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1.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 99, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833244

RESUMO

We built a high-resolution topological food web for the kelp forests of the Santa Barbara Channel, California, USA that includes parasites and significantly improves resolution compared to previous webs. The 1,098 nodes and 21,956 links in the web describe an economically, socially, and ecologically vital system. Nodes are broken into life-stages, with 549 free-living life-stages (492 species from 21 Phyla) and 549 parasitic life-stages (450 species from 10 Phyla). Links represent three kinds of trophic interactions, with 9,352 predator-prey links, 2,733 parasite-host links and 9,871 predator-parasite links. All decisions for including nodes and links are documented, and extensive metadata in the node list allows users to filter the node list to suit their research questions. The kelp-forest food web is more species-rich than any other published food web with parasites, and it has the largest proportion of parasites. Our food web may be used to predict how kelp forests may respond to change, will advance our understanding of parasites in ecosystems, and fosters development of theory that incorporates large networks.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Macrocystis/parasitologia , Animais , California , Peixes/parasitologia , Invertebrados/parasitologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1605-1615, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830362

RESUMO

Parasites can be used as biological tags to assess stock structures in various marine fish species. In the present study, the species composition and infection levels of parasitic nematodes of the genus Anisakis in the skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis were examined in the Northwest Pacific and adjacent seas. A total of 867 third-stage larvae of Anisakis were collected from 112 skipjack tunas captured around Japan and in other subtropical localities. All larvae were identified as A. berlandi, A. pegreffii, A. simplex (s.s.), A. typica, and A. physeteris (s.l.) by the direct sequencing of the mitochondrial cox2 gene and real-time PCR assays targeting the nuclear ITS region. Anisakis species composition differed among northeastern Japan, the Sea of Japan, and other areas (central Japan, the Nansei Islands, and subtropical region), which is largely concordant with previous stock discrimination of skipjack tuna. Molecular phylogenetic analysis resulted in two intraspecific genetic groups in A. simplex (s.s.), one of which occurred almost exclusively in northeastern Japan. This could be a useful indicator for stock discrimination. Skipjack tunas from northeastern Japan were also characterized by a remarkable variety in the intensity of A. simplex (s.s.), suggesting the commingling of individuals with different migration patterns. This idea might be further justified by the geographic distribution of two genetically distinct groups of A. physeteris (s.l.).


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/classificação , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Atum/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceano Pacífico/epidemiologia , Filogenia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1687-1697, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655349

RESUMO

Larvae of Tylodelphys Diesing, 1950 are major digenean pathogens of fish and amphibians. Tylodelphys spp. may induce mass mortality of fish and increase their susceptibility to predation. Even though Tylodelphys spp. cause substantial damage to aquaculture systems, surprisingly little is known regarding the taxonomy of this commercially important genus with a limited number of visible autapomorphic identification features. The authors obtained the DNA sequences and analyzed the molecular phylogenetics of Tylodelphys spp. adults isolated from bird hosts of Czech origin and provide comparative measurements of the analyzed species. They identified a previously unknown species complex that is subject to cryptic speciation and was previously morphologically identified as Tylodelphys excavata (Rudolphi, 1803) sensu lato. This species complex consists of three morphologically similar but genetically well-separated species. Tylodelphys excavata sensu stricto remains the dominant Tylodelphys isolated from Ciconia ciconia, which also serves as a satellite host of Tylodelphys circibuteonis Odening, 1962, which is the resurrected species for which birds of prey serve as core hosts. The authors describe Tylodelphys nigriciconis sp. n. Heneberg & Sitko as a new species identified in Ciconia nigra. By providing the first sequences of Tylodelphys podicipina Kozicka and Niewiadomska, 1960, they also show that Tylodelphys immer Dubois, 1961 is a junior synonym of T. podicipina. Further research is needed to match the provided molecular data with the DNA of larval Tylodelphys from outbreaks in commercially exploited fish species.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/genética , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/citologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e015920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605386

