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1.
Food Chem ; 333: 127489, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653685

RESUMO

To improve the utilization of cod skin collagen peptides (CSCP), we heated them with xylose at 80 °C, 100 °C, and 120 °C for up to 150 min to prepare xylose-CSCP Maillard reaction products (MRPs), and then investigated their physicochemical and functional properties. The results showed that Arg, Lys, Phe, and Asp were the major amino acids involved in the Maillard reaction. After being heated at 120 °C for 150 min, the ABTS scavenging activity and reducing power of xylose-CSCP MRPs were 99.59% and 0.887 absorbance units, respectively. Xylose-CSCP MRPs had better emulsifying properties and foaming properties than CSCP. Furthermore, 26 volatile compounds, including 2,5-dimethyl-pyrazine and 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, were identified from xylose-CSCP MRPs by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry. Newly formed heterocyclic compounds might be responsible for the flavor and antioxidant capacity of xylose-CSCP MRPs. These results suggest the potential for xylose-CSCP MRPs to serve as functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Colágeno/química , Gadus morhua , Reação de Maillard , Peptídeos/química , Pele/química , Xilose/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Temperatura Alta , Paladar
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 36-41, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629075

RESUMO

The study examined the degradation of riot control agents (RCAs): 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile (CS), and capsaicin, using the Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion Kit (RSDL®) lotion and evaluated the the direct liquid phase reactivity of the RSDL lotion component with each RCA. RSDL lotion was mixed with the selected RCAs at different molar ratios. Reactivity of the active ingredient potassium 2,3-butanedione monoximate (KBDO) with the RCA was observed for one hour. Samples of 10 µL were taken and quenched, analyzed for residual RCA using LC-MS. CN, was degraded at molar ratios of two and above in less than 2 min. At a molar ratio of 1:1 KBDO:CN, ∼90 % of CN was degraded within 2 min, the remaining 10 % residual CN was observed for one hour without any change. CS, degradation of more than 68 % of CS was achieved at 20:1 M ratio of KBDO:CS within 1 h of reaction time. For capsaicin, no degradation was observed regardless of the higher molar ratios of up to 20:1 and longer reaction times of up to one hour. This study provides evaluation of neutralizing action of the RSDL lotion without assessment of the physical removal component by the RSDL Kit.


Assuntos
Capsaicina/isolamento & purificação , Descontaminação/métodos , Irritantes/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/isolamento & purificação , Pele/química , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/isolamento & purificação , Calibragem , Capsaicina/análise , Substâncias para a Guerra Química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Irritantes/análise , Fármacos do Sistema Sensorial/análise , ômega-Cloroacetofenona/análise
3.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003163, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tissue advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulation has been proposed as a marker of cumulative metabolic stress that can be assessed noninvasively by measurement of skin autofluorescence (SAF). In persons on haemodialysis, SAF is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events (CVEs) and all-cause mortality (ACM), but data at earlier stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are inconclusive. We investigated SAF as a risk factor for CVEs and ACM in a prospective study of persons with CKD stage 3. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 59 to 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 on two consecutive previous blood tests were recruited from 32 primary care practices across Derbyshire, United Kingdom between 2008 and 2010. SAF was measured in participants with CKD stage 3 at baseline, 1, and 5 years using an AGE reader (DiagnOptics). Data on hospital admissions with CVEs (based on international classification of diseases [ICD]-10 coding) and deaths were obtained from NHS Digital. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate baseline variables associated with CVEs and ACM. A total of 1,707 of 1,741 participants with SAF readings at baseline were included in this analysis: The mean (± SD) age was 72.9 ± 9.0 years; 1,036 (60.7%) were female, 1,681 (98.5%) were of white ethnicity, and mean (±SD) eGFR was 53.5 ± 11.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. We observed 319 deaths and 590 CVEs during a mean of 6.0 ± 1.5 and 5.1 ± 2.2 years of observation, respectively. Higher baseline SAF was an independent risk factor for CVEs (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12 per SD, 95% CI 1.03-1.22, p = 0.01) and ACM (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.03-1.30, p = 0.01). Additionally, increase in SAF over 1 year was independently associated with subsequent CVEs (HR 1.11 per SD, 95% CI 1.00-1.22; p = 0.04) and ACM (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41, p = 0.001). We relied on ICD-10 codes to identify hospital admissions with CVEs, and there may therefore have been some misclassification. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified SAF as an independent risk factor for CVE and ACM in persons with early CKD. These findings suggest that interventions to reduce AGE accumulation, such as dietary AGE restriction, may reduce cardiovascular risk in CKD, but this requires testing in prospective randomised trials. Our findings may not be applicable to more ethnically diverse or younger populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Pele/química , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fluorescência , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Fatores de Risco
4.
Food Chem ; 328: 127127, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473492

