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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e017819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236333

RESUMO

Anisakisspp. nematodes are potentially zoonotic parasites; that infects a wide variety of aquatic species worldwide, with marine fish being the paratenic hosts. The aim of study was identify the presence of Anisakidae nematodes, and other parasites in Mugil curema . A total of 96 M . curema obtained from local markets in Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Mexico, were analyzed by necropsy. Only five M . curema present nematode collection in epaxial muscle. The tissues with the highest prevalence of parasites were identified, and samples of epaxial muscle with larval migration analyzed by histopathology. Visible parasites in necropsy tissues were classified according to their morphology. Nematode found in the liver were Contracaecum spp. (41.17%) and Pseudoterranova spp. third stage (7.36%); in the caudal part of the kidney were Anisakis spp. (13.23%), Pseudoterranova spp. third stage (11.77%) and Contracaecum spp. (5.88%); and in epaxial muscle were Anisakis spp. Larva I (5.88%) and Pseudoterranova spp (4.42%). In one fish, Clinostomum spp. was detected in epaxial caudal muscle. The present work reports for the first time the presence of nematodes of the family Anisakidae and Clinostonum spp. metacercariae, with zoonotic potential, in M . curema intended for human consumption in Tulancingo, Hidalgo, Mexico.


Assuntos
Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Humanos , México , Trematódeos/classificação
2.
Syst Parasitol ; 97(1): 1-23, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912420

RESUMO

We provide molecular data (cox1, 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA) for 17 acanthocephalan species and 20 host-parasite combinations from Australian marine teleosts collected from off Queensland, Australia. Fourteen of these acanthocephalans are characterised with molecular data for the first time and we provide the first molecular data for a species of each of the genera Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931, Pyriproboscis Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003 and Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978. Using 18S and 28S rDNA sequences, the phylogenetic position of each newly sequenced species is assessed with both single-gene and concatenated 18S+28S maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. Additional phylogenetic analyses focusing on the genus Rhadinorhynchus Lühe, 1912 and related lineages are included. Our phylogenetic results are broadly consistent with previous analyses, recovering previously identified inconsistencies but also providing new insights and necessitating taxonomic action. We do not find sufficient evidence to recognise the Gymnorhadinorhynchidae Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014 as distinct from the Rhadinorhynchidae Lühe, 1912. The family Gymnorhadinorhynchidae and its sole genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014, are here recognised as junior synonyms of Rhadinorhynchidae and Rhadinorhynchus, respectively. The two species currently assigned to Gymnorhadinorhynchus are recombined as Rhadinorhynchus decapteri (Braicovich, Lanfranchi, Farber, Marvaldi, Luque & Timi, 2014) n. comb. and Rhadinorhynchus mariserpentis (Steinauer, Garcia-Vedrenne, Weinstein & Kuris, 2019) n. comb. In all of our analyses, Rhadinorhynchus biformis Smales, 2014 is found basal to the Rhadinorhynchidae + Transvenidae Pichelin & Cribb, 2001, thus resulting in a paraphyletic Rhadinorhynchidae. It appears that R. biformis may require a new genus and family; however, morphological data for this species are currently insufficient to adequately distinguish it from related lineages, thus we defer the proposal of any new higher-rank names for this species. Species of the genus Sclerocollum, currently assigned to the Cavisomidae Meyer, 1932, are found nested within the family Transvenidae. We transfer the genus Sclerocollum to the Transvenidae and amend the diagnosis of the family accordingly. The genera Gorgorhynchoides Cable & Linderoth, 1963 and Serrasentis Van Cleave, 1923, currently assigned to the Rhadinorhynchidae, are supported as sister taxa and form a clade in the Polymorphida. We transfer these genera and Golvanorhynchus Noronha, Fabio & Pinto, 1978 to an emended concept of the Isthomosacanthidae Smales, 2012 and transfer this family to the Polymorphida. Lastly, Pyriproboscis heronensis (Pichelin, 1997) Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003, currently assigned to the Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939, falls under the Polymorphida in our analyses with some support for a sister relationship with the Centrorhynchidae Van Cleave, 1916. As this species clearly does not belong in the Pomphorhynchidae and is morphologically and molecularly distinct from the lineages of the Polymorphida, we propose the Pyriprobosicidae n. fam. to accommodate it.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Organismos Aquáticos/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/classificação , Organismos Aquáticos/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Queensland , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0008038, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986138

