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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111698, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396029

RESUMO

Tricothecenes-2 toxin (T-2) is a major mycotoxin that is widely distributed in aquatic feeds and poses a huge challenge to the aquatic industry, but there is scant information on the toxicokinetics of T-2 in aquatic animals. Here, we describe the development of a three-compartment toxicokinetic model for the absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination (ADME) of T-2 in shrimp. The three compartments were central (the hemolymph), slow metabolizing and fast metabolizing compartments to account for the varying ADME rates of T-2 in different shrimp organs. The toxicokinetic model was solved by the blindfold particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the values for the model equation parameters were obtained by applying the experimental data of T-2 concentrations in shrimp. The model had a good fit with the experimental data. It was revealed through the model that after i.m. administration, T-2 was rapidly absorbed into the hemolymph and distributed into shrimp organs. The hepatopancreas and intestine belonged to the fast and muscle to the slow metabolizing compartments, respectively, while the hemolymph had no capacity to metabolize T-2. The T-2 elimination rates in the hepatopancreas and intestine were similar and quite high while that in the muscle was very low. The methods used in developing and solving the model could be used for similar toxicokinetic and pharmacokinetic studies of other animals.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Toxina T-2/farmacocinética , Adsorção , Animais , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Distribuição Tecidual , Toxicocinética
2.
Gene ; 763: 145115, 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891773

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) is a crucial neuroendocrine-immune factor regulating the stress response of Litopenaeus vannamei. To understand the regulatory mechanisms of DA in L. vannamei, the eyestalks of L. vannamei with injection of DA (10-6 mol/shrimp) at 3 and 12 h were chosen to perform transcriptome analysis in this study. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) method was used to validate the accuracy of transcriptome data and analyze the expression pattern of candidate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at different time points (0, 3, 6, and 12 h) after DA injection. The transcriptome data showed that 79,434 unigenes were generated. Therein 204 and 434 DEGs were obtained at 3 and 12 h respectively. Besides, the results of enriched pathways showed that the DEGs were involved in GnRH signaling pathway (ko04912) dopaminergic synapse (ko04728), glutamatergic synapse (ko04724), synapse (GO:0045202), synaptic vesicle transport (GO:0048489). Moreover, the Pearson's correlation coefficient (R) of 13 candidate DEGs between transcriptome sequencing and RT-PCR was 0.948, which confirmed the reliability and the accuracy of the transcriptome sequencing results. Furthermore, the results of interaction analysis uncovered 4 pairs of DEGs between eyestalks and hemocytes. Therefore, these results revealed that DA promoted the sensitivity of eyestalk to gonadal related hormones, induced the expression of neuroendocrine factor, enhanced the synaptic behavior and neural signal transduction, regulated immune systems and antioxidation, inhibited the visual function, and promoted the molting. These findings will benefit to foster the understanding on the effects of biogenic amines on neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) networks of crustacean, and supply a substantial material and foundation for further researching of the NEI response.


Assuntos
Dopamina/metabolismo , Hormônios/metabolismo , Penaeidae/genética , Transmissão Sináptica , Transcriptoma , Animais , Dopamina/farmacologia , Olho/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 2/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282847

RESUMO

Shrimps can be used as indicators of the quality of aquatic systems exposed to a variety of pollutants. Chlorpyrifos is one of the most common pesticides found in environmental samples. In order to evaluate the effects of chlorpyrifos, adult organisms of Litopenaeus vannamei were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of the pesticide (0.7 and 1.3 µg/L) for four days. The LC50 (96-hours) value was determined and Lipid oxidation levels (LPO) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathion peroxidase (GPx), glutathion-S-transferase (GST) were assessed on the muscle, hepatopancreas and gills from the exposed organisms. In addition, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was determined in the brain. LC50 (96-hours) was 2.10 µg/L of chlorpyrifos. Catalase activity and LPO were elevated in the three tissues, whereas a decrease of AChE activities in the brain and an increase of GST activity in the hepatopancreas were observed.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Penaeidae/enzimologia
4.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(1): 45-59, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630605