RESUMO

The consumption of inadequately thermally treated fish is a public health risk due to the possible propagation of Anisakis larvae. The present study demonstrated the physiological and histopathological changes that accompanied an oral inoculation of crude extracts from fresh and thermally treated Anisakis Type II (L3) in rats. Worms were isolated from a marine fish and examined and identified using light and scanning electron microscopy. The study was performed in 6 rat groups: control (I), garlic oil (GO) inoculated (II), fresh L3 inoculated (III), thermally treated L3 inoculated (IV), fresh L3 + GO inoculated (V), and a thermally treated L3 + GO inoculated (VI) groups. Rats inoculated with fresh and thermally treated L3 showed abnormal liver and kidney functions associated with the destruction of normal architecture. GO produced a protective effect in rat groups inoculated with L3 extracts + GO via the amelioration of liver and kidney functions, which was confirmed by the marked normal structure on histology. Cooking of L3-infected fish induced severe alterations compared to uncooked fish. The administration of garlic before and after fish eating is recommended to avoid the dangerous effect of anisakids, even if they are cooked.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos , Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Sulfetos , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anisaquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Anisaquíase/prevenção & controle , Anisakis/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Culinária , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Larva , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(3): 861-876, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511471

RESUMO

Commercial marine fishes caught locally in East Java, Indonesia, were examined for multivalvulid myxosporeans (Cnidaria: Myxozoa: Myxosporea). Plasmodia of Unicapsula pyramidata were detected in the trunk muscle of two fork-tailed threadfin breams (Nemipterus furcosus). Genetic comparisons of this sample to those collected in the Australian Coral Sea and South China Sea showed few nucleotide substitutions in the small subunit and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) with the species isolated in the Australian Coral Sea and South China Sea. Pseudocysts of two new Kudoa spp. with four shell valves and polar capsules were found in the trunk muscle of two shrimp scads Alepes djedaba and two flathead grey mullets Mugil cephalus. Kudoa javaensis n. sp. myxospores isolated from the shrimp scad were 5.1-7.2 (mean 6.2) µm thick, 6.2-7.9 (7.3) µm wide, and 4.6-6.3 (5.4) µm long, with polar capsules 1.9-2.5 (2.2) µm long and 1.1-1.4 (1.3) µm wide (n = 15). Kudoa surabayaensis n. sp. myxospores isolated from the flathead grey mullet were 5.8-6.7 (6.3) µm thick, 6.4-7.6 (6.9) µm wide, and 4.6-5.0 (4.7) µm long, with polar capsules 1.8-2.4 (2.1) µm long and 0.9-1.3 (1.1) µm wide (n = 25). These two Kudoa spp. showed critical differences in spore shapes (semiquadrate with unequal shell valves vs. equal shell valves), and absence vs. presence of uplifted shell valve termini. Nucleotide sequencing of rDNA supported the morphological differentiation of these two species. Furthermore, these two isolates were morphologically and phylogenetically distinct from any recorded Kudoa spp.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Indonésia , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008998, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370333

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis is endemic in East Asia; approximately 15 million people have been infected thus far. To diagnose the infection, serodiagnostic tests with excellent functionality should be performed. First, 607 expressed sequence tags encoding polypeptides with a secretory signal were expressed into recombinant proteins using an in vitro translation system. By protein array-based screening using C. sinensis-infected sera, 18 antigen candidate proteins were selected and assayed for cross-reactivity against Opisthorchis viverrini-infected sera. Of the six antigenic proteins selected, four were synthesized on large scale in vitro and evaluated for antigenicity against the flukes-infected human sera using ELISA. CsAg17 antigen showed the highest sensitivity (77.1%) and specificity (71.2%). The sensitivity and specificity of the bacterially produced CsAg17-28GST fusion antigen was similar to those of CsAg17 antigen. CsAg17 antigen can be used to develop point-of-care serodiagnostic tests for clonorchiasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorchis sinensis/imunologia , Animais , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Opisthorchis/imunologia , Testes Imediatos , Proteogenômica , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22091, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328532

