Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.674
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5587, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154365

RESUMO

Human skin provides both physical integrity and immunological protection from the external environment using functionally distinct layers, cell types and extracellular matrix. Despite its central role in human health and disease, the constituent proteins of skin have not been systematically characterized. Here, we combine advanced tissue dissection methods, flow cytometry and state-of-the-art proteomics to describe a spatially-resolved quantitative proteomic atlas of human skin. We quantify 10,701 proteins as a function of their spatial location and cellular origin. The resulting protein atlas and our initial data analyses demonstrate the value of proteomics for understanding cell-type diversity within the skin. We describe the quantitative distribution of structural proteins, known and previously undescribed proteins specific to cellular subsets and those with specialized immunological functions such as cytokines and chemokines. We anticipate that this proteomic atlas of human skin will become an essential community resource for basic and translational research ( https://skin.science/ ).


Assuntos
Proteoma/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Proteômica , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/imunologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5114, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037205

RESUMO

Tissue growth in the adult is an orchestrated process that often requires biological clocks to time stem cell and progenitor activity. Here, we employed the hair follicle, which cycles between growth and regression in a timely-restricted mode, to show that some components of the hair cycle clock reside within the mesenchymal niche of the hair follicle, the dermal papilla (DP), and both Fgf and Wnt signaling pathways interact within the DP to regulate the expression of these components that include Wnt agonists (Rspondins) and antagonists (Dkk2 and Notum). The levels of Wnt agonists and antagonists in the DP are progressively reduced and elevated during the growth phase, respectively. Consequently, Wnt signaling activity in the overlying epithelial progenitor cells decreases, resulting in the induction of the regression phase. Remarkably, DP properties allow Wnt activity in the DP to persist despite the Wnt-inhibiting milieu and consequently synchronize the induction and progression of the regression phase. This study provides insight into the importance of signaling crosstalk in coupling progenitors and their niche to regulate tissue growth.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Animais , Esterases/genética , Esterases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Trombospondinas/genética , Trombospondinas/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5067, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082341

RESUMO

Although acne is the most common human inflammatory skin disease, its pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that GATA6, which is expressed in the upper pilosebaceous unit of normal human skin, is down-regulated in acne. GATA6 controls keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation to prevent hyperkeratinisation of the infundibulum, which is the primary pathological event in acne. When overexpressed in immortalised human sebocytes, GATA6 triggers a junctional zone and sebaceous differentiation program whilst limiting lipid production and cell proliferation. It modulates the immunological repertoire of sebocytes, notably by upregulating PD-L1 and IL10. GATA6 expression contributes to the therapeutic effect of retinoic acid, the main treatment for acne. In a human sebaceous organoid model GATA6-mediated down-regulation of the infundibular differentiation program is mediated by induction of TGFß signalling. We conclude that GATA6 is involved in regulation of the upper pilosebaceous unit and may be an actionable target in the treatment of acne.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/metabolismo , Glândulas Sebáceas/metabolismo , Acne Vulgar/genética , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Acne Vulgar/fisiopatologia , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Fator de Transcrição GATA6/genética , Homeostase , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/citologia , Glândulas Sebáceas/patologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/patologia
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 285-306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918224

RESUMO

Cutaneous malignancies including melanomas and keratinocyte carcinomas (KC) are the most common types of cancer, occurring at a rate of over one million per year in the United States. KC, which include both basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, are substantially more common than melanomas and form the subject of this chapter. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR), both UVB and UVA, as occurs with sunlight exposure is generally regarded as causal for these malignancies, but UVB is also required for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. Keratinocytes are the major cell in the epidermis. These cells not only produce vitamin D but contain the enzymatic machinery to metabolize vitamin D to its active metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D, and express the receptor for this metabolite, the vitamin D receptor (VDR). This allows the cell to respond to the 1,25(OH)2D that it produces. Based on our own data and that reported in the literature, we conclude that vitamin D signaling in the skin suppresses UVR-induced epidermal tumor formation. In this chapter we focus on four mechanisms by which vitamin D signaling suppresses tumor formation. They are inhibition of proliferation/stimulation of differentiation with discussion of the roles of hedgehog, Wnt/ß-catenin, and hyaluronan/CD44 pathways in mediating vitamin D regulation of proliferation/differentiation, regulation of the balance between oncogenic and tumor suppressor long noncoding RNAs, immune regulation, and promotion of DNA damage repair (DDR).