RESUMO

We undertook the first study systematically evaluating the risk of Anisakis-sensitization in Croatian fish-processing workers and potential genetic susceptibility to anisakiasis. Anti-Anisakis IgE seroprevalence and risk factors for 600 employees of Croatian fish processing facilities and 466 blood donor controls, were assessed by indirect ELISA targeted with: recombinant Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 allergens, an Anisakis crude extract, the commercial ImmunoCAP kit, and questionnaires. Genetic susceptibility to anisakiasis was evaluated by genotypisation of human leukocytes alleles (HLA). Anti-Anisakis seropositive and a fraction of negative subjects were also assessed by ELISA and Western Blot (WB) for IgG seroprevalence to Trichinella spp. Overall, the observed anti-Anisakis seroprevalence inferred by indirect ELISA was significantly higher in fish processing workers (1.8%, 95% CI 0.9-3.3%) compared to the controls (0%, 0-0.8%). Seven out of 11 Ani s 1 and Ani s 7-positives and none of selected 65 negative sera, tested positive on whole-Anisakis extract (ImmunoCAP), whereas Anisakis crude extract ELISA detected 3.9% (2.4-6.0%) seropositives in fish processing workers, three (14%) of which showed IgE reactivity to milk proteins. The highest risk associated with Anisakis-sensitization among workers was fishing in the free time, rather than any of attributes related to the occupational exposure. Although no association was observed between anti-Anisakis seropositivity and wearing gloves or protective goggles, the majority of workers (92%) wore protective gloves, minimizing the risk for Anisakis sensitization via skin contact. Six HLA alleles within DRB1 gene were significantly associated with seropositivity under dominant, allelic or recessive models. All sera confirmed negative for anti-Trichinella spp. IgG. The study exhaustively covered almost all marine fish processing workers in Croatia, reflecting real-time Anisakis sensitization status within the industry, already under the influence of wide array of allergens.


Assuntos
Anisakis/imunologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Hipersensibilidade , Exposição Ocupacional , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Antígenos de Helmintos , Croácia , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Luvas Protetoras , Proteínas de Helminto , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Trichinella/imunologia
4.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 423-430, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912275

RESUMO

A prerequisite for a parasitic manipulation to be considered adaptive is that it confers a fitness benefit to the parasite, such as increased transmission to another host. These manipulations can involve alterations to a wide range of host phenotypic traits, including microhabitat choice. Eye flukes of the trematode family Diplostomidae use fish as intermediate hosts and must be transmitted by predation to a piscivorous bird. In New Zealand, the diplostomid Tylodelphys darbyi infects the eyes of a widespread endemic freshwater fish, the common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus. Within the eye, T. darbyi metacercariae achieve large sizes and move freely about the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye. We hypothesized that higher intensities of T. darbyi would (i) cause bullies to show increased activity and spend more time moving about in open space (i.e., more conspicuous, risky microhabitat) and (ii) reduce their ability to compete for shelter with fish harboring lower infection levels. Our experiments showed that heavily infected fish were more active and spent more time in the open, although the effect was age-dependent, with immature fish displaying decreases in activity and time spent in the open with increasing intensities of infection. We also demonstrated that heavily infected female bullies have a lower probability of using shelter, but males show the opposite pattern. It is possible that using more risky microhabitats increases the likelihood of the fish being eaten by the parasite's predatory avian definitive hosts. However, our findings indicate that age- and sex-dependent effects call for a more nuanced interpretation.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Olho/patologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Trematódeos/patogenicidade , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Transtornos da Visão/parasitologia , Animais , Olho/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Água Doce , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Masculino , Metacercárias , Nova Zelândia , Comportamento Predatório , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Transtornos da Visão/veterinária
5.
Parasitol Int ; 74: 101993, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521766

RESUMO

Despite the increasing popularity of seafood in Australia and various reports of infection with transmissible parasites in Australian edible aquatic animals such as fish, the number of reported cases of human infections in the country is low. This raised the question that Australian medical doctors may not be fully aware of the presence of these parasites in Australia, which in turn can lead to misdiagnosis of infections. This also may lead to an underestimation of the risk seafood-borne parasites may pose to public health. This preliminary study was conducted to determine the awareness and level of knowledge among Australian medical practitioners in New South Wales, the most populated and multicultural state in Australia, about seafood-borne parasitic diseases. Medical doctors, both general practitioners and gastroenterologists, were surveyed through an anonymous questionnaire (n = 376). Although the response rate was low at 11%, participants represented a diverse group in terms of gender, age, nationality and expertise. Despite several publications on occurrence of zoonotic parasites in Australian fish and other edible aquatic animals, and also in humans in the country, all respondents said no seafood-borne parasite had been reported as being seen within Australian or overseas practice. Although, due to low response rate, we are unable to confidently comment on the level of awareness, the findings of this study clearly suggest that further research is needed to investigate the extent of unawareness among Australian medical doctors about these highly important parasites and understanding the underlying issues in medical education that lead to the unawareness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Parasitárias/psicologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Médicos , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Austrália , Educação Médica , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Eur J Protistol ; 72: 125647, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877437

