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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5788, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34608163

RESUMO

The chytrid fungal pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans cause the skin disease chytridiomycosis in amphibians, which is driving a substantial proportion of an entire vertebrate class to extinction. Mitigation of its impact is largely unsuccessful and requires a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the disease ecology. By identifying skin factors that mediate key events during the early interaction with B. salamandrivorans zoospores, we discovered a marker for host colonization. Amphibian skin associated beta-galactose mediated fungal chemotaxis and adhesion to the skin and initiated a virulent fungal response. Fungal colonization correlated with the skin glycosylation pattern, with cutaneous galactose content effectively predicting variation in host susceptibility to fungal colonization between amphibian species. Ontogenetic galactose patterns correlated with low level and asymptomatic infections in salamander larvae that were carried over through metamorphosis, resulting in juvenile mortality. Pronounced variation of galactose content within some, but not all species, may promote the selection for more colonization resistant host lineages, opening new avenues for disease mitigation.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Batrachochytrium/patogenicidade , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Galactose/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Anfíbios/classificação , Anfíbios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Batrachochytrium/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carboidratos/química , Quimiotaxia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Resistência à Doença , Galactose/química , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Pele/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Virulência
3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684601

RESUMO

The child microbiome, including gut and skin communities, is shaped by a multitude of factors, and breastfeeding is one of the most essential. Food allergy (FA) and atopic dermatitis (AD) are among the most common diseases in pediatrics, with the prevalence of each up to 6% and 20%, respectively. Therefore, we aimed at finding differences between the fecal and skin microbiomes of FA and AD patients in the context of breastfeeding, by means of the Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment libraries amplified from the total DNA isolated from samples collected from allergic and healthy infants. We also analyzed milk samples from the mothers of the examined children and searched for patterns of incidence suggesting milk influence on an infant's allergy status. Here we show that a mother's milk influences her child's fecal and skin microbiomes and identify Acinetobacter as the taxon whose abundance is correlated with milk and child-derived samples. We demonstrate that breastfeeding makes allergic children's fecal and skin communities more similar to those of healthy infants than in the case of formula-feeding. We also identify signature taxa that might be important in maintaining health or allergy development.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/microbiologia , Microbiota , Leite Humano/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Biodiversidade , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Filogenia , Projetos Piloto
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(10): e1009693, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34699567

RESUMO

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of immune cells that maintain barrier function and can initiate a protective or pathological immune response upon infection. Here we show the involvement of IL-17A-producing ILCs in microbiota-driven immunopathology in cutaneous leishmaniasis. IL-17A-producing ILCs were RORγt+ and were enriched in Leishmania major infected skin, and topical colonization with Staphylococcus epidermidis before L. major infection exacerbated the skin inflammatory responses and IL-17A-producing RORγt+ ILC accumulation without impacting type 1 immune responses. IL-17A responses in ILCs were directed by Batf3 dependent CD103+ dendritic cells and IL-23. Moreover, experiments using Rag1-/- mice established that IL-17A+ ILCs were sufficient in driving the inflammatory responses as depletion of ILCs or neutralization of IL-17A diminished the microbiota mediated immunopathology. Taken together, this study indicates that the skin microbiota promotes RORγt+ IL-17A-producing ILCs, which augment the skin inflammation in cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Dermatite/imunologia , Dermatite/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/microbiologia , Camundongos
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576010

RESUMO

The human skin microbiota is essential for maintaining homeostasis and ensuring barrier functions. Over the years, the characterization of its composition and taxonomic diversity has reached outstanding goals, with more than 10 million bacterial genes collected and cataloged. Nevertheless, the study of the skin microbiota presents specific challenges that need to be addressed in study design. Benchmarking procedures and reproducible and robust analysis workflows for increasing comparability among studies are required. For various reasons and because of specific technical problems, these issues have been investigated in gut microbiota studies, but they have been largely overlooked for skin microbiota. After a short description of the skin microbiota, the review tackles methodological aspects and their pitfalls, covering NGS approaches and high throughput culture-based techniques. Recent insights into the "core" and "transient" types of skin microbiota and how the manipulation of these communities can prevent or combat skin diseases are also covered. Finally, this review includes an overview of the main dermatological diseases, the changes in the microbiota composition associated with them, and the recommended skin sampling procedures. The last section focuses on topical and oral probiotics to improve and maintain skin health, considering their possible applications for skin diseases.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbiota , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Humanos , Metagenômica/métodos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Dermatopatias/terapia
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553684

