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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250821, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345541

RESUMO

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar o efeito de diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o crescimento, composição corporal, perfil de aminoácidos e sorologia de alevinos de Channa marulius. O experimento foi conduzido em dez happas instalados em tanques de terra, cada um abastecido com 10 peixes, por 90 dias. Quatro alimentos para peixes comerciais com níveis de 25%, 30%, 32% e 40% de proteína bruta (PB) foram dados aos peixes com 3% de seu peso corporal úmido três vezes ao dia. Os resultados do estudo revelaram que maior ganho de peso, taxa de conversão alimentar e taxa de sobrevivência foram observados em 30% de proteína alimentar. Enquanto isso, o conteúdo de umidade foi maior em peixes alimentados com 30% de PB, enquanto a proteína bruta mais alta foi registrada em peixes alimentados com 40% de PB. O menor conteúdo de gordura foi observado em rações com 32% de PB. O perfil de aminoácidos dos peixes revelou melhores resultados na ração com 30% de PB. Proteína total, glicose e globulina também foram maiores em peixes alimentados com ração com 30% de PB, enquanto a albumina foi mais alta com 40% de PB. Conclui-se que a ração com 30% de PB apresentou melhores resultados em termos de crescimento, perfil de aminoácidos e parâmetros sorológicos sem afetar a composição corporal dos peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes , Ração Animal/análise , Paquistão , Composição Corporal , Lagoas , Dieta
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254816, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355894

RESUMO

Abstract Pakistan is an agricultural country and fisheries play a very important role in the economic development of the country. Different diseases are prevalent in Pakistani fish but information related to the causative agents is not well-known. Keeping in view the significance of bacterial pathogens as the causative agents of multiple fish diseases, the present study was conducted for identification, characterization and analysis of virulence genes of Aeromonas spp. isolated from diseased fishes. A total of fifty fish samples having multiple clinical indications were collected from different fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. For isolation of Aeromonas spp. samples were enriched and inoculated on Aeromonas isolation medium. Isolates were identified and characterized by different biochemical tests, Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E kit and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. All isolates were screened for three putative virulence genes including aerolysin (aer), haemolysin (hyl) and heat labile cytotonic enterotoxin (alt). Seven isolates of Aeromonas (A.) hydrophila were retrieved and identified based on API 20E. These isolates were further confirmed as A. hydrophila on the basis of PCR assays. Three isolates were detected positive for the presence of virulence genes (alt and hyl). Whereas aerolysin (aer) gene was not present in any of A. hydrophila isolates. The present study confirmed A. hydrophila as the causative agent of epizootic ulcerative syndrome and motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish farms of district Kasur, Punjab Pakistan. Moreover, detection of two virulence genes (alt and hyl) in A. hydrophila isolates is a threat for fish consumers of study area.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país agrícola, onde a pesca desempenha um papel muito importante para o desenvolvimento econômico. Diferentes doenças são prevalentes em peixes do Paquistão, mas as informações relacionadas aos agentes causadores não são bem conhecidas. Tendo em vista a importância dos patógenos bacterianos como agentes causadores de múltiplas doenças em peixes, o presente estudo foi conduzido para identificação, caracterização e análise de genes de virulência de isolados de Aeromonas spp. de peixes doentes. Foram coletadas 50 amostras de peixes com múltiplas indicações clínicas em diferentes fazendas do distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Para isolar Aeromonas spp., as amostras foram enriquecidas e inoculadas em meio de isolamento. Os isolados foram identificados e caracterizados por diferentes testes bioquímicos, kit Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E, e ensaios de reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Todos os isolados foram selecionados para três genes de virulência putativos, incluindo aerolisina (aer), hemolisina (hyl) e enterotoxina citotônica termolábil (alt). Sete isolados de Aeromonas hydrophila foram recuperados e identificados com base no API 20E. Esses isolados foram posteriormente confirmados como A. hydrophila de acordo com ensaios de PCR. Três isolados indicaram a presença de genes de virulência (alt e hyl), enquanto o gene aerolisina (aer) não esteve presente em nenhum dos isolados de A. hydrophila. O presente estudo confirmou A. hydrophila como o agente causador da síndrome ulcerativa epizoótica e septicemia móvel por Aeromonas em fazendas de peixes, no distrito de Kasur, Punjab, Paquistão. Além disso, a detecção de dois genes de virulência (alt e hyl) em isolados de A. hydrophila é uma ameaça para os consumidores de peixes da área de estudo.