RESUMO

Poor stability of fish hydrolyzed collagen (HC) hampers its applications, especially as food ingredients. The use of liposome as a vesicle can be a potential means to enhance bioactivities and stability of HC. HC from defatted Asian sea bass skin at different levels (0.25%-2%, w/v) were loaded into liposomes prepared from soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) with various stabilizers (cholesterol (CHO) or glycerol (GLY)). The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was found in SPC-CHO-0.5%HC (P < 0.05) (85.42%), while liposome stabilized with GLY had the highest EE (74.54%) for SPC-GLY-0.25%HC (P < 0.05). After lyophilization, SPC-CHO-0.5%HC had higher EE than SPC-GLY-0.25%HC (P < 0.05). Increasing particle size and decreasing negative surface charge were found for both lyophilized samples. Lyophilized SPC-CHO-0.5%HC exhibited higher stability than lyophilized SPC-GLY-0.25%HC during storage at 25 °C for 28 days. Also, higher antioxidant activities in gastrointestinal track model system was found for SPC-CHO-0.5%HC. Thus, SPC-CHO liposome could be used as a promising carrier of HC.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Colágeno/química , Lipossomos/química , Lipossomos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bass , Colesterol/química , Excipientes/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Liofilização , Trato Gastrointestinal , Glicerol , Hidrólise , Lecitinas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Pele/química , Temperatura
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 129-137, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) accumulate in tissues with age and in conditions such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease (CKD), and they may be involved in age-related diseases. Skin AGEs measured as skin autofluorescence (SAF) are a noninvasive reflection of long-term AGE accumulation in tissues. Whether AGEs present in the diet (dAGEs) contribute to tissue AGEs is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between dietary and skin AGEs in the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort of mainly European ancestry. METHODS: In 2515 participants, intake of 3 dAGEs [carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), N-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MGH1), and carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL)] was estimated using FFQs and the content of AGEs measured in commonly consumed foods. SAF was measured 5 y (median value) later using an AGE Reader. The association of dAGEs with SAF was analyzed in linear regression models and stratified for diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate ≤60 mL/min) status. RESULTS: Mean ± SD intake was 3.40 ±0.89 mg/d for CML, 28.98 ±7.87 mg/d for MGH1, and 3.11 ±0.89 mg/d for CEL. None of them was associated with SAF in the total study population. However, in stratified analyses, CML was positively associated with SAF after excluding both individuals with diabetes and individuals with CKD: 1 SD higher daily CML intake was associated with a 0.03 (95% CI: 0.009, 0.05) arbitrary units higher SAF. MGH1 and CEL intake were not significantly associated with SAF. Nevertheless, the associations were stronger when the time difference between dAGEs and SAF measurements was shorter. CONCLUSIONS: Higher dietary CML intake was associated with higher SAF only among participants with neither diabetes nor CKD, which may be explained by high AGE formation in diabetes and decreased excretion in CKD or by dietary modifications in these disease groups. The dAGE-SAF associations were also modified by the time difference between measurements. Our results suggest that dAGEs can influence tissue AGE accumulation and possibly thereby age-related diseases. This trial was registered at the Netherlands National Trial Register as NTR6831 (http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=6831) and at the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform as NTR6831 (http://www.who.int/ictrp/network/primary/en/).