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3945, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770028

RESUMO

TP53 missense mutations leading to the expression of mutant p53 oncoproteins are frequent driver events during tumorigenesis. p53 mutants promote tumor growth, metastasis and chemoresistance by affecting fundamental cellular pathways and functions. Here, we demonstrate that p53 mutants modify structure and function of the Golgi apparatus, culminating in the increased release of a pro-malignant secretome by tumor cells and primary fibroblasts from patients with Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome. Mechanistically, interacting with the hypoxia responsive factor HIF1α, mutant p53 induces the expression of miR-30d, which in turn causes tubulo-vesiculation of the Golgi apparatus, leading to enhanced vesicular trafficking and secretion. The mut-p53/HIF1α/miR-30d axis potentiates the release of soluble factors and the deposition and remodeling of the ECM, affecting mechano-signaling and stromal cells activation within the tumor microenvironment, thereby enhancing tumor growth and metastatic colonization.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Complexo de Golgi/patologia , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Biópsia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Complexo de Golgi/metabolismo , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/patologia , Camundongos , Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Microtúbulos/patologia , Mutação , Cultura Primária de Células , Vesículas Secretórias/metabolismo , Vesículas Secretórias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4943-4956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764927

RESUMO

Background: Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] is a naturally occurring calcium phosphate which makes up 60-70% of the dry weight of human bones. Nano-scale HA particles are increasingly being used as carriers for controlled and targeted delivery of bioactive agents like drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids due to their high porosity, negative charge, and biodegradability. Purpose: Although much effort has been devoted to understanding the delivery kinetics and effects of the payloads in such carriers, a thorough understanding of the influence of the carriers themselves is lacking. Methods: HA particles (300 µg/mL) were administered to primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The uptake and intracellular localization of the particles were determined by flow cytometry, confocal imaging, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunological assays and PCR were performed to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagens in cell lysates and media supernatant. Results: The current study explores the effects of poly-dispersed HA particles on primary HDFs as a model system. The majority of the particles were determined to range between 150 and 200 nm in diameter. Upon exposure to HA suspensions, primary HDFs internalized the particles by endocytosis within 6 hours of exposure, showing maximum uptake at 72 hours following which the particles were exocytosed by 168 hours. This correlated to reduced secretion of various pro-inflammatory and pro-collagenic cytokines. Biochemical analysis further revealed a reduction in Type I collagen expression and secretion. Conclusion: HA particles have an immune-modulatory effect on dermal fibroblasts and reduce collagen production, which may impact the integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study demonstrates the need to consider the secondary effects of particulate carriers like HA, beyond basic cytotoxicity, in the specific tissue environment where the intended function is to be realized.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Durapatita/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/citologia , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Durapatita/química , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235898, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833999

RESUMO

Myo/Nog cells were discovered in the chick embryo epiblast. Their expression of MyoD reflects a commitment to the skeletal muscle lineage and capacity to differentiate into myofibroblasts. Release of Noggin by Myo/Nog cells is essential for normal morphogenesis. Myo/Nog cells rapidly respond to wounding in the skin and eyes. In this report, we present evidence suggesting that Myo/Nog cells phagocytose tattoo ink in tissue sections of human skin and engulf cell corpses in cultures of anterior human lens tissue and magnetic beads injected into the anterior chamber of mice in vivo. Myo/Nog cells are distinct from macrophages in the skin and eyes indicated by the absence of labeling with an antibody to ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1. In addition to their primary roles as regulators of BMP signaling and progenitors of myofibroblasts, Myo/Nog cells behave as nonprofessional phagocytes defined as cells whose primary functions are unrelated to phagocytosis but are capable of engulfment.


