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1.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 98(12)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36288213

RESUMO

Chytridiomycosis, a lethal fungal disease caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is responsible for population declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide. However, not all amphibian species are equally susceptible to the disease; some species persist in Bd enzootic regions with no population reductions. Recently, it has been shown that the amphibian skin microbiome plays a crucial role in the defense against Bd. Numerous bacterial isolates with the capacity to inhibit the growth of Batrachochytrium fungi have been isolated from the skin of amphibians. Here, we characterized eight Acinetobacter bacteria isolated from the frogs Agalychnis callidryas and Craugastor fitzingeri at the genomic level. A total of five isolates belonged to Acinetobacter pittii,Acinetobacter radioresistens, or Acinetobactermodestus, and three were not identified as any of the known species, suggesting they are members of new species. We showed that seven isolates inhibited the growth of Bd and that all eight isolates inhibited the growth of the phytopathogen fungus Botrytis cinerea. Finally, we identified the biosynthetic gene clusters that could be involved in the antifungal activity of these isolates. Our results suggest that the frog skin microbiome includes Acinetobacter isolates that are new to science and have broad antifungal functions, perhaps driven by distinct genetic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter , Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Anuros/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Micoses/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Acinetobacter/genética , Genômica
2.
Eur J Dermatol ; 32(4): 439-444, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301755

RESUMO

The cutaneous microbiota contributes to skin barrier function, ensuring effective protection against pathogens and contributing to the maintenance of epidermal integrity. Dysbiosis is frequently present in atopic dermatitis (AD), a chronic inflammatory disease associated with skin barrier defects. Dysbiosis is associated with reduced bacterial diversity and marked Staphylococcus aureus colonization, which is favoured in the case of certain local AD-specific properties such as reduced skin acidity, eased bacterial adhesion and decreased antimicrobial peptide production. Furthermore, S. aureus-associated skin dysbiosis, via the production of staphylococcal virulence factors, may also participate in the immunopathology of AD by altering the epidermal barrier and inducing an inflammatory response. However, there are currently no arguments for recommending screening for, and treatment of S. aureus-associated dysbiosis outside the setting of cutaneous superinfection. Nonetheless, modulation of the skin microbiota may hold promise for AD management. Here, we describe the relationships that exist between the skin microbiota and AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Disbiose , Pele , Humanos , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/microbiologia , Disbiose/terapia , Microbiota , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
3.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 923, 2022 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071129

RESUMO

Human skin is populated by trillions of microbes collectively called the skin microbiome. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cutibacterium acnes are among the most abundant members of this ecosystem, with described roles in skin health and disease. However, knowledge regarding the health beneficial effects of these ubiquitous skin residents is still limited. Here, we profiled the staphylococcal and C. acnes landscape across four different skin sites of 30 individuals (120 skin samples) using amplicon-based next-generation sequencing. Relative abundance profiles obtained indicated the existence of phylotype-specific co-existence and exclusion scenarios. Co-culture experiments with 557 staphylococcal strains identified 30 strains exhibiting anti-C. acnes activities. Notably, staphylococcal strains were found to selectively exclude acne-associated C. acnes and co-exist with healthy skin-associated phylotypes, through regulation of the antimicrobial activity. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of skin-resident staphylococci and suggest that selective microbial interference is a contributor to healthy skin homeostasis.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Microbiota , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Humanos , Propionibacterium acnes/genética , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/genética
4.
Vet Surg ; 51(8): 1191-1195, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36053954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine skin reaction, post-treatment reduction (immediate effect), and 1 hour post-treatment reduction (sustained effect) of aerobic bacterial colony forming units (CFU) following three antiseptic protocols in cattle. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized experimental study. ANIMALS: Eighteen cows. METHODS: Three sites in each paralumbar fossa were clipped and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: 5 minute 4% chlorhexidine gluconate scrub (CHG); 90 second 80% ethanol scrub (ET); 90 second 70% isopropyl alcohol scrub (IPA). All sites were monitored at all sampling time points and at 24 hours following treatment for adverse skin reaction. Samples were collected pre-, immediately post-, and 1 hour post-treatment and plated in duplicate. Bacterial counts were shifted to eliminate zeroes, log10 transformed, and averaged. ANOVA was used to compare differences in mean reduction in log10 CFU/ml between groups. RESULTS: Reduction in log10CFU/ml was more pronounced immediately after application of IPA (p = .001) and ET (p = .001) than CHG. This reduction was better sustained after preparation with CHG than ET (p = .005) but not IPA. Immediate and sustained reductions in bacterial loads did not differ after application of IPA or ET. No adverse skin reactions were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Skin preparation with alcohol-based antiseptics was well tolerated and improved immediate bacterial reduction compared to CHG. This reduction was better sustained 1 hour after application of CHG than ET, but no difference was detected between CHG and IPA. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Lack of adverse skin reaction and performance provide evidence to support skin preparation with alcohol-based antiseptics in cattle.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais , Doenças dos Bovinos , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Clorexidina , 2-Propanol/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Antissepsia/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Pele/microbiologia , Bactérias , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(5): e0226722, 2022 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073919