Assuntos
Animais , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Aeromonas/genética , Paquistão , Aeromonas hydrophila/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Peixes
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253852, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355905

RESUMO

Abstract The aim objective of this study was to determine the trophic ecology of juvenile and adult Acestrorhynchus falcirostris during the rising and flood (high-water) period in six island lakes adjacent to the Solimões River. As such, we investigated: i) the trophic position, through the fractional trophic niche; ii) the niche breadth; iii) niche overlap and iv) the food strategy of the species. The specimens were collected during the years 2014 to 2017, using gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 30 to 120mm between opposite knots. Through the analysis of stomach contents, the preference in the consumption of items of animal origin was observed. Juveniles consumed insects in greater proportions (IAi% = 50%), while adults consumed fish (IAi%=99,98%). Despite the large supply of food items available in the high-water period, juveniles were the only ones to consume items of allochthonous origin, such as insects. Juveniles presented a different dietary strategy and dietary composition to adults. Juveniles were omnivores with a generalist strategy, while adults were piscivores with a specialist strategy. Thus, the food composition, niche breadth, trophic position and feeding strategy of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris change due to the stage of development.


Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ecologia trófica de juvenis e adultos de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris durante o período de enchente e cheia em seis lagos de ilha adjacentes ao rio Solimões. Assim, investigamos: i) a posição trófica, através do nicho trófico fracional; ii) a largura de nicho; iii) sobreposição de nicho; iv) a estratégia alimentar. Os espécimes foram coletados durante os anos de 2014 a 2017, utilizando redes de emalhar com malha variando de 30 a 120mm entre nós opostos. Por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal, observamos a preferência no consumo de itens de origem animal. Os juvenis consumiram insetos em maiores proporções (IAi% = 50%), enquanto os adultos consumiram preferencialmente peixes (IAi% = 99,98%). Apesar da grande oferta de alimentos disponíveis no período da cheia, os juvenis eram os únicos a consumir itens de origem alóctone, como por exemplo, os insetos. Os juvenis apresentaram uma estratégia alimentar e composição alimentar diferente para os adultos. Os juvenis foram considerados onívoros com uma estratégia generalista, enquanto os adultos foram considerados piscívoros com uma estratégia alimentar mais especialista. Assim, a composição alimentar, amplitude do nicho, posição trófica e a estratégia alimentar de Acestrorhynchus falcirostris muda em função do estágio de desenvolvimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Rios , Caraciformes , Estações do Ano , Lagos , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Peixes , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250402, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339404

RESUMO

Abstract We have evaluated the effects of different fish feeds on the body composition, growth, and enzyme activities of Labeo rohita (Rohu). In total, 240 fishes between the average weights of 24.77±2.15g were studied. The treatments were applied in a completely randomized design, with 4 treatments of 60 fishes each. Treatments consisted of four different fish feeds [Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4)]. Body composition, growth performance, and enzyme activities were evaluated. There was a significant variation in performance of fishes fed with different type of feed; as fishes having Oryza feed showed the highest weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), and best feed conversion ratio (FCR) as compared to other groups that were considered to be significant (P ≤ 0.05). High net weight gain was obtained in T4 when compared with T2 and T3. FCR value of T4 was less than T1 but higher than T2, T3 and T2, which showed the lowest values. The specific growth rate was recorded as average in T4, but T2 led a high SGR than T3. Similarly, crude protein level and digestive enzymes activity was recorded significantly highest in fed with Oryza (T1) as compared to AMG (T2), Aqua (T3), and Supreme (T4). Water quality parameters were recorded significant in all treatments except pH and DO of treatment (T1), significantly different from other treatments. It was concluded that Rohu (Labeo rohita) could show a promising growth rate and protease enzyme activity when fed with the Oryza feed of 25% protein.