Assuntos
Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fluorescência , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Pele/química
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(23): 28730-28736, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462622

RESUMO

For several decades air pollution has been recognized to hit drastically the skin of human body. Air pollutants predominantly accountable for aging, oxidative damage, and inflammatory allergic reactions led to psoriasis, dermatitis, acne, and skin cancer owing to the impaired functions of DNA, proteins, and lipid biomolecules. Elevated air pollution and its detrimental effects along with variations in physiological parameters of the skin are verily the scaffold for anti-pollution assertions and could be recognized as markers. The present article encompasses the salient features of air pollution and UV radiations besides dreadful effects on human skin physiological parameters and some anti-pollution approaches.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar , Energia Solar , Humanos , Pele/química , Raios Ultravioleta
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386296

RESUMO

Thirty five barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 15.1 ± 1.0 kg) were used to determine the effect of partially replacing Gly + Ser with Thr in reduced crude protein (CP) diets on growth performance, protein deposition in carcass and viscera, and skin collagen abundance during the late nursery phase to 25 kg BW. Pigs were individually fed one of five iso-nitrogenous diets (n = 7) for 21 d. The basal diet met estimated essential amino acids (AA) requirements by using all essential AA plus Gly and Ser in free form (CON; 12.1% CP; as-fed, analyzed contents). The remaining four diets were formulated by reducing total Gly and Ser concentrations to 60% or 20% of the CON diet. The N removed with Gly and Ser was replaced with either crystalline Thr or Glu. Total analyzed Thr made up either 1.59% (T1; 12.5% CP) or 2.34% (T2; 12.2% CP) of the Thr-supplemented diets, and total analyzed Glu made up either 3.47% (G1; 12.7% CP) or 4.64% (G2; 12.9% CP) of the Glu-supplemented diets. Pigs were slaughtered on day 21 to determine body composition and skin collagen abundance via bright field microscopy. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and G:F and final carcass weights were greater for pigs fed diets supplemented with Glu (G1 + G2) vs. those fed diets supplemented with Thr (T1 + T2; P < 0.05, P = 0.060, and P = 0.050 for ADG, G:F, and final carcass weight, respectively); intermediate values were observed for CON. Nitrogen retention in carcass plus viscera and the AA profile of deposited protein in the carcass were not influenced by dietary treatment. Pigs fed the T2 and G2 diets had greater retention of Thr (vs. CON and G2) and Glu (vs. CON and T2) in the viscera protein, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent utilization efficiency of standardized ileal digestible Thr for protein deposition in carcass plus viscera was less for pigs fed T2 (15.1%) vs. those fed CON (56.7%) or G2 (58.6% ± 2.9%) diets (P < 0.001). Only pigs fed T1 had skin collagen abundance not different from CON; pigs fed G1, G2, and T2 had reduced skin collagen abundance compared with CON and T1 (P < 0.01). Using Glu as an N source when Gly and Ser were reduced to 60% and 20% of CON in reduced CP diets maintained ADG for pigs between 15 and 25 kg BW, whereas supplying Thr as a N source reduced ADG and carcass weight. When dietary Gly and Ser were supplied at 60% of CON, only Thr supplementation rescued skin collagen abundance. Therefore, supplemental Thr at excess levels is not sufficient to replace N from Gly and Ser in reduced CP diets fed to late nursery pigs, despite supporting skin collagen abundance as a secondary indicator of Gly status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Serina/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Serina/administração & dosagem , Pele/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Vísceras , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Chem ; 328: 127114, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473491

RESUMO

The application of fish gelatins in emulsions has attracted much attention and their stabilization mechanisms remain unclear. This work explores the effect of extraction methods on the structural characteristics, functional properties, and emulsion application of Tilapia skin gelatins. The creaming stability of Tilapia skin gelatin-stabilized emulsions are dependent on gelatin secondary structure, gelatin fat-binding capacity, the presence of NaCl, and storage temperatures. The emulsion creaming velocities are: acetic acid-extracted gelatin (AAG) ≈ hot water-extracted gelatin (HWG) > pepsin enzyme-extracted gelatin (PEG). The emulsion creaming velocities in the presence of NaCl are: AAG < HWG ≈ PEG. The stability mechanisms are involved with a "protein secondary structure - molecular interaction - emulsion droplet structure - emulsion stability" route. This work provides useful information for understanding the relationships between the structural characteristics and emulsion stability of gelatins. The fish oil-loaded Tilapia skin gelatin-stabilized emulsions also show promising prospective applications in food beverages.


