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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1268: 257-283, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918223

RESUMO

Nonmelanoma skin cancers including basal and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC and BCC) represent a significant clinical problem due to their relatively high incidence, imposing an economic burden to healthcare systems around the world. It is accepted that ultraviolet radiation (UVR: λ = 290-400 nm) plays a crucial role in the initiation and promotion of BCC and SCC with UVB (λ = 290-320 nm) having a central role in this process. On the other hand, UVB is required for vitamin D3 (D3) production in the skin, which supplies >90% of the body's requirement for this prohormone. Prolonged exposure to UVB can also generate tachysterol and lumisterol. Vitamin D3 itself and its canonical (1,25(OH)2D3) and noncanonical (CYP11A1-intitated) D3 hydroxyderivatives show photoprotective functions in the skin. These include regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation, induction of anti-oxidative responses, inhibition of DNA damage and induction of DNA repair mechanisms, and anti-inflammatory activities. Studies in animals have demonstrated that D3 hydroxyderivatives can attenuate UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancerogenesis and inhibit growth of SCC and BCC. Genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of action have been suggested. In addition, vitamin D3 itself inhibits hedgehog signaling pathways which have been implicated in many cancers. Silencing of the vitamin D receptor leads to increased propensity to develop UVB or chemically induced epidermal cancers. Other targets for vitamin D compounds include 1,25D3-MARRS, retinoic orphan receptors α and γ, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and Wnt signaling. Most recently, photoprotective effects of lumisterol hydroxyderivatives have been identified. Clinical trials demonstrated a beneficial role of vitamin D compounds in the treatment of actinic keratosis. In summary, recent advances in vitamin D biology and pharmacology open new exciting opportunities in chemoprevention and treatment of skin cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/química , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Vitaminas/farmacologia
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5629-5643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801706

RESUMO

Purpose: Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles have shown great promise in the transdermal delivery of therapeutic agents. Baicalein, a natural bioactive flavonoid, possesses multiple biological activities against dermatosis. However, its topical application is limited due to its inherently poor hydrophilicity and lipophilicity. In this study, the baicalein-phospholipid complex was prepared to enhance the lipophilicity of baicalein and then lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles loaded with the baicalein-phospholipid complex were developed to improve the transdermal retention and permeability of baicalein. Methods: Lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared by the solvent-injection method and characterized in terms of particle size distribution, zeta potential, and morphology. The in vitro release, the ex vivo and in vivo permeation studies, and safety evaluation of lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles were performed to evaluate the effectiveness in enhancing transdermal retention and permeability of baicalein. Results: The lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles obtained by the self-assembled interaction of chitosan and lecithin not only efficiently encapsulated the drug with high entrapment efficiency (84.5%) but also provided sustained release of baicalein without initial burst release. Importantly, analysis of the permeation profile ex vivo and in vivo demonstrated that lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles prolonged the retention of baicalein in the skin and efficiently penetrated the barrier of stratum corneum without displaying skin irritation. Conclusion: These results indicate the potential of drug-phospholipid complexes in enhancing the entrapment efficiency and self-assembled lecithin/chitosan nanoparticles based on phospholipid complexes in the design of a rational transdermal delivery platform to improve the efficiency of transdermal therapy by enhancing its percutaneous retention and penetration in the skin.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Fosfolipídeos/química , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Quitosana/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Flavanonas/farmacocinética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lecitinas/química , Masculino , Nanopartículas/efeitos adversos , Nanopartículas/química , Permeabilidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Irritação da Pele
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 539-543, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758448

RESUMO

The identification of disease alleles underlying human autoinflammatory diseases can provide important insights into the mechanisms that maintain neutrophil homeostasis. Here, we focused our attention on generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP), a potentially life-threatening disorder presenting with cutaneous and systemic neutrophilia. Following the whole-exome sequencing of 19 unrelated affected individuals, we identified a subject harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.2031-2A>C) in MPO. This encodes myeloperoxidase, an essential component of neutrophil azurophil granules. MPO screening in conditions phenotypically related to GPP uncovered further disease alleles in one subject with acral pustular psoriasis (c.2031-2A>C;c.2031-2A>C) and in two individuals with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (c.1705C>T;c.2031-2A>C and c.1552_1565del;c.1552_1565del). A subsequent analysis of UK Biobank data demonstrated that the c.2031-2A>C and c.1705C>T (p.Arg569Trp) disease alleles were also associated with increased neutrophil abundance in the general population (p = 5.1 × 10-6 and p = 3.6 × 10-5, respectively). The same applied to three further deleterious variants that had been genotyped in the cohort, with two alleles (c.995C>T [p.Ala332Val] and c.752T>C [p.Met251Thr]) yielding p values < 10-10. Finally, treatment of healthy neutrophils with an MPO inhibitor (4-Aminobenzoic acid hydrazide) increased cell viability and delayed apoptosis, highlighting a mechanism whereby MPO mutations affect granulocyte numbers. These findings identify MPO as a genetic determinant of pustular skin disease and neutrophil abundance. Given the recent interest in the development of MPO antagonists for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, our results also suggest that the pro-inflammatory effects of these agents should be closely monitored.