RESUMO

The pH of skin is critical for skin health and resilience and plays a key role in controlling the skin microbiome. It has been well reported that under dysbiotic conditions such as atopic dermatitis (AD), eczema, etc. there are significant aberrations of skin pH, along with a higher level of Staphylococcus aureus compared to the commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis on skin. To understand the effect of pH on the relative growth of S. epidermidis and S. aureus, we carried out simple in vitro growth kinetic studies of the individual microbes under varying pH conditions. We demonstrated that the growth kinetics of S. epidermidis is relatively insensitive to pH within the range of 5-7, while S. aureus shows a stronger pH dependence in that range. Gompertz's model was used to fit the pH dependence of the growth kinetics of the two bacteria and showed that the equilibrium bacterial count of S. aureus was the more sensitive parameter. The switch in growth rate happens at a pH of 6.5-7. Our studies are in line with the general hypothesis that keeping the skin pH within an acidic range is advantageous in terms of keeping the skin microbiome in balance and maintaining healthy skin.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18608, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545150

RESUMO

Although the surface of the human hands contains high antimicrobial activity, studies investigating the precise components involved and the relationship between natural antimicrobial activity and morbidity in infectious diseases are limited. In this study, we developed a method to quantitatively measure the antimicrobial activity of hand surface components. Using a clinical survey, we validated the feasibility of our method and identified antimicrobial factors on the surface of the human hand. In a retrospective observational study, we compared the medical histories of the participants to assess infectious diseases. We found that the antimicrobial activity on the surface of the hands was significantly lower in the high morbidity group (N = 55) than in the low morbidity group (N = 54), indicating a positive association with the history of infection in individuals. A comprehensive analysis of the hand surface components indicated that organic acids, especially lactic acid and antimicrobial peptides, are highly correlated with antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the application of lactic acid using the amount present on the surface of the hand significantly improved the antimicrobial activity. These findings suggest that hand hygiene must be improved to enhance natural antimicrobial activity on the surface of the hands.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Mãos/microbiologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/microbiologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575891

RESUMO

Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is an anti-fungal drug delivered as a microparticle to skin epithelia. It is one of the most widely used ingredients worldwide in medicated shampoo for treating dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis (SD), a disorder with symptoms that include skin flaking, erythema and pruritus. SD is a multi-factorial disease driven by microbiol dysbiosis, primarily involving Malassezia yeast. Anti-fungal activity of ZnPT depends on the cutaneous availability of bioactive monomeric molecular species, occurring upon particle dissolution. The success of ZnPT as a topical therapeutic is underscored by the way it balances treatment efficacy with formulation safety. This review demonstrates how ZnPT achieves this balance, by integrating the current understanding of SD pathogenesis with an up-to-date analysis of ZnPT pharmacology, therapeutics and toxicology. ZnPT has anti-fungal activity with an average in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration of 10-15 ppm against the most abundant scalp skin Malassezia species (Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restrica). Efficacy is dependent on the targeted delivery of ZnPT to the skin sites where these yeasts reside, including the scalp surface and hair follicle infundibulum. Imaging and quantitative analysis tools have been fundamental for critically evaluating the therapeutic performance and safety of topical ZnPT formulations. Toxicologic investigations have focused on understanding the risk of local and systemic adverse effects following exposure from percutaneous penetration. Future research is expected to yield further advances in ZnPT formulations for SD and also include re-purposing towards a range of other dermatologic applications, which is likely to have significant clinical impact.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Dermatite Seborreica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Seborreica/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite Seborreica/etiologia , Disbiose , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Compostos Organometálicos/química , Piridinas/química , Pele/microbiologia , Absorção Cutânea , Análise Espectral
9.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578783

