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1.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(5): 527-531, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malassezia, a skin saprophyte, is frequently isolated from patients with seborrheic dermatitis, which is one of the most common dermatoses in HIV-infected patients. Its role in pathophysiology has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients living with HIV and seborrheic dermatitis have more Malassezia than those without seborrheic dermatitis. METHOD: This is an descriptive, observational, prospective cross-sectional study to which all adult patients living with HIV that attend the infectious disease outpatient clinic at the Dr. Manuel Gea González General Hospital were invited. Patients presenting with scale and erythema were included in Group 1, while patients without erythema were included in Group 2. Samples were taken from all patients for smear and culture. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included in each group. All patients with seborrheic dermatitis had a positive smear, with varying amounts of yeasts. In the control group, 36.7% of patients had a negative smear. The results are statistically significant, as well as the number of colonies in the cultures. Study limitations The study used a small sample size and the subspecies were not identified. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinical manifestations of seborrheic dermatitis have larger amounts of Malassezia. Further studies need to be performed to analyze if the greater amount is related to imbalances in the microbiota of the skin.


Assuntos
Dermatite Seborreica/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 983, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a fungal infectious disease caused by dermatophytes, which produce protease and keratinase to digest keratin, leading to the colonization, invasion, and infection of the stratum corneum of the skin, hair shafts, and nails. Trichophyton interdigitale belongs to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex, which is the common pathogen causing dermatophytosis. Fungal keratitis, also called keratomycosis, is an infectious disease of cornea. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of simultaneous dermatophytosis and keratomycosis caused by Trichophyton interdigitale. A 67-year-old man presented with extensive erythema all over the body since 4 years ago, fungal infection of left eye for 2 years, and loss of vision in the eye. These symptoms had become aggravated in the last month. Dermatological examinations showed extensive erythematous plaques with clear borders and scales, scattered red papules with ulceration, and scabs throughout the body. Onychomycosis was observed on the nails of left hand, conjunctival infection with secretion and loss of vision were noted in left eye. Hyaline septate hyphae were observed under direct microscopic examination, fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer sequencing revealed T. interdigitale. Histopathological examination suggested infectious granuloma. A diagnosis of dermatophytosis and keratomycosis caused by T. interdigitale with loss of vision in left eye was made. The patient was treated with luliconazole cream (two applications per day) and itraconazole (100 mg, BID, PO). Complete clinical remission was achieved after 1 month. Subsequently, the patient underwent left eye enucleation in the ophthalmology department. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we reported a case of simultaneous dermatophytosis and keratomycosis caused by T. interdigitale, and reviewed the literature on corneal infection caused by Trichophyton. A total of 10 articles with 45 patients were published between 1973 and 2018. The pathogen of 27 patient were identified to species level. There were T. schoenleinii (17), T. mentagrophytes (4), T. verrucosum (3), T. rubrum (1), T. erinacei (1), and T. interdigitale (1). Five patients had corneal trauma, one had contact lens use history. Direct microscopic examination, fungal culture, and analysis of physiological characteristics were the main methods of identification. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment may help improve the management and outcomes.


Assuntos
Ceratite/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Itraconazol/administração & dosagem , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Unhas/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Trichophyton/genética , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichophyton/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4703, 2019 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619666

RESUMO

Despite recent advances in understanding microbial diversity in skin homeostasis, the relevance of microbial dysbiosis in inflammatory disease is poorly understood. Here we perform a comparative analysis of skin microbial communities coupled to global patterns of cutaneous gene expression in patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis. The skin microbiota is analysed by 16S amplicon or whole genome sequencing and the skin transcriptome by microarrays, followed by integration of the data layers. We find that atopic dermatitis and psoriasis can be classified by distinct microbes, which differ from healthy volunteers microbiome composition. Atopic dermatitis is dominated by a single microbe (Staphylococcus aureus), and associated with a disease relevant host transcriptomic signature enriched for skin barrier function, tryptophan metabolism and immune activation. In contrast, psoriasis is characterized by co-occurring communities of microbes with weak associations with disease related gene expression. Our work provides a basis for biomarker discovery and targeted therapies in skin dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Microbiota/genética , Psoríase/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Disbiose/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 595-603, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590829

RESUMO

Skin is the body's first line of defense against invading microorganisms. The skin microbiome has been shown to provide immunity against exogenous bacterial colonization. Recreational water exposures may alter the skin microbiome and potentially induce skin infections. This study explored the link between ocean water exposures and the human skin microbiome. Skin microbiome samples were collected, using swabs, from human participants' calves before and after they swam in the ocean, and at 6 hour and 24 hour post-swim. Genomic analysis showed that skin microbiomes were different among individuals before swimming. But after swimming, microbial communities were no longer different, which was demonstrated by a decrease in inter-sample diversity. Taxonomic analysis showed that ocean bacteria, including potential pathogens, replaced the native skin bacteria and remained on the skin for at least 24 hour post-swim. This research provides insight into the relationship between the human skin microbiome and the environment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Oceanos e Mares
6.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 144: 154-164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542438