Resumo Avaliamos os efeitos de diferentes alimentos para peixes em relação à composição corporal, crescimento e atividades enzimáticas de Labeo rohita (Rohu). No total, foram estudados 240 peixes com pesos médios de 24,77 ± 2,15 g. Os tratamentos foram aplicados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos de 60 peixes cada. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro alimentos diferentes para peixes: Oryza (T1), AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Foram avaliados a composição corporal, o desempenho de crescimento e as atividades enzimáticas. Houve uma variação significativa no desempenho dos peixes alimentados com diferentes tipos de ração. Peixes com alimentação Oryza apresentaram maior ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento específico (SGR) e melhor taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR) em comparação com outros grupos que foram considerados significativos (P ≤ 0,05). Elevado ganho de peso líquido foi obtido em T4 quando comparado com T2 e T3. O valor da FCR de T4 foi menor que T1, mas maior que T2 e T3, que apresentaram os menores valores. A taxa de crescimento específico foi registrada como média em T4, mas T2 teve uma SGR alta do que T3. Da mesma forma, o nível de proteína bruta e a atividade das enzimas digestivas foram registrados significativamente mais altos nos peixes alimentados com Oryza (T1) em comparação com AMG (T2), Aqua (T3) e Supreme (T4). Os parâmetros de qualidade da água foram registrados como significativos em todos os tratamentos, exceto pH e OD do tratamento (T1), significativamente diferente dos demais tratamentos. Concluiu-se que Rohu (Labeo rohita) pode apresentar uma taxa de crescimento promissora e atividade da enzima protease quando alimentado com Oryza de 25% de proteína.


Assuntos
Animais , Composição Corporal , Peixes
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247384, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278539

RESUMO

Abstract The colonization pattern of fish assemblages in streams is often studied in the context of environmental filters. On the other hand, when fish assemblages are subjected to anthropogenic effects, variables associated with environmental quality assume more importance. Therefore, this work evaluated the richness and composition of fish from streams sampled at different urbanization levels, aiming to determine any direct effects on the structure of fish assemblages. To accomplish this, samples were collected from 2003 to 2011 at 31 sites distributed among 3 microbasins in the Rio Ivinhema Basin, Alto Rio Paraná. Based on environmental variables, physicochemical of the water and analysis of the use and occupation of the soil, the microbasins were classified into different urbanization levels (low, medium and high). A total of 4,320 individuals were sampled, out of which 57 fish species were recorded. Sampled sites with medium urbanization level presented higher richness compared to sampled sites with high urbanization level which presented lower richness. Species richness in these sites was explained mainly by water temperature and water velocity. Results confirmed that urbanization does directly affect environmental integrity, which, in turn, can lead to the homogenization of stream assemblages.


Resumo Estudos sobre assembleias de peixes em riachos enfatizam o papel dos filtros ambientais associados ao padrão de colonização das assembleias, por outro lado, quando a assembleia está sujeita aos efeitos antropogênicos, as variáveis ambientais associadas à qualidade ambiental assumem maior importância. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a riqueza e a composição de peixes de riachos amostrados em diferentes níveis de urbanização, buscando evidenciar se o efeito reflete diretamente na estrutura das assembleias. As amostragens foram realizadas em 31 locais distribuídos em três microbacias na bacia Rio Ivinhema, Alto Rio Paraná, no período de 2003 a 2011. Com base nas variáveis ambientais, físico-químicos da água e análise do uso e ocupação do solo as microbacias foram classificadas em diferentes níveis de urbanização (baixo, médio e alto). Foram amostrados um total 4.320 indivíduos, dos quais foram registradas 57 espécies de peixes. Os locais amostrados com influência média da urbanização apresentaram maior riqueza de espécies, entretanto, os locais amostrados com alta influência da urbanização apresentaram menor riqueza de espécies. Dessa forma, constatamos que a urbanização influencia diretamente na integridade ambiental, que pode levar a homogeneização das assembleias de riachos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Urbanização , Rios , Solo , Brasil , Ecossistema , Peixes
9.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 177: 113565, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314394