RESUMO

Marine leech Zeylanicobdella arugamensis (Piscicolidae), an economically important parasite is infesting predominantly cultured groupers, hybrid groupers and other fish in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, we tested the anti-parasitic potential of a medicinal plant Nephrolepis biserrata found in Sabah, East Malaysia against Z. arugamensis. Various concentrations of methanol extracts of the plant were tested experimentally against Z. arugamensis and disinfestation of the leech from its primary host hybrid groupers. The composition of methanol extract of N. biserrata was determined through LC-QTOF analysis. The significant anti-parasitic activity of 100% mortality of leeches was observed with the exposure of N. biserrata extracts. The average time to kill the leeches at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 mg/ml was 25.11 ± 3.26, 11.91 ± 0.99, and 4.88 ± 0.50 min., respectively. Further, at various low concentrations of N. biserrata 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml, hybrid groupers were disinfested in an average time of 108.33 ± 12.65, 65.83 ± 9.70 and 29.16 ± 5.85 min., respectively. The tandem mass spectrometry data from LC-QTOF indicated some hits on useful bioactive compounds such as terpenoids (ivalin, isovelleral, brassinolide, and eschscholtzxanthin), flavonoids (alnustin, kaempferol 7,4'-dimethyl ether, and pachypodol), phenolics (piscidic acid, chlorogenic acid, and ankorine), and aromatic (3-hydroxycoumarin). Thus N. biserrata can act as a potential biocontrol agent.


Assuntos
Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Sanguessugas/efeitos dos fármacos , Parasitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antiparasitários/química , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Ectoparasitoses/patologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Sanguessugas/patogenicidade , Malásia , Metanol/química , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3585-3594, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025215

RESUMO

The infective stage of Anisakidae nematodes responsible for allergic reactions in humans is found in a variety of edible fish and cephalopods. The identification of geographical regions that are high risk for infected seafood may help prevent allergic reactions in humans. Despite an abundance of published literature which has identified anisakid larvae in an array of edible seafood as well as scattered reports of human allergic anisakiasis, the relationship between the two has not been fully explored. Therefore, a systematic spatio-temporal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in fish from January 2000 to August 2020 firstly to explore the relationship between fish infection and cases of allergic anisakiasis and secondly to use fish infection data to map potential allergic anisakiasis 'hot spots'. A systematic literature search for original English text articles was conducted through search engines, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Out of 3228 articles which describe anisakid infection in fish, 264 were used for data extraction. Of 904 articles describing allergic anisakiasis, 37 were used for data extraction. A qualitative summary of the extracted data was performed using equal interval method (ArcMap software) in order to compare the global distribution of Anisakis-infected fish. Of the 152-identified fish hosts, five families were most commonly infected with Anisakis spp. These included Lophiidae (86.9%), Trichiuridae (77.05%), Zeidae (70.9%), Merlucciidae (67.8%) and Gadidae (56.8%). The hot spot areas for allergic anisakiasis were North and northeast of Atlantic Ocean, southwest of USA, west of Mexico, south of Chile, east of Argentina, Norway, UK and west of Iceland (confidence 99%). The highest rate of allergic anisakiasis was in Portugal and Norway with the prevalence rate of 18.45-22.50%. Allergologists should consider allergic anisakiasis as a public health issue particularly in high-risk countries where high prevalences in fish have been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/etiologia , Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Larva , Prevalência
9.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 426-427, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the situation of Anisakis infection of in market-available marine fish in Dongtai City, so as to provide the evidence for the assessment of the risk of human Anisakis infections. METHODS: Raw and fresh marine fish caught in the sea of Dongtai City for sale were collected in 2018. The fish were weighted and dissected for the identification of Anisakis, and the prevalence and intensity of Anisakis infections were calculated. In addition, the correlation between the weight of Anisakis-infected marine fish and the infection intensity of Anisakis was examined. RESULTS: There were four species of marine fish infected with Anisakis, including Trichiurus haumela, Scomberomorus niphonius, Pneumatophorus japonicus and Larimichthys polyactis. Among the 149 fish samples, there were 78 with Anisakis infections, with a prevalence rate of 52.35%. The prevalence of Anisakis infection was 100.00% (28/28), 30.00% (9/30), 0 (0/30), 53.33% (16/30) and 80.65% (25/31) in T. haumela, S. niphonius, cuttle fish, P. japonicus and L. polyactis, respectively. A total of 1 049 Anisakis worms were collected, and the overall intensity of infection was 13.45 worms per fish. Spearman correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between the weight of T. haumela and the intensity of Anisakis infection (rs = 0.38, P = 0.047), and no correlation was found in other fish species. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high rate of Anisakis infection in marine fish along the offshore areas of Dongtai City. Intensification of health education is required and healthy and safe dietary habits are encouranged.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase , Anisakis , Doenças dos Peixes , Peixes , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Animais , Anisaquíase/epidemiologia , Anisakis/fisiologia , Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Peso Corporal , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Parasitária/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20180984, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935738