RESUMO

Curcumin, a multi-targeting pharmacologically active compound, is a promising molecule for the treatment of skin inflammation and infection in chronic wounds. However, its hydrophobic nature remains to be a challenge in development of its pharmaceutical products, including dermatopharmaceuticals. Here we propose deformable liposomes (DLs) as a mean to overcome the curcumin limitations in skin treatment. We explored the properties and biological effects of curcumin containing DLs (curcumin-DLs) with varying surface charge by preparing the neutral (NDLs), cationic (CDLs) and anionic (ADLs) nanocarriers. The vesicles of mean diameter 200-300 nm incorporated high curcumin load mirroring the type of employed surfactant. Curcumin-CDLs provided the most sustained ex vivo penetration of curcumin through the full thickness human skin. Although the curcumin-CDLs were the most potent regarding the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, all curcumin-DLs were superior to curcumin in solution (control). No cytotoxicity in human skin fibroblasts was detected. All DLs significantly inhibited bacterial Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes growth in vitro. The curcumin-CDLs were found superior to other DLs. The incorporation of curcumin in DLs enabled both its sustained skin penetration and enhancement of its biological properties. Cationic nanocarriers enhanced the activities of curcumin to the greatest extent.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Lipossomos/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Cutânea , Cátions/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Pele/microbiologia , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/química
7.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 113-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560675

RESUMO

The development of atopic dermatitis (AD) is often associated with the presence of pathogenic microflora in the skin's biotope against the background of acute immunological disorders of the microorganism. In this case, the leading role is played by Staphylococcus aureus, which is seeded in 80-95% of patients diagnosed with AD. The clinical significance of the pathogen is determined by its ability to actively survive in the biotope, aided by a wide range of pathogenicity factors of this microorganism. Goal of research - to study the activity levels of pathogenicity factors and the persistence of staphylococci clinical autostrains isolated from different topodems of the skin of patients diagnosed with AD. The object of study was 101 laboratory strain of the skin's staphylococci of 50 patients diagnosed with AD and 39 control strains isolated from 20 generally healthy individuals. Isolation of microorganisms and bacteriological studies of their pathogenic characteristics were carried out using the methods of classical bacteriology. It was revealed that the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the antilysocyme activity (ALA), the anti-interferon activity (AIA) and the adhesive properties of the strains isolated from the affected skin areas were significantly higher than that of the cultures isolated from the intact areas. The data obtained indicate the ability of these pathogens to adversely affect the course of the pathological process in the skin.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Eczema/diagnóstico , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Eczema/microbiologia , Humanos , Pele/patologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico
8.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(3): 305-308, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512611

RESUMO

While Type 1 reaction in Hansen's disease is commonly encountered, the triggers and reasons for its persistence are not well understood even though the immunological milieu and cytokine interplay have been studied. Herein, we present a case of Type 1 downgrading reaction in which multidrug resistance was the probable cause of steroid-nonresponsiveness and which responded promptly on starting alternate antileprosy treatment.


Assuntos
Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/classificação , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Feminino , Humanos , Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546968

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze the microbiological biodiversity of human foot skin with respect to factors such as age, gender, frequency of foot washing and physical activity, and to select indicator species to be considered when designing textile materials with antimicrobial properties used for sock and insole production. The experiment was carried out on a group of 40 people. The number of microorganisms was determined using culture-dependent methods. Biodiversity was determined using culture followed by genetic identification based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing (bacteria), ITS region (fungi), or using Illumina next-generation sequencing (in a group of eight selected individuals). The total bacterial number on women's feet was on average 1.0 × 106 CFU/cm2, and was not statistically significantly different than that of men's feet (mean 1.2 × 105 CFU/cm2). The number of bacteria, in most cases, decreased with age and with increased frequency of physical activity. The number of bacteria increased with diminishing feet-washing frequency; however, statistically significant differences were found between groups. The number of fungi was not significantly different amongst groups. Bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria constituted the main microorganisms of the foot skin. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota predominated amongst the fungi. The presence of specific species varied in groups depending on the factors mentioned above. Two of the species identified were classified as pathogens (Neisseria flavescens and Aspergillus fumigatus). These findings suggest that it is necessary to extend the list of microorganisms tested on textiles with respect to hygienic properties.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Pé/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Cultura , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514281