RESUMO

In the present study, we provide morphological and molecular characterization of two Trichodina species, T. acuta Lom, 1970 and T. funduliWellborn, 1967, isolated from koi (Cyprinus carpio) and loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus), respectively. Morphological characters of the two Trichodina species were mainly investigated on the basis of dry silver nitrate-impregnated specimens. Both species are medium-sized and possess well-developed denticles comprising strongly sickle-shaped blades, well-developed central parts, and straight rays. Trichodina acuta can be easily distinguished from the other Trichodina species that possess a clear central circle by the well-developed sharp blade apophysis, and the gap between ray tip and central circle. Trichodina funduli is a poorly known species that is easily confused with T. heterodentata Duncan, 1977, however the latter species has thinner denticles. The small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of Trichodina acuta and T. funduli were incorporated into phylogenetic analyses. Our findings suggest that the phylogenetic lineage of trichodinids might not correspond with their living environments, host species or even some morphological characteristics.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Oligoimenóforos/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , China , Água Doce , Oligoimenóforos/citologia , Oligoimenóforos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Parasite ; 26: 73, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855174

RESUMO

Heterosentis holospinus Amin, Heckmann & Ha, 2011 (Arhythmacanthidae) was first described from the striped eel catfish, Plotosus lineatus (Plotosidae) in Halong Bay, Vietnam. New morphological information, scanning electron microscope images, molecular analysis, and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) of hooks of specimens of H. holospinus from a new collection from the common ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus (Leiognathidae), in Quang Binh, Gulf of Tonkin, Vietnam are reported here for the first time. Additional details of the anterior trunk cone, proboscis hooks, wholly spined trunk, duck-bill-like spines with micropores, and micropore distribution, are described. The unique metal composition of hooks (EDXA) demonstrated a considerably higher level of calcium and phosphorus but lower level of sulfur at the hook basal arch than at the hook tip and edge. An analysis of our new sequences of cytochrome oxidase 1 (COI) showed that H. holospinus had low genetic variation and two haplotypes.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/anatomia & histologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Oceano Pacífico , Vietnã
8.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3253-3265, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729573

RESUMO

Metacercariae of Clinostomum Leidy, 1856 are frequently encountered in freshwater fish. In 2015, a provisional species of Clinostomum in People's Republic of China (PRC) was distinguished from C. complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819) in Europe based on divergent cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1). However, in subsequent studies in East Asia, the same divergent CO1 genotype was identified as C. complanatum. These matching sequences suggest that either the provisional East Asian species was incorrectly distinguished from C. complanatum in 2015 or that C. complanatum in East Asia was misidentified in later studies. We tested these alternatives by sequencing the mitochondrial genome of C. complanatum in Italy, which was 5.7% divergent from a previously published sequence from Clinostomum in PRC, including differences in 80 of 3390 (2.4%) translated amino acids. Partial CO1 sequences of specimens from PRC and those from Italy, Romania, and Turkey also each formed reciprocally monophyletic clades. Partial CO1 from the East Asian clade varied by mean 3.6% (range 2.4-4.8%) from C. complanatum from Italy, Romania, and Turkey; mean intra-clade CO1 variation was 0.3% (range 0-1.9%). Metacercariae from Europe and East Asia display significant morphometric variation, and data from the literature suggest morphological differences in the genital complex of adults. Although sequences of nuclear rDNA did not differ between isolates from the west and East Asia, taken together, these results lead us to describe a new species of Clinostomum.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Animais , Ásia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Metacercárias/anatomia & histologia , Metacercárias/classificação , Metacercárias/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Trematódeos/anatomia & histologia , Trematódeos/genética
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 708-712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721932

