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1.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 333-337, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507201

RESUMO

Molluscum contagiosum is a common, self-limiting infectious disease of the skin caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The disease primarily affects children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct skin contact. Therefore, the virus is usually detected in the skin and genitals of patients. However, the diagnosis of intracranial infection by the virus is difficult if the skin/mucosa lessons are atypical or absent, and the presence of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid has not been reported. We report a very rare case of intracranial infection by molluscum contagiosum virus. A 25-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to severe headache but no fever or other symptoms. Upon examination, some small flesh-colored flattened papules on both arms were noticed. Blood tests showed slightly reduced levels of CD3 and CD4 T lymphocytes. Three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) and head magnetic resonance (MR) were both normal. Lumbar puncture was performed, and metagenomic sequencing was applied to the spinal fluid. The unique sequences of the molluscum contagiosum virus were identified in the fluid. The patient was then diagnosed with intracranial molluscum contagiosum virus infection. No special treatment was given. The headache gradually disappeared, and the patient was discharged. During our quarterly follow-up, the girl appeared normal, and her skin lesions disappeared. However, her CD3 and CD4 T lymphocyte counts were still slightly lower than the normal level. Our case shows that the application of metagenomic sequencing to cerebrospinal fluid is a sensitive and powerful means to detect pathogens causing intracranial infection. Keywords: Molluscum contagiosum; intracranial infection; metagenomics sequencing.


Assuntos
Metagenômica , Molusco Contagioso , Vírus do Molusco Contagioso , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Molusco Contagioso/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Molusco Contagioso/diagnóstico , Molusco Contagioso/imunologia , Vírus do Molusco Contagioso/genética , Pele/virologia
2.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(7. Vyp. 2): 67-73, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study clinical characteristics of Herpes zoster in infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children underwent routine clinical/neurological, and laboratory/instrumental examinations (composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the level of specific antibodies in the blood and CSF assessed by ELISA, MRI of the brain and cervical spine and spinal cord with contrast enhancement). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Two rare cases of disease are reported: 1) a 3-month girl with polymorphic rash appeared on the skin and monoparesis of the left hand, 2) a 5-month girl due to infection with the varicella-zoster (VZ) virus occurred intrauterine. The data on the frequency and interpretation of the genesis of motor disorders in patients with different localization of rashes are presented. The authors draw attention to the latent phase (interval between the primary infection of the fetus and reactivation of VD-viral infection with a picture of HZ), which was 10 months.


Assuntos
Exantema , Herpes Zoster , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/virologia , Feminino , Herpes Zoster/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 3/patogenicidade , Humanos , Lactente , Pele/virologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405112

RESUMO

Carcinogenesis induced by high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) involves inflammatory phenomena, partially mediated by cyclooxigenase-2. In pre-clinical models of HPV-induced cancer, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have shown significant efficacy, but also considerable toxicity. This study addresses the chemopreventive effect and hepatic toxicity of a specific cyclooxigensase-2 inhibitor, parecoxib, in HPV16-transgenic mice. Forty-three 20 weeks-old female mice were divided into four groups: I (HPV16-/-, n = 10, parecoxib-treated); II (HPV16-/- n = 11, untreated); III (HPV16+/-, n = 11, parecoxib-treated) and IV (HPV16+/-, n = 11, untreated). Parecoxib (5.0 mg/kg once daily) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally for 22 consecutive days. Skin lesions were classified histologically. Toxicological endpoints included genotoxic parameters, hepatic oxidative stress, transaminases and histology. Parecoxib completely prevented the onset of epidermal dysplasia in HPV16+/- treated animals (0% versus 64% in HPV16+/- untreated, p = 0.027). Parecoxib decreases lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increases the GSH:GSSG ratio in HPV16+/- treated animals meaning that oxidative stress is lower. Parecoxib increased genotoxic stress parameters in wild-type and HPV16-transgenic mice, but didn't modify histological or biochemical hepatic parameters. These results indicate that parecoxib has chemopreventive effects against HPV16-induced lesions while maintaining an acceptable toxicological profile in this model.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/uso terapêutico , Papillomavirus Humano 16/isolamento & purificação , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/patologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
4.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 390-393, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328253

RESUMO

Recently, the Kunjin strain of West Nile virus (WNVKUN ) has been detected using qRT-PCR in belly skin lesions of farmed juvenile saltwater crocodiles. This follows an established association between similar lesions and West Nile virus in American alligators. The lesions present as cutaneous lymphohistiocytic aggregates in the dermal layers of both species. While these lesion do not create an obvious defect on the live crocodile, upon tanning the lesion area collapses and does not uptake the dye evenly, thus reducing its aesthetic appeal. As a result, skins are being rejected jeopardising the economic viability of the Australian crocodile industry. Over 50 skin lesions have since been confirmed as WNVKUN -positive and preliminary evidence of lesion restructuring is presented. Horizontal transmission of WNVKUN by mosquitoes is well-established but other transmission routes, such as ingestion and cloacal shedding, need further evaluation. An infection trial is currently underway to ensure WNVKUN is the causative agent of these skin lesions.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/virologia , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Northern Territory , Pele/virologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Dermatopatias/virologia
5.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307672

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and eventually disseminated into the environment to infect contact birds. Therefore, skin and FFE play a critical role as being the common source of re-infection of birds sharing the same habitat. The molecular mechanism involved in the replication and assembly of MDV in the FFE leading to the production and release of cell-free infectious virus particles is unknown and to date no viral or host gene has been implicated in the process. To examine alterations in the expression pattern of viral genes, we performed RNA-seq on the skin samples of Marek's disease virus-infected susceptible chickens at 10, 20, and 30 days post infection. For comparative analysis of the expression patterns of viral genes between the skin and spleen of the MD-susceptible and resistant lines, Real-Time RT-PCR was employed. In total, RNA-seq based analysis identified 42 viral genes that were differentially expressed in the skin of infected birds. Majority of the identified genes are involved in DNA replication, capsid, tegument, and envelop formation. Comparative analysis between the skin and spleen of MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines, revealed significantly higher expression of the genes in the skin of either lines than the spleen. Furthermore, much higher expression of the genes was observed in the skin of the susceptible line than the resistant line.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
6.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109888, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307673

RESUMO

Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV-2) commonly infects the skin of domestic cats and has been associated with the development of skin cancer. In the present study, a FcaPV-2 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine was produced and assessed for vaccine safety, immunogenicity, and impact on FcaPV-2 viral load. This is the first report of the use of a papillomavirus VLP vaccine in domestic cats. The FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine was given to ten adult cats that were naturally infected with FcaPV-2, and a further ten naturally infected cats were sham vaccinated as a control group. The rationale for vaccinating cats already infected with the virus was to induce neutralizing antibody titers that could prevent reinfection of new areas of skin and reduce the overall viral load, as has been demonstrated in other species. Reducing the overall FcaPV-2 viral load could reduce the risk for subsequent PV-associated cancer. The vaccine in this study was well-tolerated, as none of the cats developed any signs of local reaction or systemic illness. In the treatment group, the geometric mean anti-papillomavirus endpoint antibody titers increased significantly following vaccination from 606 (95% CI 192-1913) to 4223 (2023-8814), a 7.0-fold increase, although the individual antibody response varied depending on the level of pre-existing antibodies. Despite the immunogenicity of the vaccine, there was no significant change in FcaPV-2 viral load in the treatment group compared to the control group, over the 24 week follow-up period. A possible reason is that FcaPV-2 was already widespread in the basal skin layer of these adult cats and so preventing further cells from becoming infected had no impact on the overall viral load. Therefore, these results do not support the use of a FcaPV-2 VLP vaccine to reduce the risk for PV-associated cancer in cats in which FcaPV-2 infection is already well established. However, these results justify future studies in which the vaccine is administered to younger cats prior to FcaPV-2 infection becoming fully established.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Infecções por Papillomavirus/veterinária , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Carga Viral , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , DNA Viral/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
7.
J Clin Exp Hematop ; 59(2): 64-71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257347

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcers (EBVMCUs) were first described as a lymphoproliferative disorder in 2010. Clinically, EBVMCUs are shallow, sharply circumscribed, unifocal mucosal or cutaneous ulcers that occur in immunosuppressed patients, including those with advanced age-associated immunosenescence, iatrogenic immunosuppression, primary immune disorders, and HIV/AIDS-associated immune deficiencies. In general, patients exhibit indolent disease progression and spontaneous regression. Histologically, EBVMCUs are characterized by the proliferation of EBV-positive, variable-sized, atypical B-cells. According to conventional histopathologic criteria, EBVMCUs may diagnosed as lymphomas. However, EBVMCUs are recognized as pseudomalignant lesions because they spontaneously regress without anti-cancer treatment. Therefore, overtreatment must be carefully avoided and multilateral differentiation is important. In this article, we reviewed previously reported EBVMCUs focusing on their clinical and pathological aspects in comparison with other EBV-positive B-cell neoplasms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Úlcera Cutânea/etiologia , Úlcera Cutânea/virologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/patologia , Linfócitos B/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Humanos , Prognóstico , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Úlcera Cutânea/diagnóstico , Úlcera Cutânea/patologia
8.
Immunohorizons ; 3(5): 161-171, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356170

RESUMO

During Ag priming, naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into subsets with distinct patterns of cytokine expression that dictate to a major extent their functional roles in immune responses. We identified a subset of CD4+ T cells defined by secretion of IL-3 that was induced by Ag stimulation under conditions different from those associated with previously defined functional subsets. Using mouse models of bacterial and viral infections, we showed that IL-3-secreting CD4+ T cells were generated by infection at the skin and mucosa but not by infections introduced directly into the blood. Most IL-3-producing T cells coexpressed GM-CSF and other cytokines that define multifunctionality. Generation of IL-3-secreting T cells in vitro was dependent on IL-1 family cytokines and was inhibited by cytokines that induce canonical Th1 or Th2 cells. Our results identify IL-3-secreting CD4+ T cells as a potential functional subset that arises during priming of naive T cells in specific tissue locations.


Assuntos
Interleucina-3/biossíntese , Membrana Mucosa/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/metabolismo , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 2/imunologia , Listeria monocytogenes/imunologia , Listeriose/microbiologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
9.
Clin Dermatol ; 37(3): 213-226, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178104

RESUMO

Viral exanthems are frequent in children and are mostly self-limited. Early recognition and differentiation from other childhood illnesses are important to direct further investigations and treatment initiation. The clinical presentation of viral exanthems in children includes a polymorphic spectrum of skin eruptions ranging from classic viral exanthems to "atypical" presentations that can mimic nonviral diseases; thus, viral exanthems of childhood can be readily diagnosed on clinical grounds, but not rarely do they represent a diagnostic challenge. In this review, we focus on viral diseases in children that may be difficult to diagnose due to their clinical similarities with nonviral diseases, and we offer clues for the differential diagnosis and proper diagnostic testing in such cases.


Assuntos
Exantema/diagnóstico , Exantema/virologia , Pele/virologia , Acrodermatite , Angiomatose , Febre de Chikungunya , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Dengue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Exantema/patologia , Feminino , Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca , Herpesvirus Humano 4 , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Lactente , Masculino , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Zika virus
10.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 21(4): e13133, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233669

RESUMO

Trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS) is a rare disease associated with immunosuppression and induced by a polyomavirus denominated Tricodisplasia Polyomavirus (TSPyV). We report a case of TS 6 months after kidney transplantation in a 65 years-old woman under immunosuppression therapy with prednisone, mycophenolate and tacrolimus. The patient developed follicular papules on the face with a thickening of the skin and alopecia of the eyebrows, leading to distortion of the face and a leonine appearance characteristic of the disease. The skin biopsy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and the presence of TSPyV DNA in the skin was detected. Staining for SV40 was positive. Immunosuppression was changed: mycophenolate was withdrawn, tacrolimus reduced and everolimus added. Intravenous cidofovir and later on leflunomide were added. Although the literature has reported clinical success with topical cidofovir, we were unable to use it because this drug is not available. There was an improvement of skin lesions and on cosmetic appearance. The patient had three rejections (one clinically diagnosed and two other biopsy proven), progressed with renal failure and graft loss. Retrospective analysis of stored urine and blood samples detected TSPyV DNA in some of those samples two months before the TS clinical development. This case highlights the TSPyV detection in blood and urine samples before the development of skin lesions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cabelo/virologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Polyomavirus/diagnóstico , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , DNA Viral , Feminino , Doenças do Cabelo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunossupressão/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores , Rim/patologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Transplantados
11.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 18(2): 225-229, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066259

RESUMO

Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIGE) is considered as a phagocytic or a newly classified complex and heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency disease with symptoms such as increased levels of immunoglobulin E, eczema, and, recurrent lung and skin infections. In this paper, we have presented a rare case of this syndrome. A 9-year-old Iranian girl presented with a history of pruritic maculopapular rash who was eventually diagnosed as a case of HIGE. In her recent admission, she had dysphonia, stridor and huge cauliflower cutaneous lesions on her neck, finger and vocal cords, which did not respond to intravenous antibiotics, and ultimately required surgical removal.


Assuntos
Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Job/diagnóstico , Mutação/genética , Simplexvirus/fisiologia , Pele/patologia , Prega Vocal/patologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Resistência a Medicamentos , Disfonia , Feminino , Herpes Simples/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Síndrome de Job/tratamento farmacológico , Laringoscopia , Sons Respiratórios , Pele/virologia
12.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(4): 2852-2874, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137240

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose an SIS-type reaction-diffusion equations, which contains both direct transmission and indirect transmission via free-living and spatially diffusive bacteria/virus in the contaminated environment, motivated by the dynamics of hospital infections. We establish the basic reproduction number R0 which can act as threshold level to determine whether the disease persists or not. In particular, if R0<1 then="" the="" disease-free="" equilibrium="" is="" globally="" asymptotically="" stable="" whereas="". For the spatially homogeneous system, we investigate the traveling wave solutions and obtain that there exists a critical wave speed, below which there has no traveling waves, above which the traveling wave solutions may exist for small diffusion coefficient by the geometric singular perturbation method. The finding implies that great spatial transmission leads to an increase in new infection, while large diffusion of bacteria/virus results in the new infection decline for spatially heterogeneous environment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/fisiopatologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Número Básico de Reprodução , Viroses/fisiopatologia , Viroses/transmissão , Algoritmos , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/fisiopatologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Difusão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Epidemias , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/virologia , Viagem , Viroses/epidemiologia
13.
Virol J ; 16(1): 68, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shingles (localized zoster) and disseminated zoster are caused by the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus (VZV). Reactivation of VZV is related to impaired cell-mediated immunity. Extensive burns affecting a patient result in burn-related immunosuppression and cytokine storm. Despite immunosuppression in burn patients, the reactivation of VZV is extremely rare, whereas eczema herpeticum, caused by reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), is common. We have found only 1 published case of VZV reactivation during burn treatment in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51-year-old man was burned in a fire, which affected 60% of his total body surface area (TBSA), and also received inhalation injury (day 0). Despite fluid resuscitation, he showed persistent renal failure. Continuous hemodialysis and filtration (CHDF) combined with polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) therapy was used for cytokine modulation. Autologous and allogeneic skin grafting was performed. On day 15, multiple-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) was detected from a blood specimen, and the patient developed multiple organ failure (MOF). On day 31, compact aggregations of small vesicles appeared on the intact skin of his left knee and left buttock. The vesicles were located within the 4th lumbar (L4) spinal dermatome. From day 32 to day 34, similar new vesicles arose on his intact skin and epithelializing skin-graft donor sites. We diagnosed disseminated zoster, based on the patient's age, the characteristic occurrence of the initial vesicles within a limited area of intact skin in the left L4 dermatome, and a positive Tzank smear. Serologic testing on day 36 showed a high level of anti-VZV immunoglobulin (Ig)G with low levels of anti-VZV IgM, anti-HSV IgG, and anti-HSV IgM. The patient was isolated in a negative-pressure room to avoid air-borne spread of VZV. On day 52, the patient died. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the second case of reactivation of VZV during burn treatment. It is unclear why reactivation of VZV is rare in patients with burn-related immunosuppression, whereas HSV reactivation is common. Cytokine modulation throughout the treatment period using CHDF combined with PMX-DHP might have been related to the rare reactivation of VZV in our patient. Our case provides an additional information on the relationship between the immune status of a patient with extensive burns and reactivation of latent VZV or HSV.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Queimaduras/virologia , Herpes Zoster/diagnóstico , Ativação Viral , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Queimaduras/terapia , Evolução Fatal , Herpes Zoster/etiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Sorológicos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Transplante de Pele
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2214, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101810

RESUMO

CD8+ T cells provide a critical defence from pathogens at mucosal epithelia including the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mucosal immunisation is considered essential to initiate this response, however this is difficult to reconcile with evidence that antigen delivered to skin can recruit protective CD8+ T cells to mucosal tissues. Here we dissect the underlying mechanism. We show that adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) bio-distributes at very low level to non-lymphoid tissues after skin immunisation. This drives the expansion and activation of CD3- NK1.1+ group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1) within the FRT, essential for recruitment of CD8+ T-cell effectors. Interferon gamma produced by activated ILC1 is critical to licence CD11b+Ly6C+ monocyte production of CXCL9, a chemokine required to recruit skin primed CXCR3+ CD8+T-cells to the FRT. Our findings reveal a novel role for ILC1 to recruit effector CD8+ T-cells to prevent virus spread and establish immune surveillance at barrier tissues.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Genitália Feminina/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adenovírus Humanos/genética , Adenovírus Humanos/imunologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Quimiocina CXCL9 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/citologia , Genitália Feminina/virologia , Células HEK293 , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Monócitos/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/citologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/virologia , Receptores CXCR3 , Pele/citologia , Pele/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Sintéticas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/virologia , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/genética , Produtos do Gene gag do Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana/imunologia
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1631-1641, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959552

RESUMO

Capripox virus infections are endemic diseases of livestock in Nigeria, but there are limited data on molecular characterization of circulating viruses. In this study, we investigated field outbreaks of Capripox virus infections in Nigeria via partial sequencing of viruses obtained from field samples. Eleven selected samples, collected from 2000-2016 from cattle (9), sheep (1) and goat (1) in three states in Nigeria and Capripox virus genome positive by PCR and real-time qPCR, were characterized using our newly developed partial sequencing protocol. This method for genetic characterization of Capripox virus strains allows a first, short molecular classification of strains responsible for the investigated field outbreaks in the country. Phylogenetically, the eight LSDV samples obtained from 2010 to 2016 are closely related to already published strains occurring in Greece and Serbia in the years 2015 and 2016, respectively, whereas the isolate from 2000 shows high similarity to the South African NI-2490 strain. These data indicate that there was a change of LSDV strains circulating in Nigeria between the years 2000 and 2010. The samples isolated from a goat and a sheep in different years seem to be related to already known GTPV strains, but clearly differ from all current published GTPV strains. Interestingly, both newly detected GTPV strains show up to 100% similarity compared to each other and led to clinical disease in sheep and goats. It is long known that some strains of GTPV and SPPV are able to infect both sheep and goats, but in most cases lead to more severe disease in only one of these species. Further genetic characterization of these isolates could provide more insight into pathogenesis and virulence factors of Capripox viruses, especially GTPV and SPPV.


Assuntos
Capripoxvirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Capripoxvirus/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Pele/virologia
16.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(5): 748-754, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938666

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common lifelong sexually transmitted infection. HSV-1 typically manifests as oral cold sores, while HSV-2 is more traditionally associated with sexual transmission and infection. We have developed a real-time PCR (Trioplex) for the simultaneous detection of HSV-1 and -2 and the bacterial phage internal control (IC) MS2. METHODOLOGY: To determine the performance of the Trioplex method and resolve discrepancies, 178 clinical specimens from cutaneous and mucocutaneous sources were tested using 3 different methods; virus culture with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) immunostaining, Trioplex and a commercially available HSV analyte-specific reagent (ASR). RESULTS: HSV Trioplex was significantly more sensitive than virus culture (89 and 67 % HSV 1/2, respectively) and comparable to the commercial assay (P<0.001). Cost analysis revealed that the Trioplex reduced cost by 80  % compared to cell culture. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the HSV Trioplex improved the detection turnaround time from 3-10 days to 2.5 h, thus streamlining Herpes detection, improving sensitivity and reducing laboratory costs.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/diagnóstico , Herpesvirus Humano 1/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 2/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/economia , Pele/virologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , DNA Viral/análise , Feminino , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Herpes Genital/diagnóstico , Herpes Genital/virologia , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 2/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/patologia
17.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 81-84, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of bee products with respect to antiviral efficacy against herpes viruses. DESIGN: A systematic review was done using the JUSTfind System of the Justus-Liebig-University Gießen and Scopus. RESULTS: Three trials on honey and 6 trials on propolis were conducted. Each trial provided evidence that these two bee products are interesting alternatives to acyclovir, especially propolis, which was found to be superior to acyclovir in 4 trials. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence from these trials suggests that propolis is the best of all natural possibilities in the treatment of herpetic skin lesions, especially those related to HSV-1. Future studies should analyse if propolis could be an adjunct to treatment with acyclovir. For lesions in the oral cavity, honey could be an interesting alternative.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Abelhas/metabolismo , Vesícula/tratamento farmacológico , Genitália/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/efeitos dos fármacos , Simplexvirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Animais , Vesícula/virologia , Genitália/virologia , Humanos , Boca/virologia , Própole/farmacologia , Pele/virologia
18.
J Dermatol ; 46(5): 409-412, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30932227

RESUMO

A case of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in which a skin biopsy from the tick-bite region was analyzed is reported. The patient was a 72-year-old woman who developed fever and thrombocytopenia after a tick bite. SFTS was diagnosed from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of a blood sample. Histopathological analysis of a skin biopsy specimen from the tick-bite region showed CD20-positive perivascular and interstitial immunoblastic cells, which were positive to anti-SFTS virus (SFTSV) nucleoprotein antibody. In addition, SFTSV RNA was detected by real-time PCR from this biopsy specimen. Moreover, hemophagocytosis was also found in the tick-bite region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to analyze the details of the tick-bite region of skin in SFTS, and the first to detect virus-infected cells in the skin. The present findings may help elucidate the mechanisms of entry of SFTSV.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/virologia , Febre por Flebótomos/virologia , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Trombocitopenia/virologia , Picadas de Carrapatos/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Febre por Flebótomos/sangue , Febre por Flebótomos/diagnóstico , Phlebovirus/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia , Síndrome , Trombocitopenia/sangue , Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico , Picadas de Carrapatos/sangue , Picadas de Carrapatos/complicações , Picadas de Carrapatos/virologia
19.
Viruses ; 11(3)2019 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909568

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first extensively described in children during outbreaks in India and South Asia during the mid-1960s. Prior to the 2005 emergence of CHIKV on Reunion Island, CHIKV infection was usually described as a dengue-like illness with arthralgia in Africa and febrile hemorrhagic disease in Asia. Soon after the 2005 emergence, severe CNS consequences from vertical and perinatal transmission were described and as CHIKV continued to emerge in new areas over the next 10 years, severe manifestation of infection and sequelae were increasingly reported in infants and neonates. The following review describes the global reemergence and the syndromes of Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in infants and children. The various manifestations of CHIKF are described and connected to the viral lineage that was documented in the area at the time the disease was described. The data show that certain manifestations of CHIKF occur with specific viral lineages and genetic motifs, which suggests that severe manifestations of CHIKF in the very young may be associated with the emergence of new viral lineages.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/congênito , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Criança , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Camundongos , Pele/patologia , Pele/virologia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(3): e1007633, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875408

RESUMO

Memory CD8+ T cells in the circulation rapidly infiltrate non-lymphoid tissues following infection and provide protective immunity in an antigen-specific manner. However, the subsequent fate of memory CD8+ T cells after entering non-lymphoid tissues such as the skin during a secondary infection is largely unknown. Furthermore, because expression of CD62L is often used to identify the central memory (TCM) CD8+ T cell subset, uncoupling the physical requirement for CD62L-mediated lymph node homing versus other functional attributes of TCM CD8+ T cells remains unresolved. Here, we show that in contrast to naïve CD8+ T cells, memory CD8+ T cells traffic into the skin independent of CD62L-mediated lymph node re-activation and provide robust protective immunity against Vaccinia virus (VacV) infection. TCM, but not effector memory (TEM), CD8+ T cells differentiated into functional CD69+/CD103- tissue residents following viral clearance, which was also dependent on local recognition of antigen in the skin microenvironment. Finally, we found that memory CD8+ T cells expressed granzyme B after trafficking into the skin and utilized cytolysis to provide protective immunity against VacV infection. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TCM CD8+ T cells become cytolytic following rapid infiltration of the skin to protect against viral infection and subsequently differentiate into functional CD69+ tissue-residents.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Pele/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/fisiologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/virologia , Feminino , Selectina L/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/fisiologia , Linfonodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pele/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vírus Vaccinia/patogenicidade
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