RESUMO

The human body is host to a large number of microorganisms which conform the human microbiota, that is known to play an important role in health and disease. Although most of the microorganisms that coexist with us are located in the gut, microbial cells present in other locations (like skin, respiratory tract, genitourinary tract, and the vaginal zone in women) also play a significant role regulating host health. The fact that there are different kinds of microbiota in different body areas does not mean they are independent. It is plausible that connection exist, and different studies have shown that the microbiota present in different zones of the human body has the capability of communicating through secondary metabolites. In this sense, dysbiosis in one body compartment may negatively affect distal areas and contribute to the development of diseases. Accordingly, it could be hypothesized that the whole set of microbial cells that inhabit the human body form a system, and the dialogue between the different host microbiotas may be a contributing factor for the susceptibility to developing diseased states. For this reason, the present review aims to integrate the available literature on the relationship between the different human microbiotas and understand how changes in the microbiota in one body region can influence other microbiota communities in a bidirectional process. The findings suggest that the different microbiotas may act in a coordinated way to decisively influence human well-being. This new integrative paradigm opens new insights in the microbiota field of research and its relationship with human health that should be taken into account in future studies.


Assuntos
Disbiose/metabolismo , Microbiota , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia
10.
Immunity ; 54(10): 2321-2337.e10, 2021 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582748

RESUMO

Hair follicles (HFs) function as hubs for stem cells, immune cells, and commensal microbes, which must be tightly regulated during homeostasis and transient inflammation. Here we found that transmembrane endopeptidase ADAM10 expression in upper HFs was crucial for regulating the skin microbiota and protecting HFs and their stem cell niche from inflammatory destruction. Ablation of the ADAM10-Notch signaling axis impaired the innate epithelial barrier and enabled Corynebacterium species to predominate the microbiome. Dysbiosis triggered group 2 innate lymphoid cell-mediated inflammation in an interleukin-7 (IL-7) receptor-, S1P receptor 1-, and CCR6-dependent manner, leading to pyroptotic cell death of HFs and irreversible alopecia. Double-stranded RNA-induced ablation models indicated that the ADAM10-Notch signaling axis bolsters epithelial innate immunity by promoting ß-defensin-6 expression downstream of type I interferon responses. Thus, ADAM10-Notch signaling axis-mediated regulation of host-microbial symbiosis crucially protects HFs from inflammatory destruction, which has implications for strategies to sustain tissue integrity during chronic inflammation.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM10/imunologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/imunologia , Disbiose/imunologia , Folículo Piloso/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Receptores Notch/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Alopecia/imunologia , Alopecia/patologia , Animais , Corynebacterium , Disbiose/patologia , Feminino , Folículo Piloso/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia
11.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571998

RESUMO

The bacterial microbiota in the skin and intestine of patients with psoriasis were different compared with that of healthy individuals. However, the presence of a distinct blood microbiome in patients with psoriasis is yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the differences in bacterial communities in plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) between patients with moderate to severe psoriasis (PSOs) and healthy controls (HCs). The plasma EVs from the PSO (PASI > 10) (n = 20) and HC (n = 8) groups were obtained via a series of centrifugations, and patterns were examined and confirmed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and EV-specific markers. The taxonomic composition of the microbiota was determined by using full-length 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The PSO group had lower bacterial diversity and richness compared with HC group. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA)-based clustering was used to assess diversity and validated dysbiosis for both groups. Differences at the level of amplicon sequence variant (ASV) were observed, suggesting alterations in specific ASVs according to health conditions. The HC group had higher levels of the phylum Firmicutes and Fusobacteria than in the PSO group. The order Lactobacillales, family Brucellaceae, genera Streptococcus, and species Kingella oralis and Aquabacterium parvum were highly abundant in the HC group compared with the PSO group. Conversely, the order Bacillales and the genera Staphylococcus and Sphihgomonas, as well as Ralstonia insidiosa, were more abundant in the PSO group. We further predicted the microbiota functional capacities, which revealed significant differences between the PSO and HC groups. In addition to previous studies on microbiome changes in the skin and gut, we demonstrated compositional differences in the microbe-derived EVs in the plasma of PSO patients. Plasma EVs could be an indicator for assessing the composition of the microbiome of PSO patients.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Psoríase/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bactérias/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34571865

