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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 119-128, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-2 toxin (T-2) is a potent mycotoxin and a common contaminant of aquatic animal feed, posing a serious risk to health and aquatic animals. We investigated the effect of T-2 on shrimp muscle proteins using proteomics and conventional biochemical methods. Shrimp were fed a diet containing T-2 at 0-12.2 mg kg-1 for 20 days, and changes to the muscle protein composition, ATPase activities, and the sulfhydryl (SH) content and hydrophobicity of actomyosin (AM) were determined. A proteomics study of the proteins was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). RESULTS: Exposure to T-2 markedly affected the muscle protein composition of shrimp in a concentration-responsive manner that displayed a diphasic effect. At a low T-2 concentration (1.2 mg kg-1 ), the levels of three major muscle proteins (myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stroma) increased but at higher concentrations they declined progressively. T-2 exposure also led to a breakdown of muscle proteins as evidenced by increases in alkali-soluble protein and the surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) of AM. Thirty differentially expressed proteins were detected, 12 of which showed a concentration-response relationship with T-2 exposure. Among them, 11 homologous proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS), with several being key enzymes in energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that T-2 exposure at medium to high concentrations could significantly affect the protein composition and quality of shrimp muscle, and potentially some of its key metabolisms. One of the arginine kinases (spot 27) was particularly responsive to T-2 and could potentially be used as a biomarker protein for T-2 intoxication by shrimp. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
2.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124759, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518920

RESUMO

Ammonia is an important environmental stress factor in aquaculture. Long-term ammonia stress could affect the normal growth, and also increase the risk for the occurrence of various diseases. In order to learn the mechanism that ammonia caused the outbreak of the shrimp disease, transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to analyze the differential expressions of the genes in hemocytes and different metabolites in the serum of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under ammonia exposure. Transcriptional analysis showed that 17 cell apoptosis related genes, seven phagocytosis related genes, 10 immunity related genes and seven cell cycle and lipid metabolism related genes showed differential expressions after ammonia exposure. Metabolomics analysis on the serum showed that 25 differential metabolites were identified in positive and negative ion patterns. They are involved in purine metabolism, amino acids metabolism and lipid metabolism. Injection of two up-regulated metabolites triethanolamine and oxypurinol to normal shrimp could induce apoptosis in normal shrimp. The total hemocytes counts in shrimp showed a significant decrease and the apoptotic cell ratio increased significantly under ammonia exposure. These results suggested that ammonia exposure increased the apoptosis of hemocytes, which affected the immunity of shrimp, and thus caused susceptibility to pathogenic infection. These data will help us understand the mechanism of ammonia stress leading to the immunity decline of shrimp.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aquicultura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109893, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735370

RESUMO

Cellular and humoral responses were evaluated in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles when exposed to malathion, endosulfan, and their mixture. Each experiment was performed in the hemolymph collected at each exposure time (5 and 96 h) in duplicate; total hemocyte count, coagulation time, hemocyanin concentration, phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. Survival was not affected by pesticides applied individually and mixed. Clotting time did not show significant differences concerning increase of concentration percentage of the pesticides tested. In organisms exposed to the pesticide mixture, hemocyanin decreased at 5 h of exposure as the concentration increased. Only in the malathion experiment did exposed shrimp to 10 and 50% of the LC50-96 h show significantly (p < 0.05) higher hemocyte contents. For malathion, significantly (p < 0.05) lower PO values in shrimp exposed to higher concentrations (10 and 50% of the LC50-96 h) were determined. While for the mixture treatment, high SOD value was determined at high exposure time and concentration. Malathion was the pesticide that showed an effect on some variables even at sublethal concentrations. The Continuous Concentration Criteria of the United States Environmental Protection Agency did not represent effects on the variables when they were compared with the averages of the control group.