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of diets supplemented with levamisole on monogeneans on the gills of Colossoma macropomum. Fish were fed with diets containing levamisole at concentrations of 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg-1 for 24, 96 and 240 h and the infection by Anacanthorus spatulatus, Notozothecium janauachensis and Mymarothecium boegeri were evaluated. None of the levamisole concentrations caused either mortality or behavioral alterations in fishes during 240 h of feeding. After 24 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole, the abundance of N. janauachensis decreased in comparison with treatments of 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg kg-1, as did the abundance of M. boegeri after 240 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole. The efficacy of 900 mg kg-1 of levamisole was only 55.7% after 96 h of feeding, but it was 84.6% after 240 h of feeding with 1200 mg kg-1. Our results show that 1200 mg kg-1 of levamisole for 10 days has good anthelmintic efficacy against monogeneans of C. macropomum. Since monogeneans elicit some of the worst problems in C. macropomum, this study has provided evidence of an effective control method that may be used in fish farms.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Peixes/parasitologia , Levamisol/administração & dosagem , Trematódeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 533-547, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691731

RESUMO

Fish immune systems have become the subject of several studies due to the growing development of aquaculture and fisheries, and the demand for healthy produce for human consumption. Among the parasites responsible for diseases in fish farming, helminths stand out because they cause infections in farmed fish and decrease food conversion, zootechnical performance and meat quality. In the present review, the components that participate in the innate and adaptive immune responses of teleost fish that have so far been described are presented in order to summarize the defenses that these hosts have recourse to, in combating different groups of helminth parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia
11.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 487(1): 108-111, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571077

RESUMO

Progressive expansion of the most hazardous human parasitoses caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes has been found on the south of the Russian Far East. Decelerating expansion of the trematode Clonorchis sinensis, an agent of clonorchiasis towards the southern Primorye Territory from the Amur River basin, that began 10-15 years ago, was revealed. A prognosis was made on the activation of the natural foci of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis. Circulation possibilities are discussed of the highly pathogenic trematode Pagonimus heterotremusar in the South Asian regional ecosystems. Our experiments showed that the freshwater gastropods of the Parajuga genus from the Amur River basin and those of Stenothyra genus from Primorsky Territory were resistant to this trematode infection. Nevertheless, this does not exclude the possibility of this parasite penetration into the Far East region via infection of the local gastropods of other genera.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Animais , Canidae/parasitologia , Cestoides/patogenicidade , Clima , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Felidae/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Moluscos/parasitologia , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Sibéria , Trematódeos/patogenicidade
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2781-2787, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493063

RESUMO

Crassiphiala is a monotypic genus of diplostomid digeneans and is the type genus of the subfamily Crassiphialinae. The type species Crassiphiala bulboglossa parasitizes kingfishers in the Nearctic and has a Neascus-type metacercaria that encysts on fish intermediate hosts, often causing black spot disease. While recent molecular phylogenetic studies included some members of the Crassiphialinae, no DNA sequence data of Crassiphiala is currently available. Our molecular and morphological study of adult and larval crassiphialines from the Americas revealed the presence of at least three lineages of Crassiphiala from the Nearctic and two lineages from the Neotropics. This is the first record of Crassiphiala from the Neotropics. Herein, we provide the first molecular phylogeny of the Diplostomoidea that includes Crassiphiala. Our data revealed 0.2-2.4% divergence among 28S sequences and 11-19.8% among CO1 sequences of lineages of Crassiphiala. The results of our analyses did not support the monophyly of Crassiphialinae. Our results clearly demonstrated that the diversity of Crassiphiala has been underestimated.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Filogenia , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metacercárias/classificação , Metacercárias/genética , Metacercárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2831-2841, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473854

