Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 317
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124759, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518920

RESUMO

Ammonia is an important environmental stress factor in aquaculture. Long-term ammonia stress could affect the normal growth, and also increase the risk for the occurrence of various diseases. In order to learn the mechanism that ammonia caused the outbreak of the shrimp disease, transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches were used to analyze the differential expressions of the genes in hemocytes and different metabolites in the serum of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under ammonia exposure. Transcriptional analysis showed that 17 cell apoptosis related genes, seven phagocytosis related genes, 10 immunity related genes and seven cell cycle and lipid metabolism related genes showed differential expressions after ammonia exposure. Metabolomics analysis on the serum showed that 25 differential metabolites were identified in positive and negative ion patterns. They are involved in purine metabolism, amino acids metabolism and lipid metabolism. Injection of two up-regulated metabolites triethanolamine and oxypurinol to normal shrimp could induce apoptosis in normal shrimp. The total hemocytes counts in shrimp showed a significant decrease and the apoptotic cell ratio increased significantly under ammonia exposure. These results suggested that ammonia exposure increased the apoptosis of hemocytes, which affected the immunity of shrimp, and thus caused susceptibility to pathogenic infection. These data will help us understand the mechanism of ammonia stress leading to the immunity decline of shrimp.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Aquicultura , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 380-386, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374312

RESUMO

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a serious epidemic pathogen of crustaceans and cause severe economic losses to aquaculture. However, no commercial drugs presently available to control WSSV infection. Genipin (GN) is a bioactive compound extracted from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides and exhibits potential antiviral activity. In the study, the antiviral activity of GN against WSSV was investigated in crayfish Procambarus clarkii and in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In vitro antiviral test showed that GN could inhibit WSSV replication in crayfish and in shrimp, and the highest inhibition on WSSV was over 99% when treatment with 50 mg/kg of GN for 24 h. In vivo antiviral test proved that GN could be used to treat and prevent WSSV infection. GN could also effectively protect crayfish from WSSV infection by reducing the mortality rate of WSSV-infected crayfish. Moreover, GN attenuated the WSSV-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory by upregulation the expression of antioxidant-related genes and downregulation the expression of inflammatory-related genes, respectively. Mechanically, GN inhibited WSSV replication at least via decreasing STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) gene expression to block WSSV immediate-early gene ie1 transcription. Additionally, the inhibition of BI-1 (Bax inhibitor-1) gene expression also played an important role in the suppression of WSSV infection. In conclusion, GN represented a potential therapeutic and preventive agent to block WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astacoidea/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Penaeidae/virologia , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
Food Chem ; 299: 125121, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310915

RESUMO

White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised in low-salinity farm are considered inferior to those in seawater. In order to develop a rapid discrimination method for the food industry, we investigated the potential of using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging to discriminate shrimp muscle samples from freshwater and seawater farms. We constructed 3 different discrimination models with 4 optimal wavelength selection methods and compared the performance of each model. The results showed that sequential forward selection combined with partial least squares discriminant analysis (SFS-PLS-DA) generated the best discrimination performance with an overall accuracy of 99.2%. The elemental and isotopic analysis indicated a high correlation between 918 and 925 nm region (which was selected by SFS) and 13C concentration. This agrees with the fact that there is more 13C in shrimp of salty water compared to those of freshwater. The results demonstrated (hyperspectral imaging) HSI is promising to discriminate L. vannamei raised in fresh and seawater environments.


Assuntos
Penaeidae/fisiologia , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Fazendas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Salinidade , Água do Mar
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 861-870, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276791

RESUMO

Kuruma shrimp, a major farmed shrimp species in the world, includes two cryptic or sibling species, Form I (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and Form II (Marsupenaeus pulchricaudatus). Due to the lack of genomic resources, little is known about the molecular mechanisms associated with immune defense and hypoxia tolerance. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of two closely related Marsupenaeus species and compared genomic divergence. This study obtained 77049 and 84561 unigenes with N50 values of 1281bp and 1244bp for M. japonicus and M. pulchricaudatus, respectively, and 5036 pairs of putative orthologs were identified between two Marsupenaeus species. Estimation of Ka/Ks ratios indicated that 165 orthologous genes may be under positive selection (Ka/Ks > 0.5), including 49 pairs with a Ka/Ks ratio >1. According to the peak of synonymous rates, the divergence time between M. japonicus and M. pulchricaudatus was about 0.26-0.69 Mya. These positively selected orthologous genes related to the immune process mainly comprised single VWC domain protein, legumain, ras-related C3 botulinum, caspase, C-type lectin and were enriched in functions related to immune (Toll-like receptor and PI3K-Akt signaling) and hypoxia signaling (HIF-1 signaling and VEGF signaling). In this study, dozens of caspase-like unigenes were screened from two Marsupenaeus transcriptomes. Among these, the PjCaspase orthologous gene was subjected to positive selection (Ka/Ks = 1.22), which had different secondary and three-dimensional structure prediction. Based on the single copy caspase gene, eight populations of Marsupenaeus species were divided into two phylogeographic lineages from the East and South China. We characterized the transcriptomes of the two Marsupenaeus species and obtained several key orthologs associated with immune defense and hypoxia tolerance, which provides new insights into the immunity and genetic divergence of the two varieties. Moreover, this study will facilitate further comparative genomic studies of the two varieties.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/fisiologia , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Anaerobiose , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31077786

RESUMO

Although previous studies have shown that salinity exposure affects shrimp respiration, little is known of the properties and variation of anaerobic and aerobic metabolism in tissues, and in particular of the relationship between energy metabolism and shrimp locomotion. To examine the relationship between energy metabolism and locomotor variation during osmoregulation, Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis were held at 30‰, 25‰, 20‰, 15‰, and 10‰ salinity for 15 days, after which the activities of key enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and electron transport chain in posterior gills, pleopods, and abdominal muscles were determined. Hemolymph osmolality, oxygen consumption rates, swimming and tail-flipping abilities were also obtained. Results showed that hemolymph of F. chinensis was isosmotic to brackish water at 25‰ salinity. The rate of oxygen consumption increased by 27.8% to 126.0% during osmoregulation. Activities of citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) increased in posterior gill rather than muscles during osmoregulation. In muscles, CS and COX activities decreased by 16.6% to 59.11% at 15‰ and 10‰ salinities, but phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities decreased by 13.2% to 44.5% at 10‰ salinity. Swimming abilities were positively correlative with CS and COX activities of pleopod muscle. Tail-flipping abilities increased with PFK and LDH activities of abdominal muscles. These findings suggest that shrimp increase reliance on aerobic metabolism for fueling osmoregulation. There is an energetic trade-off between gill and muscles under salinity exposure. The energetic depression of muscles results in the reduction of shrimp locomotion during osmoregulation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Animais , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Salinidade
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 248-256, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951852

RESUMO

The effect of acute ammonia challenge on survival, immune response and antioxidant status of Litopenaeus vannamei pretreated with diets containing different inositol levels was investigated. Shrimp (initial mean weight 0.40 ±â€¯0.00 g) were randomly allocated in 18 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet without myo-inositol (MI) supplementation (242.6 mg inositol kg-1 diet) or diets containing diverse levels of inositol (368.8, 459.7, 673.1, 993.8 and 1674.4  mg kg-1 diet) as treatment groups for 8-week. Randomly selected 10 shrimp per tank (final mean weight approximately 11.1-13.8g) were exposed to ammonia stress (total ammonia-nitrogen, 60.21  mg L-1) for 24 h after feeding trial. The results showed that after exposed to ammonia stress, survival rates of MI-supplemented groups were enhanced by 31-77% when compared with the control group. MI supplementation increased activities of alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and acid phosphatase (ACP) in plasma, and reduced its activities in hepatopancreas. It also enhanced activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and content of reduced glutathione (GSH), and lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PC) content in plasma or hepatopancreas. In addition, mRNA expression levels of ferritin (FT), arginine kinase (AK), thioredoxin (Trx), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), catalase (CAT) and peroxiredoxin (Prx) were significantly differentially regulated in hepatopancreas owing to MI supplementation. Therefore, it suggested that L. vannamei pretreated with higher dietary inositol content may have better ammonia stress tolerance and antioxidant status after ammonia stress, and the optimum levels ranged from 459.7 to 993.8 mg inositol kg-1 when total ammonia-nitrogen concentration was 60.21  mg L-1.


Assuntos
Amônia/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/farmacologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Estresse Fisiológico
7.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0211182, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958828

RESUMO

In order to screen the candidate genes of Fenneropenaeus chinensis related to low-temperature tolerance, this research takes juvenile prawns of F. chinensis (P40) in low temperature stress group (4°C) and normal temperature group (18°C) as experimental materials. The results showed that a total of 127,939 Unigenes with average length of 1,190 bp were obtained by assembly, of which 46% were annotated in the Nr database. A total of 1,698 differentially expressed genes were screened by differential gene expression analysis, of which 920 genes showed up-regulated expression and 778 genes showed down-regulated expression. Both GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes were enriched in spliceosomes, ribosomes, bile secretion, ABC transport pathways, and cellular nitrogen compound synthesis. A further in-depth analysis obtained 8 genes that may be associated with low-temperature traits of F. chinensis. Five of them displayed up-regulated expression, including ATP-binding cassette protein C, acid ceramidase, glutathione transferase, C-type lectin and heat shock protein HSP70. The remaining three genes, γ-butyl betaine hydroxylase, ß-hexosaminidase A and long chain fatty acid-CoA ligase displayed down-regulated expression. Eight differentially expressed genes were randomly selected and the real time RT-PCR verification showed that their expression levels were consistent with the sequencing results, demonstrating the accuracy of the sequencing results. The results of this study provide basic data for revealing the molecular mechanisms of F. chinensis in response to low temperature stress and the molecular assisted breeding of F. chinensis in low temperature.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/genética , Aquicultura/métodos , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Animais , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Alimentos Marinhos , Seleção Artificial , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981908

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus contaminating food, feed ingredients and products of animal origin. In mammals, this toxin causes widespread organ-specific damage; it is immunotoxicity and could promote hepatotoxicity, alter intestinal functions and so on. In this study, we conducted transcriptome and histomorphology analyses of hepatopancreas and intestinal in Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) challenged with AFB1. Totally 12,014 and 1387 differentially expression genes (DEGs) were identified in the hepatopancreas and intestine, respectively. In hepatopancreas, a total of 1995 DEGs were mainly annotated and grouped into 18 processes or pathways related to animal immune system. With respect to intestine, a total of 152 DEGs were mainly annotated to 7 processes or pathways related to animal immune system. Meanwhile, we determined the relative mRNA expression of several crucial representative immune genes including Toll, immune deficiency (IMD), prophenoloxidase (proPO), Rab and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the hepatopancreas and intestines of shrimp at 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, 24- and 30-d after challenged by AFB1. Exposure to AFB1 increased mortality, decrease weight gain rate, severely destroyed the histomorphology of hepatopancreas and intestine, and resulted in the damaged of immune system of shrimp. The present data reveals the different roles between hepatopancreas and intestine of L. vannamei in immune response to AFB1 challenge, and provides insight into the molecular basis of the relationship between hepatopancreas and intestinal immunity during either homeostasis or inflammation.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/imunologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/imunologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954687

RESUMO

Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (9.38 ±â€¯0.17 cm, 10.08 ±â€¯0.35 g), with different ammonia-N tolerances were exposed to NH3 (1.61 mg/L) for 192 h, and the levels of key enzymes and biochemical substances involved in energy metabolism were compared to assess the role of the regulation of energy metabolism on the shrimp's adaptation to ammonia-N stress. Higher ammonia-N tolerance in the shrimp (Tolerance group) was achieved through nutritional fortification, whereas shrimp that were not nutritionally fortified comprised the Control group. The mortality rates in the Control and Tolerance groups at the end of the period of ammonia-N stress exposure were 64.44% and 40.00%, respectively. Within 1 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress, the glucose concentration in both groups declined rapidly, and no significant difference was detected between the two groups. In general, the triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in the Control group were higher than those in the Tolerance group, and accumulations and/or fluctuations in these metabolites to varying degrees were observed. The Tolerance group presented higher phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) activity compared with the Control group from 1 to 48 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress, whereas the opposite result was observed from 96 to 192 h. Similarly, during exposure to ammonia-N stress, the Tolerance group showed higher and lower lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity than the Control group from 1 to 24 h and from 48 to 92 h, respectively. In addition, compared with the Control group, the shrimp in the Tolerance group exhibited higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, especially from 48 to 192 h of exposure to ammonia-N stress. The results of this study suggest that anaerobic carbohydrate (in the early stage) and aerobic metabolism (in the late stage) plays an important role in the shrimp's response to ammonia-N stress. In addition, maintenance of the normal operation of lipid metabolism is equally important for improving the tolerance of L. vannamei to ammonia-N stress.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Amônia/química , Animais , Estresse Fisiológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 142-149, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807860

RESUMO

pH of water environment affects the survival of aquatic animals. Intestine barrier function influences the health of animals, which is related to its mucosa structure, immune components, and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the histological structure, digestive and metabolic capacity, immune responses, and microbial composition in the intestine of Litopenaeus vanmei under three different conditions: control (pH 8.3), low pH stress (pH 6.9), and high pH stress (pH 9.7) for 72 h. The results showed both low and high pH stress disrupted the intestine morphological structure, and induced variations in the activities of digestive (AMS, LPS, Tryp, and Pep) and metabolic (HK, PK, CCO, and LDH) enzymes. Low and high pH stress also increased oxidative stress (MDA, LPO, PC, and ·O2- generation), and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activities (T-AOC, SOD, and GST); shrimp enhanced CAT activity and HSP70, Trx, MT and Fer gene transcripts as defense mechanism. Additionally, Immune confusion was also found in the shrimp intestine in response to low and high pH stress, including the antibacterial ability (T-NOS, PO, proPO, ALF, and Lys), pathogen recognition (TLR and Lec), apoptosis (Casp, IAP and p53), and mucus homeostasis (Muc-1, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, Muc-5B, and Muc-19). pH exposure also decreased the diversity of the intestine bacterial, disturbed the composition of microbiota, and decreased the microbial metabolite SCFA contents. Our results indicated that acute pH stress can impair the intestine barrier function of white shrimp, probably via destroying mucosa structure, confusing digestion and metabolism, inducing oxidative stress, disordering immunity, and disrupting the microbial composition.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Animais , Aquicultura , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Imunidade Inata , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Poluição da Água/efeitos adversos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210723, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645636

RESUMO

Several decapod crustaceans are invaders, but little is known about the biological characteristics that potentiate the success of these decapods in invaded ecosystems. Here, we evaluate and describe some aspects of the reproductive biology and development of Lysmata vittata, an invasive shrimp species in the Atlantic Ocean. In addition, we intend to provide important insights into the biology of invasion by comparing the reproductive traits of this shrimp with some of the predictions about aquatic invasive species. We used experimental and laboratory observations to evaluate the functionality of protandric simultaneous hermaphroditism (PSH), the macro and microscopic development of the ovarian portion of the ovotestes, the reproductive cycle, and the embryonic development of L. vittata. We confirm the functionality of PSH in L. vittata. This shrimp has a rapid reproductive cycle; the ovarian portion of the ovotestes develops (mean ± SD) 6.28 ± 1.61 days after spawning. Embryonic development also occurs over a short time, with a mean (± SD) of 8.37 ± 0.85 days. The larvae hatch without macroscopically visible yolk reserves. Our study provides evidence that the invasive shrimp L. vittata has reproductive and embryonic developmental characteristics (i.e., short generation time and high reproductive capacity) that may be favorable to the establishment of populations during invasive processes.


Assuntos
Penaeidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 124-129, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261296

RESUMO

In order to compare the effect of substituting fish meal with fermented soybean meal and soybean meal, and confirmed whether the benefit from the two feed materials was related to the content of inclusive soybean antigen protein, two experiments were designed. In experiment 1, one of the two practical diets contained 24.9% soybean meal (SBM), the other one containing 8% fermented soybean meal and 16.95% soybean meal (FSBM); in experiment 2, two semi-purified diets were included with high antigen protein (SPD1) and low antigen protein (SPD2) approximately equal to SBM and FSBM group respectively in experiment 1. Diets were fed to Litopenaeus vannamei (initial weight: 7.48 ±â€¯0.24 g) for 60 days. The results showed that in experiment 1, growth performance was not significantly different between two groups, the enzyme activity (AKP, AST, ALT, SOD and LZM) and mRNA expression levels of TLR, LZM, IMD and HSP70 were significantly higher in the SBM group; In experiment 2, weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly higher in the SPD2 group, while higher activities of AKP, ALT and LZM, lower expression levels of TLRmRNA, LZMmRNA and IMDmRNA and higher expression level of HSP70mRNA were found in SPD1 group. These results implied SBM was more likely to induce stress reaction in shrimp than FSBM, which were closely related to the antigen protein in SBM.


Assuntos
Antígenos/administração & dosagem , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Proteínas de Soja/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Dieta , Expressão Gênica
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 1059-1067, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394332

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary dosage forms of copper supplementation on growth performance, hematological characteristics, antioxidant capacity, immune responses and gene expressions related to innate immune of juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Three isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain three dosage forms of copper: copper sulfate (Diet I-Cu), copper sulfate + copper amino acid complex (1: 1, Diet M-Cu) and copper amino acid complex from Availa®Cu100 (Diet Availa-Cu), respectively. 360 Pacific white shrimp juveniles (initial weight 1.86 ±â€¯0.03 g) were randomly allocated in 12 tanks corresponding to quadruplicate tanks of the three dietary treatments, and the 8-week feeding trail was conducted. The results indicated that percent weight gain (PWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) in shrimp fed M-Cu diet were significantly higher than that fed I-Cu diet. Survival, feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER) of shrimp were not significantly different between all treatment groups. High contents of total protein (TP) and glucose (GLU) were found in shrimp fed the diet containing M-Cu, whereas contents of cholesterol (CHOL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in shrimp fed M-Cu diet were significantly lower than that in I-Cu diet group. In hemolymph, shrimp fed M-Cu diet had high activities of phenoloxidase (PO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (ACP). While, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD), ceruloplasmin (CP) and lysozyme (LZM) in hemolymph were not significantly affected by different dietary dosage forms of copper. High activities of Cu/Zn SOD, ALP, ACP and LZM in hepatopancreas were observed in shrimp fed M-Cu diet. Shrimp fed diet supplemented with Availa-Cu showed a significantly higher gene expression levels of Cu/Zn sod, alp, acp and lzm in hepatopancreas than that fed I-Cu diet. This study indicated that copper amino acid complex was more effective than copper sulfate to improve growth performance and enhance antioxidant ability and innate immune system.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 1050-1058, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419396

RESUMO

The probiotic efficiencies of the mixed probiotics containing Lactobacillus pentosus BD6, Lac. fermentum LW2, Bacillus subtilis E20, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae P13 for shrimp growth and health status improvement were better than those when using single probiotics. The probiotic mixture at a level of 108 colony-forming units (cfu) (kg diet)-1 and the diets containing BD6 and E20 at 109 cfu (kg diet)-1 significantly improved the growth and health status of shrimp, whereas the diets containing P13 or LW2 did not significantly affect the growth of shrimp. No significant difference in the carcass composition was recorded among the control and treatments. After 56 days of feeding, shrimp fed the diet containing the probiotic mixture (107∼109 cfu (kg diet)-1) had higher survival after injection with the V. alginolyticus, but 109 cfu (kg diet)-1 of single probiotics (except for S. cerevisiae P13) had to be administered to improve shrimp survival. The better disease resistance of shrimp in groups fed the probiotic mixture might have been due to increased phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, and lysozyme activity of hemocytes. Therefore, we considered that the probiotic mixture could adequately provide probiotic efficiency for white shrimp, and a diet containing 108 cfu (kg diet)-1 probiotic mixture is recommended.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Lactobacillus/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Resistência à Doença , Nível de Saúde , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Probióticos/classificação
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 361-369, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291981

RESUMO

Hypoxia is one of the most common physiological stressors in shrimp farming. Post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs has been recognized as a ubiquitous strategy to enable transient phenotypic plasticity and adaptation to stressful environment, but involvement of microRNAs in hypoxia stress response of penaeid shrimp remains elusive. In this study, small RNA sequencing and comparative transcriptomic analysis was conducted to construct a comprehensive microRNA dataset for the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to hypoxia challenge. A total of 3324 known miRNAs and 8 putative novel miRNAs were identified, providing a valuable resource for future investigation on the functional mechanism of miRNAs in shrimp. Upon hypoxia, 1213 miRNAs showed significant differential expression, and many well-known miRNAs involved in hypoxia tolerance such as miR-210, let-7, miR-143 and miR-101 were identified. Remarkably, the vast majority of these miRNAs were up-regulated, suggesting that up-regulation of miRNAs may represent an effective strategy to inhibit protein translation under stressful hypoxic condition. The differentially expressed miRNAs were potentially targeting a wide variety of genes, including those with essential roles in hypoxia tolerance such as HIF1a and p53. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis further revealed that a broad range of biological processes and metabolic pathways were over-represented. Several GO terms associated with gene transcription and translation and KEGG pathways related to cytoskeleton remodeling, immune defense and signaling transduction were enriched, highlighting the crucial roles of these cellular events in the adaptation to hypoxia. Taken together, our study revealed that the differentially expressed miRNAs may regulate host response to hypoxia by modulating the expression of stress response genes such as HIF1a and p53 and affecting key cellular events involved in hypoxia adaptation. The findings would expand our knowledge of the biochemical and molecular underpinnings of hypoxia response strategies used by penaeid shrimp, and contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hypoxia tolerance in decapod crustaceans.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Anaerobiose , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Penaeidae/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 208: 1-11, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592983

RESUMO

Proline (Pro) metabolism is intimately associated with stress adaptation. The catabolism of Pro includes two dehydrogenation reactions catalyzed by proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDh). P5CDh is a mitochondrial matrix NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase that is critical in preventing P5C-Pro intensive cycling and avoiding ROS production from electron run-off. Little is known about the roles of P5CDh in invertebrates, however. We cloned the P5CDh sequence in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and found that LvP5CDh is expressed predominantly in pleopod, hepatopancreas and gill. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that LvP5CDh protein was mainly found in the cytoplasm. In addition, overexpressing LvP5CDh in cells reduced ROS formation and inhibited apoptosis induced by LC50 Cd2+. Shrimp were exposed to various stress factors including infection with Vibrio alginolyticus, (½ LC50 and LC50) Cd2+, acid (pH 5.6) and alkali stress (pH 9.3). Both biotic and abiotic stress resulted in increased LvP5CDh expression and Pro accumulation; V. alginolyticus infection, pH 9.3 and LC50 Cd2+ stress apparently stimulated the Glu pathway of Pro synthesis, while pH 5.6 and ½ LC50 Cd2+ stress promoted the Orn pathway of Pro synthesis. Silencing of Lvp53 in shrimp attenuated LvP5CDh expression during Cd2+ stress, but had no effect on LvP5CDh mRNA levels if no Cd2+ stress was imposed. Our study contributes to the functional characterization of LvP5CDh in biotic and abiotic stress and reveals it to protect against ROS generation, damage to the cell, including the mitochondria, and apoptosis. Thus, LvP5CDh plays a critical role in immune defense and antioxidant responses.


Assuntos
1-Pirrolina-5-Carboxilato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Apoptose , DNA Complementar/genética , Inativação Gênica , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Penaeidae/virologia , Peptídeos/química , Prolina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209341, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576365

RESUMO

Bacillus aquimaris SH6 spores produce carotenoids that are beneficial to white-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health. However, the optimal dose and mechanisms behind these effects are not well understood. We investigated the fate of SH6 spores in the gut of L. vannamei. Shrimp were divided into six groups administrated with either feed only (negative control) or SH6 spores at 5 × 106 CFU/g pellet (high dose, SH6 spore-H group), 1 × 106 CFU/g pellet (medium dose, SH6 spore-M group), 2 × 105 CFU/g pellet (low dose, SH6 spore-L group), astaxanthin at 0.5 mg/g pellet (Carophyll group), or carotenoids from SH6 vegetative cells at 5 µg/g pellet (SH6 carotenoid group). The growth rate was highest in SH6 spore-H (3.38%/day), followed by SH6 spore-M (2.84%/day) and SH6 spore-L (2.25%/day), which was significantly higher than the control (1.45%/day), Carophyll (1.53%/day) or SH6 carotenoid (1.57%/day) groups. The astaxanthin levels (1.9-2.0 µg/g shrimp) and red-colour scores (21-22) in SH6 spore-H/M were higher than the control (astaxanthin: 1.2 µg/g shrimp; red score: 20) or SH6 spore-L, but lower than the Carophyll and SH6 carotenoids. Feeding with medium and high doses of SH6 spores after 28 days resulted in respective 1.3-2-fold increases in phenol oxidase activity and 8-9 fold increases in Rho mRNA expression compared to the control and low dose group. The live-counts of SH6 in the gut gradually increased during the 28-day feeding period with SH6 spores at different concentrations, starting from 4.1, 8.2, and 5.4 × 104 CFU/g gut at day 1 and reaching 5.3, 5.1, and 4.4 × 105 CFU/g gut in the SH6-H/M/L groups, respectively, at day 28. Gut microbiota became more diversified, resulting in a 2-8-fold increase in total bacterial live-counts compared to the controls. SH6 spore germination was detected by measuring the mRNA expression of a specific sequence coding for SH6 amylase at 4 h, reaching saturation at 24 h. Our results confirm that SH6 spores colonize and germinate in the gut to improve the microbial diversity and boost the immune system of shrimp, exhibiting beneficial effects at >1 × 106 CFU/g pellet.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Esporos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Bacillus/fisiologia , Carotenoides/imunologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Cor , Epitélio/microbiologia , Epitélio/fisiologia , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Frutos do Mar , Esporos Bacterianos/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1
18.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206044, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346961