RESUMO

Leprosy reactional episodes are acute inflammatory events that may occur during the clinical course of the disease. Type 1 reaction (T1R) is associated with an increase in neural damage, and the understanding of the molecular pathways related to T1R onset is pivotal for the development of strategies that may effectively control the reaction. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a key cytokine associated with T1R onset and is also associated with autophagy induction. Here, we evaluated the modulation of the autophagy pathway in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated cells in the presence or absence of IFN-γ. We observed that IFN-γ treatment promoted autophagy activation and increased the expression of genes related to the formation of phagosomes, autophagy regulation and function, or lysosomal pathways in M. leprae-stimulated cells. IFN-γ increased interleukin (IL)-15 secretion in M. leprae-stimulated THP-1 cells in a process associated with autophagy activation. We also observed higher IL15 gene expression in multibacillary (MB) patients who later developed T1R during clinical follow-up when compared to MB patients who did not develop the episode. By overlapping gene expression patterns, we observed 13 common elements shared between T1R skin lesion cells and THP-1 cells stimulated with both M. leprae and IFN-γ. Among these genes, the autophagy regulator Translocated Promoter Region, Nuclear Basket Protein (TPR) was significantly increased in T1R cells when compared with non-reactional MB cells. Overall, our results indicate that IFN-γ may induce a TPR-mediated autophagy transcriptional program in M. leprae-stimulated cells similar to that observed in skin cells during T1R by a pathway that involves IL-15 production, suggesting the involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of T1R.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Interleucina-15/genética , Hanseníase/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium leprae/patogenicidade , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Células THP-1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
13.
N Engl J Med ; 385(10): 921-929, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469647

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections underlie a wide spectrum of both benign and malignant epithelial diseases. In this report, we describe the case of a young man who had encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus during adolescence and currently presented with multiple recurrent skin and mucosal lesions caused by HPV. The patient was found to have a pathogenic germline mutation in the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor subunit gamma gene (IL2RG), which was somatically reverted in T cells but not in natural killer (NK) cells. Allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation led to restoration of NK cytotoxicity, with normalization of the skin microbiome and persistent remission of all HPV-related diseases. NK cytotoxicity appears to play a role in containing HPV colonization and the ensuing HPV-related hyperplastic or dysplastic lesions. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Flow Cytometry Shared Resources.).


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/terapia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Encefalite/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Células T Matadoras Naturais/fisiologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/imunologia , Linhagem , Pele/microbiologia , Transplante Homólogo , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257627, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Most research into the management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is in younger women and focuses on sexually transmitted pathogens such as N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis. Non-sexually transmitted bacterial pathogens and PID in older women are rarely examined. The objective of this study is to explore cervical culture pathogens in women of different age groups in a medical center in eastern Taiwan. METHODS: We enrolled patients whose medical records were diagnosed with PID (ICD-9-CM 614.0 [N70.01-03], 614.1[N70.11-13], 614.9 [N73.5, N73.9]) at our hospital from October 2014 to March 2020. Patients were divided into three groups according to age: the age <25 years, age 25-44 years, and the ≥ 45 years group. Chi-square test, ANOVA and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. In subgroup analysis, endocervical pathogens were further stratified into vaginal, respiratory, enteric, skin, oral, and other. RESULTS: A total of 96 patients were included in the study. There were 31 patients in the age ≥ 45 years group, 52 patients in the age 25-44 years group, and 13 patients in the age <25 years group. Vagina and enteric pathogens were the most common pathogens among all groups. The isolated respiratory and other pathogens were more in the age ≥ 45 years group than in the other two groups. Prevotella bivia was more common in the age <25 years and 25-44 years groups. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to different pathogeneses of PID in the age ≥ 45 years patients. Our study can be used as a reference for antibiotic choice of non-sexually transmitted PID and to prevent long-term sequelae of PID.


