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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5127, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493721

RESUMO

Intricate color patterns are a defining aspect of morphological diversity in the Felidae. We applied morphological and single-cell gene expression analysis to fetal skin of domestic cats to identify when, where, and how, during fetal development, felid color patterns are established. Early in development, we identify stripe-like alterations in epidermal thickness preceded by a gene expression pre-pattern. The secreted Wnt inhibitor encoded by Dickkopf 4 plays a central role in this process, and is mutated in cats with the Ticked pattern type. Our results bring molecular understanding to how the leopard got its spots, suggest that similar mechanisms underlie periodic color pattern and periodic hair follicle spacing, and identify targets for diverse pattern variation in other mammals.


Assuntos
Gatos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Gatos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epiderme/metabolismo , Genótipo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6217, 2021 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737638

RESUMO

Organotypic skin tissue models have decades of use for basic research applications, the treatment of burns, and for efficacy/safety evaluation studies. The complex and heterogeneous nature of native human skin however creates difficulties for the construction of physiologically comparable organotypic models. Within the present study, we utilized bioprinting technology for the controlled deposition of separate keratinocyte subpopulations to create a reconstructed epidermis with two distinct halves in a single insert, each comprised of a different keratinocyte sub-population, in order to better model heterogonous skin and reduce inter-sample variability. As an initial proof-of-concept, we created a patterned epidermal skin model using GPF positive and negative keratinocyte subpopulations, both printed into 2 halves of a reconstructed skin insert, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. We then demonstrated the physiological relevance of this bioprinting technique by generating a heterogeneous model comprised of dual keratinocyte population with either normal or low filaggrin expression. The resultant model exhibited a well-organized epidermal structure with each half possessing the phenotypic characteristics of its constituent cells, indicative of a successful and stable tissue reconstruction. This patterned skin model aims to mimic the edge of lesions as seen in atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis vulgaris, while the use of two populations within a single insert allows for paired statistics in evaluation studies, likely increasing study statistical power and reducing the number of models required per study. This is the first report of human patterned epidermal model using a predefined bioprinted designs, and demonstrates the relevance of bioprinting to faithfully reproduce human skin microanatomy.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/citologia , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Animais , Bioimpressão/instrumentação , Células Alimentadoras/citologia , Células Alimentadoras/fisiologia , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/fisiologia , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Cultura Primária de Células , Impressão Tridimensional/instrumentação , Proteínas S100/genética , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Engenharia Tecidual/instrumentação
3.
Zoo Biol ; 40(4): 280-287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739467

RESUMO

Biological resource banks represent valuable tools for the conservation of species vulnerable to extinction, such as the jaguar. Cryobanks of skins have the potential to safeguard rare genotypes, allowing the potential exploitation of biological samples in animal multiplication technologies and the study of genetic variability. Determination of the most suitable skin regions for tissue conservation can help increase the efficiency of cryobanks and the storage of biological samples. To this end, we evaluated the effects of vitrification of skin tissues from the ear, caudal, and femoral regions of a post-mortem jaguar belonging to a zoo in Brazil. Non-vitrified and vitrified samples were evaluated and compared using quantitative methods, focusing on skin thickness, cell quantification, number of perinuclear halos, collagen and elastic density, and proliferative activity. No differences were observed in skin thickness, number of perinuclear halos, elastic density, and proliferative activity between non-vitrified and vitrified tissues in skin from any region. However, vitrified tissues derived from femoral skin showed a reduction in the number of fibroblasts, epidermal cells and collagen density compared to non-vitrified tissues. In summary, the ear and caudal regions provided the best conservation of somatic tissues derived from jaguars, and skin samples from these regions are therefore the most suitable for the formation of cryobanks.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Panthera/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Vitrificação , Animais , Orelha , Cauda
4.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670519

