gas products analyses (TGA/FTIR/QMS). The structure and morphology of the materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Additionally, the mechanical properties were tested by tensile tests. An in-depth analysis revealed that the HDPE-pectin-ZnO interactions are crucial for the structural and performance properties of the final composite. The used biopolymer reacts with ZnO via ionic interaction and through hydrogen bond in the case of HDPE.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Pectinas/química , Polietileno/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Cristalização , Módulo de Elasticidade , Cinética , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Resistência à Tração , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
12.
Food Chem ; 359: 129899, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965763

RESUMO

A low methyl-esterified pectin (33.2% methyl-esterification degree) was isolated from the tuber of Dioscorea opposita Thunb., which was an edible and medicinal material in China. This pectin (Mw of 1.3 × 104 g/mol) contained the ~59.1% homogalacturonan (HG) and ~38.1% highly branched rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) region with possible side chains embracing arabinogalactan II, arabinan or arabinogalactan I. The fragments including HG backbone consisting of â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-(1 â†’ and â†’ 4)-α-GalpA-6-O-methyl-(1 â†’ with molar ratio of ~2:1, and repeating unit of arabinogalactan II side chain composed of α-Araf-(1 â†’ and â†’ 3,6)-ß-Galp-(1→, were speculated through methylation analysis and NMR spectra. However, the linkage pattern for RG-I backbone and side chains were indiscernible due to limited resolution of NMR spectra. Besides, the pectin adopted a flexible chain conformation in 0.1 M NaNO3 solution. These results provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharide from D. opposite, which was benefit for development of functional food of yam.


Assuntos
Dioscorea/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Configuração de Carboidratos , China , Galactanos/análise , Galactanos/química , Galactanos/isolamento & purificação , Pectinas/análise , Pectinas/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/análise , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
13.
Food Chem ; 361: 129832, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023688

RESUMO

Resveratrol-loaded fish gelatin (FG)-low methoxyl pectin (LMP) composite films with different FG:LMP mass ratios were prepared and evaluated as food packaging materials. With increasing FG contents, the water solubility of the films decreased. Moreover, the UV (315-400 nm) blocking efficiency and opacity increased with increasing LMP contents. The elongation of the films at breaking and tensile strengths were adjusted using the ratio of FG and LMP. The lowest water vapour permeability was observed at an FG:LMP mass ratio of 2:1. All films exhibited good antioxidant properties and significantly delayed oil deterioration when used for beef tallow preservation. The release behaviour of resveratrol in 95% ethanol as a food simulant was determined by film composition. The fabricated films exhibit significant potential for beef tallow preservation applications. Furthermore, LMP can improve the stability of resveratrol-FG complexes and compete with resveratrol for binding FG to accelerate resveratrol release.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos , Gelatina/química , Pectinas/química , Resveratrol/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Pesqueiros , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Permeabilidade , Carne Vermelha , Resveratrol/farmacocinética , Solubilidade , Vapor , Resistência à Tração
14.
Food Chem ; 358: 129819, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933974

RESUMO

The formation mechanism of furan has been studied extensively in model systems, however, furan formation in real foods are complex and far from being fully understood. In this study, the effects of acid-regulating agent (citric acid), sugar addition (glucose, fructose and sucrose) and thickening agents (xanthan gum, κ-carrageenan and pectin) on furan levels in strawberry jams were studied; meanwhile the formation pathway of furan in canned strawberry jam was proposed by carbon module labeling (CAMOLA) technique. Our results suggested low pH promoted furan formation in strawberry jam. Besides, fructose produces more furans than sucrose and glucose, and the addition of xanthan gum reduced furan levels significantly. The kinetic data showed that ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid degradation followed first-order kinetics while rate of furan formation followed zero-order kinetics. This study presented the possibility of mitigating furan formation in canned strawberry jams by optimization of processing parameters and addition of xanthan gum.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Furanos/química , Carragenina/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Ácido Desidroascórbico/química , Frutose/química , Frutas/química , Glucose/química , Cinética , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Sacarose/química
15.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946249

RESUMO

Food processing generates a large amount of bio-residues, which have become the focus of different studies aimed at valorizing this low-cost source of bioactive compounds. High fruit consumption is associated with beneficial health effects and, therefore, bio-waste and its constituents arouse therapeutic interest. The present work focuses on the main Portuguese fruit crops and revises (i) the chemical constituents of apple, orange, and pear pomace as potential sources of functional/bioactive compounds; (ii) the bioactive evidence and potential therapeutic use of bio-waste generated in the processing of the main Portuguese fruit crops; and (iii) potential applications in the food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries. The current evidence of the effect of these bio-residues as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents is also summarized. Conclusions of the revised data are that these bio-wastes hold great potential to be employed in specific nutritional and pharmaceutical applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cosméticos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Hidrólise , Malus , Estrutura Molecular , Pectinas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Portugal , Pyrus
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 2151-2161, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051255

RESUMO

Three water-soluble pectic polysaccharides (WKBP-P2, P3 and P4) were isolated from white kidney bean by ion exchange combined with size-exclusion methods. The structural features were characterized by GC-MS, NMR spectroscopy and HPSEC-MALLS-RI. It was found that three pectic polysaccharides were the major water-extracted polysaccharides in white kidney bean. All the WKBP-P2, P3 and P4 were probably composed of various structural regions including homogalacturonan (HG), xylogalacturonan (XGA), rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) regions in backbone, and arabinan region mainly as side chain. However, these pectic polysaccharides were significantly different in molar ratios of these structural regions and molecular size. WKBP-P2 was HG-predominant pectin (partially methyl-esterified) with weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of 1.2 × 104 g/mol, and contained minor RG-I, arabinan and probable XGA regions. WKBP-P3 (Mw of 4.0 × 104 g/mol) primarily embraced XGA, HG, arabinan regions and minor RG-I region. WKBP-4 with highest Mw (4.5 × 105 g/mol) had the most arabinan region (51.3%), which was probably the side chain linked to the backbone composed of RG-I, HG and slight XGA regions. These findings provided a structural basis for study on polysaccharides from white kidney bean, which was benefit for development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Phaseolus/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Metilação , Conformação Molecular , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 158-170, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901559