Assuntos
Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/microbiologia , Prevotella/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/microbiologia , Taiwan , Vagina/microbiologia , Vagina/patologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
APMIS ; 129(12): 665-674, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587324

RESUMO

Post-surgical infections arise due to various contributing factors. Most important is the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms in the skin complemented by the patient´s health status. Cutibacterium acnes is commonly present in the pilosebaceous glands and hair follicle funnels in human skin. After surgical intervention, these highly prevalent, slow-growing bacteria can be found in the deeper tissues and in proximity of implants. C. acnes is frequently implicated in post-surgical infections, often resulting in the need for revision surgery. This review summarizes the current understanding of microbial dynamics in shoulder surgical infections. In particular, we shed light on the contribution of C. acnes to post-surgical shoulder infections as well as their colonization and immune-modulatory potential. Despite being persistently found in post-surgical tissues, C. acnes is often underestimated as a causative organism due to its slow growth and the inefficient detection methods. We discuss the role of the skin environment constituted by microbial composition and host cellular status in influencing C. acnes recolonization potential. Future mapping of the individual skin microbiome in shoulder surgery patients using advanced molecular methods would be a useful approach for determining the risk of post-operative infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/etiologia , Microbiota , Propionibacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Ombro/cirurgia , Pele/microbiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4700, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349124

RESUMO

During skin injury, immune response and repair mechanisms have to be coordinated for rapid skin regeneration and the prevention of microbial infections. Natural Killer (NK) cells infiltrate hypoxic skin lesions and Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) mediate adaptation to low oxygen. We demonstrate that mice lacking the Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α isoform in NK cells show impaired release of the cytokines Interferon (IFN)-γ and Granulocyte Macrophage - Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) as part of a blunted immune response. This accelerates skin angiogenesis and wound healing. Despite rapid wound closure, bactericidal activity and the ability to restrict systemic bacterial infection are impaired. Conversely, forced activation of the HIF pathway supports cytokine release and NK cell-mediated antibacterial defence including direct killing of bacteria by NK cells despite delayed wound closure. Our results identify, HIF-1α in NK cells as a nexus that balances antimicrobial defence versus global repair in the skin.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Cicatrização , Animais , Hipóxia Celular , Citocinas/metabolismo , Hipóxia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Camundongos , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Pele/irrigação sanguínea , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/prevenção & controle
17.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 82: 102223, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343925

RESUMO

Human skin hosts a variety of microbes that can be transferred to surfaces ("touch microbiome"). These microorganisms can be considered as forensic markers similarly to "touch DNA". With this pilot study, we wanted to evaluate the transferability and persistence of the "touch microbiome" on a surface after the deposition of a fingerprint and its exposure for 30 days at room temperature. Eleven volunteers were enrolled in the study. Skin microbiome samples were collected by swabbing the palm of their hands; additionally, donors were asked to touch a glass microscope slide to deposit their fingerprints, that were then swabbed. Both human and microbial DNA was isolated and quantified. Amelogenin locus and 16 human STRs were amplified, whereas the V4 region of 16 S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina MiSeq platform. STR profiles were successfully typed for 5 out of 22 "touch DNA" samples, while a microbiome profile was obtained for 20 out of 22 "touch microbiome" samples. Six skin core microbiome taxa were identified, as well as unique donor characterizing taxa. These unique taxa may have relevance for personal identification studies and may be useful to provide forensic intelligence information also when "touch DNA" fails. Additional future studies including greater datasets, additional time points and a greater number of surfaces may clarify the applicability of "touch microbiome" studies to real forensic contexts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Pele/microbiologia , Tato , Adulto , Idoso , Amelogenina/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Sequência de RNA
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424835