RESUMO

Models to predict codend size selectivity for four major commercial species-European hake (Merluccius merluccius), Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris), and Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus)-in Mediterranean bottom trawl fisheries were established based on data collected during fishing trials using the two legal codends: a 40 mm square-mesh codend and a 50 mm diamond-mesh codend. The models were applied to predict the extent to which size selection depend on codend type, also accounting for the potential effect of codend catch size and fishing season. The size selectivity of the two codends was evaluated and compared in identical simulated controlled conditions. Mesh type significantly affected the size selection of Norway lobster alone, with a slightly better performance of the 40 mm square-mesh codend. A high risk of retention of undersized individuals was predicted for both codends for all species except Norway lobster.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Simulação por Computador , Peixes/fisiologia , Geografia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Nephropidae/fisiologia , Noruega , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Ecotoxicology ; 27(9): 1225-1236, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30187358

RESUMO

There is a lack of information regarding the effects on biochemical markers in invertebrates diet-exposed to inorganic mercury. In the present study, juvenile black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) were fed with food dosed with mercuric chloride (low: 0.2 mg kg-1; medium: 0.77 mg kg-1; high: 1.41 mg kg-1; higher: 2.52 mg kg-1) and control (0.03 mg kg-1) over 12 days. At the end of exposure periods, ventral nerve cord, compound eyes and muscle were dissected for biochemical marker analyses (acetylcholinesterase - AChE; lipoperoxidation - LPO; glutathione S-transferase - GST; catalase - CAT). Prawn muscle showed an increase in total mercury concentration over time for low and high treatments, but did not show an accumulation in comparison to controls. AChE activity tended to decrease over time in all tissues. CAT activity increased over time in controls and lower dose treatments but was suppressed in the higher treatment relative to controls on day 12; indicating that inorganic mercury is impacting the normal stress response by reducing the capacity to degrade hydrogen peroxide. In contrast, no effect was observed in LPO and GST activity. A depuration treatment was performed and compared to medium treatment; only AChE and GST activities from muscle showed significant difference, with AChE activity from depuration treatment lower than medium treatment, while the opposite was observed in GST activity. Overall, the low mercury accumulation observed over 12 days of exposure may have limited the biochemical stress responses, which could also have limited the detection of differences in the depuration treatment relative to medium treatment.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo
20.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 198: 74-81, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217679

RESUMO

Although the effects of age on the reproductive performance of various invertebrates, including white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are increasingly well documented, the mechanisms manifesting these impacts remain poorly understood. To ascertain the mechanisms of age on reproductive performance, the sperm quality, intracellular contents of Ca2+, insemination and hatching rates, and status of sperm apoptosis in terms of the expression of key regulatory genes were investigated in 11 and 16 month old male L. vannamei. The aged male individuals (16 months) had lesser reproductive performance in terms of fertilization and hatching rates. In addition, fewer and less viable sperm were detected in aged shrimp, which may be due to the altered expression of apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, the aged males had lesser intracellular contents of Ca2+ in the sperm which may decrease the capacity of these gametes to undergo a complete acrosome reaction. In general, due to the decrease in intracellular contents of Ca2+ and alterations in the process of apoptosis, aged L. vannamei have relatively lesser quality sperm and may, therefore, have lesser reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Apoptose/fisiologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Penaeidae/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Espaço Intracelular , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA