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1.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397469

RESUMO

Psoroptic mange is a common disease of livestock, caused by Psoroptes ovis. Compared to Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, the Belgian Blue (BB) cattle breed is highly susceptible to the infestation. However, the mechanism for this difference is still unclear. To determine the factors responsible for this breed susceptibility, the immune response to P. ovis was studied in experimentally infested BB and HF cattle, using clinical signs, histology, immunohistochemical profiling and gene expression analysis of skin biopsies. The mite numbers and lesion area of BB cattle were greater than in HF during the whole study period. Significant influxes of eosinophils in the epidermis and dermis were detected in comparison with the pre-infestation samples in both breeds, with significantly higher eosinophils in BB at 6 weeks post infestation (wpi). Mast cell numbers were unaffected at all stages of infestation in HF, but were significantly elevated relative to pre-infestation in BB cattle at 2 and 6 wpi. The more pronounced cutaneous eosinophilia and higher IL-4 levels at 6 wpi in BB cattle suggest that a Th2-type immune response is underlying the higher susceptibility of the BB breed. In naturally infested BB cattle, development of the psoroptic mange lesions and eosinophils and CD3+ T cell areas were severely depressed after anti-inflammatory treatment with dexamethasone. Together, these results suggest that a stronger Th2-type immune response to P. ovis causes the skin lesions in psoroptic mange in BB cattle and that local anti-inflammatory treatment could potentially be an alternative to control the pathology caused by this parasite.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Psoroptidae , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Psoroptidae/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0009015, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370305

RESUMO

Trypanosoma rangeli is a non-pathogenic protozoan parasite that infects mammals, including humans, in Chagas disease-endemic areas of South and Central America. The parasite is transmitted to a mammalian host when an infected triatomine injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into the host's skin during a bloodmeal. Infected mammals behave as parasite reservoirs for several months and despite intensive research, some major aspects of T. rangeli-vertebrate interactions are still poorly understood. In particular, many questions still remain unanswered, e.g. parasite survival and development inside vertebrates, as no parasite multiplication sites have yet been identified. The present study used an insect bite transmission strategy to investigate whether the vector inoculation spot in the skin behave as a parasite-replication site. Histological data from the skin identified extracellular parasites in the dermis and hypodermis of infected mice in the first 24 hours post-infection, as well as the presence of inflammatory infiltrates in a period of up to 7 days. However, qPCR analyses demonstrated that T. rangeli is eliminated from the skin after 7 days of infection despite being still consistently found on circulating blood and secondary lymphoid tissues for up to 30 days post-infection. Interestingly, significant numbers of parasites were found in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of infected mice during different periods of infection and steady basal numbers of flagellates are maintained in the host's bloodstream, which might behave as a transmission source to insect vectors. The presence of parasites in the spleen was confirmed by fluorescent photomicrography of free and cell-associated T. rangeli forms. Altogether our results suggest that this organ could possibly behave as a T. rangeli maintenance hotspot in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Baço/parasitologia , Trypanosoma rangeli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , América Central/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Mordeduras e Picadas de Insetos/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Camundongos , Rhodnius/parasitologia , Sepse/parasitologia , América do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008799, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898164

RESUMO

Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs), like macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are central players in the induction of natural and vaccine-induced immunity to malaria, yet very little is known about the interaction of SPZ with human APCs. Intradermal delivery of whole-sporozoite vaccines reduces their effectivity, possibly due to dermal immunoregulatory effects. Therefore, understanding these interactions could prove pivotal to malaria vaccination. We investigated human APC responses to recombinant circumsporozoite protein (recCSP), SPZ and anti-CSP opsonized SPZ both in monocyte derived MoDCs and MoMϕs. Both MoDCs and MoMϕs readily took up recCSP but did not change phenotype or function upon doing so. SPZ are preferentially phagocytosed by MoMϕs instead of DCs and phagocytosis greatly increased after opsonization. Subsequently MoMϕs show increased surface marker expression of activation markers as well as tolerogenic markers such as Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1). Additionally they show reduced motility, produce interleukin 10 and suppressed interferon gamma (IFNγ) production by antigen specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, we investigated phenotypic responses to SPZ in primary dermal APCs isolated from human skin explants, which respond similarly to their monocyte-derived counterparts. These findings are a first step in enhancing our understanding of pre-erythrocytic natural immunity and the pitfalls of intradermal vaccination-induced immunity.