Assuntos
Endossulfano/toxicidade , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hemocianinas/sangue , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Penaeidae/imunologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109753, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604159

RESUMO

Nitrite is a common toxic substance in culture systems of Litopenaeus vannamei, and the stress may disturb hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism and result in shrimp death. In the present study, nitrite at concentrations of 0 (control), 3.3 (46.2 NO2-N mg/L), 6.6 (92.4) and 9.9 mM (138.6) was used to evaluate the responses of hemocyanin level and energy metabolism in L. vannamei (5.80 ±â€¯0.44 cm, 1.88 ±â€¯0.38 g) for 96 h. The mortality rate at 96 h increased with nitrite concentration (50% at 9.9 mM, 40% at 6.6 mM, 30% at 3.3 mM, and 10% at 0 mM). In general, HIF-1α and hemocyanin mRNA expression in the nitrite stress groups was upregulated from 6 to 12 h and downregulated from 24 to 96 h. In the hemolymph, nitrite levels were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner, and exposure to nitrite stress significantly decreased the oxyhemocyanin content from 24 to 96 h. The glucose and lactate levels in the hemolymph in the nitrite stress groups were higher than those in the control group from 12 to 96 h. Compared with the control group, the shrimp in the nitrite stress groups exhibited decreased glycogen concentrations in the hepatopancreas. The triglyceride (TG) levels in the nitrite stress groups were all higher than those in the control group from 48 to 96 h. The hexokinase (HK) activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle increased in the nitrite stress groups from 48 to 96 h. In general, nitrite stress enhanced the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle from 24 to 96 h. In addition, nitrite stress decreased the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) from 24 to 96 h in the hepatopancreas and muscle. This study indicates that exposure to nitrite stress can enhance the accumulation of nitrite in the hemolymph and then reduce oxygenation and hemocyanin synthesis, leading to tissue hypoxia and thereby resulting in accelerated anaerobic metabolism and the inhibition of aerobic metabolism. The effects of nitrite stress on hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism may be one of the reasons for the mortality of L. vannamei in culture systems.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocianinas/metabolismo , Nitritos/toxicidade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Aquicultura , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109626, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536848

RESUMO

Of late, Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture has intensified globally and is a major contributor to the cultured shrimp produced worldwide. Intensification of its culture has led to elevated ammonia concentration during grow-out. Ammonia toxicity is a function of water pH, temperature, salinity and beyond the optimum range, creates stress to cultured aquatic species which can reduce growth, increase susceptibility to diseases and eventually mortality. The present study was aimed at quantifying the toxic effect of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (1, 3, 6 & 9 mg/l) and pH levels (6, 8 & 10) individually and in combination on median survival (50% lethal time) of shrimp (8 g) after exposure for 14 days followed by post-stress challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for 9 days. Mortality risk factor and the toxicity effect on the immune variables were evaluated. Individual stressors showed a risk factor of 1-13 times, whereas combined treatments considerably increased the risk of dying compared to control. Low survival (15%) was observed in pH6TAN9 and pH10TAN3 treatments and was substantiated by prominent histological obliteration in gills of shrimp. The cumulative mortality in post-stress WSSV challenged trials was 1-5 times and 1-35 times in individual and combination treatments, respectively compared to control. The study revealed that variations in ammonia and pH beyond the optimal range significantly influence the non-specific immune mechanisms in P.vannamei and increases the susceptibility to WSSV especially in combination treatments.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Estresse Salino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Penaeidae/virologia , Estresse Salino/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 124980, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260963

RESUMO

Effect of phlorotannins (PT) treatments on the ployhenoloxidase (PPO) activity and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp during a 16-day period of storage in ice were studied. Among seaweeds, Sargassum tenerimum had the highest amount of PT (10.00 mg phloroglucinol/g), PPO inhibitory activity (71.94%) and therefore selected for PT extraction. The shrimp treated with 5% PT (w/v) showed the least melanosis score, pH, TVB-N values and lipid oxidation among all treatments throughout the iced storage. Lower counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (1-2 log CFU/g) were obtained with 5% PT treatment compared to the control at the last day of storage (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation proved that 5% PT treatment could cause a 4-days increase in the shelf-life of shrimp compared to the control, PT1% and PT2% treatments. Therefore, 5% phlorotannins from S. tenerimum could be used as a safe melanosis inhibitor for the treatment of shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Penaeidae , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catecol Oxidase/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Gelo , Melanose , Oxirredução , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Sargassum/química , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia
7.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362133