RESUMO

Metacercariae of Diplostomidae are widely distributed in America and may cause diplostomiasis, an ocular disease in fishes. The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum in Plagioscion squamosissimus (non-native fish species) from Nova Avanhandava Reservoir, Tietê River, Brazil and an explanation for the high infection rates with this parasite in the Paraná River Basin is proposed. Eyes of 70 hosts were examined, the metacercariae were preserved and identified. The prevalence (P), mean intensity of infection (MII) ± standard deviation, mean abundance (MA) ± standard deviation, were calculated and a bibliographic review was performed. There was no difference in parasitism between male and female hosts. The values of P = 80%, MII = 21.55 ± 3.25 and MA = 17.24 ± 2.91 were high, as in most studies in areas where P. squamosissimus were introduced, while these values were low in areas of natural occurrence. This may be explained by the genetic susceptibility of the host to the parasite. The entire population of P. squamosissimus from the Upper Paraná has been founded by a few specimens, resulting in very low genetic variability. Consequently, the population may be highly susceptible to A. compactum.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Metacercárias , Trematódeos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Rios
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008720, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935771

RESUMO

This study provides an updated list of parasite species and their respective hosts in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The list of parasites is structured by phylum, class, order and family, followed by a record of each host species. A total of 315 taxa of parasites were reported, of which 201 were identified at the species level. These 201 species comprise 3 Flagellata, 3 Myxozoa, 50 Monogenea, 43 Digenea, 40 Cestoda, 41 Nematoda, 8 Acanthocephala, 6 Copepoda, 5 Branchiura and 2 Pentastomida, arranged in 84 host fish species. This work carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River contributes to the listing of parasite species and host interactions of the local ichthyofauna. Little is known about these communities and its riches are underestimated due to the high density of fish found in this region, highlighting the importance of conducting studies on the local fauna.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Lista de Checagem , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Rios
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 373-386, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871631

RESUMO

Fish-borne heterophyid trematodes are known to have a zoonotic potential, since at least 30 species are able to infect humans worldwide, with a global infection of around 7 million people. In this paper, a 'state-of-the-art' review of the South American heterophyid species is provided, including classical and molecular taxonomy, parasite ecology, host-parasite interaction studies and a list of species and their hosts. There is still a lack of information on human infections in South America with undetected or unreported infections probably due to the information shortage and little attention by physicians to these small intestinal flukes. Molecular tools for specific diagnoses of South American heterophyid species are still to be defined. Additional new sequences of Pygidiopsis macrostomum, Ascocotyle pindoramensis and Ascocotyle longa from Brazil are also provided.


Assuntos
Heterophyidae , Animais , Cianobactérias , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Heterophyidae/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , América do Sul , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 457-460, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871640

RESUMO

The Pacific tapeworm Adenocephalus pacifcus (syn. Diphyllobothrium pacificum) is a causative agent of diphyllobothriosis occurred in Pacific coast of South America, mainly in Peru. Source of infections are traditional meal from raw or undercooked marine fish such as "cebiche". We confirmed 3 new cases, one including scolex and the other two headless. A strobila 46 cm long without scolex was discharged from an 8-year-old boy before treatment. Specimens were confirmed morphologically by presence of tegumental protuberances on proglottids and small sized eggs. Partial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was congruent with A. pacificus sequences.