RESUMO

Plastic pollution has become a threat to the global marine environment. Many studies have shown that marine organisms are at risk of plastic ingestion, but there is still a lack of relevant research in the artificial reef area and adjacent waters of Haizhou Bay, located in the western Yellow Sea. The study of MPs will provide useful information for MPs pollution in the artificial reef food webs, as well as the understanding of MPs trophic transfer by reef fish. In this study, we quantified plastic ingestion by marine fish in artificial reef areas and adjacent waters (Natural area, NA; Aquaculture area, AA; Estuary area, EA; Artificial reefs area, AR and Comprehensive effective area, CEA) and analysed the related possible influencing factors. Of the 146 fish samples examined, 100% of fish ingested plastics, and 98.9% of these particles were microplastics (MPs) (<5 mm), with 3.00 ± 2.63 pieces/fish. The main types and colours of MPs were fibre (95.9%) and blue (84%). The MP quantity of AR and AA were significantly higher than that of CEA (P < 0.05) and there is no significant difference among other habitats. The MP ingestion by pelagic fishes was significantly lower than that of demersal fishes (P < 0.05). MP ingestion by omnivores was significantly higher than that by carnivores and planktivores (P < 0.05). The body length (body weight) of four species (Larimichthys polyactis: 17.7-16.7 cm (16.01-59.41 g); Collichthys lucidus: 8.1-14.3 cm (19.65-56.92 g); Tridentiger barbatus: 5.9-9.2 cm (3.37-19.1 g); Cynoglossus joyneri: 10.1-18.7 cm (5-45 g)) had no significant correlation with MP ingestion (P > 0.05). Our results showed that MPs in this region are ubiquitous (i.e., the MP ingestion rate was as high as 100%). We infer that there is a transfer mechanism in MPs from pelagic to benthic fish in this area, and there is weak biomagnification with the trophic transfer of the food chain (TMF = 1.62). However, more practical studies still need to verify whether MPs are actually transferred to humans through trophic transfer from the marine food web.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Baías , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peixes , Plásticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4109170, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909869

RESUMO

Due to the limitation of sports movement, the current simulation technology of sports entities is prone to deficiencies in capturing dynamic motion figures and is prone to lack of accuracy. It is also affected by external noise and brightness. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a sports entity simulation based on the fish swarm algorithm and compares the figure effectiveness, figure segmentation, core point, and noise reduction effect of the two in the shooting figure. Through the comparison, it is found that the figure is more appropriate to the real moving figure, the motion capture is more accurate, and the number of core points is related to the accuracy of motion capture. The more core points, the more accurate the motion capture, and the noise reduction effect is also increased by 20.3%, which reduces the impact of brightness on the motion simulation. The difference in the effect of the traditional simulation technology (particle swarm algorithm) and the entity simulation based on the fish swarm algorithm was also compared. The combination with the artificial fish swarm algorithm is to simulate the moving entity and learn from some reference data. By comparing the data between the two after the experiment, it is concluded that the fish swarm algorithm is more effective in the simulation of sports entities.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Peixes , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Movimento (Física)
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221085, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919997

RESUMO

The pursuit of prey is vital to the biology of a predator and many aspects of predatory behaviour are well-studied. However, it is unclear how a pursuit can be effective when the prey is faster than a non-cryptic predator. Using kinematic measurements, we considered the strategy of red lionfish (Pterois volitans) as they pursued a faster prey fish (Chromis viridis) under laboratory conditions. Despite swimming about half as fast as C. viridis, lionfish succeeded in capturing prey in 61% of our experiments. This successful pursuit behaviour was defined by three critical characteristics. First, lionfish targeted C. viridis with pure pursuit by adjusting their heading towards the prey's position and not the anticipated point of interception. Second, lionfish pursued prey with uninterrupted motion. By contrast, C. viridis moved intermittently with variation in speed that included slow swimming. Such periods allowed lionfish to close the distance to a prey and initiate a suction-feeding strike at a relatively close distance (less than 9 cm). Finally, lionfish exhibited a high rate of strike success, capturing prey in 74% of all strikes. These characteristics comprise a behaviour that we call the 'persistent-predation strategy', which may be exhibited by a diversity of predators with relatively slow locomotion.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Peixes , Natação
12.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e263047, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920465

