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1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47117

RESUMO

Nota de Alerta da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria - SBP, que visa fornecer medidas para o pediatra relacionadas com a Pandemia do COVID-19. O documento contém orientações em relação à rotina diária em consultórios médicos e ambulatórios, reforçando as recomendações sobre a preservação do aleitamento materno, pois até o momento não há evidências de transmissão através do leite materno.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Saúde da Criança , Pediatras , Consultórios Médicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle
2.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(2): 36-39, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs) are psychiatric illnesses with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Healthcare providers often receive inadequate training in evidence-based ED assessment and treatment. DESIGN: Project CORE (Creating Opportunities for Rhode Island Eating Disorders Professionals) was developed to disseminate ED training/education and treatment approaches to the healthcare workforce. An interdisciplinary research team partners with pediatric healthcare professionals/trainees and supports them to better understand how to diagnose, manage, and collaborate across disciplines in the care of patients with EDs. METHODS: Phase I involves a needs assessment of pediatric healthcare professionals' knowledge, attitudes and needs in treating EDs. Phase II involves the development of training/education approaches, and therapeutic interventions for patients with EDs. In Phase III approaches/interventions are further developed and disseminated across RI. PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS: Project CORE's goals will address barriers to effective ED treatment in RI and broaden the workforce of interdisciplinary providers trained to recognize and treat patients with EDs across multiple healthcare settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pediatras/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Rhode Island
3.
Pediatr Ann ; 49(3): e106-e108, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155275
5.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the use of tools, protocols and comfort measures related to sedation/analgesia, and to screen the occurrence of delirium in pediatric intensive care units. METHODS: A survey with 14 questions was distributed by e-mail to Brazilian critical care pediatricians. Eight questions addressed physician and hospital demographics, and six inquired practices to assess sedation, analgesia, and delirium in pediatric intensive care units. RESULTS: Of 373 questionnaires sent, 61 were answered (16.3%). The majority of physicians were practicing in the Southeast region (57.2%). Of these, 46.5% worked at public hospitals, 28.6% of which under direct state administration. Of respondents, 57.1% used formal protocols for sedation and analgesia, and the Ramsay scale was the most frequently employed (52.5%). Delirium screening scores were not used by 48.2% of physicians. The Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium was the score most often used (23.2%). The majority (85.7%) of physicians did not practice daily sedation interruption, and only 23.2% used non-pharmacological measures for patient comfort frequently, with varied participation of parents in the process. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the heterogeneity of practices for assessment of sedation/analgesia and lack of detection of delirium among critical care pediatricians in Brazil.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Sedação Profunda/métodos , Delírio/diagnóstico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgesia/efeitos adversos , Analgesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Sedação Profunda/efeitos adversos , Sedação Profunda/estatística & dados numéricos , Delírio/etiologia , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Acad Med ; 95(2): 301-309, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425181

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Difficulty in recruiting and retaining community preceptors for medical student education has been described in the literature. Yet little, if any, information is known about community outpatient preceptors who have stopped or decreased teaching time with students. This study aimed to examine these preceptors' perspectives about this phenomenon. METHOD: Using a phenomenology framework, this multi-institutional qualitative study used semistructured interviews with community pediatric preceptors who had stopped or reduced teaching time with medical students. Interviews were conducted between October 2017 and January 2018 and transcribed verbatim. Interviews explored factors for engaging in teaching, or decreasing or ceasing teaching, that would enable future teaching. An initial code book was developed and refined as data were analyzed to generate themes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven community pediatricians affiliated with 10 institutions participated. Thirty-seven codes resulted in 4 organizing themes: evolution of health care, personal barriers, educational system, and ideal situations to recruit and retain preceptors, each with subthemes. CONCLUSIONS: From the viewpoints of physicians who had decreased or stopped teaching students, this study more deeply explores previously described reasons contributing to the decline of community preceptors, adds newly described barriers, and offers strategies to help counter this phenomenon based on preceptors' perceptions. These findings appear to be manifestations of deeper issues including the professional identify of clinical educators. Understanding the barriers and strategies and how they relate to preceptors themselves should better inform education leaders to more effectively halt the decline of community precepting and enhance the clinical precepting environment for medical students.


Assuntos
Medicina Comunitária/educação , Pediatras , Preceptoria/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes de Medicina , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rehabilitation (Stuttg) ; 59(1): 34-41, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30743284

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study explores barriers impeding the access to pediatric rehabilitation and potential for optimization from the pediatricians' perspective. METHODS: Semi-structured expert interviews (N=25) and focus groups (N=3) with pediatricians were conducted and analyzed according to the method of Meuser & Nagel. The results were discussed within an expert group consisting of representatives of the statutory pension insurance and the professional association of pediatricians. RESULTS: Barriers appear due to information deficits regarding carrier-oriented access criteria. A perceived time-consuming application, high refusal rates with insufficient reasons and a lack of feedback from the carrier to the physician inhibit the application motivation. Mentioned improvements refer to a direct feedback of the application decision to the physician, case-specific reasons for refusal, physician oriented information as well as an increased presence of rehabilitation at pediatric congresses and medical trainings. CONCLUSION: To strengthen the role of rehabilitation in pediatric care improved information and knowledge in the allocation and submission of rehabilitation applications of primary care physicians is needed as well as an enhanced communication between rehabilitation carriers and physicians.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pediatras , Reabilitação , Criança , Grupos Focais , Alemanha , Humanos
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): S264-S276, dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051632

RESUMO

Introducción: No existen datos en la Argentina acerca de la adopción de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC) por parte de los pediatras. Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de uso de historia clínica electrónica (HCE) y de mensajería electrónica. Describir percepción de ventajas y desventajas. Población y métodos: Estudio observacional, exploratorio, descriptivo y transversal. Se envió una encuesta autoadministrada al padrón de socios de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría entre julio y septiembre de 2017. Resultados: De 14.604 socios, se recibieron 3468 respuestas (el 23,7 %); 2680 fueron completas (el 18,4 %). El porcentaje de uso de HCE fue del 44 %. Se destacaron ventajas: acceso a la información (el 23,2 %), agilización del trabajo (el 20,1 %), resguardo seguro de información (el 14,3 %), disponibilidad (el 11,9 %), cálculo de percentiles (el 11,1 %) y realización de estadísticas (el 9,2 %). Las desventajas percibidas fueron cuestiones técnicas (el 32 %), temor a pérdida de información (el 20 %), dudas sobre cuestiones legales (el 15,8 %). El 49,8 % consideró implementar el uso de HCE en el próximo año.El 76,9 % usaba aplicaciones para recibir consultas de sus pacientes. El WhatsApp (el 46,6 %) fue la plataforma más utilizada. El 74 % consideraba que las consultas no presenciales deberían ser remuneradas. Conclusión: El 44 % de los pediatras que respondieron utilizaba HCE. El 49,8 % consideró implementar algún sistema de HCE durante el año siguiente al estudio. La mensajería electrónica era ampliamente utilizada (el 76,9 %) en todos los rangos etarios.


Introduction: There are not data in Argentina about the percentages of use of Information and Communication Technologies by pediatricians yet. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of the use of Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Electronic Messaging. To describe the perception of advantages and disadvantages. Population and methods: Observational, exploratory, descriptive and transversal study. Five submissions of a self-administered survey were made to the list of partners of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría between July and September of 2017. Results: Of 14,604 partners, 3468 responses were received (23.7 %); 2680 were complete (18.4 %). The overall percentage of use of EHR was 44 %. There were advantages: access to information (23.2 %), streamlining work (20.1 %), secure information backup (14.3 %) and availability (11.9 %), calculation of percentiles (11.1 %) and statistics (9.2 %). The perceived disadvantages: technical issues (32 %), fear of information loss (20 %), doubts about legal issues (15.8 %). The use of EHR was going to be implemented by 49.8 % of respondents in the next year. Applications to receive consultations from their patients were used by 76.9 % of pediatricians. WhatsApp (46.6 %) was the most integrated platform. It was considered by 74 % that non face to face consultations should be remunerated. Conclusion: EHR was used by 44 % of pediatricians who responded. And 49.8 % were considering the implementation of some EHR system during the next year. Electronic messaging was widespread (76.9 %) in all age ranges.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Informática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Tecnologia da Informação/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Mensagem de Texto , Pediatras
10.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 37(4): 479-485, Oct.-Dec. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041366

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the knowledge of pediatricians and pediatric residents about the meaning of death according to the most prevalent religions in Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among pediatricians and pediatric residents at a tertiary-level children's hospital in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, questioning about their knowledge and experience related to spiritual care and the most common religious beliefs among pediatric palliative care patients in Brazil. Results: 116 physicians answered the questionnaire, 98 (84.5%) considered themselves religious, defined as followers of any spiritual creed around the world, and 18 (15.5%) non-religious. Of the total, 97 (83.6%) considered themselves capable of dealing with the spiritual care of Catholic patients, 49 (42.2%) of Protestant patients and 92 (79.3%) of patients that follow Spiritism in the process of death. Religious doctors used less chaplaincy services than non-religious doctors (relative risk - RR 2.54; p=0.0432; confidence interval of 95% - 95%CI 1.21-5.34). Among the physicians, 111 (96%) believe that spirituality is beneficial in accepting the death process, responses were associated with the religiosity of the physicians (RR 1.18; p=0.0261; 95%CI 0.95-1.45). Also, 106 (91.4%) are unaware of the religion of their patients and the same number of participants consider pediatricians, in general, unprepared to deal with the spiritual aspect of death. These data are not associated with the participants' religiosity. Conclusions: Although most pediatricians and residents consider themselves able to deal with the most prevalent religions in Brazil and affirm that spirituality is beneficial during the death process, little importance is given to the spiritual identity of their patients, which could limit an appropriate approach to their death process.


RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o conhecimento dos médicos pediatras e residentes de pediatria a respeito do significado da morte segundo as religiões mais prevalentes no Brasil. Métodos: Estudo transversal em que foi aplicado um questionário aos médicos pediatras e residentes de um hospital pediátrico de nível terciário da cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil, sobre o conhecimento e as experiências acerca de religiões de pacientes paliativos. Resultados: Ao todo, 116 médicos responderam ao questionário, 98 (84,5%) religiosos, definidos como seguidores de algum dogma espiritual existente no mundo, e 18 (15,5%) não religiosos. Do total, 97 (83,6%) considera-se apto a lidar com os cuidados espirituais de pacientes católicos, 49 (42,2%) de pacientes protestantes e 92 (79,3%) de pacientes espíritas em processo de morte. Médicos religiosos utilizaram menos os serviços de capelania do que médicos não-religiosos (risco relativo - RR 2,54; p=0,043; intervalo de confiança de 95% - IC95% 1,21-5,34). Dos entrevistados, 111 (96%) acreditam que a espiritualidade é benéfica na aceitação do processo de morte, resposta associada à religiosidade dos médicos (RR 1,18; p=0,026; IC95% 0,95-1,45). Ainda, 106 (91,4%) dos entrevistados desconhecem a religião de seus pacientes. A mesma quantidade de participantes considera os pediatras, em geral, despreparados para lidar com o aspecto espiritual da morte, e esses dados não estão ligados à manifestação de religiosidade. Conclusões: Apesar de a maioria dos médicos pediatras e residentes se dizer apta a lidar com as religiões mais prevalentes no Brasil e afirmar que a espiritualidade é benéfica durante o processo de morte, pouca importância é dada à identidade espiritual de seus pacientes, o que pode dificultar uma abordagem adequada ao seu processo de morte.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Relações Médico-Paciente , Religião e Medicina , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Morte , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Espiritualidade , Pediatras , Cuidados Paliativos , Brasil , Tanatologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0227186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887208

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis in children may be difficult to diagnose and is often not reported to routine surveillance systems. Understanding and addressing the tuberculosis (TB) case detection and reporting gaps strengthens national routine TB surveillance systems. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the percentage of childhood TB cases that are diagnosed but not reported to the national surveillance system in Pakistan. DESIGN: The study design was cross sectional. The study was nationwide in 12 selected districts across Pakistan, each representing a cluster. Health facilities that diagnose and treat childhood TB from all sectors were mapped and invited to participate. Lists of child TB cases were created for the study period (April-June 2016) from all study facilities and compared against the list of child TB cases notified to the national TB surveillance system for the same districts and the same period. RESULTS: All public and private health facilities were mapped across 12 sampled districts in Pakistan and those providing health services to child TB cases were included in the study. From all private health facilities, 7,125 children were found with presumptive TB during the study period. Of them, 5,258 were diagnosed with tuberculosis: 11% were bacteriologically-confirmed and 89% clinically-diagnosed; only 4% were notified to National TB Control Program. An additional 1,267 children with TB were also registered in the National TB Control Program. Underreporting was measured to be 78%. CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide childhood TB inventory study globally and confirmed that childhood TB underreporting is very high in Pakistan. TB surveillance in the country must be strengthened to address this, with particular attention to guiding and supporting general practitioners and pediatricians to notify their TB cases.


Assuntos
Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1453, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health care workers have a high risk of occupational exposure. However, the risk of occupational exposure for pediatric health care workers has not been acknowledged in previous studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occupational exposure rate of pediatric health care workers in Chinese public hospitals, to explore risk factors for occupational exposure, and to put forward corresponding countermeasures to reduce occupational exposure of pediatric health care workers and protect their physical and mental health. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with pediatric health care workers in 43 hospitals in 15 provinces in eastern, central, and western China between July and October 2018. With this sample, we computed the descriptive statistics of the demographic characteristics, calculated the frequency of various types of occupational exposure, and tested risk factors for occupational exposure using a chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Most respondents were nursing staff (61.1%) and workers with a low-ranking professional title (50.5%). The most common style of occupational exposure in our sample was a hazard in the work environment (62.6%). Notably, physicians were less likely to experience occupational exposure than nurses (OR = 0.320, 95% CI = 0.241, 0.426). Meanwhile, pediatric health care workers who interpreted the doctor-patient relationship as harmonious (OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.152, 0.607) were less likely to suffer occupational exposure. CONCLUSION: Pediatric health care workers in Chinese public hospitals have a high occupational exposure risk and the risk factors are complex and diverse. The state, society, hospitals should acknowledge this issue and develop strategies to protect the physical and mental health of pediatric health care workers.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pediatras , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The American Board of Pediatrics (ABP) certifies that general and subspecialty pediatricians meet standards of excellence established by their peers, immediately after training and over the course of their careers (ie, Maintenance of Certification [MOC]). In 2015-2016, the ABP developed the Maintenance of Certification Assessment for Pediatrics (MOCA-Peds) as an alternative assessment to the current proctored, closed-book general pediatrics (GP) MOC examination. This article is 1 of a 2-part series examining results from the MOCA-Peds pilot in 2017. METHODS: We conducted quantitative and qualitative analyses with 5081 eligible pediatricians who registered to participate in the 2017 pilot; 81.4% (n = 4016) completed a quarter 4 survey and/or end-of-year survey (January 2018) and comprise the analytic sample. RESULTS: The majority of pediatricians considered the MOCA-Peds to be feasible and acceptable as an alternative to the proctored MOC GP examination. More than 90% of respondents indicated they would participate in the proposed MOCA-Peds model instead of the examination. Participants also offered recommendations to improve the MOCA-Peds (eg, enhanced focus of questions on outpatient GP, references provided before taking questions); the ABP is carefully considering these as the MOCA-Peds is further refined. CONCLUSIONS: Pilot participant feedback in 2017 suggested that the MOCA-Peds could be implemented for GP starting in January 2019, with all 15 subspecialties launched by 2022. Current and future evaluations will continue to explore feasibility, acceptability, and learning and practice change as well as sustainability of participation.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Pediatras/psicologia , Pediatras/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Certificação/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
14.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This article is the second of a 2-part series examining results regarding self-reported learning and practice change from the American Board of Pediatrics 2017 pilot of an alternative to the proctored, continuing certification examination, termed the Maintenance of Certification Assessment for Pediatrics (MOCA-Peds). Because of its design, MOCA-Peds has several learning advantages compared with the proctored examination. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative analyses with 5081 eligible pediatricians who registered to participate in the 2017 pilot; 81.4% (n = 4016) completed a quarter 4 survey and/or the end-of-year survey (January 2018) and compose the analytic sample. RESULTS: Nearly all (97.6%) participating pediatricians said they had learned, refreshed, or enhanced their medical knowledge, and of those, 62.0% had made a practice change related to pilot participation. Differences were noted on the basis of subspecialty status, with 68.9% of general pediatricians having made a practice change compared with 41.4% of subspecialists. Within the 1456 open-ended responses about participants' most significant practice change, responses ranged widely, including both medical care content (eg, "care for corneal abrasions altered," "better inform patients about. . .flu vaccine") and nonspecific content (eg, providing better patient education, using evidence-based medicine, increased use of resources in regular practice). CONCLUSIONS: As a proctored examination alternative, MOCA-Peds positively influenced self-reported learning and practice change. In future evaluation of MOCA-Peds and other medical longitudinal assessments, researchers should study ways to further encourage learning and practice change and sustainability.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Certificação/normas , Competência Clínica/normas , Educação Médica Continuada/normas , Aprendizagem , Pediatras/normas , Adulto , Certificação/métodos , Educação Médica Continuada/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pediatras/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740497

RESUMO

Despite significant declines over the past 2 decades, the United States continues to experience birth rates among teenagers that are significantly higher than other high-income nations. Use of emergency contraception (EC) within 120 hours after unprotected or underprotected intercourse can reduce the risk of pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive methods include oral medications labeled and dedicated for use as EC by the US Food and Drug Administration (ulipristal and levonorgestrel), the "off-label" use of combined oral contraceptives, and insertion of a copper intrauterine device. Indications for the use of EC include intercourse without use of contraception; condom breakage or slippage; missed or late doses of contraceptives, including the oral contraceptive pill, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, and injectable contraception; vomiting after use of oral contraceptives; and sexual assault. Our aim in this updated policy statement is to (1) educate pediatricians and other physicians on available emergency contraceptive methods; (2) provide current data on the safety, efficacy, and use of EC in teenagers; and (3) encourage routine counseling and advance EC prescription as 1 public health strategy to reduce teenaged pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção Pós-Coito/métodos , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente , Sexo sem Proteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Feminino , Antagonistas de Hormônios/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatras/psicologia , Papel do Médico/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Sexo sem Proteção/fisiologia , Sexo sem Proteção/psicologia
17.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771960

RESUMO

Millions of children are subjected to abuse, neglect, and displacement, and millions more are at risk for not achieving their developmental potential. Although there is a global movement to change this, driven by children's rights, progress is slow and impeded by political considerations. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a global comprehensive commitment to children's rights ratified by all countries in the world except the United States (because of concerns about impingement on sovereignty and parental authority), has a special General Comment on "Implementing Child Rights in Early Childhood." More recently, the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund have launched the Nurturing Care Framework for Early Childhood Development (ECD), which calls for public policies that promote nurturing care interventions and addresses 5 interrelated components that are necessary for optimal ECD. This move is also complemented by the Human Capital Project of the World Bank, providing a focus on the need for investments in child health and nutrition and their long-term benefits. In this article, we outline children's rights under international law, the underlying scientific evidence supporting attention to ECD, and the philosophy of nurturing care that ensures that children's rights are respected, protected, and fulfilled. We also provide pediatricians anywhere with the policy and rights-based frameworks that are essential for them to care for and advocate for children and families to ensure optimal developmental, health, and socioemotional outcomes. These recommendations do not necessarily reflect American Academy of Pediatrics policy.


Assuntos
Defesa da Criança e do Adolescente/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Política de Saúde , Conflitos Armados , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Trabalho Infantil , Crianças com Deficiência , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Pobreza , Nações Unidas , Estados Unidos
18.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 532-541, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The knowledge of general practitioners about photoprotection is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of general practitioners and pediatricians about photoprotection, gauging the knowledge of these professionals. METHODS: The study followed the steps: (1) Literature identification and item elaboration related to the theme; (2) Content validation; (3) Apparent validation; (4) Construct validation: internal consistency analysis and discriminatory analysis; (5) Reliability analysis. In Step 4, the instrument was applied to 217 general practitioners and pediatricians who worked in the host city of the study; the scores were compared with dermatologists scores. RESULTS: The final instrument had 41 items and showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.780), satisfactory reproducibility and good test-retest reliability (good-to-excellent kappa statistic in more than 60% of items). The discriminatory analysis registered a mean score of 54.1 points for dermatologists and 31.1 points for generalists and pediatricians, from a total of 82 possible points, representing a statistically significant difference (p<0.001). Generalists and pediatricians demonstrated an understanding of the relationship between excessive sun exposure and skin cancer, but they revealed lack of technical information necessary for their professional practice. STUDY LIMITATIONS: The instrument evaluates only knowledge, without evaluating the conduct of the participants. CONCLUSION: The results show that the instrument has good internal consistency and good reproducibility. It could be useful in the identification of general practitioners and pediatricians knowledge gaps on the subject, for the subsequent development of training and educational strategies.


Assuntos
Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pediatras/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Energia Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Protetores Solares/uso terapêutico
19.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767716

RESUMO

An estimated 8.7 million children live in a household with a substance-using parent or guardian. Substance-using caretakers may have impaired judgment that can negatively affect their child's well-being, including his or her ability to receive appropriate medical care. Although the physician-patient relationship exists between the pediatrician and the child, obligations related to safety and confidentiality should be considered as well. In managing encounters with impaired caretakers who may become disruptive or dangerous, pediatricians should be aware of their responsibilities before acting. In addition to fulfilling the duty involved with an established physician-patient relationship, the pediatrician should take reasonable care to safeguard patient confidentiality; protect the safety of their patient, other patients in the facility, visitors, and employees; and comply with reporting mandates. This clinical report identifies and discusses the legal and ethical concepts related to these circumstances. The report offers implementation suggestions when establishing anticipatory procedures and training programs for staff in such situations to maximize the patient's well-being and safety and minimize the liability of the pediatrician.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Julgamento , Tutores Legais/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Pediatras/ética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Bem-Estar da Criança , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Notificação de Abuso , Consentimento dos Pais , Papel do Médico , Relações Médico-Paciente
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