RESUMO

Corynosoma australe and C. cetaceum are the most frequently reported acanthocephalans in fish from the Argentine Sea, particularly in central and northern areas. Their definitive hosts are otariids and odontocete cetaceans, respectively. The low specificity of these larvae, in combination with high infective capability and long survival periods in fish, make them potentially good biological markers for stocks and other biological features of their fish hosts. In order to determine the distribution patterns of these species and their determining factors, a large dataset composed by newly collected fish samples, published and unpublished data from previous studies by the authors in the region were analysed in relation to host and environmental variables. The complete dataset comprised a total of 5084 fish, belonging to 29 species distributed in 21 families and 9 orders. Host size and trophic habits arose as the main determinants of abundance for both species of Corynosoma, showing higher abundances on larger fish and on higher trophic levels, as it is usual for trophically transmitted parasites. Biogeographic province and depth (indirectly representing the temperature of water) were the main drivers of the spatial distribution, displaying a latitudinal pattern associated to the temperature clines created by the interaction of Malvinas and Brazil currents, determining a decrease in abundance southwards and towards the deeper areas. No patterns were found regarding the distribution of definitive hosts. The knowledge of these distribution patterns of Corynosoma spp. in fish at regional scale, as well as of their causes, provides useful information to design management and conservation policies thus contributing to maintain the full and sustainable productivity of fisheries.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/classificação , Acantocéfalos/genética , Acantocéfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 319-322, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of transient elastography (Fibroscan) in detection of clonorchiasis, so as to provide new insights into the assessment of therapeutic efficacy of deworming. METHODS: The liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values were measured in parasitologically diagnosed clonorchiasis patients using FibroScan before and after deworming, and the patients'age, gender, body mass index (BMI), duration of raw fish consumption and total amount of raw fish consumption were collected for correlation analyses. RESULTS: The clonorchiasis patients'age, gender, BMI, duration of raw fish consumption and total amount of raw fish consumption had no associations with pre-treatment LSM values (r/rs = 0.189, 0.073, 0.180; 0.071, -0.098, 0.033; 0.166, 0.309, 0.172; 0.235, 0.247, 0.209; 0.164, 0.277, 0.088; all P values > 0.05). There was a significant difference in the LSM values from the seventh, eighth and ninth intercostal space prior to deworming (F = 3.259, P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected after deworming (F = 0.851, P > 0.05). The LSM values from the seventh, eighth and ninth intercostal space were significantly lower pre-deworming than post-deworming (t = 6.724, 5.603, 2.884; all P values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FibroScan is feasible to assess the therapuetic efficacy of deworming in patients with clonorchiasis; however, measurement at various sites affects the LSM value.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Clonorquíase/complicações , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/normas , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/parasitologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Masculino , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia
15.
J Helminthol ; 94: e86, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500672

RESUMO

Trematodes of the genus Galactosomum are cosmopolitan parasites that infect the intestines of fish-eating birds and mammals. Adults of named Galactosomum species have not been recorded from bird hosts in New Zealand, despite their cercarial stage being known from various studies of the first intermediate host, Zeacumantus subcarinatus. Here we describe a new species of Galactosomum infecting four different piscivorous birds in New Zealand: Caspian terns, red-billed and black-backed gulls and little blue penguins. Specimens from each of these hosts are genetically identical in the genes sequenced, but show considerable morphological variability. Galactosomum otepotiense n. sp. is distinguished from most other members of the 'bearupi-group' in having a single circle of spines on the ventral sucker, and spines, as opposed to scales, over most of the body. It is most similar to G. bearupi and G. angelae, both from Caspian terns in Australia, but differs in the relative sizes of the reproductive organs and in the possession of a very long forebody. Molecular data confirm that G. otepotiense is not conspecific with G. bearupi, but 28S and ITS2 phylogenies show its close relationship to G. bearupi and other Australian species. We use the cox1 sequence to confirm identity with the larval stage infecting Z. subcarinatus, as previously described in the literature. We discuss briefly the relationships between Australian and New Zealand Galactosomum spp. and their hosts, variability between genetically identical specimens found in different hosts and their potential for harm to mariculture economy.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/classificação , Heterophyidae/genética , Animais , Austrália , Cercárias , Peixes/parasitologia , Heterophyidae/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Larva , Nova Zelândia , Filogenia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 118(11): 3113-3127, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520119

RESUMO

During an extensive research project involving 519 specimens of batoids, including 13 species of Rajiformes and Myliobatiformes (Chondrichthyes) from the Argentine Sea, three new species of Empruthotrema were found and are described using morphologic characteristics and two molecular markers: LSU rDNA and COI mtDNA. The new species can be distinguished from their congeners by the number and distribution of the marginal loculi, the length and morphology of male copulatory organ, and the presence of eyespots. Additionally, multivariate analysis identified the dimensions of the pharynx and ejaculatory bulb as diagnostic features. Host specificity and previous records of the genus in the region are discussed. This is the first description of new species in this genus for the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, as well as for arhynchobatid hosts.


Assuntos
Platelmintos/classificação , Tubarões/parasitologia , /parasitologia , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Peixes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Masculino , Platelmintos/genética , Platelmintos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 662019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366737