Assuntos
Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Peroxidase/genética , Psoríase/genética , Dermatopatias/genética , Ácido 4-Aminobenzoico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linhagem Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fenótipo , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/patologia
4.
Hautarzt ; 71(10): 786-790, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852599

RESUMO

Topical hormonal treatment allows anti-aging of the skin when used during and after the menopause without an increase in the blood level of hormones. Natural hormones are only prescribed by medical doctors. In controlled clinical studies versus placebo and application for months, an increase in skin quality parameters, reduction of dryness, increase of glycosaminoglycanes, increase in elastic fibers und increase of collagen precursers and collagen fibers on the mRNA and protein level could be shown, the latter proven by biopsies. Skin with dramatic sun-damage does not respond to this treatment option. Patients with melasma or seborrhoe should not be treated with hormonal topical preparations. Compared to the natural hormones, phytotherapeutics do not bind to hormone receptors in relevant levels. Growth hormones should not be used in anti-aging treatment due to a potential carcinogenic effect.


Assuntos
Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Menopausa/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Pele/anatomia & histologia , Pele/metabolismo
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748726

RESUMO

The transferability of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and other plasticizers, from model polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets to the skin of 11 subjects was assessed by measuring the amount of substance transferred using PVC sheets containing PAEs and alternative plasticizers of different types and contents. For all subjects, the transferred amount, from sheets containing 28 wt% PAE or from mixed sheets containing 14 wt% each of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and other PAE, was greater than that from sheets containing 15 wt% each of PAE or alternative plasticizer only. A comparison of the transferability of five types of PAE showed that transfer tended to occur more readily as the n-octanol-water partition coefficient increased, suggesting that PAE hydrophobicity affected its transferability. The transferability of the alternative plasticizers di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester showed a similar trend; however, the transferred amount tended to be higher from model PVC sheets containing 28 wt% PAE or mixed with DEHP. The transferability of PAEs and alternative plasticizers was higher for certain subjects, suggesting individual differences in the transferability of chemicals to the subject's skin surface and is the presence of a group of people comparatively more susceptible to such transfer.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato/farmacocinética , Modelos Biológicos , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Cloreto de Polivinila/química , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Dietilexilftalato/análise , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plastificantes/análise , Pele/metabolismo
6.
Life Sci ; 258: 118139, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721463

RESUMO

AIMS: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by eczematous lesions and has become a serious health problem worldwide. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a nasal decongestant to treat the common cold. PSE has been reported that is beneficial to allergic diseases. However, whether PSE has the potential in atopic dermatitis remains to be elucidated. MAIN METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to induce atopic dermatitis-like lesion and orally administrated with PSE for two weeks. The skin hydration and the scratching behavior were detected. The skin lesions and histopathological changes were evaluated and inflammatory factors levels were detected. Human Keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ after PSE-pretreatment. The transcriptions of inflammatory factors were detected. KEY FINDINGS: PSE decreased skin lesion area and skin thickness in atopic dermatitis mice. PSE improved skin hydration and scratching. Histologically, PSE reduced mast cell and CD4+ cell infiltration. PSE suppressed serum TNF-α and IgE levels, reducing cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-33, TSLP, and IL-23) and neutrophil migration factors (CCL2 and MMP-9) in skin tissues. In addition, PSE inhibited TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced release of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-23) in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, PSE suppressed the activation of MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that PSE could inhibit inflammatory responses in atopic dermatitis models. PSE may serve as a viable alternatives drug for the treatment of atopic dermatitis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudoefedrina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/enzimologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/patologia , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Pseudoefedrina/química , Pseudoefedrina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
7.
Nature ; 584(7820): 268-273, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728211