Assuntos
Células Apresentadoras de Antígenos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Malária/imunologia , Plasmodium berghei/imunologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Malária/parasitologia , Camundongos , Pele/parasitologia
4.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 428-431, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of Demodex infection among students in Kunming Medical University, and identify the factors affecting Demodex infections, so as to provide the evidence for the development of the strategy for the prevention of Demodex infections. METHODS: A total of 1 463 students from Grade 2014 who studied Medical Parasitology in Kunming Medical University were included in the survey. Demodex was examined in students'facial skin using the cellophane tape method, and the species was identified using microscopy. The students'gender, ethnicity, place of origin and skin type were captured using a questionnaire survey. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Demodex infections was 19.07% (279/1 463) on the facial skin among the university students, and a higher prevalence was seen in girls (21.16%, 183/865) than in boys (16.05%, 96/598) (χ2 =5.965,P <0.05).TheprevalenceofDemodex infectionswas18.33%(66/360)amongminorethnicstudents,andnoethnicity-specific prevalence was seen (P > 0.05). Demodex folliculorum was the predominant species, with a prevalence of 50.54% (141/279), and mild infections were predominant among all infections (96.77%, 270/279), without severe infections seen. Multivariate nonconditional logistic regression analysis revealed that gender and roommates with Demodex infections were risk factors of Demodex infections, and the infection was not associated with ethnicity, place of origin or skin type. There were only 2.53% (37/1 463) of the subjects understanding the knowledge pertaining to the prevention and control of Demodex infection. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low prevalence of Demodex infection is detected in the facial skin of students from Kunming Medical University, and Demodex infection is associated with gender and roommates with Demodex infections. Health education pertaining to the prevention of Demodex infections is suggested to be intensified among university students.


Assuntos
Infestações por Ácaros , Ácaros , Pele , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Face/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008601, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886659

RESUMO

Scabies is a neglected tropical disease of global significance. Our understanding of host-parasite interactions has been limited, particularly in crusted scabies (CS), a severe clinical manifestation involving hyper-infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei mites. Susceptibility to CS may be associated with immunosuppressive conditions but CS has also been seen in cases with no identifiable risk factor or immune deficit. Due to ethical and logistical difficulties with undertaking research on clinical patients with CS, we adopted a porcine model which parallels human clinical manifestations. Transcriptomic analysis using microarrays was used to explore scabies pathogenesis, and to identify early events differentiating pigs with ordinary (OS) and crusted scabies. Pigs with OS (n = 4), CS (n = 4) and non-infested controls (n = 4) were compared at pre-infestation, weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 post-infestation. In CS relative to OS, there were numerous differentially expressed genes including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL17A, IL8, IL19, IL20 and OSM) and chemokines involved in immune cell activation and recruitment (CCL20, CCL27 and CXCL6). The influence of genes associated with immune regulation (CD274/PD-L1 and IL27), immune signalling (TLR2, TLR8) and antigen presentation (RFX5, HLA-5 and HLA-DOB) were highlighted in the early host response to CS. We observed similarities with gene expression profiles associated with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis and confirmed previous observations of Th2/17 pronounced responses in CS. This is the first comprehensive study describing transcriptional changes associated with the development of CS and significantly, the distinction between OS and CS. This provides a basis for clinical follow-up studies, potentially identifying new control strategies for this severely debilitating disease.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/imunologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Escabiose/imunologia , Escabiose/patologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1493-1495, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748768

RESUMO

Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) affects predominantly the nose and occurs usually weeks or months after the cure of the primary cutaneous lesion. The pathology of ML is characterized by an exaggerated inflammatory reaction with infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells. There is also a paucity of parasites and a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Herein, we report a case of a young man who had a large ulcer in his left leg and complained of dysphagia. In nasofibrolaryngoscopy, there were nodular lesions in the oropharynx and rhinopharynx. The skin lesion biopsy showed a chronic inflammation with amastigotes inside macrophages, and DNA of Leishmania braziliensis confirmed the diagnosis of ML in tissue biopsied from the pharynx. The leishmaniasis skin test was negative. Cytokine evaluation showed lack of production of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-17 with enhancement of these cytokine levels after cure.