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary supplements on stress, immune response, gut microbiota, growth, and survivability of three different treatment groups of Pacific white shrimp, Litopaneous vennamei, cultured in a recirculating system. The experiment was conducted over a 35-day trial period. Shrimps were fed diets, 15 times a day using automated feeder, supplemented with GOS at 0%, 0.15%, and 0.30% by weight. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the enteric microbial community of shrimp fed the basal diet differed markedly (<80.0% similarity coefficient) from those fed FOS-supplemented diets. However, shrimp survival, weight gain, and immune responses among the treatment groups were good but not significantly different (P > 0.05), probably due to the limited length of the feeding trial.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/imunologia
5.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 102: 103473, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437524

RESUMO

Dopamine (DA) is an important neuroendocrine factor, which can act as neurotransmitter and neurohormone. In this study, we explored the immune defense mechanism in Litopenaeus vannamei with injection of dopamine at 10-7 and 10-6 mol shrimp-1, respectively. The genes expressions of dopamine receptor (DAR), G proteins (Gs, Gi, Gq), phagocytosis and exocytosis-related proteins, as well as intracellular signaling pathway factors, and immune defense parameters were measured. Results showed that mRNA expression levels of dopamine receptor D4 (D4), Gi, nuclear transcription factors and exocytosis-related proteins decreased significantly and reached the minimum at 3 h, while the genes expressions of Gs, Gq and phagocytosis-related proteins reached the highest and lowest levels at 3 h and 6 h, respectively. The second messenger synthetases increased significantly in treatment groups within 3 h. Simultaneously, the second messengers and protein kinases shared a similar trend, which were significantly elevated and reached the peak value at 3 h. Ultimately lead to the total hemocyte count (THC), proPO activity and phagocytic activity decreased significantly, reaching minimum values at 3 h, 3 h and 6 h, respectively. While PO activity showed obvious peak changes, which maximum value reached at 3 h. These results suggested that DA receptor could couple with G protein after DA injection and might regulate immunity through cAMP-PKA, DAG-PKC or CaM pathway.


Assuntos
Dopamina/farmacologia , Exocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Exocitose/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemócitos/patologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Fagocitose/genética , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
6.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 119-128, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-2 toxin (T-2) is a potent mycotoxin and a common contaminant of aquatic animal feed, posing a serious risk to health and aquatic animals. We investigated the effect of T-2 on shrimp muscle proteins using proteomics and conventional biochemical methods. Shrimp were fed a diet containing T-2 at 0-12.2 mg kg-1 for 20 days, and changes to the muscle protein composition, ATPase activities, and the sulfhydryl (SH) content and hydrophobicity of actomyosin (AM) were determined. A proteomics study of the proteins was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). RESULTS: Exposure to T-2 markedly affected the muscle protein composition of shrimp in a concentration-responsive manner that displayed a diphasic effect. At a low T-2 concentration (1.2 mg kg-1 ), the levels of three major muscle proteins (myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stroma) increased but at higher concentrations they declined progressively. T-2 exposure also led to a breakdown of muscle proteins as evidenced by increases in alkali-soluble protein and the surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) of AM. Thirty differentially expressed proteins were detected, 12 of which showed a concentration-response relationship with T-2 exposure. Among them, 11 homologous proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS), with several being key enzymes in energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that T-2 exposure at medium to high concentrations could significantly affect the protein composition and quality of shrimp muscle, and potentially some of its key metabolisms. One of the arginine kinases (spot 27) was particularly responsive to T-2 and could potentially be used as a biomarker protein for T-2 intoxication by shrimp. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109893, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735370

RESUMO

Cellular and humoral responses were evaluated in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles when exposed to malathion, endosulfan, and their mixture. Each experiment was performed in the hemolymph collected at each exposure time (5 and 96 h) in duplicate; total hemocyte count, coagulation time, hemocyanin concentration, phenoloxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. Survival was not affected by pesticides applied individually and mixed. Clotting time did not show significant differences concerning increase of concentration percentage of the pesticides tested. In organisms exposed to the pesticide mixture, hemocyanin decreased at 5 h of exposure as the concentration increased. Only in the malathion experiment did exposed shrimp to 10 and 50% of the LC50-96 h show significantly (p < 0.05) higher hemocyte contents. For malathion, significantly (p < 0.05) lower PO values in shrimp exposed to higher concentrations (10 and 50% of the LC50-96 h) were determined. While for the mixture treatment, high SOD value was determined at high exposure time and concentration. Malathion was the pesticide that showed an effect on some variables even at sublethal concentrations. The Continuous Concentration Criteria of the United States Environmental Protection Agency did not represent effects on the variables when they were compared with the averages of the control group.