RESUMO

The localisation and distribution of the serotoninergic nerve elements was studied for the first time in the flatworm Chimaericola leptogaster (Leuckart, 1830) using immunocytochemical methodology and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The musculature was investigated by histochemical staining of actin filaments; scanning electron microscopy was used to identify the sensory structures on the worm's surface. Uniciliated, bi-ciliated and multiciliated sensory endings have been described on the worm's surface. The morphological data demonstrate the presence of circular, longitudinal and diagonal muscles that comprise the musculature of C. leptogaster in the anterior, median and posterior body regions. Well-developed radial and circular muscle fibres were also observed surrounding the genital pore, two vaginae and in clumps of the haptor. The study revealed the presence of biogenic amine, serotonin, in the central and peripheral nervous systems of C. leptogaster: in the neurons and fibres of the cephalic ganglia and ventral nerve cord, in the innervation of reproductive system compartments. The localised sites of the serotoninergic elements point to important roles of serotonin in monogenean reproductive processes and, possibly, in the regulation of muscle function.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Serotonina/análise , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal/veterinária , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária , Músculos/citologia , Músculos/ultraestrutura , Sistema Nervoso/citologia , Sistema Nervoso/ultraestrutura , Trematódeos/citologia , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108306, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442713

RESUMO

Despite increases in the annual consumption of seafood in Australia, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of zoonotic parasites in fish and the risk they may pose to human health are limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence of zoonotic nematodes in commonly consumed fish in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state. Three species of fish, including the Australian pilchard, Australian anchovy, and eastern school whiting, were purchased from a fish market and examined for the presence of nematode parasites. All Australian pilchards examined in this study were infected (100%; n = 19), followed by the eastern school whiting (70%; n = 20) and Australian anchovy (56%; n = 70). Nematodes were in the larval stage and, therefore, classified by morphotype, followed by specific identification through sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Seven different larval types with zoonotic potential, belonging to the families Anisakidae (Contracaecum type II and Terranova type II) and Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV [genotypes A and B], VIII, XIV and a novel Hysterothylacium larval type, herein assigned as type XVIII), were found. The new larval type was identified as Hysterothylacium thalassini, based on ITS sequence data. The presence of the infective stage of a range of zoonotic parasites in fish commonly consumed in New South Wales is important, particularly as, in some dishes, these fish are used whole, raw or undercooked. This study provides the basis for future research on other aspects of these parasites, in regards to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , New South Wales/epidemiologia
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2773-2779, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456045

RESUMO

Based on morphology and morphometry of gametocytes in blood and molecular phylogenetic analysis, we described a new species of hemoparasite from the genus Haemogregarina isolated from Lepidosiren paradoxa in the eastern Amazon region. Haemogregarina daviesensis sp. nov. is characterized by monomorphic gametocytes of varying maturity stage and their dimensions were 16 ± 0.12 µm (range 13-18) in length and 6 ± 0.97 µm (range 5-8) in width. The morphological and morphometric data were not identical with other haemogregarine species from fish. All specimens of L. paradoxa analyzed were infected by H. daviesensis sp. nov. and the parasitemia level was moderate (1-28/2000 blood erythrocytes). Two sequences were obtained from L. paradoxa, and these constituted a monophyletic sister clade to the Haemogregarina species. In addition, H. daviesensis sp. nov. detected here grouped with Haemogregarina sp. sequences isolated from chelonian Macrochelys temminckii, with 99% bootstrap support. This study provides the first data on the molecular phylogeny of an intraerythrocytic haemogregarine of freshwater fish and highlights the importance of obtaining additional information on aspects of the general biology of these hemoparasites in fish populations, in order to achieve correct taxonomic classification.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/classificação , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Peixes/parasitologia , Água Doce/parasitologia , Masculino , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Parasitemia/veterinária , Filogenia
20.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 625-631, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460624

RESUMO

The current parasitological study was carried out to investigate helminth parasites infecting the Red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan inhabiting Hurghada City at the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea, Egypt. Third-stage larvae of nematode parasite was isolated from the intestine as well as body cavity of the examined fish. Light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that this parasite belonged to Anisakidae family within the genus Pseudoterranova. The present species is named Pseudoterranova decipiens based on the presence of triangular mouth aperture with prominent boring teeth and soft swellings of the cuticle, long muscular esophagus, ventrally excretory pore, and narrow transverse slit of anal opening followed by a short mucron. The morphological characteristics of this species were confirmed by molecular analysis of 18S rDNA gene region of the present parasite. It demonstrated a close identity ≥89% with taxa under family Anisakidae, 85% with Raphidascarididae, and 79-84% with Toxocaridae. A preliminary genetic comparison between gene sequence of the present parasite and other oxyurid species placeed it as a putative sister taxon to other Pseudoterranova decipiens described previously. This study demonstrated that the 18S rDNA gene region of Pseudoterranova decipiens yielded a unique sequence that confirmed its taxonomic position in Anisakidae.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Egito , Peixes/classificação , Oceano Índico , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
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