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the enzyme activities and histopathological changes in the post larvae (PL) of shrimp (Penaeus monodon), green mussel (Perna viridis) and fingerlings of crescent perch (Terapon jarbua) exposed to sublethal gradient concentrations of Nickel (Ni). The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 2.49, 66.03 and 43.92 mg Ni L-1 derived for the PL of shrimp, green mussel and fish fingerlings respectively. No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and chronic values of the PL of shrimp were 46.5, 73.0 and 58.3 µg Ni L-1 derived for the 21-d survival endpoint. The NOEC, LOEC and chronic values for the 30-d survival endpoint of the green mussels and fish fingerlings were 4.6, 6.32, 5.4 and 1.95, 2.6, 2.25 mg Ni L-1 respectively. The isoforms of esterase, superoxide dismutase and malate dehydrogenase activities in the whole body tissues of test organisms were studied by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after exposure to Ni. Histological examination of compound eye sections of shrimp revealed deformation, compression, fusion and detachement in the corneal cells from the corneal facet of the ommatidia indicating cellular anomalies due to Ni toxicity. Gill sections of the green mussel witnessed reduced haemolymph in sinuses of gill filaments, degenerative changes in interfilamentous junction and necrosis of frontal ciliated epithelial cells with vacuoles after exposure to Ni. Nickel affects the vision of shrimp and fish fingerlings, gills and byssus of green mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Percas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/enzimologia , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterases/química , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/patologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Níquel/farmacologia , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/enzimologia , Perna (Organismo)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/química
8.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 205-215, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151059

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate and qualify field-based potential risks of seven neonicotinoid and phenylpyrazole (fipronil) insecticides on aquatic invertebrates, including estuary-resident marine crustaceans. One hundred and ninety-three estuarine water samples, with salinity ranging from 0.5 to 32.7, were collected from four estuarine sites in the Seto Inland Sea of Japan, in 2015-2018 and the insecticide levels were measured. Five neonicotinoid and fipronil insecticides were successfully identified, and their occurrence varied temporally. Marine crustaceans were simultaneously harvested every month from one of the estuarine water sampling sites in 2015-2017. Three predominant crustacean species, kuruma prawn (Penaeus japonicus), sand shrimp (Crangon uritai), and mysid (Neomysis awatschensis), were captured and their seasonal presence was species independent. A 96-h laboratory toxicity study with the insecticides using kuruma prawn, sand shrimp, and a surrogate mysid species (Americamysis bahia) indicated that fipronil exerted the highest toxicity to the three crustaceans. Using both toxicity data and insecticide occurrence in estuarine water (salinity ≥10, n = 169), the potential risks on the three marine crustaceans were quantified by calculating the proportion of mixture toxicity effects (Pmix). The Pmix of seven neonicotinoids on the crustaceans was less than 0.8%, which is likely to be too low to indicate adverse effects caused by the insecticides. However, short temporal detection of fipronil (exclusively in June and July) significantly affected the Pmix, which presented the maximal Pmix values of 21%, 3.4%, and 72% for kuruma prawn, sand shrimp, and mysid, respectively, indicating a significant effect on the organisms. As for estuarine water (salinity <10), some water samples contained imidacloprid and fipronil exceeding the freshwater benchmarks for aquatic invertebrates. The present study provides novel insights into the seasonally varying risks of insecticides to estuarine crustaceans and highlights the importance of considering whether ecological risk periods coincide with crustacean presence.


Assuntos
Crangonidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirazóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecologia , Estuários , Água Doce/química , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Japão , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 119-124, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176006

RESUMO

Our previous work showed that Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 has high antibacterial and adhesion activity, and as a probiotic could improve the nutrients and immunomodulatory effects in the Litopenaeus vannamei farming. In order to further investigate the influence of HC-2 surface protein on its probiotic effects, the immune and digestion related genes expression and enzymes activities, the colonization numbers of HC-2, and the histologic characteristics were analysis in shrimp hepatopancreas after feeding either the intact surface proteins, the probiotic treated with lithium chloride (LiCl) to remove noncovalently bound surface proteins or no probiotic for four weeks. The results showed that the immune genes expression of lysozyme, proPO, LGBP, Penaeidins-3α, crustin and C-type lectin, the immune enzymes activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and Alkaline phosphatase, and the digestion enzymes of Trypsin, Lipase and α-Amylase were significantly higher in hepatopancreas of shrimp fed with intact HC-2 than that in shrimp fed with base diet or striped surface proteins HC-2 post feeding and challenge. In addition, the shrimp fed with intact HC-2 leads to the bacteria cells adhesion to hepatopancreas was significantly higher than that in shrimp fed with no surface proteins HC-2. Furthermore, the tissue damages of hepatopancreas caused by pathogenic vibrio were obviously observed in shrimp fed with base diet or no surface proteins HC-2, but no signs of damages were found in shrimp fed with intact HC-2. These results demonstrate that surface proteins are important components for HC-2 to execute probiotic effect that improve hepatopancreas immune response and nutrition digestion to protect shrimp against pathogen damage.