RESUMO

The glycerol fermentation of probiotic Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in the skin microbiome produced butyric acid in vitro at concentrations in the millimolar range. The exposure of dorsal skin of mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) light provoked a significant increased production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine. Topical application of butyric acid alone or S. epidermidis with glycerol remarkably ameliorated the UVB-induced IL-6 production. In vivo knockdown of short-chain fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in mouse skin considerably blocked the probiotic effect of S. epidermidis on suppression of UVB-induced IL-6 production. These results demonstrate that butyric acid in the metabolites of fermenting skin probiotic bacteria mediates FFAR2 to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by UVB.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/química , Raios Ultravioleta , Acetolactato Sintase/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos da radiação , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Glicerol/farmacologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Microbiota/efeitos da radiação , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação
12.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500359

RESUMO

Lavender oil is one of the most valuable aromatherapy oils, its anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities can be explained by main components such as linalool, linalyl acetate, lavandulol, geraniol, or eucalyptol. The aim of the study was to assess the anti-microbial effects of two different lavender oils on a mixed microbiota from facial skin. The commercial lavender oil and essential lavender oil from the Crimean Peninsula, whose chemical composition and activity are yet to be published, were used. Both oils were analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The composition and properties of studied oils were significantly different. The commercial ETJA lavender oil contained 10% more linalool and linalyl acetate than the Crimean lavender oil. Both oils also had different effects on the mixed facial skin microbiota. The Gram-positive bacilli were more sensitive to ETJA lavender oil, and Gram-negative bacilli were more sensitive to Crimean lavender oil. However, neither of the tested oils inhibited the growth of Gram-positive cocci. The tested lavender oils decreased the cell number of the mixed microbiota from facial skin, but ETJA oil showed higher efficiency, probably because it contains higher concentrations of monoterpenoids and monoterpenes than Crimean lavender oil does.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , /análise , Antibacterianos/química , Face , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lavandula/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
14.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(6): 1751-1758, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448854

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of this experiment was to study the bacterial diversity and predominance of spoilage bacteria in chicken skin at different thermal treatment temperatures (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120°C). METHOD AND RESULTS: Bacteria in chicken skin was collected, then propidium monoazide treatment to remove the DNA of dead cell, total DNA was extracted by Tiandz Bacterial DNA Kit, and investigated by high-throughput sequencing of the v3/v4 regions of the 16S rDNA gene. A total of 796 008 high-quality bacterial sequences were obtained for assessing the microbial diversity of chicken skin from seven thermal treatment group and control group. The results showed that the bacterial diversity in chicken skin at 90°C was lowest. And Acinetobacter (25·88%), Clostridium (20·70%), Bacteroides (13·93%) and Myroides (13·13%) were the main flora at 25°C; The Clostridium was dominant genus of the samples heat-treated by 60, 70, 80 and 90°C, the proportion of this genus were up to 64·86, 77·42, 52·22 and 87·30% respectively. The Bacillus was the main flora of the samples heat-treated by 100, 110 and 120°C, and the relative percentages were 39·44, 79·61 and 45·96% respectively. In addition, high-temperature-resistant Serratia was found in chicken skin. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed that the relationship between thermal treatment temperature and bacterial diversity and dominant spoilage bacteria in chicken skin, which had a strong guiding significance for the control and prediction of micro-organisms in foods. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results of this paper could provide a theoretical basis for meat products containing chicken skin, including the safe use of chicken skin, determination of sterilization process parameters and selection of preservatives for compounding, which has strong practicality in China.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Temperatura Alta , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Azidas/química , Bactérias/genética , Galinhas , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Propídio/análogos & derivados , Propídio/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(9): 862-867, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate erythema and number of CFUs on the skin of dogs with hair clipped by use of 2 sizes of clipper blades. ANIMALS: 67 client-owned dogs receiving an epidural. PROCEDURES: Hair was clipped with a No. 10 blade (approx hair length, 1.5 mm) on one half and a No. 40 blade (approx hair length, 0.25 mm) on the other half of each epidural site. Skin was surgically scrubbed with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 70% isopropyl alcohol. Samples were obtained immediately after clipping, after skin was scrubbed, and again 24 hours after clipping. Number of CFUs for both sides of the clipped areas, types of microorganisms, and growth on MacConkey agar were evaluated every 24 hours for 72 hours. Colonies were evaluated for bacterial morphology and Gram stain characteristics. Sites were evaluated 24 hours after clipping for evidence of erythema. RESULTS: 24 hours after hair was clipped, there was a significantly higher incidence of erythema and higher number of Micrococcaceae bacteria for the side clipped with the No. 40 blade than the side clipped with the No. 10 blade. Number of CFUs did not differ significantly between size of clipper blades. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Clipping hair with a No. 40 blade resulted in a significant increase in the incidence of erythema and higher number of Micrococcaceae bacteria, compared with results for clipping with a No. 10 blade. These results supported use of a No. 10 clipper blade to prevent erythema and reduce variation in the skin microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cães/microbiologia , Asseio Animal , Cabelo/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Eritema/etiologia , Eritema/microbiologia , Eritema/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco
16.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 18(8): 798-802, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424710

RESUMO

Cutaneous fungal infections account for millions of office visits per year, yet their varied presentations often lead to misdiagnosis. If dermatology clinics are Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA) certified, direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide or other stains can be used to inexpensively and rapidly diagnose fungal infections. In this survey, we examined dermatologists' perceptions of fungal preparations and CLIA certification to identify barriers that prevent the use of these bedside diagnostics. The response rate was 13% (n=308, based on the number of emails opened). When a cutaneous fungal infection is suspected, 20.94% rarely/never and 19.86% sometimes perform fungal preparations, often because they think clinical diagnosis is adequate or that preparations take too long. 21.32% reported not having CLIA certification, most frequently because the process requires too much work, or they do not know how to apply. Of providers with CLIA certification, over 25% thought it was difficult to obtain. Our results demonstrate that numerous barriers prevent the common use of fungal preparations, including the perception that clinical diagnosis is sufficient and the lack of required CLIA certification. These barriers emphasize the need for additional education about cutaneous fungal infections and use of bedside diagnostics. Additionally, policy-based interventions are necessary to ease the process of CLIA certification.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Indicadores e Reagentes/química , Adulto , Idoso , Dermatologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatologia/métodos , Dermatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Hidróxidos/química , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Compostos de Potássio/química , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(9): 1770-1771, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441753

RESUMO

Cane toads, an invasive species in Australia, are resistant to fungal pathogens affecting frogs worldwide (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). From toad skin swabs, we detected higher proportions of bacteria with antifungal properties in Queensland, where toad and pathogen distributions overlap, than in other sites. This finding suggests that site-specific pathogen pressures help shape skin microbial communities.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bufo marinus/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Queensland
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3831, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444339

RESUMO

When injured, fish release an alarm substance (Schreckstoff) that elicits fear in members of their shoal. Although Schreckstoff has been proposed to be produced by club cells in the skin, several observations indicate that these giant cells function primarily in immunity. Previous data indicate that the alarm substance can be isolated from mucus. Here we show that mucus, as well as bacteria, are transported from the external surface into club cells, by cytoplasmic transfer or invasion of cells, including neutrophils. The presence of bacteria inside club cells raises the possibility that the alarm substance may contain a bacterial component. Indeed, lysate from a zebrafish Staphylococcus isolate is sufficient to elicit alarm behaviour, acting in concert with a substance from fish. These results suggest that Schreckstoff, which allows one individual to unwittingly change the emotional state of the surrounding population, derives from two kingdoms and is associated with processes that protect the host from bacteria.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Pele/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Medo/fisiologia , Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Células Gigantes/microbiologia , Microscopia Intravital , Muco/citologia , Muco/metabolismo , Muco/microbiologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Imagem Óptica , Reflexo de Sobressalto/fisiologia , Pele/citologia , Pele/microbiologia , Simbiose/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/lesões , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
19.
J Dermatol ; 46(10): 917-921, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392741

RESUMO

While the etiology of sarcoidosis remains uncertain, mycobacteria have been suggested as a causative infectious agent. To investigate the causal relationship between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis, we performed a reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) to identify mycobacteria from the skin samples of nine patients with sarcoidosis. Six of the nine samples were shown to be positive for mycobacteria by REBA, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria. This is the first study to identify mycobacteria from the skin samples of sarcoidosis patients using REBA, and our results could strengthen the etiologic association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Sarcoidose/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Sondas de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Sonda Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sarcoidose/patologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
20.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(8): 1273-1280, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337186

RESUMO

Edwardsiella piscicida is the causative agent of edwardsiellosis, which has caused enormous economic losses worldwide. In our previous research, an attenuated live vaccine WED based on the virulent strain E. piscicida EIB202 can effectively protect turbots against edwardsiellosis via intraperitoneal injection, while vaccination by immersion exhibits a weaker effect. During the development of the immersion vaccine, we surprisingly found the counts of ΔpEIB202/ EIB202 colonized on zebrafish were 100 times lower than those of EIB202. However, pEIB202 carries 53 predicted ORFs and has several copies in E. piscicida EIB202, impeding the study of its function. Thus the replication region is located at a 1 980 bp fragment (from 18 837 to 20 816 bp), containing a transcriptional repressor and a replication protein. Moreover, the minimal replication plasmid, named pRep-q77, has low copies in both E. coli and E. piscicida, but is more stable in E. piscicida than in E. coli. This work lays a foundation for further examination of the function of the virulence plasmid pEIB202.


Assuntos
Replicação do DNA , Edwardsiella/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Edwardsiella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Escherichia coli/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Brânquias/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Pele/microbiologia , Virulência/genética , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
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