Assuntos
Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Peru , Filogenia
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108812, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805575

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence, infection level and distribution of ascaridoid larvae in cephalopod products sold in Italy. Data on the species most commonly commercialized as whole and fresh on the Italian market were collected. After comparing commercial and literature data, Eledone spp., comprising E. cirrhosa and E. moschata (horned octopus and musky octopus, respectively) and Doryteuthis pealeii (longfin inshore squid) were selected, as they had been rarely investigated. Overall, 75 Eledone spp. caught in the Mediterranean Sea (FAO area 37) and 70 D. pealeii from the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (FAO area 21) were examined by visual inspection and artificial digestion (viscera and mantle separately). Parasites were submitted to morphological and molecular analysis. Prevalence (P), mean intensity (MI) and mean abundance (MA) were calculated. In D. pealeii, 2 nematode larvae molecularly identified as Anisakis simplex s.s. were found in the viscera and in the mantle of two specimens (P: 2.9% 95% CI: 0-6.8%; MI: 1; MA: 0.028). In Eledone spp. 9 nematode larvae molecularly attributed to Hysterothylacium spp. were found in the mantle of 5 specimens (P: 6.7% 95% CI: 1-12.3%; MI: 1.8; MA: 0.12). This is the first report of A. simplex s.s. in D. pealeii. Considering the zoonotic and allergenic potential of these larvae and their localization also in the edible part (mantle), a potential public health issue exists.


Assuntos
Anisaquíase/veterinária , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Decapodiformes/parasitologia , Octopodiformes/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Anisaquíase/parasitologia , Anisakis/classificação , Oceano Atlântico , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Itália , Larva , Mar Mediterrâneo
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3285-3296, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812144

RESUMO

The taxonomy of Hysterothylacium genus in Mediterranean waters remains incomplete and unresolved. The aim of the current study was to investigate the morphological and molecular identification of selected species of Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fish from the Tunisian Mediterranean coasts. A total of 192 marine fish samples were examined. In total, thirty-seven third-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium were morphologically identified as Hysterothylacium type V. In the present study, representatives of this type from the Mediterranean Sea were genetically characterized for the first time by sequencing the rDNA ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) regions and mtDNA cox2 gene. This study represents the first report of Hysterothylacium type V from the Mediterranean Sea. We also report Mullus barbatus, M. surmuletus, and Pagellus erythrinus as new hosts for this larval type. Based upon molecular and phylogenetic analyses considering the rDNA ITS regions, the Hysterothylacium type V described here was classified as a new genotype, named Genotype B. The valid genetic data of the described Hysterothylacium type V in the present study can be used to establish the phylogenetic relationships among Hysterothylacium species from the Mediterranean Sea and worldwide for future research.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/veterinária , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Ascaridoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/anatomia & histologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/classificação , Genes de Helmintos/genética , Genótipo , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mar Mediterrâneo , Filogenia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008483, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis, caused by the fish-borne trematode Clonorchis sinensis, is a neglected tropical disease and a public health issue in endemic countries. In Vietnam, an in-depth analysis of risk factors for the condition is missing up to now. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of C. sinensis infection and associated risk factors in rural communities in northern Vietnam. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4 communes in Yen Bai and Thanh Hoa provinces where clonorchiasis is known to be present and raw fish consumption is a common. Using a simple random sampling approach, stool was collected from 841 participants over 6 years old for coprological examination, and a questionnaire measured knowledge, attitudes, and practices with regard to clonorchiasis in 757 participants over 15 years old. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were run to identify risk factors for infection with C. sinensis. The overall prevalence of C. sinensis infection was 40.4%, with commune prevalences ranging between 26.5% and 53.3%. In the final model, males were significantly more likely to be infected with C. sinensis (OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.31-3.05). Recent (i.e. last year) consumption of raw fish (OR 8.00, 95% CI 4.78-13.36), low education level (OR 5.57; 95% CI 2.37-13.07), lack of treatment (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.15-2.89), being between 19 to 39 years old (OR 6.46; 95% CI 1.25-33.37), and the presence of an unhygienic toilet (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.53-4.92) were significantly associated with C. sinensis infection. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of C. sinensis infection in rural communities in northern Vietnam. Thus, control measures including, mass drug administration for those communes should be applied to reduce the prevalence. Moreover, specific health education activities should be developed for risk groups in C. sinensis endemic areas.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorchis sinensis , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Saneamento , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(5): 441-454, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770445

