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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 180: 491-500, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121556

RESUMO

Ammonia, one of the major limiting environment factors in aquaculture, may pose a threat to the shrimp growth, reproduction and survival. In this study, to understand molecular differences of transcriptomic and metabolomic responses and investigate the tolerance mechanisms underlying ammonia stress in Litopenaeus vannamei, ammonia-tolerant family (LV-AT) and ammonia-sensitive family (LV-AS) of these two extreme families were exposed to high-concentration (NH4Cl, 46 mg/L) ammonia for 24 h. The comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-treated and control (LV-C) groups revealed involvement of immune defense, cytoskeleton remodeling, antioxidative system and metabolic pathway in ammonia-stress response of L. vannamei. Likewise, metabolomics analysis showed that ammonia exposure could disturb amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism and lipid metabolism, with metabolism related-genes changed according to RNA-seq analysis. The comparison of metabolite and transcript profiles between LV-AT and LV-AS indicated that LV-AT used the enhanced glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle strategies for energy supply and ammonia excretion to adapt high-concentration ammonia. Furthermore, some of genes involved in the detoxification and ammonia excretion were highly expressed in LV-AT. We speculate that the higher ability of ammonia excretion and detoxification and the accelerated energy metabolism for energy supplies might be the adaptive strategies for LV-AT relative to LV-AS after ammonia stress. Collectively, the combination of transcriptomics and metabolomics results will greatly contribute to incrementally understand the stress responses on ammonia exposure to L. vannamei and supply molecular level support for evaluating the environmental effects of ammonia on aquatic organisms. The results further constitute new sights on the potential molecular mechanisms of ammonia adaptive strategies in shrimps at the transcriptomics and metabolomics levels.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo
2.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 126-133, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059814

RESUMO

To investigate the role of the Rab7 effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein) in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, the full-length cDNA of RILP (LvRILP) was cloned in Litopenaeus vannamei, which consists of 1595 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 411 amino acids. Sequence analysis and multiple sequence alignment displayed that LvRILP contained a conserved RILP region from 277 amino acid to 325 amino acid. Both the LvRILP and Rab7 mRNA were most highly expressed in stomach and most lowly expressed in hemocyte, which were significantly up-regulated and exhibited similar kinetics post WSSV infection. The interaction of Rab7 with LvRILP was verified by both GST Pull-down and ELISA. Meanwhile, the results of Pull-down assays showed that the GST-tagged VP28 (GST-VP28), His-tagged Rab7 (His-Rab7) and His-RILP formed a tripartite complex. After silencing by specific LvRILP dsRNA, the LvRILP mRNA level exhibited a significant reduction, and the expression levels of three WSSV genes ie1, wsv477 and vp28 all exhibited decreases at 24, 36 and 48 h post WSSV infection. These results suggested that the Rab7 effector RILP was involved in WSSV infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 384-392, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951853

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an essential component of innate immunity of invertebrates. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), as a main type of AMPs in crustaceans, attends in the disease prevention in general. In this research, a novel Group D ALF was identified and characterized from Penaeus monodon, named PenmonALF8. It was an anionic peptide, with both the full-length peptide and lipopolysaccharide binding domain (LBD) a low isoelectric point. PenmonALF8, composed of a signal peptide of 26 amino acids and a mature peptide of 98 amino acids, probably contained three alpha helixes and four beta sheets. Moreover, PenmonALF8 was detected in all tested tissues of P. monodon, and the expression level in hemocyte and intestine was relatively high. When challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, PenmonALF8 showed 30-100 times higher expression level in all the tissues except in hemocyte and intestine, indicating that PenmonALF8 played a very important role in the immune response of P. monodon. By fusing to a SUMO protein, PenmonALF8 was successfully over-expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. Additionally, the reconstituted PenmonALF8 and its LBD region displayed modest antimicrobial activity. This is the first research about the Group D ALF in P. monodon, which provides more information for humoral immunity study of shrimps.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio/imunologia
4.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 623-631, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991151