RESUMO

The skin is constantly exposed to external and internal factors that disturb its function. In this work, two nanosystems-levan nanoparticles and a surfactin-stabilized nanoemulsion were preserved (tested for microbial growth) and characterized (size, polydispersity, Zeta potential, and stability). The nanosystems were introduced in the model formulations-cream, tonic, and gel, and confirmed by TEM. The analysis showed that nanoemulsion has a spherical morphology and size 220-300 nm, while levan nanoparticles had irregular shapes independently of the use of matrix and with particle size (130-260 nm). Additionally, we examined the antiradical effect of levan nanoparticles and nanoemulsion in the prototype of formulations by scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; EPR spectroscopy). The model cream with both nanosystems and the whole range of products with nanosystems were evaluated in vivo for hydration, elasticity, smoothness, wrinkles and vascular lesions, discoloration, respectively. The cream improved skin condition in all tested parameters in at least 50% of volunteers. The use of more comprehensive care, additionally consisting of a tonic and gel, reduced the previously existing skin discoloration to 10.42 ± 0.58%. The presented prototype formulations are promising in improving skin conditions.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Adulto , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Emulsões/química , Feminino , Frutanos/química , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Creme para a Pele/farmacologia
5.
Zoology (Jena) ; 145: 125894, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556772

RESUMO

Unlike many tetrapods and elasmobranchs, eye-closing ability is absent in bony fishes, with the single-known exception of the family Tetraodontidae. We observed the eye-closing response of the tetraodontid fine-patterned puffer, Takifugu flavipterus, which provides the first detailed data on the kinematics and mechanism of this ability in this family. During eye-closing behavior, the skin around the eye converges toward the center of the iris. This is very different to the reversing uni-directional (e.g., upward then downward) movement of the eyelids of other vertebrates. Electrical stimulation of a freshly dead specimen showed that this movement occurs due to the contraction of a sheet of muscle located just beneath the skin around the eye, which is characteristic of Family Tetraodontidae. Eye-closing is accompanied by simultaneous retraction of the eyeball away from the surface, which is initiated just before the skin of the eye begins to move. The eye-closing ability observed in this study appears to have been acquired independently in the Tetraodontidae.


Assuntos
Olho , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Takifugu/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(6)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547241

RESUMO

The small structures that decorate biological surfaces can significantly affect behavior, yet the diversity of animal-environment interactions essential for survival makes ascribing functions to structures challenging. Microscopic skin textures may be particularly important for snakes and other limbless locomotors, where substrate interactions are mediated solely through body contact. While previous studies have characterized ventral surface features of some snake species, the functional consequences of these textures are not fully understood. Here, we perform a comparative study, combining atomic force microscopy measurements with mathematical modeling to generate predictions that link microscopic textures to locomotor performance. We discover an evolutionary convergence in the ventral skin structures of a few sidewinding specialist vipers that inhabit sandy deserts-an isotropic texture that is distinct from the head-to-tail-oriented, micrometer-sized spikes observed on a phylogenetically broad sampling of nonsidewinding vipers and other snakes from diverse habitats and wide geographic range. A mathematical model that relates structural directionality to frictional anisotropy reveals that isotropy enhances movement during sidewinding, whereas anisotropy improves movement during slithering via lateral undulation of the body. Our results highlight how an integrated approach can provide quantitative predictions for structure-function relationships and insights into behavioral and evolutionary adaptations in biological systems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Locomoção/fisiologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Serpentes/fisiologia , Animais , Anisotropia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Serpentes/anatomia & histologia
7.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 21, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588939

RESUMO

The skin is a passive and active barrier which protects the body from the environment. Its health is essential for the accomplishment of this role. Since several decades, the skin has aroused a strong interest in various fields (for e.g. cell biology, medicine, toxicology, cosmetology, and pharmacology). In contrast to other organs, 3D models were mostly and directly elaborated in humans due to its architectural simplicity and easy accessibility. The development of these models benefited from the societal pressure to reduce animal experiments. In this review, we first describe human and mouse skin structure and the major differences with other mammals and birds. Next, we describe the different 3D human skin models and their main applications. Finally, we review the available models for domestic animals and discuss the current and potential applications.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/veterinária , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia
8.
J Mass Spectrom ; 56(2): e4686, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462985