RESUMO

Characterizing the skin mycobiome is necessary to define its association with the host immune system, particularly in children. In this study, we describe the skin mycobiome on the face, ventral forearm, and calf of 72 prepubescent children (aged 1 to 10 years) and their mothers, based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) amplicon sequencing. The age and delivery mode at birth are the most influential factors shaping the skin mycobiome. Compared with that of the vaginally born children, the skin mycobiome of caesarean-born children is assembled by predominantly deterministic niche-based processes and exhibits a more fragile microbial network at all three sampling sites. Moreover, vaginal delivery leads to clearer intra- and interindividual specialization of fungal structures with increasing age; this phenomenon is not observed in caesarean-born children. The maternal correlation with children also differs based on the mode of delivery; specifically, the mycobiomes of vaginally born children at younger ages are more strongly correlated with vagina-associated fungal genera (Candida and Rhodotorula), whereas those of caesarean-delivered children at elder age include more skin-associated and airborne fungal genera (Malassezia and Alternaria). Based on this ecological framework, our results suggest that the delivery mode is significantly associated with maturation of the skin fungal community in children. IMPORTANCE Human skin is permanently colonized by microbes starting at birth. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a lack of early-life immune imprinting weakens the body's resilience against atopic disorders later in life. To better understand fungal colonization following early-life periods affected by interruption, we studied the skin mycobiomes of 73 children and their mothers. Our results suggest a differentiation of the skin mycobiomes between caesarean-born and vaginally born children. Caesarean-born children exhibit a mycobiome structure with more fitted deterministic niche-based processes, a fragile network, and an unchanged microbial dissimilarity over time. In vaginally born children, this dissimilarity increases with age. The results indicate that initial microbial colonization has a long-term impact on a child's skin mycobiome. We believe that these findings will inspire further investigations of the "hygiene hypothesis" in the human microbiome, especially in providing novel insights into influences on the development of the early-life microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Idoso , Pele/microbiologia , Candida , Fungos/genética
6.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 39(3): 349-353, 2022 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156698

RESUMO

Chromoblastomycosis is a fungal infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, of chronic evolution, caused by dematiaceous fungi. The disease occurs worldwide, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, but in regions like Chile there is only one report of a human case more than 30 years ago. We present the case of a 46-year-old Haitian man, resident in Chile, with verrucous plaques in the right anterior tibial area of one year of evolution. The diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was confirmed when muriform cells and dematiaceous colonies were observed in the histopathological analysis and the direct microscopy, respectively. After six months of treatment with systemic antimycotics and cryotherapy, complete remission of the lesions was achieved.