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of environmental contamination in a protected area in the Brazilian Amazon. For this, two areas were chosen along the Mearim River: the reference area (A1) and the potentially contaminated area (A2), where water samples were collected, for physicochemical and microbiological analyses, as well as specimens of Hoplias malabaricus, for the evaluation of biometric data and incidence of branchial lesions. The physicochemical analyzes of the water from both areas showed contamination (low levels of dissolved oxygen, tubidity and high iron concentrations, especially in A2). The microbiological analyzes showed that all water samples showed total coliform values higher than those acceptable by CONAMA and WHO (with higher values in A2), in addition to E. coli values higher than those allowed by legislation in A2. Regarding biometric data, male and female fishes were significantly longer and heavier in A1 during the dry and rain seasons and the gonadosomatic index also showed higher values in A1 than in A2 in both seasons. H. malabaricus showed gill lesions of minimal to moderate pathological importance in A1 and A2, indicating that specimens from both areas of the Mearim River showed biological responses to contamination. The observed changes in the water quality, bimetic parameters and the histological analyzes of the specimens of H. malabaricus directly reflect on the quality and health of the fishes in the Mearim River, and point to the urgent need for prevention and remediation of contamination in these ecosystems.


Assuntos
Caraciformes , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biometria , Brasil , Ecossistema , Escherichia coli , Feminino , Peixes , Masculino , Rios , Espécies Sentinelas
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 31(3): e007122, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920470

RESUMO

Monogeneans Pricea multae naturally infested 42 of the 120 (35%) mackerel fish (Scomberomorus commerson) examined. For the first time, an infestation was discovered off the coast of Jubil in the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia. Based on the structure clarified through light and electron microscopy of mounted specimens and molecular analysis of rDNA and measurements of this monogenean parasite was identified as P. multae. The tegumental surface of the parasite was characterized by tegumental ridges running transversally, generating folds in both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body at regular intervals. The study clarified the importance and function of the micro-structures, such as tegumental folds, perforations, sensory ganglia present on the parasite's surface, and the larger hamulus supported by a relatively unmodified internal spine. This monogenean parasite has adapted to its host infestation site uniquely.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Trematódeos , Animais , Peixes/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Arábia Saudita
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13156, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915129

RESUMO

Boulder placement is a common method to restore degraded instream habitats by enhancing habitat complexity. This experimental study is the foremost attempt to systematically investigate the influence of rock-ramp boulder placement with varying boulder concentration and flow rate on habitat hydraulic complexity metrics, including the kinetic energy gradient and modified recirculation metrics. By adding boulders to a reach, the modified recirculation metric increased by one order of magnitude for all boulder concentrations. Based on the studied metrics, boulder placement with the highest boulder concentration (λ = 8.3%) resulted in the greatest habitat hydraulic complexity. A set of relationships of moderate strength were proposed to predict the metrics in reaches with boulders by having information about only boulder concentration, habitat characteristic size, and reach-averaged flow characteristics. Based on the available data from the literature, boulder placement especially at higher concentrations may provide suitable habitats for several riverine fish species. Further studies are needed to establish a reliable linkage between the metrics and instream species, to test a wider variety of parameters for verifying and improving the range of applicability of the proposed relationships, and to find the structural configuration at which the habitat complexity is maximized or optimized for a certain species.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Ecossistema , Animais , Peixes
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13193, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915204