RESUMO

Human skin surface chemical cues comprise a complex mixture of compounds that mosquitoes use to locate and select their human host, based on inter- and intra-human variation in chemical profiles. The complexity of the skin surface matrix calls for advanced analytical techniques to enable separation and identification of biomarkers, which may be used as topical attractants and repellants in future mosquito vector control programmes. The perceived mosquito attractiveness between 20 volunteers and the preference of mosquitoes to bite certain regions, namely, ankle versus wrist, of the human host were investigated in this study, by comparing skin surface chemical profiles. Ion mobility was combined with high resolution mass spectrometry to provide additional confidence in biological marker discovery and identification of human skin surface compounds. This study employed a non-intrusive sampling scheme using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sampler and solvent desorption analysed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography with ion mobility high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-IMS-HRMS). Statistical approaches guided the identification of 14 biological markers discerning difference in perceived mosquito attractiveness and 20 biomarkers associated with the different skin regions sampled. A broad range (m/z 96.0437 to 788.6095) of chemical compounds was detected from a variety of classes (including sugars, steroids, fatty acids, peptides and peptide derivatives, and compounds of food origin). Ten compounds were unequivocally identified on the human skin surface, and caffeine was reported on the human skin surface for the first time. Furthermore, 77 compounds, of which 64 to the authors' knowledge have not previously been reported, were detected on the human skin surface using accurate mass, collision cross section (CCS) values and fragmentation patterns. This approach enabled comprehensive human skin surface chemical profiling and provides an extensive list of tentatively identified skin surface compounds together with accurate mass values and adducts with their corresponding CCS values.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Pele/química , Adulto , Animais , Biomarcadores/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 20(1): 49-54, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intradermal injections of botulinum toxin have been reported to improve sebum secretion, facial skin laxity, and facial pores. However, the effects of Incobotulinumtoxin-A for these indications have not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of Incobotulinumtoxin-A for the improvement of sebum secretion, face laxity, and facial pores. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center retrospective study included patients treated with Incobotulinumtoxin-A to improve facial skin laxity, sebum secretion, and facial pores. The microdroplet injection protocol included injection points on the lateral face, anterior medial cheek, mandibular line, depressor anguli oris points, mid-glabella area, and chin. Outcomes were measured using a Sebumeter and three-dimensional scanner and were evaluated by facial laxity ratings and the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. RESULTS: Twenty patients were included in the analysis. Sebum secretion, mandibular length, facial pores, and facial laxity ratings were improved at 1 week and results were sustained through 12 weeks. All outcomes showed maximum improvement after 4 weeks. Evaluation using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale showed that all subjects reported at least a score of 2 (improved) after 4 weeks. CONCLUSION: This study showed that intradermal injection with Incobotulinumtoxin-A could be effective for face lifting, reduced sebum production, and improved facial pores. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021;20(1):49-54. doi:10.36849/JDD.5616.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Ritidoplastia/métodos , Glândulas Sebáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estética , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intradérmicas/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Sebo/metabolismo , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(2): 3303-3310, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417426

RESUMO

With the rapid development of haptic devices, there is an increasing demand to understand finger pad topography under different conditions, especially for investigation of the human-machine interface in surface haptic devices. An accurate description of finger pad topography across scales is essential for the study of the interfaces and could be used to predict the real area of contact and friction force, both of which correlate closely with human tactile perception. However, there has been limited work reporting the heterogeneous topography of finger pads across scales. In this work, we propose a detailed heterogeneous finger topography model based on the surface roughness power spectrum. The analysis showed a significant difference between the topography on ridges and valleys of the fingerprint and that the real contact area estimation could be different by a factor of 3. In addition, a spatial-spectral analysis method is developed to effectively compare topography response to different condition changes. This paper provides insights into finger topography for advanced human-machine interaction interfaces.


Assuntos
Dermatoglifia , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Dedos/fisiologia , Fricção , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Propriedades de Superfície , Tato
11.
Neuroimage ; 224: 117413, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011418

RESUMO

Variations in head and brain anatomy determine the strength and distribution of electrical fields in humans and may account for inconsistent behavioral and neurophysiological results in transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) studies. However, it is insufficiently understood which anatomical features contribute to the variability of the modelled electric fields, and if their impact varies across age groups. In the present study, we tested the associations of global head anatomy, indexed by extra- and intra-cranial volumes, with electric field measures, comparing young and older adults. We modelled six "conventional" electrode montages typically used in tES studies using SimNIBS software in 40 individuals (20 young, 20 older adults; 20-35, 64-79 years). We extracted individual electric field strengths and focality values for each montage to identify tissue volumes that account for variability of the induced electric fields in both groups. Linear mixed models explained most of the inter-individual variability of the overall induced field strength in the brain, but not of field focality. Higher absolute head volume and relative volume of skin, skull and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were associated with lower overall electric field strengths. Additionally, we found interactions of age group with head volume and CSF, indicating that this relationship was mitigated in the older group. Our results demonstrate the importance to adjust brain stimulation not only according to brain atrophy, but also to additional parameters of head anatomy. Future studies need to elucidate the mechanisms underlying individual variability of tES effects in young and older adults, and verify the usefulness of the proposed models in terms of neurophysiology and behavior in empirical studies.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Eletrodos , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atrofia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/diagnóstico por imagem , Simulação por Computador , Eletricidade , Campos Eletromagnéticos , Feminino , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin ; 24(2): 188-202, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969746