Assuntos
Miofibroblastos/citologia , Fagócitos/citologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/citologia , Cristalino/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína MyoD/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Coelhos , Pele/citologia , Pele/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo
8.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1265: 187-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761577

RESUMO

Amino acids are the building blocks of all proteins, including the most abundant fibrous proteins in the skin, as keratins, collagen and elastin. Sagging and wrinkled skin are features of chronic sun-damaged and aged uncared skin, and they are mainly associated with the deterioration of collagen and elastic fibers. The maintenance of skin structures by self-repair processes is essential to skin health. Thus, amino acids significantly impact the appearance of the skin. Amino acids are important nutrients required for (a) wound healing promotion and repair of the damaged skin; (b) acid-base balance and water retention in cellular layers, such as stratum corneum; (c) protection against sunlight damage; (d) maintenance of an appropriate skin microbiome. This review highlights the contribution of all proteinogenic amino acids and some related metabolites to the skin structures as constituents of the main cutaneous proteins or as signaling molecules for the regulation and determination of skin physiology.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Colágeno , Elastina , Humanos , Queratinas , Pele/citologia , Pele/microbiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele
9.
Nature ; 584(7822): 608-613, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848220

RESUMO

Glandular epithelia, including the mammary and prostate glands, are composed of basal cells (BCs) and luminal cells (LCs)1,2. Many glandular epithelia develop from multipotent basal stem cells (BSCs) that are replaced in adult life by distinct pools of unipotent stem cells1,3-8. However, adult unipotent BSCs can reactivate multipotency under regenerative conditions and upon oncogene expression3,9-13. This suggests that an active mechanism restricts BSC multipotency under normal physiological conditions, although the nature of this mechanism is unknown. Here we show that the ablation of LCs reactivates the multipotency of BSCs from multiple epithelia both in vivo in mice and in vitro in organoids. Bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that, after LC ablation, BSCs activate a hybrid basal and luminal cell differentiation program before giving rise to LCs-reminiscent of the genetic program that regulates multipotency during embryonic development7. By predicting ligand-receptor pairs from single-cell data14, we find that TNF-which is secreted by LCs-restricts BC multipotency under normal physiological conditions. By contrast, the Notch, Wnt and EGFR pathways were activated in BSCs and their progeny after LC ablation; blocking these pathways, or stimulating the TNF pathway, inhibited regeneration-induced BC multipotency. Our study demonstrates that heterotypic communication between LCs and BCs is essential to maintain lineage fidelity in glandular epithelial stem cells.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/citologia , Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/metabolismo , Organoides/citologia , Próstata/citologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Glândulas Salivares/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo
10.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 202: 105730, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682944

RESUMO

Deficiency in Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1P lyase) is associated with a multi-systemic disorder incorporating primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome and neurological dysfunction. Accumulation of sphingolipid intermediates, as seen with loss of function mutations in SGPL1, has been implicated in mitochondrial dysregulation, including alterations in mitochondrial membrane potentials and initiation of mitochondrial apoptosis. For the first time, we investigate the impact of S1P lyase deficiency on mitochondrial morphology and function using patient-derived human dermal fibroblasts and CRISPR engineered SGPL1-knockout HeLa cells. Reduced cortisol output in response to progesterone stimulation was observed in two patient dermal fibroblast cell lines. Mass spectrometric analysis of patient dermal fibroblasts revealed significantly elevated levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate, sphingosine, ceramide species and sphingomyelin when compared to control. Total mitochondrial volume was reduced in both S1P lyase deficient patient and HeLa cell lines. Mitochondrial dynamics and parameters of oxidative phosphorylation were altered when compared to matched controls, though differentially across the cell lines. Mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a major event in the pathogenesis of this disease, associated with severity of phenotype.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/metabolismo , Aldeído Liases/deficiência , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Aldeído Liases/genética , Respiração Celular , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Progesterona/farmacologia , Pele/citologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614850