RESUMO

A novel actinomycete, designated as strain WCH-YHL-001T, was isolated from skin biopsy specimens of a patient at West China Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, PR China. The cells were Gram-positive, aerobic, heterotrophic and non-motile. They formed an extensive substrate with short aerial mycelia, whose branches fragmented into rod-shaped elements. Growth occurred at 10-40 °C, pH 5.0-12.0 and with NaCl concentrations of 0-4.0 % (w/v). The major cellular fatty acids of strain WCH-YHL-001T were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c, C18 : 0 10-methyl and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8 (H4ω-cycl). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, unknown phospholipids and unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic diamino acid of peptidoglycan was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugar pattern consisted of arabinose and glucose. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain WCH-YHL-001T belonged to the genus Nocardia. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) values between strain WCH-YHL-001T and type strains of Nocardia species were lower than the cut-offs (≥95-96 % for ANI and ≥70 % for isDDH) required to define a bacterial species. The genomic DNA G+C content was 67.8 mol%. Phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic data suggested that strain WCH-YHL-001T represented a novel species of the genus Nocardia, for which the name Nocardia huaxiensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain WCH-YHL-001T (=GDMCC 4.181T=JCM 34475 T=NBRC 114973T).


Assuntos
Nocardia , Filogenia , Pele/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Humanos , Nocardia/classificação , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
19.
Biomolecules ; 11(8)2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439831

RESUMO

Wound healing is an essential process to restore tissue integrity after trauma. Large skin wounds such as burns often heal with hypertrophic scarring and contractures, resulting in disfigurements and reduced joint mobility. Such adverse healing outcomes are less common in the oral mucosa, which generally heals faster compared to skin. Several studies have identified differences between oral and skin wound healing. Most of these studies however focus only on a single stage of wound healing or a single cell type. The aim of this review is to provide an extensive overview of wound healing in skin versus oral mucosa during all stages of wound healing and including all cell types and molecules involved in the process and also taking into account environmental specific factors such as exposure to saliva and the microbiome. Next to intrinsic properties of resident cells and differential expression of cytokines and growth factors, multiple external factors have been identified that contribute to oral wound healing. It can be concluded that faster wound closure, the presence of saliva, a more rapid immune response, and increased extracellular matrix remodeling all contribute to the superior wound healing and reduced scar formation in oral mucosa, compared to skin.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/lesões , Pele/lesões , Cicatrização/imunologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Matriz Extracelular/química , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/imunologia , Queratinócitos/imunologia , Queratinócitos/microbiologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Saliva/imunologia , Saliva/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/patologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443349

RESUMO

Ulva sp. is known to be a source of bioactive compounds such as ulvans, but to date, their biological activity on skin commensal and/or opportunistic pathogen bacteria has not been reported. In this study, the effects of poly- and oligosaccharide fractions produced by enzyme-assisted extraction and depolymerization were investigated, for the first time in vitro, on cutaneous bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Cutibacterium acnes. At 1000 µg/mL, poly- and oligosaccharide fractions did not affect the growth of the bacteria regarding their generation time. Polysaccharide Ulva sp. fractions at 1000 µg/mL did not alter the bacterial biofilm formation, while oligosaccharide fractions modified S. epidermidis and C. acnes biofilm structures. None of the fractions at 1000 µg/mL significantly modified the cytotoxic potential of S. epidermidis and S. aureus towards keratinocytes. However, poly- and oligosaccharide fractions at 1000 µg/mL induced a decrease in the inflammatory potential of both acneic and non-acneic C. acnes strains on keratinocytes of up to 39.8%; the strongest and most significant effect occurred when the bacteria were grown in the presence of polysaccharide fractions. Our research shows that poly- and oligosaccharide Ulva sp. fractions present notable biological activities on cutaneous bacteria, especially towards C. acnes acneic and non-acneic strains, which supports their potential use for dermo-cosmetic applications.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Ulva/química , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Propionibacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionibacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Propionibacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Propionibacteriaceae/fisiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus epidermidis/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus epidermidis/fisiologia , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
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