RESUMO

Detecting mechanical properties of the intact skin in-vivo leads to a novel quantitative method to diagnose skin diseases and to monitor skin conditions in clinical settings. Current research and clinical methods that detect skin mechanics have major limitations. The in-vitro experiments are done in non-physiological conditions and in-vivo clinical methods measurer unwanted mechanics of underneath fat and muscle tissues but report the measurement as skin mechanics. An ideal skin mechanics should be captured at skin scale (i.e., micron-scale) and in-vivo. However, extreme challenges of capturing the in-vivo skin mechanics in micron-scale including skin motion due to heart beep, breathing and movement of the subject, has hindered measurement of skin mechanics in-vivo.This study for the first time captures micro-scale mechanics (elasticity and viscoelasticity) of top layers of skin (i.e., the stratum corneum (SC) and stratum granulosum (SG)) in-vivo. In this study, the relevant literature is reviewed and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to capture force-indentation curves on the fingertip skin of four human subjects at a high indentation speed of 40 µm/s. The skin of the same subject were tested in-vitro at 10 different indentation speeds ranging from 0.125 to 40 µm/s by AFM. This study extracts the in-vivo elasticity of SC and SG by detecting time-dependency of tested tissue using a fractional viscoelastic standard linear model developed for indentation. The in-vivo elasticity of SC and SG were smaller in females and in-vitro elasticity were higher than that of in-vivo results. The results were consistent with previous observations.


Assuntos
Elasticidade , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Modelos Anatômicos , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Epiderme/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Fish Biol ; 98(3): 655-667, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125161

RESUMO

Two new species of the lampeye genus Hylopanchax are described from the Ivindo River basin in the Ogowe River drainage. Hylopanchax multisquamatus, new species, and Hylopanchax thysi, new species, differ from congeners by the presence of a hyaline urogenital male papilla with small black spots and a dark-brown reticulate pattern on the flanks of both males and females in preserved specimens. Hylopanchax multisquamatus is distinguished from congeners by the number of scales on the mid-longitudinal series (27-30 vs. 19-26, respectively) and by the relative anterior/posterior flank scale depth ratio (140%-150% vs. 170%-220%). Hylopanchax thysi is distinguished from all other congeners, except Hylopanchax paucisquamatus, by the presence of vertebrae (30 vs. 31-33) and is further distinguished from H. multisquamatus by the presence of a deeper caudal peduncle and much larger anterior flank scales. It is distinguished from H. paucisquamatus by the presence of a hyaline urogenital male papilla with small black spots and a dark-brown reticulate pattern on the flanks of both males and females in preserved specimens. Osteological data of Hylopanchax are presented for the first time, and an updated diagnosis based on external morphology, colouration pattern and osteology is provided. An osteological comparison with closely related species belonging to the genera Procatopus, Hypsopanchax and "Hypsopanchax" is presented. (a) A truncate and slightly downward-directed anterior process of the angulo-articular and (b) a guitar-shaped lachrymal with both its anterior and posterior margins sharply curved are here considered as diagnostic features of Hylopanchax.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Ciprinodontiformes/anatomia & histologia , Ciprinodontiformes/classificação , Pigmentação , Animais , Feminino , Gabão , Masculino , Osteologia , Rios , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Manejo de Espécimes , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
14.
J Morphol ; 282(1): 88-97, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098345

RESUMO

The skin of the foot provides the interface between the bird and the substrate. The foot morphology involves the bone shape and the integument that is in contact with the substrate. The podotheca is a layer of keratinized epidermis forming scales that extends from the tarsometatarsus to the toe extremities. It varies in size, shape, amount of overlap and interacts with the degree of fusion of the toes (syndactyly). A study of toe shape and the podotheca provides insights on the adaptations of perching birds. Our analysis is based on micro-CT scans and scanning electron microscopy images of 21 species from 17 families, and includes examples with different orientations of the toes: zygodactyl (toes II and III forward), anisodactyl (toes II, III, and IV forward), and heterodactyl (toes III and IV forward). We show that in these three groups, the skin forms part of a perching adaptation that involves syndactyly to different degrees. However, syndactyly does not occur in Psittacidae that use their toes also for food manipulation. The syndactyly increases the sole surface and may reinforce adherence with the substrate. Scale shape and toe orientation are involved in functional adaptations to perch. Thus, both bone and skin features combine to form a pincer-like foot.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Aves/anatomia & histologia , Aves/fisiologia , Pé/anatomia & histologia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Filogenia , Sindactilia , Dedos do Pé/anatomia & histologia
15.
Molecules ; 25(23)2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256207

RESUMO

Wounds are among the most common skin conditions, displaying a large etiological diversity and being characterized by different degrees of severity. Wound healing is a complex process that involves multiple steps such as inflammation, proliferation and maturation and ends with scar formation. Since ancient times, a widely used option for treating skin wounds are plant- based treatments which currently have become the subject of modern pharmaceutical formulations. Triterpenes with tetracyclic and pentacyclic structure are extensively studied for their implication in wound healing as well as to determine their molecular mechanisms of action. The current review aims to summarize the main results of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies conducted on lupane, ursane, oleanane, dammarane, lanostane and cycloartane type triterpenes as potential wound healing treatments.


Assuntos
Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
NPJ Syst Biol Appl ; 6(1): 40, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339832

RESUMO

Recent developments of molecular biology have revealed diverse mechanisms of skin diseases, and precision medicine considering these mechanisms requires the frequent objective evaluation of skin phenotypes. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is commonly used for evaluating skin barrier function; however, direct measurement of TEWL is time-consuming and is not convenient for daily clinical practice. Here, we propose a new skin barrier assessment method using skin images with topological data analysis (TDA). TDA enabled efficient identification of structural features from a skin image taken by a microscope. These features reflected the regularity of the skin texture. We found a significant correlation between the topological features and TEWL. Moreover, using the features as input, we trained machine-learning models to predict TEWL and obtained good accuracy (R2 = 0.524). Our results suggest that assessment of skin barrier function by topological image analysis is promising.


Assuntos
Análise de Dados , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
17.
Exp Dermatol ; 29(10): 953-960, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311854

RESUMO

Minipig skin is one of the most widely used non-rodent animal skin models for dermatological research. A thorough characterization of minipig skin is essential for gaining deeper understanding of its structural and functional similarities with human skin. In this study, three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo images of minipig skin was obtained non-invasively using a multimodal optical imaging system capable of acquiring two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) images simultaneously. The images of the structural features of different layers of the minipig skin were qualitatively and quantitatively compared with those of human skin. Label-free imaging of skin was possible due to the endogenous fluorescence and optical properties of various components in the skin such as keratin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H), melanin, elastin, and collagen. This study demonstrates the capability of optical biopsy techniques, such as TPEF and FLIM, for in vivo non-invasive characterization of cellular and functional features of minipig skin, and the optical image-based similarities of this commonly utilized model of human skin. These optical imaging techniques have the potential to become promising tools in dermatological research for developing a better understanding of animal skin models, and for aiding in translational pre-clinical to clinical studies.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica , Núcleo Celular , Citoplasma , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microscopia Intravital , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Animais , Imagem Multimodal , Pele/metabolismo , Suínos
18.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317696

RESUMO

The ontogenetic trajectory of a marginal jawbone of Lophosteus superbus (Late Silurian, 422 Million years old), the phylogenetically most basal stem osteichthyan, visualized by synchrotron microtomography, reveals a developmental relationship between teeth and dermal odontodes that is not evident from the adult morphology. The earliest odontodes are two longitudinal founder ridges formed at the ossification center. Subsequent odontodes that are added lingually to the ridges turn into conical teeth and undergo cyclic replacement, while those added labially achieve a stellate appearance. Stellate odontodes deposited directly on the bony plate are aligned with the alternate files of teeth, whereas new tooth positions are inserted into the files of sequential addition when a gap appears. Successive teeth and overgrowing odontodes show hybrid morphologies around the oral-dermal boundary, suggesting signal cross-communication. We propose that teeth and dermal odontodes are modifications of a single system, regulated and differentiated by the oral and dermal epithelia.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Dentição , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis , Odontogênese , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Filogenia , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Síncrotrons , Dente/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
Cir. plást. ibero-latinoam ; 46(4): 421-440, oct.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198725