RESUMO

The ability of the skin to grow in response to stretching has been exploited in reconstructive surgery1. Although the response of epidermal cells to stretching has been studied in vitro2,3, it remains unclear how mechanical forces affect their behaviour in vivo. Here we develop a mouse model in which the consequences of stretching on skin epidermis can be studied at single-cell resolution. Using a multidisciplinary approach that combines clonal analysis with quantitative modelling and single-cell RNA sequencing, we show that stretching induces skin expansion by creating a transient bias in the renewal activity of epidermal stem cells, while a second subpopulation of basal progenitors remains committed to differentiation. Transcriptional and chromatin profiling identifies how cell states and gene-regulatory networks are modulated by stretching. Using pharmacological inhibitors and mouse mutants, we define the step-by-step mechanisms that control stretch-mediated tissue expansion at single-cell resolution in vivo.


Assuntos
Mecanotransdução Celular/fisiologia , Análise de Célula Única , Pele/citologia , Pele/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Junções Aderentes/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrenovação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatina/genética , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/citologia , Células Clonais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Mecanotransdução Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecanotransdução Celular/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mutação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA-Seq , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Transativadores/antagonistas & inibidores , Transativadores/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20510, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501998

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy is the primary treatment option for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, one of the major adverse effects associated with this therapy is skin toxicity, which impacts the patient's quality of life. This study aimed to describe the severities and locations of skin toxicity, and to analyze their association with the quality of life in patients with advanced NSCLC who received EGFR-TKI therapy as first-line treatment.This cross-sectional and correlation study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan between July 2015 and March 2016. Skin toxicity was assessed and graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4.03). The Skindex-16 scale was used to measure the skin disease-related quality of life.A total of 146 NSCLC patients who received EGFR-TKI therapy within the first 3 months of diagnosis were included in this study; 93.2% of these patients experienced skin toxicities. Approximately 70% of the patients developed xerosis and pruritus, while 50% had papulopustular eruptions and paronychia. The mean skin symptom impact score was 5.38 (standard deviation = 2.65). The skin-related quality of life varied widely among the participants but remained acceptable (mean score = 13.96, standard deviation = 16.55). Skin symptoms correlated significantly with poor quality of life (r = 0.50, P < .001). Younger patients and those treated with afatinib were the most affected, reporting the poorest quality of life. Patients who required EGFR-TKI dose reduction had experienced more severe skin symptoms than had patients who did not require it (7.35 vs 5.01, P < .001).Skin toxicity related to EGFR-TKI treatment impacts the quality of life in patients with NSCLC. During the treatment period, skin assessment and tailored management should be incorporated into the daily care plan.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/normas , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Afatinib/efeitos adversos , Afatinib/normas , Afatinib/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Estudos Transversais , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/psicologia , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/normas , Cloridrato de Erlotinib/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gefitinibe/efeitos adversos , Gefitinibe/normas , Gefitinibe/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Pele/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3539-3550, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547012

RESUMO

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) is an antiproliferative drug widely used to treat inflammatory diseases and autoimmune diseases. The application of percutaneous administration is hindered due to its poor transdermal penetration. To reduce side effects and enhanced percutaneous delivery of MTX, novel methotrexate (MTX)-loaded micelles prepared with a amphiphilic cationic material, N,N-dimethyl-(N',N'-di-stearoyl-1-ethyl)1,3-diaminopropane (DMSAP), was designed. Materials and Methods: DMSAP was synthesized via three steps using simple chemical agents. H nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy were used to confirm the successful synthesis of DMSAP. A safe and non-toxic phosphatidylcholine, soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC), was added to DMSAP at different ratios to form P/D-micelles. Then, MTX-entrapped micelles (M/P/D-micelles) were prepared by electrostatic adsorption. The physicochemical properties and blood stability of micelles were examined thoroughly. In addition, the transdermal potential of the micelles was evaluated by permeation experiments. Results: In aqueous environments, DMSAP conjugates could self-assemble spontaneously into micelles with a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 0.056 mg/mL. Stable, spherical MTX-entrapped micelles (M/P/D-micelles) with a size of 100-120 nm and high zeta potential of +36.26 mV were prepared. In vitro permeation studies showed that M/P/D-micelles exhibited superior skin permeability and deposition of MTX in the epidermis and dermis compared with that of free MTX. Conclusion: These special novel cationic M/P/D-micelles can enhance the permeability of MTX and are expected to be a promising percutaneous delivery system for therapy skin diseases.


Assuntos
Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Micelas , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Cátions , Bovinos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Metotrexato/química , Camundongos , Concentração Osmolar , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletricidade Estática
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115103, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522582

RESUMO

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a particularly aggressive subset of lung cancer, and identification of new therapeutic options is of significant interest. We recently reported that SCLC cell lines display a specific vulnerability to inhibition of squalene epoxidase (SQLE), an enzyme in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway that catalyzes the conversion of squalene to 2,3-oxidosqualene. Since it has been reported that SQLE inhibition can result in dermatitis in dogs, we conducted a series of experiments to determine if SQLE inhibitors would be tolerated at exposures predicted to drive maximal efficacy in SCLC tumors. Detailed profiling of the SQLE inhibitor NB-598 showed that dogs did not tolerate predicted efficacious exposures, with dose-limiting toxicity due to gastrointestinal clinical observations, although skin toxicities were also observed. To extend these studies, two SQLE inhibitors, NB-598 and Cmpd-4″, and their structurally inactive analogs, NB-598.ia and Cmpd-4″.ia, were profiled in monkeys. While both active SQLE inhibitors resulted in dose-limiting gastrointestinal toxicity, the structurally similar inactive analogs did not. Collectively, our data demonstrate that significant toxicities arise at exposures well below the predicted levels needed for anti-tumor activity. The on-target nature of the toxicities identified is likely to limit the potential therapeutic utility of SQLE inhibition for the treatment of SCLC.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/sangue , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Esqualeno Mono-Oxigenase/sangue , Animais , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/enzimologia , Pele/patologia
11.
J Dermatol Sci ; 98(2): 75-81, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various cutaneous manifestations have been observed in patients with COVID-19 infection. However, overall similarities in the clinical presentation of these dermatological manifestations have not yet been summarized. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide an overview of various cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 through three case reports and a literature review. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, OVID, and Google search engines for original and review articles. Studies written in the English language that mentioned cutaneous symptoms and COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Eighteen articles and three additional cases reported in this paper were included in this review. Of these studies, 6 are case series and 12 are case report studies. The most common cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19 was found to be maculopapular exanthem (morbilliform), presenting in 36.1% (26/72) patients. The other cutaneous manifestations included: a papulovesicular rash (34.7%, 25/72), urticaria (9.7%, 7/72), painful acral red purple papules (15.3%, 11/72) of patients, livedo reticularis lesions (2.8%, 2/72) and petechiae (1.4%, 1/72). Majority of lesions were localized on the trunk (66.7%, 50/72), however, 19.4% (14/72) of patients experienced cutaneous manifestations in the hands and feet. Skin lesion development occurred before the onset of respiratory symptoms or COVID-19 diagnosis in 12.5% (9/72) of the patients, and lesions spontaneously healed in all patients within 10 days. Majority of the studies reported no correlation between COVID-19 severity and skin lesions. CONCLUSION: Infection with COVID-19 may result in dermatological manifestations with various clinical presentations, which may aid in the timely diagnosis of this infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Dermatopatias Virais/virologia , Pele/virologia , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias Virais/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Virais/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 326: 109128, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416088

RESUMO

Exposure to mycotoxins is mostly by ingestion but also occurs by the dermal and inhalation routes. The present study for the first time demonstrated that mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol (DON), permeates through Swiss albino mice skin, which demands awareness of health risks in people who are dermally exposed to mycotoxins especially agricultural farmers. Despite the widespread contamination of DON in food commodities studies to alleviate DON's toxicity are sparsely reported. Thus effective measures to combat mycotoxins associated toxicity remains an imperative aspect to be considered from the angle of dermal exposure. Topical application of Celecoxib (1-2 mg), followed by DON (100 µg) application on the dorsal side of mice, resulted in substantial decrease in DON-induced (i) edema, hyperplasia, cell proliferation (ii) inhibition of cytokine and prostaglandin-E2 levels (iii) phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38, MAPKKs, CREB, P90-RSK (iv) downregulation of c-Jun, c- Fos, phospho-NF-kB and their downstream target proteins cyclin D1 and COX-2. Using Ro-31-8220 (Protein-Kinase-C inhibitor), it was observed PKC was responsible for DON induced upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS proteins. Treatment of Celecoxib decreased DON-induced translocation of Protein Kinase C isozymes (α,ε,γ), demonstrating the role of PKC in DON-mediated biochemical and molecular alterations responsible for its dermal toxicity. The present findings indicate that topical application of celecoxib is effective in the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxin DON. The skin permeation potential of Celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor NSAID, was also assessed, and the results indicated that the permeation was relatively lower as compared to the oral mode of administration. Hence topical use of celecoxib may be preferred over oral dosing because of lower systemic absorption and to avoid the unwanted side effects. This study provides a prospect for exploring the clinical efficacy of topically applied COX-2 inhibitors for the management of inflammatory skin disorders induced by foodborne fungal toxins.


Assuntos
Celecoxib/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias/metabolismo
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 325: 109135, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428449

RESUMO

Early initiated decontamination is demonstrated to be crucial to avoid systemic effects of highly toxic and low volatile agents exposed on the skin. Skin decontamination can be performed by simple procedures, such as washing with soap and water, or by using advanced decontamination products containing absorption and agent degradation properties. Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) has demonstrated high efficacy to remove nerve agents from the skin. However, contrary to the current operational recommendations, experimental studies have shown that prolonged skin contact time of RSDL is important for efficient decontamination of VX. In the present study, several RSDL-protocols were evaluated for the efficacy to remove neat VX from human skin in vitro. The decontamination efficacies of the RSDL-procedures were compared with the efficacy of the simple procedure of washing off the skin with soapy water. The RSDL-protocols containing repeated swabbing with the sponge and a 10 min skin contact time of RSDL-lotion demonstrated the greatest decontamination efficacy of all procedures evaluated. Repeating the protocol 2 h after the initial decontamination step resulted in a transient increased skin penetration of remaining intact agent on skin and was followed by rapidly declined agent penetration rate. Decontamination performed with soapy water significantly increased agent amounts penetrating skin, most likely caused by skin hydration and agent dilution. In conclusion, a slightly extended procedure for RSDL-decontamination showed improved efficacy and is therefore recommended for removal of nerve agents from the skin. In addition, it is of highest importance that skin decontamination of nerve agents should consist of procedures using low water content.


Assuntos
Descontaminação/métodos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Organotiofosforados/isolamento & purificação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Agentes Neurotóxicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organotiofosforados/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Sabões/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(8): 183282, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376222

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides are considered promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobial agents to combat infections by multi-drug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of the synthetic peptide TC19, derived from the human thrombocidin-1-derived peptide L3. Biophysical experiments into the interaction between TC19 and mimics of human and bacterial plasma membranes demonstrated that the peptide is highly selective for bacterial membranes. In agreement, TC19 combined low cytotoxicity towards human fibroblasts with efficient and rapid killing in human plasma of MDR strains of several bacterial species of the ESKAPE panel. In addition, TC19 induced minor resistance in vitro, neutralized pro-inflammatory activity of bacterial cell envelope components while displaying slight chemotactic activity for human neutrophils. Importantly, topical application of TC19-containing hypromellose gel significantly reduced numbers of viable methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in a superficial wound infection in mice. Together, TC19 is an attractive candidate for further development as a novel agent against (MDR) bacterial skin wound infections.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Camundongos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/genética , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/patologia
15.
J Dermatol Sci ; 98(2): 75-81, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various cutaneous manifestations have been observed in patients with COVID-19 infection. However, overall similarities in the clinical presentation of these dermatological manifestations have not yet been summarized. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide an overview of various cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19 through three case reports and a literature review. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, OVID, and Google search engines for original and review articles. Studies written in the English language that mentioned cutaneous symptoms and COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Eighteen articles and three additional cases reported in this paper were included in this review. Of these studies, 6 are case series and 12 are case report studies. The most common cutaneous manifestation of COVID-19 was found to be maculopapular exanthem (morbilliform), presenting in 36.1% (26/72) patients. The other cutaneous manifestations included: a papulovesicular rash (34.7%, 25/72), urticaria (9.7%, 7/72), painful acral red purple papules (15.3%, 11/72) of patients, livedo reticularis lesions (2.8%, 2/72) and petechiae (1.4%, 1/72). Majority of lesions were localized on the trunk (66.7%, 50/72), however, 19.4% (14/72) of patients experienced cutaneous manifestations in the hands and feet. Skin lesion development occurred before the onset of respiratory symptoms or COVID-19 diagnosis in 12.5% (9/72) of the patients, and lesions spontaneously healed in all patients within 10 days. Majority of the studies reported no correlation between COVID-19 severity and skin lesions. CONCLUSION: Infection with COVID-19 may result in dermatological manifestations with various clinical presentations, which may aid in the timely diagnosis of this infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Dermatopatias Virais/virologia , Pele/virologia , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias Virais/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Virais/terapia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(22): 12288-12294, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430334