Assuntos
Leishmania braziliensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transtornos de Deglutição/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Leishmania braziliensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Mucocutânea/patologia , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/parasitologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Orofaringe/parasitologia , Orofaringe/patologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107961, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777223

RESUMO

Scabies is considered one of the commonest dermatological diseases that has a global health burden. Current treatment with ivermectin (IVM) is insufficient and potential drug resistance was noticed. Moxidectin (MOX), with a better pharmacological profile may be a promising alternative. The efficacy of moxidectin against Sarcoptes scabiei was assessed both in vitro and in vivo in comparison with ivermectin. For the in vitro assay, both drugs were used in two concentrations (50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml). For the in vivo assay, twenty rabbits infected with Sarcoptes scabiei were divided into three groups: untreated, moxidectin-treated and ivermectin-treated with the same dose of 0.3 mg/kg once. Another four rabbits were used as a normal control non-infected group. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by clinical assessment, parasitological evaluation and histopathological examination of skin samples using Hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue for mast cell staining. Immune response was also assessed by immunohistochemical staining of CD3 T cells in skin samples. Our results showed that moxidectin had a high efficacy (100%) in killing mites when used in both concentrations (50 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml) in the in vitro assay. Concerning the in vivo assay, on day 14 post-treatment, all MOX-treated rabbits were mite-free with full clinical cure by the end of the study (D21) showing (100%) reduction of mites count. Also, marked improvement in the epidermis with absence of mites in skin samples were shown. Poor clinical and parasitological improvements were noted in the ivermectin-treated rabbits, when given as a single dose with a percentage reduction (60.67%) in the 2nd week and progressive increase in lesions and mites count in the 3rd week post-treatment. Regarding the immune response, MOX-treated group showed mild infiltration with both mast cells and CD3 T cells in comparison to severe infiltration with both types of cells in the untreated and IVM-treated group. On conclusion, our results demonstrated that a single dose of MOX was more effective than IVM, supporting MOX as a valuable therapeutic approach for scabies therapy.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha , Orelha Externa/efeitos dos fármacos , Orelha Externa/parasitologia , Orelha Externa/patologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Coelhos , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(30): 17913-17923, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651273

RESUMO

Approximately 800 million people worldwide are infected with one or more species of skin-penetrating nematodes. These parasites persist in the environment as developmentally arrested third-stage infective larvae (iL3s) that navigate toward host-emitted cues, contact host skin, and penetrate the skin. iL3s then reinitiate development inside the host in response to sensory cues, a process called activation. Here, we investigate how chemosensation drives host seeking and activation in skin-penetrating nematodes. We show that the olfactory preferences of iL3s are categorically different from those of free-living adults, which may restrict host seeking to iL3s. The human-parasitic threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum have highly dissimilar olfactory preferences, suggesting that these two species may use distinct strategies to target humans. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the S. stercoralis tax-4 gene abolishes iL3 attraction to a host-emitted odorant and prevents activation. Our results suggest an important role for chemosensation in iL3 host seeking and infectivity and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/etiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Odorantes , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/fisiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/patogenicidade , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Temperatura
9.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609438

RESUMO

Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a noninvasive real-time imaging technique that has been widely used for the diagnosis of skin cancer. More recently, it has been reported as a useful tool for the diagnosis and management of several inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. This article provides an overview of the current available applications of RCM use in cutaneous infections and infestations. PubMed was used to search the following terms in various combinations: reflectance confocal microscopy, skin, hair, nail, infection, parasitosis, mycosis, virus, bacteria. All papers were accordingly reviewed. In most cutaneous infections or infestations, the main alterations are found in the epidermis and upper dermis, where the accuracy of confocal microscopy is nearly similar to that of histopathology. The high resolution of this technique allows the visualization of most skin parasites, fungi, and a few bacteria. Although viruses cannot be identified because of their small size, viral cytopathic effects can be observed on keratinocytes. In addition, RCM can be used to monitor the response to treatment, thereby reducing unnecessary treatments.