RESUMO

The Myo/Nog cell lineage was discovered in the chick embryo and is also present in adult mammalian tissues. The cells are named for their expression of mRNA for the skeletal muscle specific transcription factor MyoD and bone morphogenetic protein inhibitor Noggin. A third marker for Myo/Nog cells is the cell surface molecule recognized by the G8 monoclonal antibody (mAb). G8 has been used to detect, track, isolate and kill Myo/Nog cells. In this study, we screened a membrane proteome array for the target of the G8 mAb. The array consisted of >5,000 molecules, each synthesized in their native confirmation with appropriate post-translational modifications in a single clone of HEK-293T cells. G8 mAb binding to the clone expressing brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (BAI1) was detected by flow cytometry, re-verified by sequencing and validated by transfection with the plasmid construct for BAI1. Further validation of the G8 target was provided by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The G8 epitope was identified by screening a high-throughput, site directed mutagenesis library designed to cover 95-100% of the 954 amino acids of the extracellular domain of the BAI1 protein. The G8 mAb binds within the third thrombospondin repeat of the extracellular domain of human BAI1. Immunofluorescence localization experiments revealed that G8 and a commercially available BAI1 mAb co-localize to the subpopulation of Myo/Nog cells in the skin, eyes and brain. Expression of the multi-functional BAI1 protein in Myo/Nog cells introduces new possibilities for the roles of Myo/Nog cells in normal and diseased tissues.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/biossíntese , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/biossíntese , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Angiogênicas/química , Proteínas Angiogênicas/genética , Proteínas Angiogênicas/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , Encéfalo/citologia , Proteínas de Transporte/análise , Linhagem da Célula , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas do Olho/biossíntese , Proteínas do Olho/química , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Moleculares , Desenvolvimento Muscular , Proteína MyoD/análise , Especificidade de Órgãos , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/química , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Sequências Repetitivas de Aminoácidos , Pele/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tatuagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Vis Exp ; (161)2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716369

RESUMO

The isolation and culture of primary melanocytes from skin tissues is very important for biological research and has been widely used for clinical applications. Isolating primary melanocytes from skin tissues by the conventional method usually takes about 3 to 4 weeks to passage sufficiently. More importantly, the tissues used are usually newborn foreskins and it is still a challenge to efficiently isolate primary melanocytes from adult tissues. We recently developed a new isolation method for melanocytes that adds Y-27632, a Rho kinase inhibitor, to the initial culture medium for 48 h. Compared with the conventional protocol, this new method dramatically increases the yield of melanocytes and shortens the time required to isolate melanocytes from foreskin tissues. We now describe this new method in more detail using adult epidermis to efficiently culture primary melanocytes. Importantly, we show that melanocytes obtained from adult tissues prepared by this new method can function normally. This new protocol will significantly benefit studies of pigmentation defects and melanomas using primary melanocytes prepared from easily accessed adult skin tissues.


Assuntos
Amidas/farmacologia , Separação Celular/métodos , Melanócitos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/química , Células Epidérmicas , Humanos , Melanócitos/citologia
13.
Nature ; 584(7820): 268-273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728211

RESUMO

The ability of the skin to grow in response to stretching has been exploited in reconstructive surgery1. Although the response of epidermal cells to stretching has been studied in vitro2,3, it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect their behaviour in vivo. Here we develop a mouse model in which the consequences of stretching on skin epidermis can be studied at single-cell resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach that combines clonal analysis with quantitative modelling and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that stretching induces skin expansion by creating a transient bias in the renewal activity of epidermal stem cells, while a second subpopulation of basal progenitors remains committed to differentiation. Transcriptional and chromatin profiling identifies how cell states and gene-regulatory networks are modulated by stretching. Using pharmacological inhibitors and mouse mutants, we define the step-by-step mechanisms that control stretch-mediated tissue expansion at single-cell resolution in vivo.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Cell Prolif ; 53(8): e12830, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Skin serves as the major interface between the external environment and body which is liable to many kinds of injuries. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has been widely used and became a promising strategy. Pre-treatment with chemical agents, hypoxia or gene modifications can partially protect MSCs against injury, and the pre-treated MSCs show the improved differentiation, homing capacity, survival and paracrine effects regard to attenuating injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the exosomes from the educated MSCs contribute to accelerate wound healing process. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We extracted the exosomes from the two educated MSCs and utilized them in the cutaneous wound healing model. The pro-angiogenetic effect of exosomes on endothelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: We firstly found that MSCs pre-treated by exosomes from neonatal serum significantly improved their biological functions and the effect of therapy. Moreover, we extracted the exosomes from the educated MSCs and utilized them to treat the cutaneous wound model directly. We found that the released exosomes from MSCs which educated by neonatal serum before had the more outstanding performance in therapeutic effect. Mechanistically, we revealed that the recipient endothelial cells (ECs) were targeted and the exosomes promoted their functions to enhance angiogenesis via regulating AKT/eNOS pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings unravelled the positive effect of the upgraded exosomes from the educated MSCs as a promising cell-free therapeutic strategy for cutaneous wound healing.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pele/citologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2858, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504051