RESUMO

The Monorchiidae Odhner, 1911 are well represented in tropical and subtropical marine fishes worldwide but rarely reported from the Lutjanidae, an important family of tropical fishes that prey mainly on demersal fishes, decapods and cephalopods. Here, we report the first monorchiid from a lutjanid in Australian waters, Retroporomonorchis pansho n. g., n. sp. in Lutjanus fulvus (Forster), off Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. It is morphologically and phylogenetically distinct among known monorchiids, resolves within the Monorchiinae Odhner, 1911, and is characterised by a relatively large ventral sucker, a sinistral genital pore immediately posterior to the ventral sucker, unfilamented eggs, a single testis, and vitelline follicles restricted to the level of the gonads. We assessed all previous records of monorchiids from lutjanid fishes and found only one to be convincing, that of Infundiburictus overstreeti (Gupta & Gupta, 1990) Wee, Cutmore, Pérez-del-Olmo & Cribb, 2020 from Lutjanus monostigma (Cuvier) in the Bay of Bengal. Another, Monorcheides xishaensis Shen, 1985, from Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) in the Paracel Islands, South China Sea, is here recognised as a cryptogonimid, and is synonymised with Siphoderina asiatica Gu & Shen, 1979. In the remaining reports, the identity of the host is either ambiguous or doubtful, or the identity of the worm is not supported with sufficient evidence.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3617-3625, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833049

RESUMO

Two myxosporean species of the genus Sphaeromyxa were isolated from the gallbladders of marine fish in the South China Sea. Sphaeromyxa scorpaena n. sp. was collected from Scorpaenodes albaiensis Evermann and Seale, 1907. The mature myxospores were arcuate-shaped with tapered to pointed ends, and a length of 14.1 ± 0.7 (13.8-15.1) µm and a width of 5.2 ± 0.3 (4.9-5.8) µm. The polar capsules (PCs) were pyriform with a length of 3.2 ± 0.2 (3.1-3.5) µm and a width of 1.6 ± 0.1 (1.4-1.8) µm, and containing ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded 1.5-2.5 turns. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rDNA as well as morphological comparison confirmed that S. scorpaena n. sp. was a previously undescribed species. Sphaeromyxa theraponi, isolated from Terapon jarbua Forsskål, 1775, was reported for the first time from the South China Sea. The mature myxospores were slightly arched, tapering to bluntly rounded ends, with a length of 17.3 ± 0.9 (15.5-19.4) µm and a width of 4.8 ± 0.3 (4.1-5.3) µm. A sporoplasm was situated in the space between PCs in the myxospore. The PCs were pyriform, which contained ribbon-like polar filaments irregularly folded by 2-3 turns, with a length of 7.0 ± 0.5 (5.8-8.1) µm and a width of 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.2-3.0) µm. Our morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggest that the pointed ends of S. scorpaena n. sp. might be a secondarily acquired characteristic rather than an ancestral trait.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , China , DNA Ribossômico , Vesícula Biliar/parasitologia , Myxozoa/classificação , Percas , Perciformes/parasitologia , Filogenia
19.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 333-338, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615748

RESUMO

A small survey was performed to investigate the recent infection status of Clonorchis sinensis and other zoonotic trematode metacercariae in freshwater fish from a local market of Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. A total of 118 fish in 7 species were examined by the artificial digestion method on March 2016. The metacercariae of 4 species of zoonotic trematodes, i.e., C. sinensis, Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Centrocestus formosanus, were detected. The metacercariae of C. sinensis were found in 62 (69.7%) out of 89 fish (5 species), and their intensity of infection was very high, 81.2 per fish infected. Prevalences of 3 intestinal flukes, H. pumilio, H. taichui and C. formosanus, were 75.0%, 47.6%, and 31.7% in positive fish species, respectively, with the metacercarial intensities of 15.5, 10.3, and 2.2 per fish infected. From the above results, it has been confirmed that various species of freshwater fish continue to play the role of the infection source of C. sinensis and other zoonotic trematodes in Yen Bai city, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. It is of particular note that the prevalence and intensity of C. sinensis metacercariae are much higher than those reported in previous studies in fish in northern Vietnam.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
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