Assuntos
Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Pele/microbiologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias Infecciosas/patologia , Dermatopatias Parasitárias/patologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(27): e21112, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629745

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is an inflammatory granulomatous skin disease without a clear etiology that frequently involves the middle area of the face and the upper eyelids. Pathological features of the disease include caseation necrosis and epithelioid granuloma. Consensus treatment for LMDF is currently unavailable. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old Chinese female patient who presented with facial pruritic, erythematous papules 8 months before this study. She was diagnosed with skin tuberculosis at another hospital and given antituberculosis medication. However, the treatment was not efficacious. DIAGNOSES: In this study, the diagnosis of Demodex-induced LMDF was made by a dermatologist according to physical examination, skin biopsy pathology, and microscopic examination. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given ornidazole tablets (500 mg twice a day) and recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel (0.2 g/cm twice a day) for an 8-week period. OUTCOMES: Eight weeks after the treatment, the facial erythematous papules were improved, and no new skin lesions were observed. The patient showed no signs of recurrence during the 6-month follow-up. LESSONS SUBSECTIONS: This case showed that ornidazole combined with recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor gel might be useful in treatment of Demodex-induced LMDF. In addition, the results suggested that pathological caseation necrosis was caused by a series of inflammatory and immune responses to Demodex infection.


Assuntos
Dermatoses Faciais/etiologia , Rosácea/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Amebicidas/administração & dosagem , Amebicidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Erros de Diagnóstico , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/uso terapêutico , Granuloma/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácaros/parasitologia , Necrose/patologia , Ornidazol/administração & dosagem , Ornidazol/uso terapêutico , Rosácea/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Pele/ultraestrutura , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 380, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scabies is an infectious disease that affects the skin caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and it transmitted through close personal contact. Even though it is easily treatable disease, its prevalence is high and continuous as neglected tropical disease of resource-poor settings, and particularly affects young age groups. Despite of these facts, studies conducted in Ethiopia regarding to the prevalence and associated factors for scabies infestation have been highly variable and didn't well compiled. Due to that, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimates the overall prevalence of scabies and associated factors in all age groups in Ethiopia. METHODS: International databases (PubMed/PMC/Midline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Google and Science Direct) were systematically searched from December 1, 2019, to January 18, 2020. All observational studies noted the prevalence of human scabies and associated factors in Ethiopia were included. Two authors (AG and G.T) independently extracted all necessary data using a standardized data extraction format. The data which is extracted each study were analyzed using STATA Version 14.1. Heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed through the Cochrane Q test statistics and I2 test. Lastly, a random effects meta-analysis model was computed to fix overall prevalence and associated factors of scabies. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included in this meta-analysis after 410 articles retrieved. Of these, eight studies were analyzed for prevalence estimation. The overall prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% (95%CI: 1.5, 27.6%) in Ethiopia. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis revealed the highest prevalence was 19.6% in Amhara region. A person from a large family size (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.76, 5.67), and sharing a bed (OR: 3.59, 95%CI: 2.88, 4.47) were significantly associated with scabies. CONCLUSION: This study revealed the prevalence of scabies infestation was 14.5% in Ethiopia which was high. Persons from high family size and any contact with scabies case were factors associated with scabies.


Assuntos
Escabiose/epidemiologia , Animais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Escabiose/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2245-2255, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447515

RESUMO

This is the first study showing an in vivo microautophagy upregulation by Leishmania infantum in dogs. Both Leishmania amastigotes and promastigotes were detected in the cytoplasm of many professional and nonprofessional phagocytic cells of popliteal lymph node of three dogs suffering from chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Ultrastructurally, parasites appeared to be wrapped by lysosomes and/or multivesicular bodies. Neither phagophores nor double-membraned vacuoles consistent with autophagosomes were observed. Transcription factor EB (TFEB), a key factor involved in lysosome biogenesis, showed a statistically significant increase in the total component when examined by western blot in samples from leishmaniotic dogs compared with samples from healthy dogs. Instead, phosphorylated TFEB showed unmodified expression levels both in leishmaniotic and healthy dogs. Furthermore, Hsc70 and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-I, which are known to play a role in microautophagy, showed no variation in expression levels both in diseased and healthy animals. Vps4A/B, an evolutionary conserved ATPase responsible for ESCRT-I complex disassembly and MVB maturation, was statistically significantly overexpressed in lymph nodal samples from leishmaniotic dogs. Bag3 was downregulated in diseased dogs whereas CHIP, p62, and LC3-II did not show any variation in expression levels. The altered expression profile of Bag3 suggested an altered interaction of Bag3 with Hsc70 and CHIP, which usually form a molecular complex involved in autophagosome-lysosome pathways. Ultrastructural and molecular findings suggested that the microautophagy pathway is upregulated in lymph nodes of dogs suffering from a chronic natural infection by Leishmania infantum.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Linfonodos/parasitologia , Microautofagia/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Complexos Endossomais de Distribuição Requeridos para Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSC70/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima/imunologia , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1081-1084, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314693

RESUMO

We present two cases of Leishmania (V) panamensis in returning travelers from Central America successfully treated with miltefosine. The couple presented with ulcerative skin lesions nonresponsive to antibiotics. Skin biopsy with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed L. (V) panamensis. To prevent the development of mucosal disease and avoid the inconvenience of parental therapy, we treated both patients with oral miltefosine. We suggest that miltefosine represents an important therapeutic alternative in the treatment of cutaneous lesions caused by L. panamensis and in preventing mucosal involvement.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/administração & dosagem , Leishmania guyanensis/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Cutânea/diagnóstico , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Administração Oral , Adulto , Biópsia , América Central , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Fosforilcolina/administração & dosagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Pele/parasitologia , Viagem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008229, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255795

RESUMO

Scabies is a highly contagious parasitic disease associated with long-term residence in nursing homes, and it is a public health burden worldwide. However, atypical skin manifestations are frequent and the widely used diagnostic test based on microscopic examinations has limited sensitivity. We evaluated the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from skin scraping in patients with suspected scabies. Adult patients with suspected scabies, unrelated diseases or healthy volunteers were enrolled at a tertiary hospital, in Seoul, South Korea, from December 2017 through October 2018. We classified participants based on the consensus criteria established by the International Alliance for the Control of Scabies in 2018; confirmed (microscopic mite detection), clinical (scabies burrow or typical lesions with two history features including itch and close contact with scabies patients), suspected scabies (typical lesion with one history feature or atypical lesion with two history features), or no scabies. PCR was performed on the skin scrapings to target the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Sarcoptes scabiei. A total of 47 participants, 33 with suspected scabies, 10 with unrelated diseases, and 4 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Of the 33 patients, 22 were classified as confirmed scabies, 2 as clinical scabies, 6 as suspected scabies, and 3 as no scabies. The sensitivities of the microscopic examination were 100%, 92%, and 73% in confirmed scabies; confirmed and clinical scabies; and confirmed, clinical, and suspected scabies, respectively (p = 0.006). The sensitivities of PCR were 86%, 83%, and 80% in confirmed scabies; confirmed and clinical scabies; and confirmed, clinical, and suspected scabies, respectively (p = 0.59). The specificity of the scabies PCR in the no scabies control was 100% (95% CI = 80-100).PCR testing for scabies may be helpful in the improvement of sensitivity for the diagnosis of scabies by clinical criteria.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sarcoptes scabiei/enzimologia , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Pele/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Sarcoptes scabiei/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(2): 187-193, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Demodex mites are found on the skin of many healthy individuals. Demodex mites in high densities are considered to play a pathogenic role. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between Demodex infestation and the three most common facial dermatoses: acne vulgaris, rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis. METHODS: This prospective, observational case-control study included 127 patients (43 with acne vulgaris, 43 with rosacea and 41 with seborrheic dermatitis) and 77 healthy controls. The presence of demodicosis was evaluated by standardized skin surface biopsy in both the patient and control groups. RESULTS: In terms of gender and age, no significant difference was found between the patients and controls (p>0.05). Demodex infestation rates were significantly higher in patients than in controls (p=0.001). Demodex infestation rates were significantly higher in the rosacea group than acne vulgaris and seborrheic dermatitis groups and controls (p=0.001; p=0.024; p=0.001, respectively). Demodex infestation was found to be significantly higher in the acne vulgaris and seborrheic dermatitis groups than in controls (p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). No difference was observed between the acne vulgaris and seborrheic dermatitis groups in terms of demodicosis (p=0.294). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Small sample size is a limitation of the study. The lack of an objective scoring system in the diagnosis of Demodex infestation is another limitation. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study emphasize that acne vulgaris, rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis are significantly associated with Demodex infestation. Standardized skin surface biopsy is a practical tool in the determination of Demodex infestation.