RESUMO

Metastatic melanoma is challenging to manage. Although targeted- and immune therapies have extended survival, most patients experience therapy resistance. The adaptability of melanoma cells in nutrient- and therapeutically-challenged environments distinguishes melanoma as an ideal model for investigating therapy resistance. In this review, we discuss the current available repertoire of melanoma models including two- and three-dimensional tissue cultures, organoids, genetically engineered mice and patient-derived xenograft. In particular, we highlight how each system recapitulates different features of melanoma adaptability and can be used to better understand melanoma development, progression and therapy resistance.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Organoides , Pele/citologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Esferoides Celulares
17.
Nature ; 582(7812): 399-404, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494013

RESUMO

The skin is a multilayered organ, equipped with appendages (that is, follicles and glands), that is critical for regulating body temperature and the retention of bodily fluids, guarding against external stresses and mediating the sensation of touch and pain1,2. Reconstructing appendage-bearing skin in cultures and in bioengineered grafts is a biomedical challenge that has yet to be met3-9. Here we report an organoid culture system that generates complex skin from human pluripotent stem cells. We use stepwise modulation of the transforming growth factor ß (TGFß) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling pathways to co-induce cranial epithelial cells and neural crest cells within a spherical cell aggregate. During an incubation period of 4-5 months, we observe the emergence of a cyst-like skin organoid composed of stratified epidermis, fat-rich dermis and pigmented hair follicles that are equipped with sebaceous glands. A network of sensory neurons and Schwann cells form nerve-like bundles that target Merkel cells in organoid hair follicles, mimicking the neural circuitry associated with human touch. Single-cell RNA sequencing and direct comparison to fetal specimens suggest that the skin organoids are equivalent to the facial skin of human fetuses in the second trimester of development. Moreover, we show that skin organoids form planar hair-bearing skin when grafted onto nude mice. Together, our results demonstrate that nearly complete skin can self-assemble in vitro and be used to reconstitute skin in vivo. We anticipate that our skin organoids will provide a foundation for future studies of human skin development, disease modelling and reconstructive surgery.


Assuntos
Cabelo/citologia , Cabelo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organoides/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Pele/citologia , Animais , Ectoderma/citologia , Feminino , Cabelo/transplante , Cor de Cabelo , Folículo Piloso/citologia , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/inervação , Folículo Piloso/transplante , Cabeça , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Organoides/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organoides/inervação , Organoides/transplante , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pele/inervação , Transplante de Pele
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(25): 14412-14420, 2020 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513688