Assuntos
Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus pentosus/química , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Penaeidae/genética , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 230-240, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200069

RESUMO

In this study, we explored the individual and combined effects of ammonia-N and sulfide stress (1 mg/L sulfide and 15 mg/L ammonia-N) on the oxidation resistance, immune response and intestinal health of Litopenaeus vannamei during 72 h exposure. The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT), the immune-relative gene (caspase-3, hsp70 and IMD) expression in hepatopancreas and intestine of L.vannamei and the intestinal microbiota were measured. The result showed that MDA and NO contents in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei in all treatment groups increased and remain were at high levels at the end of the stress exposure. The L. vannamei employ antioxidant defense system by increasing the activities of T-AOC, SOD and CAT enzymes in hepatopancereas and intestine to reduce oxidant damage. More severe damages with combined ammonia-N and sulfide stress to antioxidant systems were observed. The gene expression results also demonstrated that antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei was severely impaired and the apoptosis cell was initiated under the ammonia-N and sulfide stress. In addition, the environmental stress also reshaped the intestinal microbial community structure of L. vannamei that a number of original genera decreased, such as Cellvibrio, Vibrio and Rheinheimera; some new genera increased or appeared, such as Photobacterium in all treatment groups, Arcobacter and Fusibacter in sulfide stress group. Therefore, the health of L. vannamei was severely impacted when exposed to the stress of ammonia nitrogen and sulfide and these two factors can have weak synergic effects.


Assuntos
Amônia/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico
11.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(6): 698-706, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222580

RESUMO

The presence of pesticides has recently been reported in shrimp farms adjacent to agricultural areas on the east coast of the Gulf of California. This study assessed the possible effect of organophosphorus pesticides in the coastal environment of Sinaloa, México, using the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei as a bioindicator since their presence, abundance or behavior indicate some process or state of the system in which they live. Sublethal bioassays were performed on shrimps in intermolt state using commercial brands of organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos (0.0015 mg l-1), diazinon (0.0120 mg l-1), methamidophos (1.207 mg l-1), azinphos-methyl (0.0101 mg l-1), and methyl parathion (0.0075 mg l-1) were tested. Results showed reductions in glycogen, triglycerides, and total protein concentrations in shrimp muscle, except for the diazinon treatments, in which an increase in triglyceride level was detected. The observed alterations in the three cellular components were probably due to the metabolic compensation mechanism of the shrimp in reaction to the stress produced by organophosphorus pesticides, which act as endocrine disruptors. The establishment of continuous environmental monitoring programs of the coastal zone of Northwestern Mexico is strongly recommended.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , México , Penaeidae/metabolismo
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 480-488, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207301

RESUMO

Antibacterial peptides (AMPs) are expected to replace some or all of the antibiotics and become a new feed additive. However, the high production cost and unclear mechanism limited the application of AMPs. In this research, the effects of a commercial polypeptide (Polypeptide S100) whose main components are AMPs on the growth, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbial of Litopenaeus vannamei were study. L. vannamei (initial weight of 0.16 ±â€¯0.03 g) were fed for 123 days with basal diet added Polypeptide S100 at two levels each (0.5% and 1%) as experimental groups, and a basal diet as control. Dietary inclusion of Polypeptide S100 at 1% level significantly increased the weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) of L. vannamei. The survival rates of L. vannamei in 0.5% and 1% Polypeptide S100 groups were significantly higher than the control when infected by Vibrio harveyi but not Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and lysozyme (LZM) in the two experimental groups were all significantly higher than the control. Differently, the activities of amylase (AMS) and lipase (LPS) were significantly higher in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group but lower in 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant phyla in the intestine of L. vannamei were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Fusobacteria and Tenericutes, and the abundance of predominant phyla Cyanobacteria were upregulated significantly in the experimental groups. At the family level, significant increase was observed in Pseudomonadaceae and Xanthomonadaceae but decrease in Vibrionaceae in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group. The abundance of predominant genus Photobacterium were obviously downregulated in the two experimental groups. Unlikely, the abundance of Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas were distinctly increased in the 1.0% Polypeptide S100 group but not significantly different from the control in 0.5% Polypeptide S100 group. All these results suggested that Polypeptide S100 could improve the growth performance, antibacterial immune and intestinal microbiota structure of L. vannamei.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas S100/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas S100/administração & dosagem
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1784-1790, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218686

RESUMO

Freezing and thawing occur during storage, transportation, and retail display, leading to deterioration of frozen shrimp. The objective of this research was to investigate the change in quality of frozen white shrimp treated by lysine and NaHCO3 after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Shrimp were soaked in lysine and lysine/NaHCO3 each at 1% (w/v) frozen in an air-blast freezer at -30 °C, and kept in a chest freezer (-18 ± 2 °C) for a week before they were thawed using tap water before the analysis (freeze-thaw cycle 1). The samples were subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles, which were repeated every week. Qualities of the samples were determined for thawing loss, cutting force, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), as well as oxidation stability by using Rancimat. The use of lysine/NaHCO3 could significantly reduce thawing loss at all freeze-thaw cycles compared to the control and lysine treatment (P < 0.05). Similar results were found with TVB-N and the oxidation stability of the samples. A difference in cutting forces of the shrimp between lysine and lysine/NaHCO3 treatment was found when the frequency of freeze-thawing was increased to three cycles; it was lower than that in the control at all cycles. Histological study showed that the treatment with lysine/NaHCO3 led to the swelling of muscle fibers and fewer fragments at five freeze-thaw cycles. The results showed that lysine/NaHCO3 could effectively retard the quality loss from repeated freeze-thawing during frozen storage. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Repeated freezing and thawing usually occur during storage, transportation, retail display or in restaurants, and in consumers' kitchens. The temperature at the manufacturing site and during transportation in a tropical country like Thailand is relatively high, and frozen food producers come across quality deterioration resulting from multiple freeze-thaw cycles occurring during transportation and storage. Frozen shrimp producers require research to improve product quality by adding nonphosphate food additives or, if possible, by using natural food ingredients instead of polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Lisina/farmacologia , Penaeidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Bicarbonato de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Congelamento , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Qualidade , Tailândia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 708-716, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108304

RESUMO

DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one) is the main component of SeaNine-211, a new antifouling agent that replaces tributyltin to prevent the growth of undesirable organisms on ships. There have been some studies on the toxicity of DCOIT, but the mechanism of DCOIT's toxicity to crustaceans still requires elucidation. This study examined the chronic toxicity (4 weeks) of 0, 3, 15, and 30 µg/L DCOIT to the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the aspects of growth and physiological and histological changes in the hepatopancreas and gills. A transcriptomic analysis was performed on the hepatopancreas to reveal the underlying mechanism of DCOIT in shrimp. The exposure to 30 µg/L DCOIT significantly reduced the survival and weight gain of L. vannamei. High Na+/K+-ATPase activity and melanin deposition were found in the gills after 4 weeks of 15 µg/L or 30 µg/L DCOIT exposure. The highest concentration of DCOIT (30 µg/L) induced changes in hepatopancreatic morphology and metabolism, including high anaerobic respiration and the accumulation of triglycerides. Compared with the exposure to 3 µg/L DCOIT, shrimp exposed to 15 µg/L DCOIT showed more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than those in the control, and these DEGs were involved in biological processes such as starch and sucrose metabolism and choline metabolism in cancer. The findings of this study indicate that L. vannamei is sensitive to the antifouling agent DCOIT and that DCOIT can induce altered gene expression at a concentration of 15 µg/L and can interfere with shrimp metabolism, growth and survival at 30 µg/L.


Assuntos
Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 21(4): 503-514, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111339

RESUMO

Although alginate is known as an immunostimulant in shrimp, the comprehensive and simultaneous study on its activity to resolve the relationship of the hematological parameters, upregulation of immune-related gene expression, and resistance to pathogen has not been found in shrimp. We performed experiments to evaluate the effect and mechanism of alginate from S. siliquosum on Pacific white shrimp immune system. Hematological parameters were examined after oral administration of Na alginate in the shrimp. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was injected to the shrimp at 14 days, and its copy number was examined quantitatively (qRT-PCR). Immune-related gene expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR. Alginate increased some hematological immune parameters of shrimp. Before WSSV infection, expression levels of Toll and lectin genes were upregulated. The lectin gene were upregulated post infection, and the Toll gene in all the treatments were downregulated, except the shrimps fed with alginate at 6.0 g kg-1 at 48 h post infection (hpi). The shrimps fed with alginate at 6.0 g kg-1 were the most resistant and gave the least WSSV copy number at 48 hpi. Resistance of shrimps fed the alginate-supplemented diets against WSSV was significantly higher compared to that of the control treatment with 56% and 10% of survival rates, respectively. Oral administration of alginate did not affect the growth and total protein plasma. At 120 h post challenge, alginate treatment at 6.0 g kg-1 exhibited the highest survival rate. It is concluded that oral administration of alginate enhanced the innate immunity by upregulating immune-related gene expression. Consequently, the enhancement of the shrimp innate immunity improves the resistance against WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sargassum/química , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Alginatos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Transdução de Sinais , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/genética , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/metabolismo
16.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 70: 103193, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103491

RESUMO

Information on toxicity of nitrogen compounds for Litopenaeus vannamei in coastal ecosystems and culture under low salinity is scarce. Acute toxicity trials were conducted in L. vannamei to determine the single and combined effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate at a salinity of 3 g/L. The 96 h-LC50 was 29.0 mg/L for total ammonia nitrogen (TAN); 10.6 mg/L for nitrogen as nitrite (NO2--N); and 900 mg/L for nitrogen as nitrate (NO3--N). The joint effects of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate exposure were antagonistic at 24-72 h; and additive from 72 to 96 h. The proposed safety levels of single exposure to TAN, NO2--N and NO3--N for L. vannamei are 1.45, 0.53 and 45.0 mg/L, respectively. When in mixture, the proposed level of TAN/NO2--N/NO3--N is 0.05 TU (Toxicity Unit) corresponding to 0.48, 0.08 and 14.6 mg/L of TAN, NO2--N and NO3--N, respectively.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Nitratos/toxicidade , Nitritos/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Interações de Medicamentos , Dose Letal Mediana , Salinidade
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 491-500, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121556

RESUMO

Ammonia, one of the major limiting environment factors in aquaculture, may pose a threat to the shrimp growth, reproduction and survival. In this study, to understand molecular differences of transcriptomic and metabolomic responses and investigate the tolerance mechanisms underlying ammonia stress in Litopenaeus vannamei, ammonia-tolerant family (LV-AT) and ammonia-sensitive family (LV-AS) of these two extreme families were exposed to high-concentration (NH4Cl, 46 mg/L) ammonia for 24 h. The comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-treated and control (LV-C) groups revealed involvement of immune defense, cytoskeleton remodeling, antioxidative system and metabolic pathway in ammonia-stress response of L. vannamei. Likewise, metabolomics analysis showed that ammonia exposure could disturb amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and lipid metabolism, with metabolism related-genes changed according to RNA-seq analysis. The comparison of metabolite and transcript profiles between LV-AT and LV-AS indicated that LV-AT used the enhanced glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle strategies for energy supply and ammonia excretion to adapt high-concentration ammonia. Furthermore, some of genes involved in the detoxification and ammonia excretion were highly expressed in LV-AT. We speculate that the higher ability of ammonia excretion and detoxification and the accelerated energy metabolism for energy supplies might be the adaptive strategies for LV-AT relative to LV-AS after ammonia stress. Collectively, the combination of transcriptomics and metabolomics results will greatly contribute to incrementally understand the stress responses on ammonia exposure to L. vannamei and supply molecular level support for evaluating the environmental effects of ammonia on aquatic organisms. The results further constitute new sights on the potential molecular mechanisms of ammonia adaptive strategies in shrimps at the transcriptomics and metabolomics levels.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo
18.
J Fish Dis ; 42(8): 1125-1132, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115066

RESUMO

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), caused by a toxin-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain, has become a serious threat to shrimp aquaculture. The need to regulate antibiotic use prompted the development of alternative ways to treat infections in aquaculture including the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) for passive immunization. This study evaluated the protective effect of IgY against AHPND infection in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). IgY was isolated from eggs laid by hens immunized with recombinant PirA-like (rPirA) and PirB-like (rPirB) toxins. Whole-egg powders having IgY specific to rPirA (anti-PirA-IgY) and rPirB (anti-PirB-IgY) and IgY from non-immunized hen (control-IgY) were mixed with basal diets at 20% concentrations and used to prefeed shrimp 3 days before the bacterial challenge test. Survival rates of the challenged shrimp fed the anti-PirA-IgY, anti-PirB-IgY and control-IgY diets were 86%, 14% and 0%, respectively. Only the feed containing anti-PirA-IgY protected shrimp against AHPND. Increasing the concentration of rPirA antigen to immunize hens and lowering the amount of egg powder in feeds to 10% consistently showed higher survival rates in shrimp fed with anti-PirA-IgY (87%) compared with the control (12%). These results confirm that addition of anti-PirA-IgY in feeds could be an effective prophylactic method against AHPND infection in shrimp.


Assuntos
Imunização Passiva , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Galinhas , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Vacinação , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 248-256, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951852

RESUMO

The effect of acute ammonia challenge on survival, immune response and antioxidant status of Litopenaeus vannamei pretreated with diets containing different inositol levels was investigated. Shrimp (initial mean weight 0.40 ±â€¯0.00 g) were randomly allocated in 18 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet without myo-inositol (MI) supplementation (242.6 mg inositol kg-1 diet) or diets containing diverse levels of inositol (368.8, 459.7, 673.1, 993.8 and 1674.4  mg kg-1 diet) as treatment groups for 8-week. Randomly selected 10 shrimp per tank (final mean weight approximately 11.1-13.8g) were exposed to ammonia stress (total ammonia-nitrogen, 60.21  mg L-1) for 24 h after feeding trial. The results showed that after exposed to ammonia stress, survival rates of MI-supplemented groups were enhanced by 31-77% when compared with the control group. MI supplementation increased activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in plasma, and reduced its activities in hepatopancreas. It also enhanced activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and content of reduced glutathione (GSH), and lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) content in plasma or hepatopancreas. In addition, mRNA expression levels of ferritin (FT), arginine kinase (AK), thioredoxin (Trx), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), catalase (CAT) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) were significantly differentially regulated in hepatopancreas owing to MI supplementation. Therefore, it suggested that L. vannamei pretreated with higher dietary inositol content may have better ammonia stress tolerance and antioxidant status after ammonia stress, and the optimum levels ranged from 459.7 to 993.8 mg inositol kg-1 when total ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 60.21  mg L-1.


Assuntos
Amônia/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/farmacologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954687

RESUMO

Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (9.38 ±â€¯0.17 cm, 10.08 ±â€¯0.35 g), with different ammonia-N tolerances were exposed to NH3 (1.61 mg/L) for 192 h, and the levels of key enzymes and biochemical substances involved in energy metabolism were compared to assess the role of the regulation of energy metabolism on the shrimp's adaptation to ammonia-N stress. Higher ammonia-N tolerance in the shrimp (Tolerance group) was achieved through nutritional fortification, whereas shrimp that were not nutritionally fortified comprised the Control group. The mortality rates in the Control and Tolerance groups at the end of the period of ammonia-N stress exposure were 64.44% and 40.00%, respectively. Within 1 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress, the glucose concentration in both groups declined rapidly, and no significant difference was detected between the two groups. In general, the triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the Control group were higher than those in the Tolerance group, and accumulations and/or fluctuations in these metabolites to varying degrees were observed. The Tolerance group presented higher phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity compared with the Control group from 1 to 48 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress, whereas the opposite result was observed from 96 to 192 h. Similarly, during exposure to ammonia-N stress, the Tolerance group showed higher and lower lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity than the Control group from 1 to 24 h and from 48 to 92 h, respectively. In addition, compared with the Control group, the shrimp in the Tolerance group exhibited higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, especially from 48 to 192 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress. The results of this study suggest that anaerobic carbohydrate (in the early stage) and aerobic metabolism (in the late stage) plays an important role in the shrimp's response to ammonia-N stress. In addition, maintenance of the normal operation of lipid metabolism is equally important for improving the tolerance of L. vannamei to ammonia-N stress.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Amônia/química , Animais , Estresse Fisiológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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