Assuntos
Acne Vulgar/parasitologia , Dermatite Seborreica/parasitologia , Dermatoses Faciais/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/complicações , Rosácea/parasitologia , Acne Vulgar/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dermatite Seborreica/patologia , Dermatoses Faciais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infestações por Ácaros/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rosácea/patologia , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Immunology ; 159(4): 355-356, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182636

RESUMO

Both CD8+ T cells and NK cells contribute to the immune response against the protozoan Leishmania parasite. Both are able to generate IFN-γ and both display cytotoxic features. These features may enable them to not only contribute to parasite clearance but also to cause immune-mediated pathology. This pathology is evident, for example, in the Leismania-induced skin lesions found in patients with cutaneous leismaniasis (CL). Here we highlight new data demonstrating that CD8+ T cells and NK cells in CL display a highly cytotoxic senescent phenotype, and that the senescent T cells play a major role in mediating skin pathology. This is the first demonstration that senescent CD8 T cells contribute to immunopathology in vivo.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Leishmania braziliensis/patogenicidade , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/patologia , Antígenos CD57/genética , Antígenos CD57/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/parasitologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leishmania braziliensis/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/imunologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Oligossacarídeos/genética , Oligossacarídeos/imunologia , Antígeno Sialil Lewis X/análogos & derivados , Antígeno Sialil Lewis X/genética , Antígeno Sialil Lewis X/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/parasitologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/parasitologia
18.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190446, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130324

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) represents a public health concern in several areas of the world. In the American continent, VL transmission is typically zoonotic, but humans with active VL caused by Leishmania infantum are able to infect sandflies. Thus, individuals with cutaneous parasitic infections may act as reservoirs and allow interhuman transmission. Additionally, the skin may be responsible for reactivation of the disease after therapy. This study's objective was to evaluate cutaneous parasitism in humans with VL in an American endemic area. METHODS: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted in northeast Brazil from October 2016 to April 2017. Biopsies of healthy skin for histopathology and immunohistochemistry were performed prior to treatment in all study patients. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients between the ages of five months to 78 years were included in the study. Seven patients (31.8%) tested positive for HIV. Only one patient had cutaneous parasitism, as confirmed by immunohistochemistry prior to treatment. Parasitism was not detected after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous parasitism in the healthy skin of humans with visceral leishmaniasis, although unusual, may be a source of infection for phlebotomine sandflies.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Lactente , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0007918, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134911

RESUMO

Patients who are immunocompromised or have cognitive or physical disabilities are at a higher risk of being affected with infections such as crusted scabies. This is a rare skin hyperinfestation by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. The main characteristic of this dermatosis is a thick crust due to the high concentration of mites; in addition, other manifestations such as papules, excoriations, and burrows may be absent. In severe cases, thick yellow-brown crusts and plaques with deep fissures are present. Diagnosis can be made by observing mites, ova, or feces from skin scrapings. Multiple therapies can be used in patients with this condition. Management with patient isolation is important to prevent institutional outbreaks. This disease can have high mortality, primarily due to sepsis. Awareness of this condition and its serious consequences is important to reduce its mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Sarcoptes scabiei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Escabiose/patologia , Pele/patologia , Pele/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12710, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145079

RESUMO

Trichobilharzia regenti (Schistosomatidae) percutaneously infects birds and mammals and invades their central nervous system (CNS). Here, we characterized the peripheral immune response of infected mice and showed how it was influenced by the parasite-induced inflammation in the skin and the CNS. As revealed by flow cytometry, T cells expanded in the spleen and the CNS-draining lymph nodes 7-14 days post-infection. Both T-bet+ and GATA-3+ T cells were markedly elevated suggesting a mixed type 1/2 immune response. However, it dropped after 7 dpi most likely being unaffected by the neuroinflammation. Splenocytes from infected mice produced a high amount of IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent, IL-10, IL-4 and IL-17 after in vitro stimulation by cercarial homogenate. Nevertheless, it had only a limited capacity to alter the maturation status of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), contrary to the recombinant T. regenti cathepsin B2, which also strongly augmented expression of Ccl5, Cxcl10, Il12a, Il33 and Il10 by BMDCs. Taken together, mice infected with T. regenti developed the mixed type 1/2 immune response, which was driven by the early skin inflammation rather than the late neuroinflammation. Parasite peptidases might play an active role in triggering the host immune response.


Assuntos
Cercárias/imunologia , Dermatite/parasitologia , Schistosomatidae/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/imunologia , Animais , Catepsina B/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dermatite/imunologia , Dermatite/patologia , Feminino , Inflamação/parasitologia , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pele/imunologia , Pele/parasitologia , Pele/patologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
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