RESUMO

Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes helix-destabilizing adducts including ultraviolet (UV) lesions, cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs), and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). In comparison with CPDs, 6-4PPs have greater cytotoxicity and more strongly destabilizing properties of the DNA helix. It is generally believed that NER is the only DNA repair pathway that removes the UV lesions as evidenced by the previous data since no repair of UV lesions was detected in NER-deficient skin fibroblasts. Topoisomerase I (TOP1) constantly creates transient single-strand breaks (SSBs) releasing the torsional stress in genomic duplex DNA. Stalled TOP1-SSB complexes can form near DNA lesions including abasic sites and ribonucleotides embedded in chromosomal DNA. Here we show that base excision repair (BER) increases cellular tolerance to UV independently of NER in cancer cells. UV lesions irreversibly trap stable TOP1-SSB complexes near the UV damage in NER-deficient cells, and the resulting SSBs activate BER. Biochemical experiments show that 6-4PPs efficiently induce stable TOP1-SSB complexes, and the long-patch repair synthesis of BER removes 6-4PPs downstream of the SSB. Furthermore, NER-deficient cancer cell lines remove 6-4PPs within 24 h, but not CPDs, and the removal correlates with TOP1 expression. NER-deficient skin fibroblasts weakly express TOP1 and show no detectable repair of 6-4PPs. Remarkably, the ectopic expression of TOP1 in these fibroblasts led them to completely repair 6-4PPs within 24 h. In conclusion, we reveal a DNA repair pathway initiated by TOP1, which significantly contributes to cellular tolerance to UV-induced lesions particularly in malignant cancer cells overexpressing TOP1.


Assuntos
Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Simples/efeitos da radiação , Reparo do DNA , DNA Topoisomerases Tipo I/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , DNA Polimerase beta/genética , DNA Polimerase beta/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Cultura Primária de Células , Pele/citologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/genética , Proteína 1 Complementadora Cruzada de Reparo de Raio-X/metabolismo , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/etiologia , Xeroderma Pigmentoso/patologia , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/genética , Proteína de Xeroderma Pigmentoso Grupo A/metabolismo
19.
Adv Gerontol ; 33(2): 313-318, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593246

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to examine the content of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in fibroblasts of human dermis from 20 weeks of pregnancy until 85 years old, and defining of a role of ARNT in age-dependent changes in the number of fibroblasts in the dermis. ARNT, proliferating cells nuclear antigen (PCNA) were detected with indirect immunohistochemical technique. Results showed that a portion of fibroblasts with positive staining for ARNT in the dermis is decreased from 20 weeks of pregnancy to 40 years old. Percent of ARNT positive fibroblasts in dermis is increased sufficiently since 41 year old until 60-85 years old group. A total number and percent of PCNA positive fibroblasts in dermis decreased with progression of age. Most sufficient age-dependent reduction in a total and PCNA positive number of dermal fibroblast was observed from antenatal until 40 years of life. Age-related changes in the content of ARNT in fibroblasts is not associated with an age-related decrease in total number and percent of PCNA positive fibroblasts the dermis.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Envelhecimento da Pele , Pele/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Derme/citologia , Derme/metabolismo , Feto/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pele/citologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2988, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532976

RESUMO

Tissue homeostasis requires regulation of cell-cell communication, which relies on signaling molecules and cell contacts. In skin epidermis, keratinocytes secrete factors transduced by melanocytes into signaling cues promoting their pigmentation and dendrite outgrowth, while melanocytes transfer melanin pigments to keratinocytes to convey skin photoprotection. How epidermal cells integrate these functions remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that caveolae are asymmetrically distributed in melanocytes and particularly abundant at the melanocyte-keratinocyte interface in epidermis. Caveolae in melanocytes are modulated by ultraviolet radiations and keratinocytes-released factors, like miRNAs. Preventing caveolae formation in melanocytes increases melanin pigment synthesis through upregulation of cAMP signaling and decreases cell protrusions, cell-cell contacts, pigment transfer and epidermis pigmentation. Altogether, we identify that caveolae serve as molecular hubs that couple signaling outputs from keratinocytes to mechanical plasticity of pigment cells. The coordination of intercellular communication and contacts by caveolae is thus crucial to skin pigmentation and tissue homeostasis.


Assuntos
Cavéolas/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Pigmentação da Pele/fisiologia , Pele/metabolismo , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Comunicação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Células Epidérmicas/metabolismo , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/ultraestrutura , Células HeLa , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Melanócitos/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos da radiação , Pele/citologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Raios Ultravioleta
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA