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1.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(1): e15-e21, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020509

RESUMO

Cancer predisposition syndromes (CPS), or genetic syndromes leading to increased cancer risk, are responsible for at least 10% of all childhood cancers. With advances in both tumor and germline sequencing, these syndromes have been uncovered both in patients with and without syndromic features and family history of cancer. Recognition of CPS in children and use of associated screening guidelines can improve morbidity and mortality from childhood cancer. Given the multidisciplinary approach needed for management of CPS, knowledge of clinical features and surveillance guidelines are essential for the general pediatrician. Pediatricians also play a vital role in anticipatory guidance regarding cancer prevention strategies and management of psychosocial stressors associated with ongoing screening. This article discusses 10 of the more common pediatric CPS, reasons to refer patients for CPS genetic testing and evaluation, and general cancer prevention strategies. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(1):e15-e21.].


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Neoplasias , Criança , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Anamnese , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Pediatras
2.
Pediatr Ann ; 51(1): e34-e39, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020514

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common genetic disorders in the United States. Once a fatal disease of childhood, the majority of patients born with SCD who live in a developed country will survive to adulthood (albeit with slightly shortened life spans). Despite numerous novel therapeutic advancements in recent years that serve to mitigate the symptoms associated with SCD, the only cure for SCD is a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. The overall survival for patients with a matched sibling donor transplant is greater than 90%. However, fewer than 20% of patients with SCD in the US have a 12/12 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched sibling donor. In contrast, most patients have at least one HLA haploidentical first-degree relative, which expands the donor pool for patients who have diseases amenable to stem cell transplantation such as SCD. [Pediatr Ann. 2022;51(1):e34-e39.].


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Humanos , Pediatras , Doadores de Tecidos
3.
Rev Paul Pediatr ; 40: e2020490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To map the transition process from the perspective of pediatricians and their adolescent patients, and to suggest a transition protocol. METHODS: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in a pediatric outpatient clinic of a public tertiary hospital. Pediatricians answered a questionnaire about the transition process, and that was evaluated in a descriptive manner. The Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) on health autonomy was answered by the adolescents and the analysis was performed using the χ2 and Mann-Whitney tests. p<0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 31 pediatricians (16 residents, 15 supervisors) were enrolled, with a mean age of 40.1 (±16.9), 87% women, with years working in Pediatrics ranging from 2 to 45 years (median of 5 years). Most doctors agreed that there was no transition plan, but they stimulated the patient's autonomy and talked to the patient and family members about any existing chronic diseases. A total of 102 adolescent patients participated, with a median age of 15; 56% were female. The TRAQ median was 58, with similar scores between females and males, and higher scores in those older than 16 years of age (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.01). The patients reported ease in face-to-face communication with their doctors, but great difficulty in talking about health issues over the phone. CONCLUSIONS: Even without a transition protocol, adolescents developed several self-care skills as they aged. The lack of a transitional protocol led to conflicting opinions, which reinforces the need for improvement. We suggest a flowchart and transition protocol.


Assuntos
Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatras , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 7, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is a noninvasive bedside tool with many pediatric applications but is not currently a formal part of pediatric training and practice. Formal surveys of general pediatricians regarding POCUS training are lacking. We aimed to quantify the baseline ultrasound experience and training needs of general pediatricians and pediatric residents across different practice settings. METHODS: In 2020, we sent an online survey to 485 current faculty, residents, and graduates from an urban pediatric academic medical center in Northern California. Pediatric subspecialists were excluded. Survey questions about baseline experience, comfort, and perceived usefulness of 20 common POCUS applications were developed by two POCUS experts using existing literature. Chi-squared analysis was used to compare residents versus attendings and to compare attendings practicing in inpatient versus outpatient versus mixed settings. RESULTS: Response rate was 20% (98/485). Compared to attendings (n = 73), residents (n = 25) endorsed more exposure to POCUS in medical school (32% vs 5%, p = 0.003) and residency (12% vs 5%, p = 0.003). Respondents endorsed low comfort with POCUS (mean 1.3 out of 5 on Likert scale). Of 20 procedural and diagnostic applications, respondents identified abscess drainage, bladder catheterization, soft tissue, neck, advanced abdominal, and constipation as most useful. Overall, 50% of pediatricians (and 70% of pediatric residents) responded that there were opportunities to use POCUS multiple times a week or more in their clinical practice. CONCLUSIONS: There is an unmet demand for POCUS training among general pediatricians and trainees in our study. Although the majority of respondents were not POCUS users, our results could guide future efforts to study the role of POCUS in general pediatrics and develop pediatric curricula.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pediatras , Ultrassonografia
5.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972222

RESUMO

A physician workforce that reflects the patient population is associated with improved patient outcomes and promotes health equity. Notwithstanding, racial and ethnic disparities persist within US medical schools, making some individuals underrepresented in medicine (URM). We sought to increase the percentage of URM residents who matched into our pediatric residency programs from a baseline of 5% to 35% to achieve demographic parity with our patients. We developed a multifaceted approach using multiple iterative tests of change, with the primary strategy being increased visibility of URM trainees and faculty to residency applicants. Strategies included applicant interviews with URM faculty, interview dinners with URM residents, visibility at academic conferences for URM trainees, development of targeted marketing materials, and a visiting student program supported by networking with URM residents. The primary outcome measure was the percentage of matched residents in the categorical pediatrics, child neurology, and medical genetics training programs who identified as URM. The percentage of URM residents increased to 16% (6 of 37) in 2018, 26% (11 of 43) in 2019, 19% (8 of 43) in 2020, and 21% (9 of 43) in 2021 (a four-year average of 22% URM residents; P = .0002). This progress toward a more representative residency program was met by challenges, such as pipeline concerns, the minority tax, and recruitment during a pandemic. We were able to implement small, low-resource strategies that had a large cumulative impact and could be implemented in other residency programs. Specific tactics and challenges encountered are discussed in this special article.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatria/educação , Desenvolvimento de Programas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pediatras/provisão & distribuição , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972226

RESUMO

Most sexually active youth in the United States do not believe that they are at risk for contracting HIV and have never been tested. Creating safe environments that promote confidentiality and respect, obtaining an accurate sexual and reproductive health assessment, and providing nonstigmatizing risk counseling are key components of any youth encounters. Pediatricians can play a key role in preventing and controlling HIV infection by promoting risk-reduction counseling and offering routine HIV testing and prophylaxis to adolescent and young adult (youth) patients. In light of persistently high numbers of people living with HIV in the United States and documented missed opportunities for HIV testing, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Preventive Services Task Force recommend universal and routine HIV screening among US populations, including youth. Recent advances in HIV diagnostics, treatment, and prevention help support this recommendation. This clinical report reviews epidemiological data and recommends that routine HIV screening be offered to all youth 15 years or older, at least once, in health care settings. After initial screening, youth at increased risk, including those who are sexually active, should be rescreened at least annually, and potentially as frequently as every 3 to 6 months if at high risk (male youth reporting male sexual contact, active injection drug users, transgender youth; youth having sexual partners who are HIV-infected, of both genders, or injection drug users; youth exchanging sex for drugs or money; or youth who have had a diagnosis of or have requested testing for other sexually transmitted infections). Youth at substantial risk for HIV acquisition should be routinely offered HIV preexposure prophylaxis, and HIV postexposure prophylaxis is also indicated after high-risk exposures. This clinical report also addresses consent, confidentiality, and coverage issues that pediatricians face in promoting routine HIV testing and HIV prophylaxis for their patients.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/métodos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Teste de HIV , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Adolescente , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Consentimento Informado por Menores , Cobertura do Seguro , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Comportamento Sexual , Adulto Jovem
8.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 239, 2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922600

RESUMO

Pediatrics and society are closely related. This link is as old as the history of Pediatrics, and dates to the second half of the eighteenth century. The vocation of the first European pediatric schools, indeed, was clinical and scientific, as well as social. The founding fathers of Pediatrics were scientists of great talent, and many of them benefactors and philanthropists. They spent their lives assisting the suffering childhood, and became promoters and organizers of social securities for the poorest and most vulnerable categories. The attention to the problems of abandonment was closely linked to study, prevention, and treatment of pathologies (especially infectious, deficiency and neurological ones). The profile and activity of pediatricians grew in the following decades after the birth of the first pediatric schools. The University institutions contributed to provide a further impulse to childcare as well as cultural authority, also thanks to the foundation of the first chairs and scientific journals of Pediatrics. The relevance and prestige of the studies performed rapidly spread throughout Europe, and also reached our country, contributing to a progressive and relevant improvement in the quality of children's care, and in the meantime to the decrease of neonatal and infant mortality rates.Today's pediatricians, as in the past, must spend his efforts to face the needs of children and their families, be their social receptor, interpreter if necessary, and credible and authoritative interlocutor beside institutions. The current coronavirus pandemic dramatically exposed social inequalities and inequities. In this new scenario, the pediatrician's role of defender of all children becomes even more necessary and indispensable. Here we trace the historical steps which led to the birth and development of pediatrics, as independent medical discipline with ethical and social vocation. Its rise within the University institutions is analyzed, as well as the contribution of the greatest European and Italian masters. Finally, the role of today's pediatrician is described, his responsibilities also in dealing with new health critical issues, related to the biological, cultural, and psychological changes of the patients of present days. He must have holistic competences, to effectively take care of all children. In addition, he must socially act to guarantee the best possible context for the well-being of the child.


Assuntos
Pediatras/tendências , Pediatria/tendências , Sociedades Médicas , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943779

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a potential therapy to treat congenital and acquired lung diseases. Due to their tissue-regenerative, anti-fibrotic, and immunomodulatory properties, MSCs combined with other therapy or alone could be considered as a new approach for repair and regeneration of the lung during disease progression and/or after post- surgical injury. Children interstitial lung disease (chILD) represent highly heterogeneous rare respiratory diseases, with a wild range of age of onset and disease expression. The chILD is characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the pulmonary parenchyma, leading to gas exchange impairment and chronic respiratory failure associated with high morbidity and mortality. The therapeutic strategy is mainly based on the use of corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and supportive care; however, the efficacy is variable, and their long-term use is associated with severe toxicity. The role of MSCs as treatment has been proposed in clinical and pre-clinical studies. In this narrative review, we report on the currently available on MSCs treatment as therapeutical strategy in chILD. The progress into the therapy of respiratory disease in children is mandatory to ameliorate the prognosis and to prevent the progression in adult age. Cell therapy may be a future therapy from both a pediatric and pediatric surgeon's point of view.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Pediatras , Cirurgiões , Criança , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos
11.
Acad Pediatr ; 21(8S): S200-S206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740429

RESUMO

Poverty affects child health and well-being in short- and long-term ways, directly and indirectly influencing a range of health outcomes through linked social and environmental challenges. Given these links, pediatricians have long advocated for poverty reduction in both clinical settings and society. Pediatricians and others who work in pediatric settings are well-suited to address poverty given frequent touchpoints with children and families and the trust that develops over repeated encounters. Many pediatricians also recognize the need for cross-sector engagement, mobilization, and innovation in building larger collaborative efforts to combat the harmful effects of poverty. A range of methods, like co-design, community organizing, and community-engaged quality improvement, are necessary to achieve measurable progress. Moreover, advancing meaningful representation and inclusion of those from underrepresented racial and ethnic minority groups will augment efforts to address poverty within and equity across communities. Such methods promote and strengthen key clinical-community partnerships poised to address poverty's upstream root causes and its harmful consequences downstream. This article focuses on those clinical-community intersections and cross-sector, multi-disciplinary programs like Medical-Legal Partnerships, Medical-Financial Partnerships, clinic-based food pantries, and embedded behavioral health services. Such programs and partnerships increase access to services difficult for children living in poverty to obtain. Partnerships can also broaden to include community-wide learning networks and asset-building coalitions, poised to accelerate meaningful change. Pediatricians and allied professionals can play an active role; they can convene, catalyze, partner, and mobilize to create solutions designed to mitigate the harmful effects of poverty on child health.


Assuntos
Pobreza , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pediatras
13.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(6): 419-423, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813236

RESUMO

Teleconsultation is one of the components of telemedicine. Developmental pediatricians provide assessments and followup to children with developmental challenges. During the pandemic, due to movement and travel restrictions and the importance of continued care, pediatricians started working remotely with virtual consultations. The objective of this study was to describe the implementation of virtual care, the characteristics of patients seen, and their families' perception. A total of 122 teleconsultations were scheduled. Patients' mean age was 40 ± 13 months. The most common reasons for consultation were absence of and delay in language and behavioral difficulties. Although 16 % of families described some obstacles, all were grateful for the consultations. Virtual health care should be regarded as a complement to in-person care, alongside reductions in costs and travel time and the possibility.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Consulta Remota , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hospitais , Humanos , Pandemias , Pediatras
14.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(6): 427-430, 2021 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813249

RESUMO

Pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents that cannot be attributed to other genetic, infectious, toxic or nutritional causes. It can evolve from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and can progress to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Its treatment consists of a change in lifestyle, promoting weight loss with the incorporation of a healthy diet and increased physical activity. To achieve this goal, family support is essential. These measures will benefit the physical, mental and social quality of life of these children. The objective of this communication is to sensitize the pediatric community about the importance of managing these patients and their family environment, committing to modifying socioeconomic risk factors, to achieve a better quality of life for future generations.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade , Pediatras
15.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599007

RESUMO

Caring for a child with a serious or life-limiting illness presents many challenges for families and health care providers. Through that experience (and, many times, as it ends), parents are compelled to find and make meaning from their ultimate loss and the many losses along the way. In this Advocacy Case Study, we describe the experiences that led a bereaved mother to seek to harness the insights from her own family's loss to help support other families facing the challenges and complexities of a child's serious illness. Her family initially established a family foundation to advocate for palliative care. She later partnered with her family's general pediatrician and the American Academy of Pediatrics to educate providers and bring parent voices to health care provider discussions. This work eventually led to the development of the Courageous Parents Network, a nonprofit focused on making these parent and provider voices widely available to families and providers through a Web-based collection of videos, blogs, podcasts, and printable guides. Through these insights, the organization addresses feelings of isolation, anxiety, and grief. In addition, these voices illustrate the power and benefits of the growing acceptance of pediatric palliative care practices. Important lessons learned through these efforts include: (1) the power of stories for validation, healing, and understanding; (2) opportunity to extend the reach of pediatric palliative care through provider education and skill-building; (3) critical importance of the parent-provider advocacy collaboration; and (4) necessity of market testing and continuous improvement.


Assuntos
Associações de Consumidores/organização & administração , Cuidados Paliativos , Pais , Defesa do Paciente , Assistência Terminal , Ansiedade , Criança , Pesar , Humanos , Pediatras , Pediatria , Relações Profissional-Família , Isolamento Social , Sociedades Médicas
16.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1985935, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643158

RESUMO

The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires General Pediatricians (GPeds) to learn thirteen procedures during training. However, GPeds infrequently perform these procedures in practice. We sought to determine:1) how GPeds learned procedures, 2) if GPeds self-reported achieving competence in the required ACGME procedures during training, and 3) if GPeds maintained these skills into practice. We conducted this mixed methods study from 2019-2020. 51 GPeds from central Ohio and the American Board of Pediatrics General Examination Committee were recruited via email or snowball sampling and participated in semi-structured recorded phone interviews probing procedural performance during training and current practice. Participants represented varied geographic regions and clinical settings. We employed Sawyer's 'Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, Maintain' mastery learning pedagogical framework as a lens for thematic analysis. Participants did not demonstrate competence in all ACGME required procedures during training, nor sustain procedural skills in practice. Most participants learned procedures through a 'see one, do one' apprenticeship model. GPeds reported never being formally assessed on procedural competence during residency. All GPeds referred out at least one procedure. GPeds also believed that skill maintenance was unwarranted for procedures irrelevant to their current practice. GPeds did not sufficiently demonstrate competence in all ACGME required procedures during training, partially suggesting why they infrequently perform some procedures. Alternatively, these required procedures may not be relevant to their practice. Pediatric residency procedures education might consider using mastery learning for practice-specific procedures and surface-level methods (learning without mastery) for other skills.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Internato e Residência , Criança , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pediatras , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the current level of pediatricians to promote oral health. In particular, the study sought to determine whether years of experience were associated with the dentistry knowledge of pediatricians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Online recruitment was used to obtain a sample of pediatricians from the United States of America, Greece, and Saudi Arabia. These three countries are the participants in this research project. The participants completed an anonymous, online, self-administered questionnaire. This questionnaire is available upon request. The differences in responses to knowledge questions, attitude questions, and solution questions were examined with respect to years of experience. Poisson regression models were used to examine whether these differences were statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 313 pediatricians participated in the study. The study found moderate levels of dental knowledge among pediatricians. A total of 53.4% reported that they had adequate knowledge to make the right recommendations on oral health for patients and parents. Compared to the participants in a residency program, the participants with 5 to 10 years of experience were over 2.72 times as likely to report adequate knowledge, and participants with 10 years of experience or more were nearly 1.98 times as likely to report adequate knowledge. There was a significant association between dentistry knowledge questions and attitude. CONCLUSION: The current level of influence of pediatricians in promoting pediatric oral health is limited to moderate. The gaps in oral health knowledge remain an issue, even among a broad sample of pediatricians from Greece, Saudi Arabia, and the United States, particularly pediatricians with less work experience.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Saúde Bucal , Criança , Grécia , Humanos , Pediatras , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
19.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711677

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults living with intellectual disability (ID) have made significant advancements integrating into multiple aspects of western society, but there has been less progress with regards to sexual health. While advocating for individuals with ID to live life to the fullest, pediatricians have practical concerns regarding the ability to consent to sex as well as avoid coercion and manipulation in sexual encounters. This has led to tension between supporting the autonomy of a patient with ID while protecting them from harm. We present a case of a young adult with moderate ID who is engaging in a sexual relationship with her boyfriend without parental knowledge. The pediatrician must decide the most appropriate course of action to support the patient's autonomy but also ensure that the patient is a willing participant and understands the risks of engaging in sexual activity. This case highlights 4 main themes: (1) practical concerns when approaching sexual health in the adolescent with ID, (2) advocating for the rights of those with ID to live life to the fullest, (3) the critical inclusion of individuals with ID in decisions directly affecting them and their peer group, and (4) decision-making capacity and respect for autonomy in individuals with ID. This case highlights the delicate balance providers face when providing care to adolescents and young adults with ID: supporting autonomy to make decisions while reducing harm to a vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Pediatras , Autonomia Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Anticoncepção , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Tutores Legais/legislação & jurisprudência , Participação do Paciente , Direitos do Paciente , Comunicação Persuasiva , Risco , Saúde Sexual , Sexualidade
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