Assuntos
Endossulfano/toxicidade , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Malation/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Hemocianinas/sangue , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/imunologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/imunologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Penaeidae/imunologia
8.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124759, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518920

RESUMO

Ammonia is an important environmental stress factor in aquaculture. Long-term ammonia stress could affect the normal growth, and also increase the risk for the occurrence of various diseases. In order to learn the mechanism that ammonia caused the outbreak of the shrimp disease, transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to analyze the differential expressions of the genes in hemocytes and different metabolites in the serum of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under ammonia exposure. Transcriptional analysis showed that 17 cell apoptosis related genes, seven phagocytosis related genes, 10 immunity related genes and seven cell cycle and lipid metabolism related genes showed differential expressions after ammonia exposure. Metabolomics analysis on the serum showed that 25 differential metabolites were identified in positive and negative ion patterns. They are involved in purine metabolism, amino acids metabolism and lipid metabolism. Injection of two up-regulated metabolites triethanolamine and oxypurinol to normal shrimp could induce apoptosis in normal shrimp. The total hemocytes counts in shrimp showed a significant decrease and the apoptotic cell ratio increased significantly under ammonia exposure. These results suggested that ammonia exposure increased the apoptosis of hemocytes, which affected the immunity of shrimp, and thus caused susceptibility to pathogenic infection. These data will help us understand the mechanism of ammonia stress leading to the immunity decline of shrimp.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aquicultura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 670-678, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689553

RESUMO

Palytoxins (PLTXs) are a group of complex and poisonous marine natural products that are toxic to marine life and even human beings. In the present study, the oxidative stress and immune response in the hepatopancreas and gills of Litopenaeus vannamei were assessed for 72 h after injection with PLTX extracts. Chemical and physiological parameters, e.g., the respiratory burst (O2-), activities of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative damage to lipids, carbonylation of proteins, and immune gene mRNA expression levels, were analysed. The results showed that the PLTX extract was not fatal to the shrimp but could reduce their mobility. The O2- levels in the gills gradually increased after exposure to PLTX extracts and were significantly higher than those in the control from 6 to 72 h. The malondialdehyde content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl levels, and total antioxidant capacity in the gills all peaked at 12 h. At the same time, the gills were loosely connected, there was a clear disintegration of the epithelial tissue, and the stratum corneum disappeared after 12 h. In addition, compared to those in the control group, the PLTX extract treatment increased the O2- content, malondialdehyde content, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl levels from 12 to 72 h, 24-48 h, 12-24 h, and 12-72 h after injection in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp, respectively. Both the Crustin and Toll gene expression levels significantly increased in the hepatopancreas compared to those in the control 6-72 h after injection of the toxin. In parallel, the expression levels of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene gradually decreased from 6 to 48 h and returned to normal levels after 72 h. Interestingly, the total antioxidant capacity also significantly increased compared to that in the control from 6 to 72 h. Our results indicate that although PLTX extracts cause lipid peroxidation and carbonylation of proteins in hepatopancreatic cells, leading to their damage, they did not cause a decrease in the total antioxidant capacity of the hepatopancreas.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/administração & dosagem , Venenos de Cnidários/administração & dosagem , Dinoflagelados/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Acrilamidas/química , Animais , Venenos de Cnidários/química , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento , Oxirredução
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 368-382, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678533

RESUMO

Our previous work showed that using Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 as a probiotic could improve the growth performance, immune response, gut bacterial diversity and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. However, the probiotic mechanism had not been fully characterized. In the present study, histology and proteomic analysis were performed to explore the influence of HC-2 surface protein on its probiotic effects on L. vannamei after feeding either the intact surface proteins, the probiotic treated with lithium chloride (LiCl) to remove noncovalently bound surface proteins or no probiotic for four weeks. Histological observation found that feeding with normal HC-2 obviously improved the intestinal histology and enhanced the protective effect against pathogen damage, but feeding with LiCl-treated HC-2 did not improve the intestinal environment. A total of over 2764 peptides and 1118 uniproteins were identified from the L. vannamei midgut; 211 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in the normal HC-2 group compared with the control group; 510 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in the LiCl-treated HC-2 group compared with the control group, and 458 proteins were significantly differentially expressed in the LiCl-treated HC-2 group compared with the normal HC-2 group. GO/KEGG enrichment analysis of the significantly different proteins demonstrated that feeding normal HC-2 mainly induced immune response, metabolic, cell adhesion and cell-cell signaling-related protein upregulation, which contributed to bacterial adhesion and colonization in the midgut to improve the shrimp immune system and growth, but these proteins were suppressed after the shrimp were fed bacteria deprived of surface proteins. Taken together, these results indicate that the surface proteins were indispensable for HC-2 to execute probiotic effects in the shrimp midgut.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Peixes , Lactobacillus pentosus/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Membrana/fisiologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Proteoma , Vibrioses/imunologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/imunologia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 186: 109753, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604159

RESUMO

Nitrite is a common toxic substance in culture systems of Litopenaeus vannamei, and the stress may disturb hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism and result in shrimp death. In the present study, nitrite at concentrations of 0 (control), 3.3 (46.2 NO2-N mg/L), 6.6 (92.4) and 9.9 mM (138.6) was used to evaluate the responses of hemocyanin level and energy metabolism in L. vannamei (5.80 ±â€¯0.44 cm, 1.88 ±â€¯0.38 g) for 96 h. The mortality rate at 96 h increased with nitrite concentration (50% at 9.9 mM, 40% at 6.6 mM, 30% at 3.3 mM, and 10% at 0 mM). In general, HIF-1α and hemocyanin mRNA expression in the nitrite stress groups was upregulated from 6 to 12 h and downregulated from 24 to 96 h. In the hemolymph, nitrite levels were significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner, and exposure to nitrite stress significantly decreased the oxyhemocyanin content from 24 to 96 h. The glucose and lactate levels in the hemolymph in the nitrite stress groups were higher than those in the control group from 12 to 96 h. Compared with the control group, the shrimp in the nitrite stress groups exhibited decreased glycogen concentrations in the hepatopancreas. The triglyceride (TG) levels in the nitrite stress groups were all higher than those in the control group from 48 to 96 h. The hexokinase (HK) activity in the hepatopancreas and muscle increased in the nitrite stress groups from 48 to 96 h. In general, nitrite stress enhanced the activities of pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle from 24 to 96 h. In addition, nitrite stress decreased the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) from 24 to 96 h in the hepatopancreas and muscle. This study indicates that exposure to nitrite stress can enhance the accumulation of nitrite in the hemolymph and then reduce oxygenation and hemocyanin synthesis, leading to tissue hypoxia and thereby resulting in accelerated anaerobic metabolism and the inhibition of aerobic metabolism. The effects of nitrite stress on hemocyanin synthesis and energy metabolism may be one of the reasons for the mortality of L. vannamei in culture systems.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocianinas/metabolismo , Nitritos/toxicidade , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Aquicultura , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Alimentos Marinhos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 175-189, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499198

RESUMO

Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), a serious disease caused by some Vibrio spp., impacts the Pacific white shrimp industry worldwide, especially in Thailand. To effectively overcome this problem, efficacious probiotic candidates were isolated from shrimp farms near coastal areas. The isolated Bacillus probiotics were screened for their ability to control pathogenic Vibrio spp. and various V. parahaemolyticus AHPND (VPAHPND) strains. Among the obtained probiotics, Bacillus subtilis AQAHBS001, which broadly inhibited various strains of VPAHPND, was evaluated on a laboratory scale in water-soluble and feed applications of viable probiotic. The water addition of 1 × 103-1 × 105 CFU/mL of this probiotic effectively reduced total ammonia but did not improve shrimp growth and resistance to VPAHPND. However, feed supplemented with the selected probiotic at 1 × 107 and 1 × 109 CFU/kg diet and provided to shrimp continuously for 5 weeks efficiently improved growth, as indicated by significant final weight gain, average daily growth, specific growth rates and feed conversion ratios. Additionally, this probiotic significantly elevated immune responses through phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency and enhanced the expression of the prophenoloxidase, lysozyme, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor genes. Furthermore, B. subtilis AQAHBS001 obviously improved midgut characteristics by increasing microvilli and intestinal wall thickness. Finally, this probiotic evidently improved resistance to VPAHPND.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Qualidade da Água
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13175, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511616

RESUMO

T-2 toxin (T-2), a naturally occurring mycotoxin that often accumulates in aquatic animals via contaminated feed, is toxic to animals, including humans. In this study, six groups of shrimp (n = 30 shrimps/group) were given T-2 in feed at concentrations of 0-12.2 mg/kg for 20 days. T-2 accumulation, intestinal histopathology, digestive enzyme activities and subsequent effects on shrimp are reported. Compared to the control, T-2 significantly reduced weight gain, specific growth rate, and survival. The histopathology of shrimp intestine showed concentration-dependent degenerative and necrotic changes in response to dietary T-2. Progressive damage to the microstructures of shrimp intestine occurred with increasing dietary T-2 concentrations, with initial inflammation of the mucosal tissue at T-2 concentrations of 0.5 and 1.2 mg/kg, progressing to disappearance of intestinal villi and degeneration and necrosis of the submucosa at 12.2 mg/kg. Intestinal amylase and protease activities increased at low T-2 concentrations but showed significant inhibition at high concentrations; however, the opposite trend occurred for lipase activity. Collectively, these results indicate that digestive enzyme activities and mucosal structures are markedly affected by exposure to T-2, and these may have contributed to the lower survival rate of shrimp.


Assuntos
Amilases/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Animais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/patologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109626, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536848

RESUMO

Of late, Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture has intensified globally and is a major contributor to the cultured shrimp produced worldwide. Intensification of its culture has led to elevated ammonia concentration during grow-out. Ammonia toxicity is a function of water pH, temperature, salinity and beyond the optimum range, creates stress to cultured aquatic species which can reduce growth, increase susceptibility to diseases and eventually mortality. The present study was aimed at quantifying the toxic effect of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (1, 3, 6 & 9 mg/l) and pH levels (6, 8 & 10) individually and in combination on median survival (50% lethal time) of shrimp (8 g) after exposure for 14 days followed by post-stress challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) for 9 days. Mortality risk factor and the toxicity effect on the immune variables were evaluated. Individual stressors showed a risk factor of 1-13 times, whereas combined treatments considerably increased the risk of dying compared to control. Low survival (15%) was observed in pH6TAN9 and pH10TAN3 treatments and was substantiated by prominent histological obliteration in gills of shrimp. The cumulative mortality in post-stress WSSV challenged trials was 1-5 times and 1-35 times in individual and combination treatments, respectively compared to control. The study revealed that variations in ammonia and pH beyond the optimal range significantly influence the non-specific immune mechanisms in P.vannamei and increases the susceptibility to WSSV especially in combination treatments.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Estresse Salino , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Compostos de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Penaeidae/virologia , Estresse Salino/imunologia , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 90-98, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470138

RESUMO

Live food organisms like Artemia have been used for delivery of different substances such as nutrients, probiotics and immune-stimulants to aquatic animals. Previously, we reported that sulfated galactans (SG) from the red seaweed Gracilaria fisheri (G. fisheri) increased immune activity in shrimp. In the present study we further investigated the capacity and efficiency of bioencapsulation of SG in adult Artemia for delivery to tissues and potentially boosting the expression of immune genes in post larvae shrimp. SG were labelled with FITC (FITC-SG) for in vivo tracking in shrimp. Bioencapsulation of adult Artemia with FITC-SG (0-100 µg mL-1) was performed and the fluorescence intensity was detected in the gut lumen after enrichment periods of 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h. The results showed the Artemia took up SG over time in a concentration-dependent manner. Shrimp were fed with the bioencapsulated Artemia (FITC-SG, 20 µg mL-1) and the shrimp were evaluated under a stereo-fluorescent microscope. At 24 h after administration, FITC-SG was located in gills and hepatopancreas and also bound with haemocytes. With daily SG administration, the genes IMD, IKKß were up-regulated (after 1 day) while genes dicer and proPO-I were up-regulated later (after 7 days). Moreover, continued monitoring of shrimp fed for 3 consecutive days only with SG at the dose of 0.5 mg g-1 BW showed increases in the expression of IMD, IKKß genes on day 1 and which gradually declined to normal levels on day 14, while the expression of dicer and proPO-I was increased on day 3 and remained high on day 14. These results demonstrate that bioencapsulation of SG in adult Artemia successfully delivers SG to shrimp tissues, which then bind with haemocytes and subsequently activate immune genes, and potentially increase immunity in shrimp. In addition, the present study suggests that a 3-consecutive-day regimen of SG supplemented in Artemia (0.5 mg g-1 BW) may boost and sustain the enhanced immune functions in post larvae shrimp.


Assuntos
Artemia/química , Galactanos/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/imunologia , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Larva/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
16.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(8): 964-972, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414340

RESUMO

Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are a group of chemical pollutants which cause a significant threat to the living organisms in estuaries and marine ecosystems. We report the effect of chrysene, a major PAH pollutant found in Cochin Estuary along the southwest coast of India, on the neuroendocrine and immune gene expression of the post larvae (PL-25) of Penaeus monodon. The PL- 25 of P. monodon were administered with feed coated with increasing concentrations of chrysene (1, 2 and 3 µg/g) for 10 days and the gene expression was studied on 7th, 11th and 15th day. The PL exposed to chrysene showed moulting stress and changes in the levels of moult-inhibiting hormone I (MIH I) indicated by irregular moulting in the experimental tanks. At the molecular level, the higher concentration of chrysene induced two-fold upregulation of neuroendocrine (MIH I) and downregulation of immune (ProPO and crustin) gene on the 7th day of exposure. The expression of MIH I gene reduced on withdrawing the experimental feed (on 11th day), while continued downregulation of ProPO and crustin were observed on the 11th day. The results of the present study indicate that the microgram levels of PAH can impinge the neuroendocrine and immune system of the P. monodon, which may induce morbidity and mortality to the larvae in polluted coastal ecosystems. Therefore, more attention may be given to avoid PAH pollution in the estuaries to maintain a healthy ecosystem and to protect the animals from extinction.


Assuntos
Crisenos/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Neurotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Sistemas Neurossecretores/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 139: 688-696, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376450

RESUMO

ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized using haemocyanin (Hc-ZnONPs) purified from haemolymph of Penaeus semisulcatus were characterized using various techniques. HR-TEM and SEM microscopy indicated Hc-ZnONPs had a typical size of 20-50 nm and were spherical. The objective of current investigation was to assess the effects of dietary supplementation of Hc-ZnONPs on the development and activity of digestive and metabolic enzymes, as well as the antioxidant levels in P. semisulcatus. Trial basal diets were supplemented with Hc-ZnONPs at rates of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg kg-1 (dry feed weight) and were fed to P. semisulcatus for 30 d. For 60 mg kg-1 Hc-ZnONPs-supplemented feed, significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced endurance, development, and activity of the digestive enzyme were observed. The enzymatic antioxidants and metabolic enzymes activities in the muscle exhibited no significant changes when 10-60 mg kg-1 Hc-ZnONPs-supplemented feed was fed to P. semisulcatus. Conversely, feeding the P. semisulcatus with 80 mg kg-1 Hc-ZnONPs produced a harmful outcome, with significant increase in the enzymatic antioxidants and metabolic enzymes. Consequently, 80 mg kg-1 Hc-ZnONPs was identified as lethal to P. semisulcatus. Hence, it is proposed that the diet of P. semisulcatus can be supplemented with up to 60 mg kg-1 Hc-ZnONPs for improving the endurance, development and immunity.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemocianinas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Óxido de Zinco/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Conformação Proteica , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
18.
Food Chem ; 298: 124980, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260963