RESUMO

In 2013 Colombia made an important step towards the construction and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by establishing the first Deep Corals National Park (PNNCP). Inside this MPA, the coral Madracis myriaster (Cnidaria: Pocilloporidae) was found as the main reef builder, offering habitat for many species of fish and invertebrates. In order to improve the study of deep-sea coral habitats, their connectivity and prospective management, nine new genetic markers (microsatellites) were developed for M. myriaster and tested in samples from PNNCP. We present the assessment of these markers, with a specificity for the deep coral, and its prospective use in future analysis for the PNNCP and other areas in the Caribbean and the Atlantic, where M. myriaster is reported. We also include an additional taxonomic analysis performed on samples of M. myriaster using scanning electron microscopy.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Invertebrados , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271086, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917356

RESUMO

Metabolic depression and dormancy (i.e., stopping/greatly reducing activity and feeding) are strategies used by many animals to survive winter conditions characterized by food shortages and cold temperatures. However, controversy exists on whether the reduced metabolism of some fishes at cold temperatures is due to dormancy alone, or also involves active metabolic depression. Thus, we acclimated winter-dormant cunner [Tautogolabrus adspersus, a north temperate wrasse which in Newfoundland is at the northern limit of its distribution] and winter-active Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to winter (0°C; 8h light: 16h dark) and summer (10°C; 16h light: 8 h dark) conditions, and measured the thermal sensitivity of ATP-producing and O2-consuming processes in isolated liver mitochondria and hepatocytes when exposed in vitro to temperatures from 20 to 0°C and 10 to 0°C, respectively. We found that: 1) liver mitochondrial State 3 respiration and hepatocyte O2 consumption in cunner were only ~ one-third and two-thirds of that measured in salmon, respectively, at all measurement temperatures; 2) cunner mitochondria also have proton conductance and leak respiration (State 4) values that are only approximately one-third of those in salmon; 3) the mitochondria of cunner show a dramatic reduction in respiratory control ratio (from ~ 8 to 3), and a much greater drop in State 3 respiration, between 10 and 5°C (Q10 values in 10- and 0°C-acclimated fish of 14.5 and 141.2, respectively), as compared with salmon (3.9 and 9.6, respectively); and 4) lowering temperature from 5 to 0°C resulted in ~ 40 and 30% reductions in hepatocyte O2 consumption due to non-mitochondrial respiration and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, respectively, in cunner, but not in salmon. Collectively, these results highlight the intrinsic capacity for metabolic depression in hepatocytes and mitochondria of cunner, and clearly suggest that several cellular processes play a role in the reduced metabolic rates exhibited by some fishes at cold temperatures.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Perciformes , Aclimatação , Animais , Depressão , Peixes/metabolismo , Temperatura
17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272219, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913912

RESUMO

We wanted to clone the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) from slender African lungfish (Protopterus dolloi) for comparison to the P. dolloi mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), which we had cloned and were characterizing, as well as for comparison to the GRs from humans, elephant shark and zebrafish. However, although sequencing of the genome of the Australian lungfish (Neoceratodus forsteri), as well as, that of the West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens) were reported in the first three months of 2021, we could not retrieve a GR sequence with a BLAST search of GenBank, when we submitted our research for publication in July 2021. Moreover, we were unsuccessful in cloning the GR from slender African lungfish using a cDNA from the ovary of P. dolloi and PCR primers that had successfully cloned a GR from elephant shark, Xenopus and gar GRs. On October 21, 2021 the nucleotide sequence of West African lungfish (P. annectens) GR was deposited in GenBank. We used this GR sequence to construct PCR primers that successfully cloned the GR from the slender spotted lungfish. Here, we report the sequences of nine P. dolloi GR isoforms and explain the basis for the previous failure to clone a GR from slender African lungfish using PCR primers that cloned the GR from elephant shark, Xenopus and gar. Studies are underway to determine corticosteroid activation of these slender African lungfish GRs.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes , Peixes , Receptores de Glucocorticoides , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética
18.
J Parasitol ; 108(4): 343-352, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925593