Assuntos
Cromoblastomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Chile , Cromoblastomicose/diagnóstico , Cromoblastomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Cromoblastomicose/microbiologia , Haiti , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/microbiologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36076953

RESUMO

Disruption of the skin microbial balance can exacerbate certain skin diseases and affect prognosis and treatment. Changes in the distribution and prevalence of certain microbial species on the skin, such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), can impact the development of severe atopic dermatitis (AD) or psoriasis (Pso). A dysfunctional skin barrier develops in AD and Pso due to SA colonization, resulting in keratinization and chronic or progressive chronic inflammation. Disruption of the skin barrier following SA colonization can elevate the production of T helper 2 (Th2)-derived cytokines, which can cause an imbalance in Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells. This study examined the ability of potential therapeutic skin microbiomes, such as Cutibacterium avidum R-CH3 and Staphylococcus hominis R9, to inhibit SA biofilm formation and restore skin barrier function-related genes through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) downstream target. We observed that IL-4/IL-13-induced downregulation of FLG, LOR, and IVL induced by SA colonization could be reversed by dual AhR/Nrf2 activation. Further, OVOL1 expression may be modulated by functional microbiomes via dual AhR/Nrf2 activation. Our results suggest that our potential therapeutic skin microbiomes can prevent SA-derived Th2-biased skin barrier disruption via IL-13 and IL-4-dependent FLG deregulation, STAT3 activation, and AhR-mediated STAT6 expression.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Psoríase , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico , Staphylococcus aureus , Humanos , Imunidade , Interleucina-13/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Proteínas de Filamentos Intermediários/genética , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Psoríase/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
8.
Med Mycol J ; 63(3): 81-84, 2022.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047187

RESUMO

Malassezia are lipophilic yeasts in the skin microbiome that abundantly colonize all parts of human skin except for the soles of the feet. Fungal microbiome analysis of keratotic plugs from the noses of 10 healthy individuals identified Malassezia restricta as the predominant species, followed by Malassezia globosa. Malassezia hyphae were observed in 5 of the 10 individuals. The hyphae were curved and thick-walled with spherical thick-walled and grouped blastoconidia, described as a "spaghetti-and-meatballs" configuration. In this study, we observed Malassezia hyphae in keratotic plugs of healthy subjects, although abundant Malassezia hyphae have previously only been observed in lesional sites of patients with pityriasis versicolor.


Assuntos
Malassezia , Tinha Versicolor , , Humanos , Hifas , Pele/microbiologia , Tinha Versicolor/microbiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4946, 2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35999204

RESUMO

It is well-known that human gut microbiota form an ecosystem where microbes interact with each other. Due to complex underlying interactions, some microbes may correlate nonlinearly. There are no measures in the microbiome literature we know of that quantify these nonlinear relationships. Here, we develop a methodology called Sparse Estimation of Correlations among Microbiomes (SECOM) for estimating linear and nonlinear relationships among microbes while maintaining the sparsity. SECOM accounts for both sample and taxon-specific biases in its model. Its statistical properties are evaluated analytically and by comprehensive simulation studies. We test SECOM in two real data sets, namely, forehead and palm microbiome data from college-age adults, and Norwegian infant gut microbiome data. Given that forehead and palm are related to skin, as desired, SECOM discovers each genus to be highly correlated between the two sites, but that is not the case with any of the competing methods. It is well-known that infant gut evolves as the child grows. Using SECOM, for the first time in the literature, we characterize temporal changes in correlations among bacterial families during a baby's first year after birth.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Adulto , Bactérias , Criança , Humanos , Lactente , Pele/microbiologia
10.
Mycoses ; 65(10): 953-959, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malassezia folliculitis (MF) is a humid-favoured fungal skin disease caused by Malassezia species. Inaccurate treatments, changes in skin flora and disease exacerbation are often occurred due to oversights in the diagnosis. Several diagnostic methods are established for MF. OBJECTIVE: To identify clinico-laboratory findings of Malassezia folliculitis in Indonesia. METHODS: The study was conducted from January 2014 to December 2018 in seven referral teaching hospitals. Medical records of MF-diagnosed patients were obtained and analysed using the binomial test, chi-square test and Cohen's Kappa coefficient in SPSS 26.0. RESULTS: A total of 353 cases of MF were identified in seven referral teaching hospitals in Indonesia, 66.3% of which were males and 33.7% were females, dominated by the 17-25 years old group (44.5%). Itchy sensation (83.9%) was a major subjective complaint. Lesions were majorly found on the trunk-chest, back and shoulder (68.3%), while the clinical manifestation are mostly follicular papule-pustular lesions (62.1%). Patients were 87.4% positive by KOH examination (modified Jacinto Jamora's criteria) and 69.1% positive by Wood's lamp. Generally, sex, age, subjective complaint, lesion location, clinical manifestation and both examinations were statistically significant (p < .001). A significant relationship between all the clinical criteria of the patients in the KOH especially the clinical manifestation was significantly related to Wood's lamp. The Cohen's Kappa assessment suggested that there was an agreement between KOH and Wood's lamp (κ = -0.272, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The clinical symptoms of Malassezia folliculitis are dominated by pruritus, papulopustular follicular lesions on the trunk and the presence of spore load.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Foliculite , Malassezia , Adolescente , Adulto , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Foliculite/diagnóstico , Foliculite/epidemiologia , Foliculite/microbiologia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pele/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 35(5): 379-383, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942857

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: to review recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of deep fungal infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are the only deep fungal infections incorporated in the list of neglected tropical diseases. These infections start in the skin but progress to deep tissues if not recognized early. A wide array of fungal pathogens are the causative agents. Molecular methods allow for early and accurate identification of the pathogens, but are unfortunately not available in endemic areas. Treatment options are mostly based upon clinical experience rather than on well-designed clinical trials. SUMMARY: Deep fungal infections of the skin and soft tissues are rare conditions of wide world distribution but mostly reported from tropical countries. Urgent need for affordable and easily accessible molecular methods and well-conducted studies to allow for accurate diagnosis and to provide evidence to guide proper therapy are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Cromoblastomicose , Micetoma , Cromoblastomicose/diagnóstico , Cromoblastomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Cromoblastomicose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Micetoma/diagnóstico , Micetoma/tratamento farmacológico , Micetoma/epidemiologia , Pele/microbiologia
12.
Can J Microbiol ; 68(9): 583-593, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35979959

RESUMO

Temporal changes and transmission patterns in host-associated microbial communities have important implications for host health. The diversity of amphibian skin microbial communities is associated with disease outcome in amphibians exposed to the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). To successfully develop conservation strategies against Bd, we need a comprehensive understanding of how skin microbes are maintained and transmitted over time within populations. We used 16S rRNA sequence analysis to compare Epipedobates anthonyi frogs housed with one conspecific to frogs housed singly at four time points over the course of 1 year. We found that both α and ß diversity of frog skin bacterial communities changed significantly over the course of the experiment. Specifically, we found that bacterial communities of cohabitating frogs became more similar over time. We also observed that some bacterial taxa were differentially abundant between frogs housed singly and frogs housed with a conspecific. These results suggest that conspecific contact may play a role in mediating amphibian skin microbial diversity and that turnover of skin microbial communities can occur across time. Our findings provide rationale for future studies exploring horizontal transmission as a potential mechanism of host-associated microbial maintenance in amphibians.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Microbiota , Anfíbios/genética , Anfíbios/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Quitridiomicetos/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pele/microbiologia
13.
mBio ; 13(4): e0132022, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35876507

RESUMO

The skin is an inhospitable environment for microbial growth and survival. Hallmarks of the skin microenvironment include low moisture, high acidity, high lipid content, and paucity of essential nutrients, which together establish an antimicrobial barrier that defends against pathogens. Yet, commensal microbes and some opportunistic pathogens call this harsh environment home. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) comprise a major constituent of the commensal skin microbiome. Of the CoNS, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis are two common colonizers of human skin. Although comparatively less studied than S. epidermidis, there is a growing appreciation for S. hominis as a beneficial commensal, prompting interest in understanding the mechanisms by which S. hominis interacts with other skin microbes, including those with pathogenic potential. In their recent work, M. M. Severn, M. R. Williams, A. Shahbandi, Z. L. Bunch, et al. [mBio 13(3):e00930-22, 2022, https://doi.org/10.1128/mbio.00930-22] explore quorum sensing as a mediator of S. hominis interbacterial communication that can reduce the virulence of pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções Estafilocócicas , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Humanos , Pele/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus , Staphylococcus epidermidis
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1978): 20220586, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858072

RESUMO

Many endangered amphibian species survive in captive breeding facilities, but there have been few attempts to reintroduce captive-born individuals to rebuild wild populations. We conducted a soft-release trial of limosa harlequin frogs, Atelopus limosus, which are highly susceptible to the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), to understand changes associated with the transition from captivity to the wild. Specifically, we assessed changes in body condition, skin-associated bacterial communities and disease status after release. Frogs were housed individually in field mesocosms and monitored for 27 days. Body condition did not significantly change in the mesocosms, and was similar to, or higher than, that of wild conspecifics at day 27. The skin bacteria of captive-born frogs, based on 16S rRNA gene amplicons, became similar to that of wild conspecifics after 27 days in mesocosms. Prevalence of Bd in wild conspecifics was 13-27%, and 15% of the A. limosus in mesocosms became infected with Bd, but no mortality of infected frogs was observed. We conclude that mesocosms are suitable for systematically and repeatedly monitoring amphibians during release trials, and that body condition, the skin microbiome, and Bd status can all change within one month of placement of captive-born individuals back into the wild.


Assuntos
Quitridiomicetos , Micoses , Animais , Anuros/genética , Bactérias , Bufonidae/genética , Quitridiomicetos/genética , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Melhoramento Vegetal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pele/microbiologia
15.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(7): 446, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35778621

RESUMO

Scalp pruritus is a common skin problem that remains therapeutic challenge. The relationships between the dysbiosis of microbiota and skin diseases have caught attention recently. However, there are few reports about microbiota on itchy scalp. This study investigated scalp microbial characteristics of subjects with mild scalp pruritus of undetermined origin and preliminarily screened physiological factors and bacteria potentially related to pruritus. The pruritus severity of 17 qualified females was evaluated by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Microbiota collection was done at both itchy (n = 20) and non-itchy sites (n = 27) at occiput and crown of the same subject and Illumina sequencing was performed at the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. The corresponding sebum content, hydration, pH, trans-epidermal water loss, erythema index and porphyrin numbers were also measured by skin tester. We identified 3044 amplicon sequence variants from 821 genera. The itchy and non-itchy sites had different microbiota structures (p = 0.045, by multivariate analysis of variance), while there were large inter- and intra-individual variations. Both sites had Staphylococcus, Cutibacterium and Lawsonella as predominant genera, which were not significantly related to pruritus. The use of three genera Lactobacillus, Morganella and Pseudomonas, could well distinguish non-itchy from itchy groups, whereas different composition patterns existed inside each group. Our investigation indicated that though the bacterial community structure on itchy scalp was individual specific, there was difference between itchy and non-itchy sites. The study provides new insights into microbiota profiling on itchy scalp, which will help microbiota-targeted therapeutic experiment or products design for scalp pruritus.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Couro Cabeludo , Feminino , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , Prurido , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pele/microbiologia
16.
Cell ; 185(14): 2395-2397, 2022 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35803242

RESUMO

Flaviviruses, such as Dengue and Zika viruses, infect millions of people worldwide using mosquitos as vectors. In this issue of Cell, Zhang et al. reveal how these viruses manipulate the skin microbiome of infected hosts in a way that increases vector recruitment and viral spread. They propose vitamin A as a way to counteract the virus and decrease transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavivirus , Flavivirus , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Pele , Animais , Culicidae/virologia , Dengue , Flavivirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/transmissão , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus
17.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 67(6): 825-835, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35711021