RESUMO

Effect of phlorotannins (PT) treatments on the ployhenoloxidase (PPO) activity and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp during a 16-day period of storage in ice were studied. Among seaweeds, Sargassum tenerimum had the highest amount of PT (10.00 mg phloroglucinol/g), PPO inhibitory activity (71.94%) and therefore selected for PT extraction. The shrimp treated with 5% PT (w/v) showed the least melanosis score, pH, TVB-N values and lipid oxidation among all treatments throughout the iced storage. Lower counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (1-2 log CFU/g) were obtained with 5% PT treatment compared to the control at the last day of storage (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation proved that 5% PT treatment could cause a 4-days increase in the shelf-life of shrimp compared to the control, PT1% and PT2% treatments. Therefore, 5% phlorotannins from S. tenerimum could be used as a safe melanosis inhibitor for the treatment of shrimp.


Assuntos
Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Penaeidae , Floroglucinol/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Catecol Oxidase/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Gelo , Melanose , Oxirredução , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Sargassum/química , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia
19.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 15)2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266778

RESUMO

The transport of ions and ammonia in gills may be regulated by neuroendocrine factors. In order to explore the mechanism of dopamine (DA) regulation, we investigated hemolymph neuroendocrine hormones, gill intracellular signaling pathways, ion and ammonia transporters, hemolymph osmolality and ammonia concentration in Litopenaeus vannamei after injection of 10-7 and 10-6 mol DA per shrimp. The data showed a significant increase in crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) concentration at 1-12 h and a transient significant decrease in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentration under DA stimulation. The up-regulation of guanylyl cyclase (GC) mRNA, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and protein kinase G (PKG) concentration, together with the down-regulation of DA receptor D4 mRNA and up-regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), diacylglycerol (DAG) and protein kinase C (PKC) concentration suggested the activation of complicated intracellular signaling pathways. The expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), FXYD2 and 14-3-3 protein mRNA was significantly increased by PKA regulation. The increase in Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and the stabilization of V-type H+-ATPase (V-rATPase) activity were accompanied by an up-regulation of K+ channel, Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC), Rh protein and vesicle associated membrane protein (VAMP) mRNA, resulting in an increase in hemolymph osmolality and a decrease in hemolymph ammonia concentration. These results suggest that DA stimulates the secretion of CHH and inhibits the release of cortisol, which activates intracellular signaling factors to facilitate ion and ammonia transport across the gills, and may not affect intracellular acidification.


Assuntos
Dopamina/farmacologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemolinfa/química , Hormônios de Invertebrado/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , ATPases Vacuolares Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo
20.
Chemosphere ; 237: 124428, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362133

RESUMO

The present study evaluates the enzyme activities and histopathological changes in the post larvae (PL) of shrimp (Penaeus monodon), green mussel (Perna viridis) and fingerlings of crescent perch (Terapon jarbua) exposed to sublethal gradient concentrations of Nickel (Ni). The median lethal concentration (LC50) values were 2.49, 66.03 and 43.92 mg Ni L-1 derived for the PL of shrimp, green mussel and fish fingerlings respectively. No Observed Effect Concentration (NOEC), Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC) and chronic values of the PL of shrimp were 46.5, 73.0 and 58.3 µg Ni L-1 derived for the 21-d survival endpoint. The NOEC, LOEC and chronic values for the 30-d survival endpoint of the green mussels and fish fingerlings were 4.6, 6.32, 5.4 and 1.95, 2.6, 2.25 mg Ni L-1 respectively. The isoforms of esterase, superoxide dismutase and malate dehydrogenase activities in the whole body tissues of test organisms were studied by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after exposure to Ni. Histological examination of compound eye sections of shrimp revealed deformation, compression, fusion and detachement in the corneal cells from the corneal facet of the ommatidia indicating cellular anomalies due to Ni toxicity. Gill sections of the green mussel witnessed reduced haemolymph in sinuses of gill filaments, degenerative changes in interfilamentous junction and necrosis of frontal ciliated epithelial cells with vacuoles after exposure to Ni. Nickel affects the vision of shrimp and fish fingerlings, gills and byssus of green mussels.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Níquel/toxicidade , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Percas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Bivalves/enzimologia , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esterases/química , Olho/efeitos dos fármacos , Olho/patologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Níquel/farmacologia , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perna (Organismo)/enzimologia , Perna (Organismo)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superóxido Dismutase/química
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