RESUMO

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) participate in immune defenses of invertebrate, vertebrate and plant species. As a kind of AMPs, penaeidins play important roles in innate immunity of shrimp. In this study, two penaeidin homologues termed FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 were cloned and identified from Fenneropenaeus merguiensis for the first time. The complete open reading frames (ORFs) of FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 were 216 bp and 240 bp, encoding 71 and 79 amino acids, respectively. Both FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 contain an N-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD) and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). The genome structure of FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 genes both consist of 2 exons and 1 intron. qPCR analysis showed that FmPEN3 was constitutively expressed but FmPEN5 transcripts were found only in hemocytes, gills, epidermis, nerve and pyloric cecum. The FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 expression were responsive to Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus infection and their transcription levels were downregulated by RNAi silencing of the transcription factors FmDorsal and FmRelish. In addition, recombinant proteins of FmPEN3 (rFmPEN3) and FmPEN5 (rFmPEN5) were successfully expressed in E. coli. The antibacterial assays revealed that rFmPEN3 and rFmPEN5 could inhibit the growth of M. lysodeikticus but only rFmPEN5 could inhibit the growth of V. parahaemolyticus in vitro. In summary, the results presented in this study indicated the functions of FmPEN3 and FmPEN5 played in anti-bacterial immunity of F. merguiensis, providing some insights into the function of AMPs in shrimp.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Micrococcus/fisiologia , Peptídeos/química , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 555-563, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999041

RESUMO

In shrimp, the JAK-STAT pathway is essentially implicated in both antiviral and antibacterial responses. However, few regulatory target genes of the JAK-STAT pathway in shrimp have been reported so far. In this study, a novel single WAP domain-containing peptide (LvSWD4) was identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The promoter of LvSWD4 was predicted to harbor multiple STAT-binding DNA motifs. Over-expression of the JAK-STAT pathway components STAT, JAK and Domeless in vitro significantly enhanced the transcriptional activity of the LvSWD4 promoter, and in vivo silencing of STAT and the the JAK-STAT pathway upstream regulator IRF down-regulated the expression of LvSWD4, suggesting that LvSWD4 could be a target gene of the JAK-STAT pathway. The expression of LvSWD4 was significantly increased after infection with Gram-negative and positive bacteria, fungi and virus, and silencing of LvSWD4 increased the susceptibility of shrimp to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV infections. In vitro experiments also demonstrated that the recombinant LvSWD4 protein had significant inhibitory activities against Gram negative bacteria V. parahaemolyticus and E. coli and Gram positive bacteria S. aureus and B. subtilis. Furthermore, silencing of LvSWD4 in vivo significantly affected expression of various immune functional genes and attenuated the phagocytic activity of hemocytes. These suggested that as a target gene of STAT, LvSWD4 was essentially implicated in shrimp immunity, which could constitute part of the mechanism underlying the immune function of the shrimp JAK-STAT pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 701-709, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004801

RESUMO

Based on the transcriptome database, we screened out four ferritin subunit genes (MnFer2-5) from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense, which encode two non-secretory and two secretory peptides. MnFer2 and 4 possess a strictly conserved ferroxidase site, and MnFer3 has a non-typical ferroxidase site. MnFer5 seems to be a number of ferritin families, which has a distinct dinuclear metal binding motif, but lacks an iron ion channel, a ferroxidase site and a nucleation site. Diverse tissue-specific transcriptions of the four genes indicate their functional diversity in the prawn. Among them, MnFer2 is mainly expressed in hepatopancreas and intestines, MnFer3 and 4 are predominantly expressed in gills, and MnFer5 is widely expressed in various tissues with high presence in intestines, hepatopancreas and haemocytes. The transcription of all the four MnFer genes can be strongly induced by doxorubicin, indicating the involvement of these ferritin subunits in protection from oxidative stress. Upon Aeromonas hydrophila infection, only MnFer5 is persistently up-regulated, while other subunits including MnFer2-4 are down-regulated during the early stage, followed by recovery and even a slight increase at 48 h post bacterial challenge. Moreover, the iron binding capacity of recombinant MnFer2 is also demonstrated in vitro. The E. coli expressing MnFer2 displays increased resistance to hydrogen peroxidase cytotoxicity. These results suggest a protective role of ferritins from M. nipponense in iron homeostasis, redox biology and antibacterial immunity and shed light on the molecule evolution of crustacean ferritin subunits.


Assuntos
Ferritinas/genética , Ferritinas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Ferritinas/química , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Homeostase/imunologia , Oxirredução , Palaemonidae , Filogenia , Isoformas de Proteínas/química , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Alinhamento de Sequência
7.
Gene ; 706: 19-31, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028869

RESUMO

The fem-1 gene in Caenorhabditis elegans is involved in sex differentiation; it is specifically required for all aspects of male development. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the fem-1 (Pvfem-1) gene was isolated from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The Pvfem-1 transcript is 3778 nt long and encodes a putative protein (PvFEM-1) of 638 amino acids that presented eight ankyrin repeats. The translated protein showed a significant (P < 0.05) structural similitude by superposition with C. elegans FEM-1 protein. Pvfem-1 expression was evaluated by qPCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) during embryogenesis, larval development, and gonads of both genders in subadult and adult life stages. Pvfem-1 was found expressed in brain, intestine, hepatopancreas, and in the gonads of both genders in subadults and adults when quantified by RT-qPCR. A significant finding was the discovery of a natural antisense transcript (NAT) of Pvfem-1 by ISH. It was present in the oocyte nucleus of subadult female shrimp gonads but was not seen within oocytes from adult females, although it was detected in follicular cells, suggesting a possible post-transcriptional regulation of Pvfem-1 in female gonad. Conversely, in males, no NAT was observed, and Pvfem-1 was found expressed in spermatogonia of both, subadult and adult shrimps indicating a function in male sexual differentiation and gametes generation. This study represents the first step for future functional analysis that is expected to contribute to clarifying the role of Pvfem-1 in sex differentiation and determination.


Assuntos
Elementos Antissenso (Genética)/fisiologia , Penaeidae/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Elementos Antissenso (Genética)/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Gônadas/metabolismo , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Ovário/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Fatores Sexuais
8.
J Genet ; 982019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945667

RESUMO

The deep water penaeoid shrimp is an important commercial crustacean resource along the Indian coast. The molecular and morphological information of this group from the Indian coast is scarcely known. In this study, we investigated the identification and phylogenetic relationships of the deep water penaeoid shrimps using three mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome b, 16S rRNA) genes, which were compared with 54 morphological characters and further used to evaluate character evolution. Our study revealed remarkable molecular divergence (3.3-33.0%) in nine species from three genera of Solenoceridae, four species from three genera of Penaeidae and one species from Aristeidae using COI. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches revealed that all species from these families are monophyletic. The present analysis revealed the existence of subgroups in the genus Solenocera suggesting the slow reduction of postrostral carina which corresponds to the increase in distributional depth during the evolutionary process which further indicates the origin of the genus in the continental shelf and extending up to the continental slope. In addition, we generated the DNA barcode database involving these species which can help further to investigate the detailed evolution and biogeography of these valuable crustacean resources.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Penaeidae/classificação , Penaeidae/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Animais , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 188-198, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028898

RESUMO

C-type lectins (CTLs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are important in invertebrate innate immunity for the recognition and elimination of pathogens. Although they were reported in many shrimp, C-type lectins subfamily contain a large number of members with different functions that need to research in deep. In this present study, a new type of CTL, PmCL1 with 861 bp long full-length cDNA, that encodes a protein with 164-amino acid from a 495-bp open reading frame, was isolated and characterized from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The mRNA transcript of PmCL1 showed the highest expression in the hepatopancreas, whereas it was barely detected in the ovary. After the shrimp were stimulated by Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio anguillarum, PmCL1 expression in the hepatopancreas and gill was significantly upregulated. A carbohydrate-binding assay revealed the specificity of PmCL1 for pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that included peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and saccharides that included d-glucose, galactosamine, α-lactose, treholose, and d-mannose. Recombinant PmCL1 agglutinated gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (V. harveyi, V. anguillarum, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila) in the presence of calcium ions and enhanced the efficiency of clearing the invading bacteria. Collectively, our results suggested that PmCL1 might play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in the immune response towards pathogen infections, as well as the response towards ammonia nitrogen stress.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Amônia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lectinas Tipo C/química , Dose Letal Mediana , Nitrogênio/efeitos adversos , Filogenia , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Vibrio/fisiologia
10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 326-336, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974215

RESUMO

Transglutaminase (TGase) is important in blood coagulation, a conserved immunological defense mechanism among invertebrates. This study is the first report of the TGase in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) (SpTGase) with a 2304 bp ORF encoding 767 amino acids (molecular weight 85.88 kDa). SpTGase is acidic, hydrophilic, stable and thermostable, containing three transglutaminase domains, one TGase/protease-like homolog domain (TGc), one integrin-binding motif (Arg270, Gly271, Asp272) and three catalytic sites (Cys333, His401, Asp424) within the TGc. Neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane domain was found, and the random coil is dominant in the secondary structure of SpTGase. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relation between SpTGase to its homolog EsTGase 1 from Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis). Expression of SpTGase was investigated using qRT-PCR (1) in eight tissues from healthy mud crabs, with the highest expression in hemocytes, and (2) in response to various immune challenges (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Poly I:C infection), revealing a major up-regulation in hemocytes, skin, and hepatopancreas during the 96-h post injection. The recombinant SpTGase showed a capacity of agglutination activities on both Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. SpTGase was found to directly interact with another important blood coagulation component clip domain serine protease (SpcSP). Moreover, knockdown of SpTGase resulted in a decreased expression of both clotting protein precursor (SppreCP) and SpcSP and an increase of duration time in the blood coagulation. Taken together, the findings of this study suggest SpTGase play an important role in the hemolymph clotting in mud crab S. paramamosain.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Transglutaminases/genética , Transglutaminases/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Braquiúros , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Filogenia , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Transglutaminases/química , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880278

RESUMO

Methyl farnesoate (MF), a sesquiterpenoid synthesized in the mandibular organ, regulates many physiological processes in crustaceans including growth and reproduction. In the present study, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT), the key enzyme responsible for final step conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to methyl farnesoate (MF), was cloned and characterized from the nervous tissues of Penaeus indicus. Multiple sequence alignment, prediction of conserved domain regions, phosphorylation sites identification and phylogenetic analysis indicated that putative FAMeT fragment from P. indicus (PiFAMeT), shares a high degree of sequence identity to FAMeT proteins isolated from other crustaceans species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed ubiquitous expression of PiFAMeT in all the tissues examined, with comparative higher mRNA levels in nervous tissue and ovary. Additionally, the levels of PiFAMeT also showed gradual increase of expression correlating with the advancement in ovarian maturation. Further to support their role in promoting ovarian development, serotonin treatment (5HT, 50 µg/g body weight) was given to eyestalk intact and unilaterally eyestalk ablated females which resulted in significant increase in PiFAMeT transcript levels at day 7 and day 14. The relatively higher levels of PiFAMeT, reflecting higher levels of MF, suggest a role during secondary vitellogenesis thereby regulating ovarian development in P. indicus. Further research is required to understand the synergistic interaction of MF pathways with serotonergic and other regulatory pathways in regulating ovarian maturation in penaeid shrimps.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Metiltransferases , Ovário/enzimologia , Penaeidae , Vitelogênese/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/biossíntese , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Feminino , Metiltransferases/biossíntese , Metiltransferases/genética , Ovário/citologia , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Penaeidae/genética
12.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 247, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional communications between nervous, endocrine and immune systems are well established in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Circulating hemocytes act as fundamental players in this crosstalk, whose functions are conserved during the evolution of the main groups of metazoans. However, the roles of the neuroendocrine-immune (NEI) system in shrimp hemocytes during pathogen infection remain largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced six cDNA libraries prepared with hemocytes from Litopenaeus vannamei which were injected by WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) or PBS for 6 h using Illumina Hiseq 4000 platform. As a result, 3444 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 3240 up-regulated genes and 204 down-regulated genes, were identified from hemocytes after WSSV infection. Among these genes, 349 DEGs were correlated with innate immunity and categorized into seven groups based on their predictive function. Interestingly, 18 genes encoded putative neuropeptide precursors were induced significantly by WSSV infection. Furthermore, some genes were mapped to several typical processes in the NEI system, including proteolytic processing of prohormones, amino acid neurotransmitter pathways, biogenic amine biosynthesis and acetylcholine signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggested that WSSV infection triggers the activation of NEI in shrimp, which throws a light on the pivotal roles of NEI system mediated by hemocytes in shrimp antiviral immunity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Hemócitos/imunologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Sistemas Neurossecretores/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/imunologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/patogenicidade
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 89: 35-42, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890430

RESUMO

C-type lectin has received widespread attention in animal immunomodulation functions since it was discovered, but it is still limited in crustaceans. The present study is to explore effects of one recombinant C-type lectin (LvLec protein) on haemocyte immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei). The methods of keeping haemocyte immune activity were optimised by the Key Laboratory of Mariculture. The experiment was divided into four groups: control group, recombinant protein group (LvLec protein, 1.0 mg mL-1), Lipopolysaccharide group (LPS, 1.0 mg mL-1), and LPS combine with LvLec protein group (LPS + LvLec protein, 1.0 mg mL-1 + 1.0 mg mL-1), while each group processes 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h respectively. The results showed that the haemocyte count reduced, while the exocytosis PO activity, hemagglutinating activity and phagocytic activity promoted, and the concentration of cGMP and PKA increased after LvLec protein treatment. However, the levels of antibacterial activity and bacteriolytic activity as well as the concentrations of cAMP and PKG did not change significantly after treating with LvLec protein, LPS or LPS + LvLec protein. Therefore, these results suggest that LvLec protein can stimulate the exocytosis PO activity through cGMP-PKA pathway to affect the phagocytic activity and hemagglutinating activity of L. vannamei haemocytes in vitro.


Assuntos
Hemócitos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Catecol Oxidase/genética , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Precursores Enzimáticos/genética , Precursores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Hemócitos/enzimologia , Imunomodulação/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/fisiologia , Penaeidae/enzimologia , Fagocitose/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
14.
Mar Biotechnol (NY) ; 21(3): 374-383, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887268

RESUMO

The Pacific white shrimp Litopeneaus vannmei (L. vannmei) is a predominant aquaculture shrimp species worldwide, and it is considered as the aquaculture species with the highest single output value. Advances in selective breeding have accelerated the development of L. vannmei aquaculture. Recently, the genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been applied in aquaculture animals and markers associated with economic traits were identified. In this study, we focused on the growth trait of L. vannamei and performed GWAS to identify SNPs or genes associated with growth. Genomic regions in linkage group 7, 27, 33, and 38 were identified to be associated with body weight and body length of the shrimp. Further, candidate gene association analysis was performed in two independent populations and the result demonstrated that the SNPs in the genes protein kinase C delta type and ras-related protein Rap-2a were significantly associated with the growth trait of L. vannamei. This study showed that GWAS analysis is an efficient approach for screening trait-related markers or genes. The genomic regions and genes identified in this study are essential for further fine mapping of growth-related genes. The identified markers will provide useful information for marker-assisted selection in L. vannamei.


Assuntos
Genoma/genética , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penaeidae/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 528-539, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885745

RESUMO

The high concentration of ammonia resulting from intensive culture system and environmental pollution could cause disease occurrence in shrimp, but little information is available on its molecular mechanisms. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis among WSSV-infected shrimp under ammonia stress (LAV), WSSV-infected shrimp under normal water (LV), and normal shrimp under ammonia stress (LA) groups to identify the key genes and pathways involved in immunosuppression and increasing pathogen infection severity caused by ammonia toxicity in Litopenaeus vannamei. Totally, 526 significantly differential expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in LAV group compared to LV and LA groups, among which 270 genes were lost expressed and 67 genes uniquely expressed in the LAV group. According to the public functional reports for the annotated DEGs, they potentially involved in the following functions: (1) accelerating pathogen adhesion, invasion and multiplication; (2) reducing the ability for pathogen defense and immune response; (3) inhibiting positive regulation of apoptotic and antioxidant defense for host homeostasis; (4) inhibiting transcription and protein transport; (5) and increasing protein methylation and ubiquitination, etc. A total of 13 pathways were obtained mainly involving in this process, which mainly led to the following changes: (1) increasing the immunosuppression, anemia, endocrine dysfunction, neurotoxic effect and neuroinvasion, atherosclerosis and thrombogenesis, blood-brain barrier penetration, thyroid disorder, necrosis, inflammation, and circadian disturbance; (2) reducing the ability of vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, cell survival, migration, apoptosis, and lymph transferred to blood stream; (3) leading to cell hypertrophy, cellular shape changes, and mesangial matrix expansion. The present results firstly supplied molecular mechanisms for the ammonia toxicity inhibiting the immune system and increasing pathogen infection severity in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the pathogenesis caused by ammonia toxicity.


Assuntos
Amônia/toxicidade , Imunossupressão , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/genética , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/patogenicidade , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Transcriptoma , Viroses/imunologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 590-599, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738864

RESUMO

Complementary (c)DNA encoding novel protein kinase C (PKC) messenger (m)RNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, consisted of 2454-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2232 bp, belonging to the novel (n)PKC family of proteins characterized by their containing two phorbol ester/diacylglycerol-binding domains (C1 domain), a C2 domain, and a catalytic domain of the serine/threonine kinase, designated LvnPKC. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that LvnPKC was closely related to arthropod nPKC. LvnPKC cDNA was detected in all tested tissues with a real-time PCR including the hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, subcuticular epithelium, abdominal nerve, thoracic nerve, brain, the stomach, heart, and especially in hemocytes and the intestines. Moreover, significantly upregulated LvnPKC expression was only observed in the eyestalk, brain, and hepatopancreas of shrimp transferred from 28 °C to 18 °C for 30 min. Induction of LvnPKC expression in hemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus at 105 cfu shrimp-1 was detected earlier than in those injected with 103 cfu shrimp-1. Shrimp received LvnPKC-dsRNA for 1 days specifically depleted the expression of LvnPKC mRNA in hemocytes compared those of diethylpyrocarbonate water treatment. After that, significantly decreased expressions of lipopolysaccharide - and ß-1,3-glucan-binding protein, prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme, peroxinectin, prophenoloxidase I, and prophenoloxidase II in the prophenoloxidase-activating system; lysozyme and cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase and mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase in the antioxidant system were observed. We therefore concluded that LvnPKC is involved in immune defense of L. vannamei exposed to hypothermal stress or infected with V. alginolyticus.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteína Quinase C/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/química , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunocompetência , