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1.
Food Chem ; 319: 126559, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197215

RESUMO

Postmortem biochemical properties (pH, salt solubility, Ca2+-ATPase activity, ATP-related compounds) and microstructural changes in the striated adductor muscle of pre-rigor frozen Japanese scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis) were studied after thawing and during storage at 4℃. Four thawing methods were used: running water (18℃, R); ice-water (0℃, I); air (4℃, A) and ice-saltwater (-2℃, S). The pH values and salt solubility of R group were lower than the other three thawing groups while I group was highest after thawing. However, no significant difference (P < 0.05) in Ca2+-ATPase activity were detected among 4 groups. The microstructure results indicated that the structure of I group was close to that of fresh scallop. Moreover, ATP decomposition rate was the slowest. Therefore, ice-water thawing is the best method because it induced the least changes in the biochemical properties and microstructures of scallop adductor muscle.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/química , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Congelamento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Solubilidade
2.
Food Chem ; 310: 125947, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841939

RESUMO

An ultra performance liquid chromatography-Triple time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS) method were established to characterize the lipid profiles in four shellfish species. More than 600 lipid molecular species belonging to 14 classes were detected. Phospholipids (PLs) were predominant in Chlamys farreri (54.9%) and glycerolipids (GLs) were dominant in Ostrea gigas (51.6%). PLs that contained polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as PC (16:0/20:5), PC (16:0/22:6) and PE (18:0/22:6) were the main molecular species. Especially, the percentage of sphingolipids (SLs) in four shellfishes is considerable (18.8-38.6%), the characterization of their special long-chain base (LCB) structure (mainly d19:3) and N-acyl group (mainly 16:0) was realized. Several SL subclasses with low abundance in four shellfish species, such as ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) and deoxy-ceramide (DeoxyCer), were also detected. These active lipids identified by this method have potential value in revealing the nutritional value of shellfishes and serving as biomarkers for distinguishing different shellfishes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Ácido Aminoetilfosfônico/análogos & derivados , Animais , Ceramidas , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lipídeos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Pectinidae/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/análise
3.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518925

RESUMO

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explained more temporal differences (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect). Gills, digestive gland and intestine were the tissues where metal accumulation was the highest in A. purpuratus. Cd in digestive gland was always high, up to ∼250-fold higher than in other tissues, as previously reported in other bioindicator species for metal pollution. Fatty acids were good biomarkers when annual comparisons were performed, while metals when locations were compared. ENSO 2017 played an important role to disentangle A. purpuratus' biological conditions and food sources. A. purpuratus from Paracas locations mostly showed higher metal concentrations in gills and digestive glands, and lower fatty acid concentrations in muscle than those from Sechura and Illescas Reserved Zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Cobre/análise , Cobre/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Brânquias/química , Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Manganês/análise , Manganês/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Peru , Frutos do Mar/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
4.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766477

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are the major neurotoxic contaminants of edible bivalves in Japan. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recently detected in bivalve shellfish around the world, drawing widespread attention. In Japan, high levels of TTX were reported in the digestive gland of the scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis, in 1993; however, no new data have emerged since then. In this study, we simultaneously analyzed PSTs and TTX in scallops cultured in a bay of east Japan using hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-MS/MS. These scallops were temporally collected from April to December 2017. The highest concentration of PSTs (182 µmol/kg, total congeners) in the hepatopancreas was detected in samples collected on May 23, lined to the cell density of the dinoflagellate, Alexandrium tamarense, in seawater around the scallops, whereas the highest concentration of TTX (421 nmol/kg) was detected in samples collected on August 22. Contrary to the previous report, temporal variation of the PSTs and TTX concentrations did not coincide. The highest concentration of TTX in the entire edible tissues was 7.3 µg/kg (23 nmol/kg) in samples obtained on August 22, which was lower than the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-proposed threshold, 44 µg TTX equivalents/kg shellfish meat. In addition, 12ß-deoxygonyautoxin 3 was firstly identified in scallops.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/química , Pectinidae/química , Saxitoxina/análogos & derivados , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Tetrodotoxina/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Baías , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Japão , Saxitoxina/análise , Saxitoxina/toxicidade , Estações do Ano , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/prevenção & controle , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tetrodotoxina/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546939

RESUMO

Scallop-shell powder (SSP) heated at high temperature exhibits high pH and broad antimicrobial activity. Bioshell calcium oxide (BiSCaO) is an SSP composed mainly of calcium oxide. It is poorly water-soluble under alkaline conditions and the generated precipitate can plug spray nozzles. The aim of this study was to establish that BiSCaO dispersion caused no significant CaO loss and plugging of spray nozzles, and to evaluate its deodorization and microbicidal abilities and its ability to reduce the concentrations of NO2- and NO3-. BiSCaO dispersions were prepared by mixing various concentrations of BiSCaO suspension, while phosphate compounds such as Na3PO4, Na2HPO4 or NaH2PO4 and the pH, average diameter, zeta potential, and form of the compounds with cryo-SEM were evaluated. We evaluated deodorization using tainted pork meat and microbicidal efficacy using contaminated suspension with normal bacterial flora. The concentration of NO2- and NO3- after mixing BiSCaO dispersion and pure water containing a high proportion of NO2- and NO3- were measured. BiSCaO dispersion formed with Na2HPO4, whose ratio to BiSCaO was 60%, showed a high pH (>12), a small particle diameter (>181 nm) and was stable for seven days. The BiSCaO dispersion showed higher deodorization and microbicidal activities than SSP-Ca(OH)2, which was mainly composed of Ca(OH)2. BiSCaO, but not SSP-Ca(OH)2, could reduce the concentration of NO2- and NO3- by more than 90% within 15 min. We developed a stable BiSCaO dispersion, and it had high deodorization and microbicidal efficacy. These activities of BiSCaO might result from the high pH caused by CaO hydration and a reduction activity causing active radical species.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/farmacologia , Animais , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Nitratos/análise , Nitritos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Pectinidae/química , Ácidos Fosfóricos/química , Suspensões , Suínos
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 1069-1081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468468

RESUMO

Scallops belong to cosmopolitan family of bivalves which are found in any oceans. They are one of the most important marine fishery resources in the world. The shell, meat and pearl layer have a high utilization value and a lot of scallops are eaten as food. In this study, we established anti-inflammatory effect of Scallops water extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 mononuclear macrophage. Our results indicated that Scallop water extract effectively reduced the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, Scallop water extract suppressed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Further investigation indicated that anti-inflammatory effect of Scallop water extract via suppressing downregulation of MAPK (JNK, p38 and ERK) and NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Extratos Celulares/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 299: 125107, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302428

RESUMO

Traceability and authenticity is crucial to the food safety of scallop. The present study investigated the possibility of using stable isotope analysis to identify the origins and species of scallops (Patinopecten yessoensis, Chlamys farreri, and Argopecten irradians) in the coastal areas of China. The δ13C and δ15N values of a total of 575 samples from seven sites around China were determined and additional 150 samples were tested by fisher linear discrimination analysis (LDA) to estimate the accuracy of origin identification and species prediction. The results show that the stable C and N isotope composition differed significantly depending on the origin, season and species of scallops. Meanwhile, the LDA shows that 92% of the samples were correctly classified for origin prediction, and an accuracy of 98.3% was obtained for species prediction. This study reveals that stable isotope ratio is an effective technique to trace the geographical origin and identify the species of scallops.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Pectinidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , China , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Food Chem ; 298: 124966, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260996

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting to identify the origins of scallops. Fatty acid contents, as well as fatty acid δ13C values of 300 samples of three scallop species (Patinopecten yessoensis, Chlamys farreri, and Argopecten irradians) from seven sites in China were determined. Principal component analysis was performed on datasets to evaluate their performance of classification. Moreover, 75 samples were tested by discrimination analysis to estimate the accuracy of origin prediction. The results show that the accuracy rate of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting for origin prediction was 92% and 85.3%, respectively. The combination of these two methods improved the identification, with an accuracy rate of 100.0%. These results indicate that the combination of fatty acid profile and fatty acid δ13C fingerprinting can be a precise and promising tool for origin traceability of scallops.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Pectinidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , China , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Food Chem ; 298: 125011, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261011

RESUMO

A scallop midgut gland certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7520-a, was developed for validation and quality assurance during the inspection of shellfish for diarrhetic shellfish toxins. The candidate material was prepared by using naturally-toxic and nontoxic boiled midgut glands spiked with okadaic acid (OA). The homogeneity and stability of the material were found to be appropriate. For the characterization of OA and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), nine participants were involved in a co-laboratory study based on the Japanese Official Testing Method, where the compounds were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following alkaline hydrolysis. The analytical values were obtained by the standard addition method with a standard spiking solution calibrated using the standard-solution certified reference materials OA and DTX1. The certified concentrations with expanded uncertainties (coverage factor k = 2, approximate 95% confidence interval) were determined to be (0.205 ±â€¯0.061) mg/kg for OA and (0.45 ±â€¯0.11) mg/kg for DTX1.


Assuntos
Diarreia/complicações , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Pectinidae/química , Piranos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Intestinos/química , Toxinas Marinhas/normas , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos/normas , Piranos/toxicidade , Padrões de Referência , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/complicações , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7935-7941, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264423

RESUMO

Involvement of DNA in gelation and microstructural properties of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) male gonad hydrolysates (SMGHs) and corresponding hybrid gel with κ-carrageenan (SMGHs/κ-C) was studied using DNase pretreatment. Although DNase pretreatment significantly transformed SMGHs from weak gels to liquid, it made SMGHs have a superior synergistic effect on gel formation with κ-C by evidence of 2.7-fold G' and 1.1-fold melting temperature. However, the relaxation time (T21 and T23), functional groups, and flocculation behavior were comparable between SMGHs/κ-C and SMGHs/DNase/κ-C. Moreover, SMGHs/DNase/κ-C exhibited a denser network with more numerous patches and larger void spaces. These results suggest that DNA contributes to the gel formation of SMGHs whereas restricts more cationic peptides in SMGHs to bind sulfate groups in κ-C during gel formation.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , DNA/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Animais , Desoxirribonucleases/química , Géis/química , Masculino , Pectinidae/genética
11.
Food Chem ; 295: 423-431, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174778

RESUMO

Effects of natural phenolics on the shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle predicted by accelerated shelf life testing (ALST) combined with Arrhenius model were investigated. This allows the food industries to reliably and rapidly determine the shelf life of dried shellfish species treated with antioxidants. The shelf life of dried scallop adductor muscle treated with antioxidants of bamboo leaves (AOB) and tea polyphenols (TP) was more than 1.70-fold that of dried control scallop adductor muscle. Thus, the highly nutritional value of dried scallop adductor muscle, based on its lipid constituents, is maintained during storage. OXITEST method further confirmed the improvement of lipid stability of antioxidant treated dried scallop adductor muscle by protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, against autoxidation. Moreover, the natural phenolics employed effectively limited lipid oxidation by breaking the autoxidative chain reaction and/or inhibiting free radical formation in dried scallop adductor muscle during storage.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Pectinidae/química , Polifenóis/química , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Liofilização , Músculo Esquelético/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução , Folhas de Planta/química , Carbamilação de Proteínas , Sasa/química
12.
J Food Sci ; 84(5): 1023-1034, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997934

RESUMO

Protein isolates were recovered from scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) gonads to develop a novel functional matrix by investigating their physiochemical and functional properties. Scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) were prepared from degreased scallop gonads (DSGs) by an alkali extraction and isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process. The protein compositions of the SGPIs were mainly vitellogenin and beta-actin with molecular weights of 266 and 42 kDa, respectively, as determined using Nano-liquid chromatography-mass/mass (Nano-LC-MS/MS). After the ISP process, the protein solubility of the SGPIs was significantly improved, and the surface hydrophobicity of SGPIs intensely increased by 1.1-fold, which were attributed to the exposure of aromatic residues such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan. However, the content of total/reactive sulfhydryl in SGPIs was decreased compared with that of DSGs. Meanwhile, the ISP process caused partial protein unfolding, as indicated by circular dichroism analysis, which exhibited a remarkable rise in the ß-sheet content with a parallel decline in the α-helix and random coil contents (P < 0.05). SGPIs exhibited a better oil absorption capacity and foaming property than both DSGs and soybean protein isolates (SPIs). Moreover, the emulsifying capacity of SGPIs was greatly enhanced by the ISP process, which was superior to the effect of commercial SPIs and was ascribed to its favorable solubility as well as surface characteristics. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: During the processing of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) adductors, scallop gonad, a high-protein part, is usually discarded as processing by-products despite its edibility. In recent years, scallop gonads are regarded as good sources to develop protein matrices due to their high protein content and numerous nutrients. In this study, scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) were isolated by isoelectric solubilization/precipitation (ISP) process. The preferable solubility, foaming property coupled with high emulsifying property of SGPIs indicated that the SGPIs could be potentially utilized as a good protein emulsifier and additives in production of kamaboko gels, hamburger patties, sausages, and pet foods.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Proteínas/química , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Aditivos Alimentares/isolamento & purificação , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Humanos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , Solubilidade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(10): 4781-4792, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drying efficiency and quality maintenance are the major concerns of both manufactures and consumers. Heat pump drying (HPD) is suitable for heat sensitive foodstuffs due to its ability to independently control the drying operation parameters. However, lower drying rate and energy efficiency in the later period of HPD are the bottlenecks that restrain its application. A novel approach using hydrocolloids as pretreatment coatings prior to drying was designed to solve these problems. The effects of sodium alginate (SA) coating, drying temperatures and air velocities on the drying characteristics and quality attributes of scallop adductors were evaluated. RESULTS: Drying took place in the falling rate period. Drying time decreased with increasing temperature, air velocity and SA coating. The Two Term model and the Wang and Singh model gained the best fit for thin-layer drying of scallop adductors and SA film, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity increased with temperature, velocity and SA coating and were in the range 7.352-14.620 × 10-11 , 9.890-17.100 × 10-11 and 2.348-4.604 × 10-10  m2  s-1 for uncoated scallop adductors, SA coated scallop adductors and SA films, respectively. The activation energies for SA films, coated and uncoated scallop adductors were 17.07, 20.78 and 26.17 kJ mol-1 , respectively. Dried scallop adductors with SA coating pretreatment exhibited a significant lower value of shrinkage rate and hardness, and higher value of toughness than uncoated ones at 30 °C and 2.0 m s-1 (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Hydrocolloid coating is a promising pretreatment in improving HPD efficiency and enhancing quality attributes of dried scallop adductors. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Alginatos/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Cor , Dessecação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Dureza , Temperatura Alta
14.
Food Chem ; 280: 45-50, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642505

RESUMO

In the present study, an improving method for extracting carotenoids in aquatic animals using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was developed. The theoretical optimum extraction condition (ultrasonic power, temperature and time of 246.77 W, 37.64 °C and 29.03 min, respectively) based on the maximum extracted total carotenoids content (TCC) (141.13 µg/g) was predicted by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Additional experiments were then carried out under practical extraction conditions to verify the predicted value for TCC. The optimum practical extraction condition was at ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time of 240 W, 38 °C and 29 min, respectively, where the TCC (137.88 ±â€¯1.22 µg/g) similar to the predicted value. On the other hand, a much lower total carotenoid of 107.75 ±â€¯2.60 µg/g was obtained by the 2 h conventional extraction of carotenoids (CEC). The UAE in carotenoids extraction has higher efficiency, shorter processing time, and less acetone than the CEC.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Pectinidae/química , Espectrofotometria , Animais , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Sonicação , Temperatura
15.
Food Funct ; 10(1): 49-60, 2019 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566165

RESUMO

Emulsion-based delivery systems were structured by using scallop gonad protein isolates (SGPIs) as novel food-grade emulsifiers. The effects of carrier oil, including the long chain triglycerides (LCT) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT), on the bioaccessibility and cellular uptake of ß-carotene (BC) were investigated. Both LCT and MCT delivery systems remained stable at pH 7-8 but aggregated at lower pH values (3-6) according to the results of light scattering and microscopy measurements. LCT droplets fabricated within SGPIs were digested and released more slowly than MCT droplets during the simulated gastrointestinal tract digestion. The LCT emulsion showed higher BC bioaccessibility (65.5%) than the MCT emulsion (23.1%) as a result of the greater solubilization of BC in mixed micelles fabricated from long-chain fatty acids. Moreover, the LCT emulsion produced higher cellular uptake of BC as compared with the MCT emulsion in intestinal epithelial cells. These results demonstrated that SGPIs could be used as novel food-grade emulsifiers to protect lipophilic bioactive compounds in emulsion-based delivery systems, in which LCT is more suitable to encapsulate and deliver BC than MCT.


Assuntos
Emulsificantes/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Proteínas/química , Triglicerídeos/química , beta Caroteno/química , beta Caroteno/farmacologia , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/metabolismo , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Proteínas/isolamento & purificação , beta Caroteno/metabolismo
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(12)2018 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30477142

RESUMO

Causative species of Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) and toxins in commercially exploited molluscan shellfish species are monitored weekly from four classified shellfish production areas in Perú (three in the north and one in the south). Okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxins (PTXs) were detected in hand-picked cells of Dinophysis (D. acuminata-complex and D. caudata) and in scallops (Argopecten purpuratus), the most important commercial bivalve species in Perú. LC-MS analyses revealed two different toxin profiles associated with species of the D. acuminata-complex: (a) one with OA (0.3⁻8.0 pg cell-1) and PTX2 (1.5⁻11.1 pg cell-1) and (b) another with only PTX2 which included populations with different toxin cell quota (9.3⁻9.6 pg cell-1 and 5.8⁻9.2 pg cell-1). Toxin results suggest the likely presence of two morphotypes of the D. acuminata-complex in the north, and only one of them in the south. Likewise, shellfish toxin analyses revealed the presence of PTX2 in all samples (10.3⁻34.8 µg kg-1), but OA (7.7⁻15.2 µg kg-1) only in the northern samples. Toxin levels were below the regulatory limits established for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and PTXs (160 µg OA kg-1) in Perú, in all samples analyzed. This is the first report confirming the presence of OA and PTX in Dinophysis cells and in shellfish from Peruvian coastal waters.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/citologia , Furanos/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Pectinidae/química , Piranos/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Peru
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 135: 1198-1204, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301019

RESUMO

The North Yellow Sea is a major aquaculture production area for the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. In this study, the temporal and spatial variation of phycotoxins in scallops, phytoplankton, and their cysts were analyzed during a survey conducted from June 2011 to April 2012 around Zhangzi Island. The study area is a semi-enclosed epicontinental sea surrounded by the Shandong Peninsula, the Liaodong Peninsula and the Korean Peninsula. The three main results of the study were as follows: (1) The saxitoxin-group toxins, okadaic acid and analogues, and pectenotoxins were the major phycotoxin residues found in scallops; (2) Six kinds of toxic microalgae were identified, Protoperidinium spp., Gonyaulax spp., and Alexandrium spp. were the dominant taxa; Seven types of potential marine toxin-producing dinoflagellates, A. tamarense, A. catenella, Dinophysis fortii, G. catenatum, Gambierdiscus toxicus, Azadinium poporum, and Pseudo-nitzschia pungen were identified as the primary source of phycotoxins and were present at relatively high density from June to October; and (3) azaspiracids and domoic acid might be new potential sources of toxin pollution. This study represents the first assessment to phycotoxins around Zhangzi Island in the North Yellow Sea.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Pectinidae/química , Fitoplâncton , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , China , Diatomáceas , Dinoflagelados , Microalgas , Oceanos e Mares , Fitoplâncton/química , Saxitoxina/análise , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Compostos de Espiro/análise
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(29): 7805-7814, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953224

RESUMO

Shellfish is a common part of indigenous cuisines throughout the world and one of the major sources of human exposure to arsenic (As). We evaluated As speciation in shellfish after cooking and gastrointestinal digestion in this study. Results showed that washing and cooking (boiling and steaming) can reduce As exposures from shellfish. The use of spices during cooking processes also helped to reduce the bioaccessibility of total As. Through mass balance calculations, we verified the transformation of methylated As compounds into inorganic As in shellfish takes place during cooking and that As demethylation can occur during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. In vivo demethylation of As after gastrointestinal digestion was also demonstrated in laboratory mice. This increase in inorganic As during digestion suggests that risks of As toxicity from shellfish consumption are being underestimated. Further studies on the mechanisms of As speciation transformation in food are necessary for more thorough risk assessments.


Assuntos
Arsênico/química , Bivalves/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Ostreidae/química , Pectinidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Arsênico/metabolismo , Bivalves/metabolismo , Culinária , Digestão , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Masculino , Camundongos , Ostreidae/metabolismo , Pectinidae/metabolismo
19.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 503(2): 837-842, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29920240

RESUMO

Activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) has been linked to the neuroinflammation but the relationship with the various neurodegenerative diseases including the Alzheimer's disease (AD) was mostly elusive. In the AD brains, the special phospholipids, ethanolamine plasmalogens (Pls), were found to be reduced and our previous study showed that these lipids possess neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory functions. In the present study, we could find that these lipids can significantly attenuate the microglial expression of PKCδ in the neuroinflammation model and in the AD model mice brains. We also show an increase of PKCδ in the human postmortem AD brains. In addition, we also report that scallop derived Pls (sPls) inhibited the p38MAPK and JNK protein expression which are involved in the expressional regulation of PKCδ in the microglial cells. In addition, the lentiviral shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ attenuated the LPS-induced p65 (NF-kB) activation and inflammatory cytokine expression, suggesting that the PKCδ can induce the inflammatory response which can be inhibited by the sPls. Taken together, our recent findings suggest that the sPls can attenuate the increased expression of PKCδ associated with the neuro-inflammation in the murine brain.


Assuntos
Encefalite/enzimologia , Pectinidae/química , Plasmalogênios/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Encefalite/genética , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/enzimologia , Plasmalogênios/administração & dosagem , Proteína Quinase C-delta/genética , Interferência de RNA , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
20.
Food Chem ; 261: 337-347, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739602

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to improve the utilization of scallop (Chlamys farreri) byproducts by using Maillard reaction. Scallop mantle hydrolysates (SMHs) were prepared using neutrase then reacted with ribose. Thirty-four peptides were identified from SMHs by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and the abundance of Asp and Lys suggested the strong Maillard reactivity. The formation of Schiff's base as well as modification of amide I, II and III bands in Maillard reaction products (MRPs) was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thirty volatile compounds were produced by the reaction of SMHs with ribose. Moreover, MRPs with enhanced radical scavenging and anti-linoleic acid peroxidation activities over SMHs promoted the survival and reduced the DNA damage of HepG2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that SMHs-ribose MRPs can be potentially used as food antioxidant for suppressing of lipid oxidation or protecting of cell from oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Aromatizantes/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Oxirredução , Ribose/química , Paladar
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