RESUMO

The influence of protein (sodium caseinate-SC), polysaccharide (maltodextrin-MD; pectin-PC) and their Maillard conjugates (sodium caseinate maltodextrin conjugate-SCMDC; sodium caseinate pectin conjugate-SCPCC) were studied on the physico-chemical and biological properties of eugenol nanoemulsions/powder. The chemical composition was optimized using Taguchi design. The particles size of eugenol nanoemulsions with SC, MD, PC, SCMDC and SCPCC were 104.6, 323.5, 1872, 181.7, and 454.4 nm, respectively while their zeta potentials were -31.2, -28.5, -21.4, -40.1 and -25.1 mV, respectively. Turbidity studies revealed higher stability of nanoemulsion prepared with Maillard conjugate (SCMDC) compared to protein or polysaccharides alone. The dispersion of SCMDC eugenol nanoparticles in buffer was prepared to study its stability at different pH (3.0, 5.0, and 7.0) and temperature (4°, 37°, 60 °C) range. In-vitro enzymatic release study showed 31 and 74% release of eugenol after 6 h at pH 2.4 and 7.4, respectively. In vitro antioxidant capacity of SCMDC encapsulated eugenol was higher than native eugenol, as demonstrated by free radical scavenging assays. In comparison to native eugenol, E:SCMDC eugenol showed reduced toxicity. These findings suggested that nanoencapsulated eugenol (E:SCMDC) have a huge potential in nutraceutical and therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Caseínas/química , Portadores de Fármacos , Eugenol/química , Nanopartículas , Azeite de Oliva/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Composição de Medicamentos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/toxicidade , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Reação de Maillard , Temperatura
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 824-834, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836194

RESUMO

Currently, there are few studies on acid-soluble pectin from okra, especially in biological activity for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. In this study, the antioxidant properties of acid-soluble okra pectin components and their anti-inflammatory were explored. Firstly, two acid-soluble okra pectic fractions, namely crude acid-soluble okra pectin (CAOP) and acid-soluble okra pectin (AOP), were obtained and exhibited structural and compositional variation. The two pectic fractions contained a low degree of esterification (42.0-46.5%) and a relatively high uronic acid content (31.6-37.3%). AOP was composed of galacturonic acid (79.1 mol/%), galactose (4.3 mol/%), rhamnose (14.5 mol/%) and xylose (2.1 mol/%), and the molecular weight was 92.8 kDa. Morphological and thermal properties of acid-soluble okra pectin components were also investigated. Compared to CAOP, AOP expressed better antioxidant activity, and suppressed the NO production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. All the above results indicated that AOP had the potential to act as a natural antioxidant or a functional anti-inflammatory food, which would broaden the development and utilization of okra resources.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pectinas/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfúricos/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Camundongos , Pectinas/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Células RAW 264.7 , Solubilidade , Temperatura , Difração de Raios X
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 252-263, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838198

RESUMO

Food-grade Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) stabilized by a mixture of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) were fabricated for the first time. The factors affecting the microstructures, mechanical properties, and stabilities of the Pickering HIPEs were systematically investigated. The corresponding hybrid particles were also separated and characterized to reveal the formation mechanism. The results indicated that the mixture could induce the formation of HIPEs with an oil phase volume fraction (φ) of 75% using a one-step high-speed shearing process at room temperature. The composition (the mass ratio of ß-CD to SBP, Rc/s) and concentration (W) of the mixture had significant effects on the formation and properties of HIPEs. When W ≥ 1.0% and Rc/s = 2:2 or 3:1, HIPEs had smaller oil droplets, higher gel strengths, better centrifugation stabilities and lutein protection effects. The spectral analysis suggested that SBP could adhere to the surface of ß-CD particles to form hybrid particles during the homogenization. Compared with native ß-CD particles, these hybrid particles had higher ζ-potential absolute values, and the SBP could also increase the viscosity of the aqueous phase, which contributed to the formation and properties of these HIPEs.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Pectinas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Emulsificantes/química , Alimentos
20.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807131

RESUMO

The present article describes the one-pot synthesis of double- and single-tailed surfactants by a cascade process that involves the hydrolysis/butanolysis of pectins into butyl galacturonate monosaccharides followed by transesterification/transacetalisation processes with fatty alcohols, and subsequent aqueous basic and acid treatments. The cascade mode allows the depolymerisation to proceed more efficiently, and the purification conditions are optimised to make the production of single-tailed surfactants more manufacturable. These products in a pure form or as mixtures with alkyl glycosides resulting from butanolysis and transglycosylation of pectin-derived hexoses, exhibit attractive surface-tension properties, especially for the n-oleyl ᴅ-galactosiduronic acid products. In addition, a readily biodegradability and an absence of aquatic ecotoxicity are shown for the galacturonic acid derivatives possessing an oleyl alkyl chain at the anomeric position.


Assuntos
Pectinas/química , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/síntese química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrólise , Tensão Superficial
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