Assuntos
Gelatina/química , Tilápia , Animais , Emulsões/química , Óleos de Peixe/química , Pele/química , Temperatura
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(5): 1188-1193, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237464

RESUMO

Cervi Colla, deer's gelatin, had two kinds of original sources historically, including the skin and antler of deer, known as Cervi Corii Colla(Lupijiao, LPJ) and Cervi Cornus Colla(Lujiaojiao, LJJ) respectively.LJJ is the mainstream of the market, while LPJ is only used by common people in Guizhou and Jilin etc. This article sorted out the ancient and modern literature(since Rites of the Zhou in Zhou Dynasty) on Cervi Colla and conducted the herbalogical study. The results of the study include:① In ancient China, there were six types of commonly-used Colla derived from six animals, including deer, horse, cow, rat, fish and rhinoceros. Cervi Colla was ranked the most top among them, and it was often used as adhesive to make bow and Chinese inksticks and more commonly used as a medicine.Cervi Cornus Colla was first described as a medicinal by the name "Bai Jiao"(white gelatin)in The Divine Husbandman's Classic of Material Medica(Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing).② Initially, both the skin and antler were used as raw materials to make Cervi Colla, but antler became the only raw material, and deer skin disappeared from the mainstream of raw materials for Cervi Colla. This can be attributed to other diverse and luxurious uses of the skin, such as making dress and hats, etc., and the easy accessibility of deer antlers. ③ The sources of Cervi Colla were not limited to Cervus elaphus(red deer) or C. nippon(sika deer), and it also included animal from the family Cervidae, such as Elaphurus davidianus(elk) and C. unicolor(sambar). ④ The processing method was passed down from ancient times to the present, and no significant changes had occurred. ⑤ LPJ and LJJ had many similar effects, and their nature was both warm. The effect of LJJ was to warm the liver and kidney, replenish vital essence and blood, and to reinforce Yang. While the effect of LPJ was to reinforce both Yin and Yang, replenish blood, and stop bleeding. It has a unique advantage for both reinforcing Yin and Yang. The findings of this paper can provide support for the promotion of LPJ and the development of its medicinal value.


Assuntos
Chifres de Veado/química , Cervos , Gelatina/química , Materia Medica/química , Pele/química , Animais , China
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1114-1124, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180227

RESUMO

Fresh chicken sausage is a meat product with high consumption in the world. The addition of a lipid source (other than abdominal fat), such as chicken skin, is considered an alternative to harnessing slaughter byproducts in the preparation of processed meat products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of use of skin and/or abdominal fat on chicken sausages and their effect on oxidative stability of chicken sausages during freezing storage. Three formulations with chicken meat added of abdominal fat (SF), or chicken skin (SS), or chicken fat and skin (SFS) were elaborated. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile, instrumental color and texture, oxidative stability of lipids and proteins, and sensory acceptability of chicken sausages were determined. SS formulation showed lower lipid and protein oxidation and softness during storage. Consumers showed greater preference and high purchase intent for SFS formulation, which showed average values of chemical composition and oxidation of chicken sausages stored under freezing. Therefore, the combined addition of lipid sources, skin, and abdominal fat is recommended for use in chicken sausages, considering that the addition of fat improves the sensory characteristics of chicken sausages and skin minimizes the oxidative effects of storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The combined addition of skin fat and abdominal fat is recommended for use in chicken sausages as it does not interfere with consumer acceptability and further ensures nutritional quality during freezing storage. In addition, it is an alternative to using a byproduct of chicken slaughter, bringing economic advantages to the industry and less environmental damage to the world.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pele/química , Resíduos/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Ácidos Graxos , Preferências Alimentares , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Humanos , Lipídeos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Oxirredução
11.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 115953, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122489

RESUMO

Adhesion loss of hydrocolloid wound dressings is ubiquitous clinical problem, which seriously reduces the therapeutic efficiency and patient experience. In order to address this problem, the clarification on adhesion loss mechanism and the development of effective alternatives of commercial hydrocolloid dressings are urgent and inevitable. Herein, adhesion loss mechanism of hydrocolloid dressings was investigated using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-filled hydrocolloid dressings exposing to physiological environment as model. The adhesion mechanism and contact angle tests were combined to obtain surface energy of dressings. The results indicated that the dissolution, swelling and exudation of CMC occurred successively (concentration reached 1.607 g/L after 10 h). The effused CMC led to the dramatic increase in surface energy (from 14.5-80.7 mN/m) and adhesion loss appeared. This work explored the origin of adhesion loss of hydrocolloid wound dressings and might promote the designing of hydrocolloid dressings with both excellent humidity control and sustained self-adhesiveness.


Assuntos
Curativos Hidrocoloides , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/química , Curativos Oclusivos , Pele/química , Adesividade , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Aderências Teciduais , Cicatrização
12.
Carbohydr Polym ; 235: 116018, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122516

RESUMO

The stretchable hydrogels provide potential alternatives to bionic skins. However, skin simulation remains seriously challenging due to its complex nature, including mechanical property, protective effect, and sensory capability. Herein, conductive gels toughened by sodium alginate fibers in oil-water system were developed for preparation of skin-like ionic sensors. The dynamic network was constructed by polyvinyl alcohol and sodium alginate fibers, providing a wide scope of mechanical properties, such as high toughness, anti-fatigue fracture and remodelability. Moreover, salts imparted good conductivity to gels. As a result, gels exhibited sensory capability toward stress and strain, so they were considered sensors to monitor various movements of human body. In particular, gels demonstrated temperture tolerance ranging from -20 °C to 40 °C and non-drying for 6 days at 25 °C. In this study, gels showed complex intelligence similar to natural skin, and might find applications in artificial intelligence, human-mechanial interactions, and smart wearable devices.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Inteligência Artificial , Fibras na Dieta , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Configuração de Carboidratos , Condutividade Elétrica , Géis/química , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Propriedades de Superfície
13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(3): 393-399, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis following administration of intravenous gadobenate during MR imaging is rare. This study aimed to analyze any nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-related risks and quantify skin gadolinium levels in patients with impaired renal function but without nephrogenic systemic fibrosis who had received gadobenate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study with a prospective skin biopsy phase, patients with estimated glomerular filtration rates of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 undergoing contrast-enhanced MR imaging from July 2007 through June 2014 were screened for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis using a questionnaire. This was highly sensitive but not specific and reliably excluded nephrogenic systemic fibrosis if responses to at least 6 of the 8 questions were negative. If no nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was detected, a skin biopsy was requested. RESULTS: Of 2914 patients who met these criteria, 1988 were excluded for various reasons. Of the remaining 926 patients, 860 were screened negative for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Of these, 17 (2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rates of <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, 51 (6%) had levels of 15 < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, 234 (27%) had levels of 30 < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2, and 534 (62%) had levels of 45 < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Of the 66 who were not cleared of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis by the questionnaire, 6 patients were evaluated by a dermatologist and confirmed not to have nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (no biopsy required). CONCLUSIONS: A diagnosis of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis was excluded in 860 patients with impaired renal function who were followed up and received gadobenate during MR imaging. In 14 such patients who underwent at least 1 gadobenate-enhanced MR imaging examination and did not have nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, gadolinium levels in the skin were exceedingly low.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Gadolínio/efeitos adversos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/induzido quimicamente , Dermopatia Fibrosante Nefrogênica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Meios de Contraste/análise , Feminino , Gadolínio/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Food Chem ; 319: 126302, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151895

RESUMO

Gelatin, as a by-product of the meat industry, is extracted from bone and skin of mainly bovine and porcine origins. It is used widely in the food, drug, and cosmetic industries. Authenticity testing methods can be used to confirm whether labelled ingredients are present in the product. Generally, studies on gelatin are concerned mainly with determining species, but detecting tissue origin is also important from religious, health, and commercial perspectives. In the present study, for the first time, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) was used to differentiate bovine bone gelatin from gelatin derived from bovine skin. Tryptic-digested gelatins were measured using HPLC/MS and, subsequently, two powerful chemometrics approaches (i.e., PCA and PLS-DA) were used to classify samples as either skin or bone gelatins. Origin of bovine gelatins in different test samples were predicted accurately using this method. The results showed both the stability and reliability of the proposed procedure.


Assuntos
Gelatina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Gelatina/química , Espectrometria de Massas , Carne Vermelha , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/química , Suínos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 663, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005935

RESUMO

The ability to image pressure distribution over complex three-dimensional surfaces would significantly augment the potential applications of electronic skin. However, existing methods show poor spatial and temporal fidelity due to their limited pixel density, low sensitivity, or low conformability. Here, we report an ultraflexible and transparent electroluminescent skin that autonomously displays super-resolution images of pressure distribution in real time. The device comprises a transparent pressure-sensing film with a solution-processable cellulose/nanowire nanohybrid network featuring ultrahigh sensor sensitivity (>5000 kPa-1) and a fast response time (<1 ms), and a quantum dot-based electroluminescent film. The two ultrathin films conform to each contact object and transduce spatial pressure into conductivity distribution in a continuous domain, resulting in super-resolution (>1000 dpi) pressure imaging without the need for pixel structures. Our approach provides a new framework for visualizing accurate stimulus distribution with potential applications in skin prosthesis, robotics, and advanced human-machine interfaces.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica/instrumentação , Pressão , Pele/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Nanofios/química
16.
Sci Justice ; 60(1): 63-71, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924290

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare three gunshot residue (GSR) collection methods used in conjunction with chemographic detection applied by different regional Swiss police services. The specimens were collected from the hands of a shooter with either filter paper (Filter method) or adhesive foil. The adhesive foil was then either applied against photographic paper during visualisation (AF Photo method) or coated with a layer of polyvinyl alcohol (AF PVAL method). The experiments involved two conditions of the examined hands, i.e. dry and humidified. The residues were revealed using the sodium rhodizonate test (SRT). Preliminary tests assessing the possibility of conducting a confirmatory Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled to Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX) analysis after the chemographic test were performed on a number of specimens by cutting positive spots and mounting them on stubs. Obtained results were compared in terms of effectiveness - number of positive spots, time requirements, quality of subsequent SEM-EDX analysis, ease of use and cost. The Filter method generally yielded a high-quality detection with both dry and humidified hands, as well as a simple, quick and efficient confirmation by SEM/EDX. The AF Photo performed well on dry hands, but not on humidified hands. The AF PVAL method performance was lower compared to the other methods in both examined conditions of the hands. The SEM/EDX analysis showed that the Filter and AF PVAL method provided satisfactory results when a sufficient carbon coating thickness was applied to the cuttings. It was also observed that the thinner the PVAL layer, the better the quality of the spectra and obtained images in SEM/EDX. Furthermore, the surface of the photographic paper did not seem to be conductive, even after the application of a thick layer of carbon. In conclusion, the Filter method gave the best overall results, but its application required slightly more time and expertise than the two other methods.


Assuntos
Balística Forense/métodos , Medicina Legal/métodos , Mãos , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Cicloexanonas/análise , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pele/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Suíça
17.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906259

RESUMO

Carotenoids, orange-coloured pigments found in vegetables, fruit, eggs and dairy foods, act as antioxidants and vitamin A precursors in the human body. Skin carotenoid concentration is a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake. The aim was to identify determinants of skin carotenoid concentration by measuring "Veggie Meter™" carotenoid reflection spectroscopy scores (CRS) from the fingertip of adults with a range of ages, ethnicity and body size. Frequencies of daily intake of vegetables and fruit and weekly intake of pumpkin and carrot, dark green leafy vegetables (DGLV), eggs (yolk), and dairy were determined from a self-completed food-frequency-questionnaire. A total of 571 (324 Women, 247 Men) adults, aged 16 to 85 years, completed measurements. The CRS ranged from 83 to 769, with a median of 327. Women and men did not score differently. For all participants there were negative correlations of CRS with weight (r = -0.312) and BMI (r = -0.338) and positive correlations with weekly intakes of DGLV (r = 0.242) and carrots and pumpkin (r = 0.202). Based on a review of health outcomes associated with plasma carotenoids, 82% of the participants in the current study are at moderate risk, or more, of negative health outcomes. Determinants of carotenoid status were body size, intake of DGLV, carrots and pumpkin, and ethnicity.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Avaliação Nutricional , Análise Espectral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Estado Nutricional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918305