RESUMO

PD-1 and PD-L1 act to restrict T cell responses in cancer and contribute to self-tolerance. Consistent with this role, PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors have been associated with immune-related adverse events (irAEs), immune toxicities thought to be autoimmune in origin. Analyses of dermatological irAEs have identified an association with improved overall survival (OS) following anti-PD-(L)1 therapy, but the factors that contribute to this relationship are poorly understood. We collected germline whole-genome sequencing data from IMvigor211, a recent phase 3 randomized controlled trial comparing atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) monotherapy to chemotherapy in bladder cancer. We found that high vitiligo, high psoriasis, and low atopic dermatitis polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were associated with longer OS under anti-PD-L1 monotherapy as compared to chemotherapy, reflecting the Th17 polarization of these diseases. PRSs were not correlated with tumor mutation burden, PD-L1 immunohistochemistry, nor T-effector gene signatures. Shared genetic factors impact risk for dermatological autoimmunity and anti-PD-L1 monotherapy in bladder cancer.


Assuntos
Pele/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Autoimunidade , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3123-3136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440114

RESUMO

Purpose: Asiaticoside (ASI), a compound of triterpene pentacyclic saponins, has apparently therapeutic efficacy on human hypertrophic scar. However, the characteristics of large molecular weight, low water solubility and poor lipophilicity do not favor the diffusion through the stratum corneum (SC). Therefore, it is expected that the development of a transdermally delivered formulation may enhance the permeability ratio (Qn) of ASI for its clinical application. In this study, we designed asiaticoside-loaded nanoemulsions (ASI-NEs) and nanoemulsions-based gels (ASI-NBGs) and studied their mechanism for transdermal delivery. Methods: The preparation of ASI-NEs was optimized by simplex lattice design (SLD). The ex vivo transdermal penetration and the in vivo pharmacokinetics studies were studied, respectively. The skin irritation of ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs was measured on normal and damaged skin in rabbits, and the transcutaneous mechanisms of ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were determined by HE stained and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Results: The mean particle size of ASI-NEs was 132±5.84nm. The ex vivo skin permeation study verified that the Qn of the optimized ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs was about 13.65 times and 5.05 times higher than that of the ordinary ASI-G group. In vivo, the pharmacokinetics studies showed that ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs reached the peak value in the skin quickly and maintained stable release for a long time with high bioavailability. ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were proved to be safe when applied for topical skin usage, and they could play a therapeutic role through the skin mainly by acting on the microstructure of the SC and by means of the skin adnexal pathways. Conclusion: ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs were effectively developed to overcome the barrier properties of the skin and show high drug penetration through the transdermal route. In addition, we found that ASI-NEs and ASI-NBGs are safe when applied through transdermal delivery system.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões/química , Géis/química , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Administração Tópica , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Coelhos , Ratos Wistar , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Irritação da Pele , Solubilidade , Triterpenos/farmacocinética
18.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2515-2527, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368038

RESUMO

Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of psoriasis by causing inflammation. Antioxidative strategies eradicating ROS may serve as effective and easy treatment options for psoriasis, while nanozymes with intrinsic antioxidant enzyme-like activity have not been explored for psoriasis treatment. The aim of this study is to fabricate ß-cyclodextrins (ß-CDs)-modified ceria nanoparticles (ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs) with drug-loaded and multimimic-enzyme activities for combinational psoriasis therapy. Methods: The ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using unmodified ß-CDs as a protecting agent. The structure, size and morphology were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Considering the superoxide dismutase (SOD)- and catalase-mimetic activities, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs was investigated. After dithranol (DIT) was loaded, the drug-loading capacity and release profile were determined by UV-visible light spectrophotometer and high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-psoriatic efficacy was studied in the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced mouse model on the basis of morphological evaluation, psoriasis area and severity index calculation (PASI), and inflammatory cytokine expression. Results: The average particle size of the blank ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs was 60.89±0.32 nm with a polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.12, whereas that of the DIT-loaded NPs was 79.38±1.06 nm with a PDI of 0.27. TEM results showed the as-prepared NPs formed a uniform quasi-spherical shape with low polydispersity. XPS indicates synthesized NPs have a mixed Ce3+/Ce4+ valence state. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ß-CDs and DIT in the NPs. Inhibition of superoxide anion rate by NPs could be reached to 79.4% in the presence of 200 µg/mL, and elimination of H2O2 efficiency reached about 50% in the presence of 40 µg/mL, demonstrating excellent superoxide dismutase- and catalase-mimicking activities, thereby providing remarkable cryoprotection against ROS-mediated damage. Furthermore, ß-CDs on the surface endowed the NPs with drug-loading function via host-guest interactions. The entrapment efficiency and drug loading of DIT are 94.7% and 3.48%, respectively. The in vitro drug release curves revealed a suitable release capability of DIT@ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs under physiological conditions. In IMQ-induced psoriatic model, the DIT@ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs exhibited excellent therapeutic effect. Conclusion: This study may pave the way for the application of nanozyme ß-CDs/CeO2 NPs as a powerful tool for psoriasis therapy.


Assuntos
Cério/química , Nanopartículas/química , Psoríase/terapia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Terapia Combinada , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidrodinâmica , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/síntese química
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452236

RESUMO

Given the increasing levels of air pollution, understanding the direct shielding response of the skin to air pollutants as a whole under exclusion of the influence from the inside of body is important. We applied topically the water soluble ambient air pollutants to the mouse skin and observed the histological response using 0.3 mM of H2SO3 as a positive control. Water soluble air pollutants samples, WSAP24h and WSA72h, were collected by pumping the outdoor air into ddH2O for 24 and 72 h respectively during two periods with different air quality index (AQI). Morphological examination showed apparent thickening of the epidermal layer in the H2SO3 skin section and in the sections applied with WSAP24h and WSAP72h without significant difference in the extent of epidermal hyperplasia among three groups. The cell viability assay showed no cytotoxic effect by the treatment of H2SO3 and WSAP24h in human skin fibroblast WS-1 cells. WSAP72h sample revealed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity to skin fibroblasts at 48 hr. The evidences indicated that the barrier function of the skin by epidermis hyperplasia could be activated by the insult of a component of air pollution, and the protection could be hold against a more complex and concentrated ambient air pollutants.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Camundongos , Solubilidade
20.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 102-111, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464238

RESUMO

Firefighting instructors in live fire training are inevitably exposed to emissions containing, carcinogenic PAH. The study investigated PAH uptake in a group of firefighting instructors during short-term exposure in live fire training by urinary biomonitoring. Six firefighting instructors (non-smokers) completed five 2 h-training sessions each in a carbonaceous-fired simulation unit using self-containing breathing apparatuses (SCBA). Complying with a minimum time interval of six days between the individual training sessions, the participants provided urine samples before and immediately after, as well as 1, 3, 6, 9, 11, and 18 h after each training session. Samples were analyzed for 10 mono-hydroxylated metabolites of the PAH naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and pyrene using gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. A significant effect of the training sessions on the time course of internal exposure was found (p < 0.0001). The concentration of all parameters clearly increased at the latest 3 h after end of training. After peaking, the concentrations dropped with half-lives between 3.5 and 9.3 h but did not reach the initial levels within 18 h again. Compared to pre-training levels, the increase in metabolite excretion was between 546-933 %. During peak excretion reference values for hydroxynaphthalene (35 µg/L, sum of 1- and 2-isomer) and 1-hydroxypyrene (0.30 µg/L) were exceeded in 64 % (maximum: 381.3 µg/L) and 73 % of the samples (maximum: 1.88 µg/g crea.), respectively. Live fire training is associated with an additional uptake of PAH. Due to the consequent use of SCBA, dermal absorption is assumed as major exposure route. Further measures to reduce PAH exposure should be considered, in particular since higher internal loads caused by accumulation effects are to be expected with daily or more frequent training.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/urina , Monitoramento Ambiental , Bombeiros , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/urina , Ensino , Adulto , Bombeiros/educação , Fogo , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea
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