RESUMO

Based on morphological and molecular data, a new species of tapeworm, Bothriocephalus kupermani n. sp., is described from pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus (Linnaeus, 1758) (type host), and green sunfish, L. cyanellus Rafinesque, 1819 (Actinopterygii: Centrarchidae) in the United States. The new species differs from its North American congeners mainly in the shape of its scolex, which is almost rectangular in dorsoventral and lateral views (nearly parallel margins in the bothrial region), with shallow, wide bothria, and by an extensive field of vitelline follicles that are also variably present, albeit more sparsely, medially in the cortex of the ovarian and uterine areas. This tapeworm appears to be typically associated with Lepomis sunfishes. Examination of museum specimens of Bothriocephalus species from Lepomis spp. indicates that the tapeworm also parasitizes bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus, longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, and that previous records of Bothriocephalus cuspidatus and Bothriocephalus claviceps in these fishes are of the new species, B. kupermani.


Assuntos
Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Perciformes , Animais , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Peixes , América do Norte , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia
19.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807871

RESUMO

Due to its numerous health benefits, fish consumption should be strongly encouraged. Fish consumption, however, is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. The aim of this research is to examine the influence of knowledge, product information, and satisfaction with product attributes on fish consumption in a nationally representative sample of people responsible for food purchasing within households in Croatia (n = 977) and Italy (n = 967). Fish consumption was well predicted (R2 = 15%) by the proposed structural model, using the partial least squares structural equation modelling method (PLS-SEM). The obtained results confirm that subjective knowledge (ß = 0.277, p < 0.001) and satisfaction with product attributes (ß = 0.197, p < 0.001) are predictors of fish consumption. Subjective knowledge was influenced by product information (ß = 0.161, p < 0.001), as well as by satisfaction with product attributes (ß = 0.282, p < 0.001), while objective knowledge had an influence on product information (ß = 0.194, p < 0.001). Although satisfaction with product attributes was the strongest predictor of subjective knowledge in both countries (ßCRO = 0.244, ßIT = 0.398), it had a greater effect among Italians (p = 0.001), while the impact of product information (ßCRO = 0.210, ßIT = 0.086) was more pronounced among Croatians (p = 0.010). Since the mediating role of subjective knowledge in all models was confirmed, action focused on enhancing subjective knowledge should be taken to increase fish consumption.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Satisfação Pessoal , Animais , Peixes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Conhecimento
20.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807958

RESUMO

The nutrition and health of middle-aged and elderly people is crucial to the long-term development of a country. The present study aimed to analyze the dietary consumption status in Chinese adults by using baseline and follow-up data from the community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases between 2018-2020 and selecting those aged 55 and older (n = 23,296). Dividing 65 food items into 17 subgroups on the basis of a valid semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, we analyze the consumption amount and consumption rate of foods in relation to wave and sociodemographic factors by employing the Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis analysis, the Chi-squared test, and the Cochran-Armitage trend test and evaluate food intake status using the Chinese Dietary Guidelines Recommendations (2022). Compared to 2018, the median daily intake of livestock meat, poultry, and eggs increased in 2020 (p < 0.05), while the median daily intake of wheat, other cereals, tubers, legumes, fruits, and fish and seafood decreased (p < 0.05). The proportion of subjects with excessive intake of grain, livestock and poultry, and eggs was 46.3%, 36.6%, and 26.6%, respectively, while the proportion of subjects with insufficient intake of whole grains and mixed beans, tubers, legumes, dairy products, fruits, vegetables, and fish and seafood were 98.4%, 80.3%, 74.0%, 94.6%, 94.3%, 75.8%, and 86.5%, respectively, and more than 50% of subjects were non-consumers of dairy products, nuts, and whole grains and mixed beans. In conclusion, the problem of unhealthy dietary structure is prominent among adults aged 55 and older in China; insufficient or excessive intakes of various types of foods are common; and excessive consumption of edible oil and salt remains a serious problem.


Assuntos
Dieta , Verduras , Idoso , Animais , China , Estudos de Coortes , Grão Comestível , Peixes , Frutas , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional
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