RESUMO

Acne is a frequently presented dermatological condition brought about by an interplay among inflammation, increased sebum production, hyperkeratinisation, and predominantly Propionibacterium acnes (renamed as Cutibacterium acnes) proliferation, leading to debilitating psychological scars. However, it has been shown that it is the loss of microbial diversity in the skin and the imbalance among C. acnes phylotypes that brings about acne rather than the C. acnes species as a whole. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that other microorganisms may be implicated, such as the fungi Malassezia and the bacteria Cutibacterium granulosum. A plethora of scientific evidence suggests that the gut microbiome is implicated in the overall health and physiology of the host; studies show that the gut microbiome of acne patients is distinct and depicts less microbial diversity compared to individuals without acne. Herein, using the key terms: acne, C. acnes, IGF-1, sebum, and gut microbiome, we carried out a review of the literature, using Google Scholar and PubMed, and discussed the role of the gut and skin microbiome in relation to acne, as a narrative review. The role of hormones, diet, sebum, and stress in relation to the gut microbiome was also investigated. Therapeutic implications and the use of pre-/postbiotics are also deliberated upon. In this light, future research should investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and the agreed upon factors of acne pathology, potentially leading to the discovery of novel acne treatments with milder side effects.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Humanos , Acne Vulgar/tratamento farmacológico , Acne Vulgar/microbiologia , Propionibacterium acnes/fisiologia , Pele/microbiologia
18.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 36(10): 1811-1819, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35729711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease and an altered skin microbiota with an increase of Staphylococcus aureus has been reported. However, the role of fungi remains poorly investigated. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to improve the understanding of the fungal skin microbiota, the mycobiota, in AD in relation to the bacterial colonization. METHODS: Skin swabs of 16 AD patients and 16 healthy controls (HC) from four different skin sites, that is antecubital crease, dorsal neck, glabella and vertex from multiple time points were analysed by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS1) and 16S rRNA gene for fungi and bacteria, respectively. RESULTS: Malassezia spp. were the predominant fungi in all subjects but with a decreased dominance in severe AD patients in favour of non-Malassezia fungi, for example Candida spp. For bacteria, a decrease of Cutibacterium spp. in AD patients in favour of Staphylococcus spp., particularly S. aureus, was observed. Further, both bacterial and fungal community compositions of severe AD patients significantly differed from mild-to-moderate AD patients and HC with the latter two having overall similar microbiota showing some distinctions in bacterial communities. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that severe AD is associated with a pronounced dysbiosis of the microbiota with increased fungal diversity. Potentially infectious agents, for example Staphylococcus and Candida, were increased in severe AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Disbiose , Humanos , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Pele/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 799598, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35757750

RESUMO

Microbiota is essential to the development and functional maturation of the immune system. The effects of the gut microbiota on myeloid cells remote from the gut, especially the skin remain unclear. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that type I interferon (IFN) signaling was down-regulated in the skin of germ-free mice compared to that in specific pathogen-free mice. The decrease in type I IFN signaling was closely related to the presence of microbiota and macrophage-specific marker CD169. The absence of CD169+ macrophages resulted in increased bacterial burden and impaired immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. CD169+ macrophages mediated the recruitment of γδ T cells as well as the activation of γδ T cells via interleukin (IL)-23. Our findings demonstrate the role of the microbiota in establishment of a specific myeloid cell subset expressing CD169 in the skin and provide evidence of a specific mechanism by which this subset protects against bacterial skin infection.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Dermatopatias Bacterianas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico , Pele/microbiologia
20.
Mycoses ; 65(8): 834-840, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is an infection of the scalp and hair shaft caused by dermatophytes that predominantly occurs in children. Skin fungal infections have been found to be associated with alterations in the overall bacterial and fungal communities. However, the scalp microbiome in tinea capitis have not been fully investigated. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and compare the scalp bacterial and fungal microbiomes between children with tinea capitis and healthy children and between children and adults. METHODS: Skin samples were collected from the scalp. Bacterial and fungal community compositions were analysed by amplification sequencing of the V3-V4 of 16S rDNA and ITS1-5F, respectively. RESULTS: The predominant fungi detected using amplicon sequencing were consistent with the culture- or real-time PCR-positive pathogens in most samples. Children with tinea capitis had lower fungal and higher bacterial Shannon diversity than healthy children. A higher relative abundance of pathogenic fungi and significant alterations in the bacterial community in the lesional sites of tinea capitis than healthy scalps. Compared with adults, healthy children were characterised by higher Shannon diversities with significantly lower relative abundances of Malassezia and Cutibacterium and higher relative abundances of Candida and Streptococcus. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that tinea capitis was characterised by significant alterations in both fungal and bacterial communities and amplicon sequencing could be a complementary method for pathogen identification.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo , Adulto , Criança , Dermatomicoses/patologia , Cabelo/patologia , Humanos , Couro Cabeludo , Pele/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia
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