RESUMO

A simple, sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of lidocaine in skin and plasma of rats. The methods were established and validated assessing lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), linearity, intra and inter-day precision and accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. Chromatography was done on a Gemini column embedded with C18 stationary phase (50 mm × 2.0 mm, 5 µm particle size), using a gradient with mobile phases consisting of 0.1% HCOOH in bidistilled water and 0.1% HCOOH in acetonitrile. The mass spectrometer worked with electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and selected reaction monitoring, using target ions m/z 235.10 for lidocaine and m/z 245.10 for lidocaine-d10, used as internal standard. RESULTS: The linearity of the method was in the ranges of lidocaine concentrations 10.0-200.0 ng/mL for skin homogenate (accuracy 94.1-105.5%; R2 ≥ 0.998) and 0.025-2 ng/mL for plasma (accuracy 96.2-104.8%; R2 ≥ 0.996). The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy determined on three quality control samples (20, 75 and 170 ng/mL for skin and 0.075, 0.4 and 1.5 ng/mL for plasma) were ≤4.2% and 103.8-108.2% for skin and ≤12.4% and 95.5-101.4% for plasma. The LLOQ was 10 ng/mL in skin homogenate and 0.025 ng/mL in plasma. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by measuring lidocaine in skin and plasma after exposure to medicated patches containing 5% lidocaine.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Lidocaína/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adesivo Transdérmico , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/farmacocinética , Limite de Detecção , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele/química
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931330

RESUMO

The epidermal mucus protects fish against harmful environmental factors and the loss of physiological metabolites and water. It is an efficient barrier between the fish and the biosphere. The integrity of the skin mucus is thus of vital importance for the welfare and survival of the fish. Since excreted proteins and small molecules in the mucus can mirror the health status of the fish, it is a valuable matrix for monitoring stress, pathogen exposure, and nutritional effects. Several methods for sampling epidermal mucus from different fish species have previously been described, but information about their efficiency or the comparability of mucus analyses is lacking. In the present study, skin mucus from farmed Atlantic salmon was therefore sampled by three methods, including absorption or wiping with tissue paper, and scraping with a blunt blade, and the mucus proteome was analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry. The measured protein contents, numbers, compositions and the observed data quality were compared between sampling methods. Furthermore, functional annotation and classification of the identified proteins was performed. The results showed that the three skin mucus sample types differed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The absorbed mucus was the least tainted by proteins resulting from damage inflicted to the fish epidermis by the sampling procedure. Wiped mucus showed a better protein yield than absorbed and delivered a larger proteome of identifiable proteins, with less contamination from epithelial proteins than observed for scraped mucus. We recommend that future research of mucus should use the absorption method in cases, where it is important that the mucus is devoid of proteins from the underlying epithelium, and the wiping method, when protein yield is crucial or when the proteome of the outer epithelium is of interest.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/análise , Muco/química , Proteoma/análise , Salmo salar/metabolismo , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Animais , Proteômica , Pele/química , Pele/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1621-1633, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967468

RESUMO

Collagen peptides can promote wound healing and are closely related to microbiome colonization. We investigated the relationship among collagen peptides, wound healing, and wound microflora colonization by administering the murine wound model with Salmo salar skin collagen peptides (Ss-SCPs) and Tilapia nilotica skin collagen peptides (Tn-SCPs). We analyzed the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factors (ß-FGF), pattern recognition receptor (NOD2), antimicrobial peptides (ß-defence14, BD14), proinflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, macrophages, neutrophil infiltration levels, and microbial communities in the rat wound. The healing rates of the Ss-SCP- and Tn-SCP-treated groups were significantly accelerated, associated with decreased TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 and upregulated BD14, NOD2, IL-10, VEGF, and ß-FGF. Accelerated healing in the collagen peptide group shows that the wound microflora such as Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, and Bacillus have a positive effect on wound healing (P < 0.01). Other microbiome species such as Stenotrophomonas, Bradyrhizobium, Sphingomonas, and Phyllobacterium had a negative influence and decreased colonization (P < 0.01). Altogether, these studies show that collagen peptide could upregulate wound NOD2 and BD14, which were implicated in microflora colonization regulation in the wound tissue and promoted wound healing by controlling the inflammatory reaction and increasing wound angiogenesis and collagen deposition.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Pele/química , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , beta-Defensinas/genética , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ciclídeos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/imunologia , Peptídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salmo salar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/microbiologia , beta-Defensinas/imunologia
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