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVO: El envejecimiento facial sigue siendo una causa frecuente de consulta en Cirugía Plástica y una de las inquietudes predominantes es cómo detener o revertir este fenómeno biológico sin que implique mayores sacrificios. El plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP), ha sido ampliamente utilizado en nuestra especialidad como coadyuvante de muchos procedimientos, para mejorar el contorno facial y como terapia antienvejecimiento, sin embargo, hace falta recopilar mayor evidencia histológica y clínica que soporte las bases de diseño de un tratamiento bioestimulador para la región facial. El objetivo del presente estudio es aplicar un tratamiento seriado con PRP para rejuvenecimiento facial y demostrar su efectividad a través de los cambios histopatológicos y clínicos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo comparativo de tipo autocontrol entre febrero y octubre de 2017. La muestra estuvo representada por 14 pacientes con ritidosis, a quienes se le tomó biopsia de piel facial para describir las características histopatológicas previas; se realizaron 3 sesiones de PRP en 3 meses y nueva toma de biopsia a los 6 meses; posteriormente se llevó a cabo ritidectomía con una tercera toma de biopsia, y se establecieron comparaciones. Asimismo, se hizo registro fotográfico, evaluación clínica y test de apreciación personal para valorar los cambios ocurridos. RESULTADOS: Evidenciamos un incremento estadísticamente significativo de fibroblastos y colágeno a los 3 meses de tratamiento, con una media de 95.71 X mm2 y 75.71 X mm2 respectivamente; un aumento notable del espesor de la dermis con una media de 1.22 mm entre los 3 y los 6 meses; y un incremento significativo en el colágeno con valores medios del 69.28% antes del tratamiento en comparación con un 78.92% a los 6 meses. CONCLUSIONES: En base a nuestros resultados y metodología de aplicación, consideramos que la terapia de rejuvenecimiento facial con PRP es efectiva, tanto desde el punto de vista histopatológico como clínico


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Facial aging remains a frequent cause for consultation in Plastic Surgery and one of the predominant concerns is how to stop or reverse this biological phenomenon without implying greater sacrifices. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) has been widely used in as an adjunct to many procedures, to improve facial contouring and as an anti-aging therapy, however, it is necessary to collect more histological and clinical evidence that supports the basis for designing of a biostimulator treatment in the facial region. Our objective is to apply a serial treatment with PRP for facial rejuvenation and demonstrate its effectiveness through histopathological and clinical changes. METHODS: A prospective comparative self-control study was carried out between February and October 2017. The sample was represented by 14 patients with ritidosis, who were taken skin biopsy of the facial region to describe the previous histopathological characteristics, then 3 monthly sessions of PRP and a new skin biopsy after 6 months; then, rhytidectomy was performed with a third biopsy, and thus establish comparisons. Likewise, a photographic registry, clinical evaluation plus a personal assessment test were carried out to show the changes. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in the number of fibroblasts and collagen at 3 months of treatment with a mean of 95.71x mm2 and a mean of 75.7171x mm2 respectively; a significant increase in the thickness of the dermis was found with a average of 1.22 mm between 3 and 6 months and a significant increase in collagen with average values of 69.28% before treatment compared with 78.92% at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results and application methodology, we consider that facial rejuvenation therapy with PRP is effective both from a histopathological and clinical point of view


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Regeneração da Pele por Plasma/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ritidoplastia/métodos , Envelhecimento da Pele , Estudos Prospectivos , Pregas Cutâneas , Biópsia , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Face/anatomia & histologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5587, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154365

RESUMO

Human skin provides both physical integrity and immunological protection from the external environment using functionally distinct layers, cell types and extracellular matrix. Despite its central role in human health and disease, the constituent proteins of skin have not been systematically characterized. Here, we combine advanced tissue dissection methods, flow cytometry and state-of-the-art proteomics to describe a spatially-resolved quantitative proteomic atlas of human skin. We quantify 10,701 proteins as a function of their spatial location and cellular origin. The resulting protein atlas and our initial data analyses demonstrate the value of proteomics for understanding cell-type diversity within the skin. We describe the quantitative distribution of structural proteins, known and previously undescribed proteins specific to cellular subsets and those with specialized immunological functions such as cytokines and chemokines. We anticipate that this proteomic atlas of human skin will become an essential community resource for basic and translational research ( https://skin.science/ ).


Assuntos
Proteoma/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteômica , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/imunologia
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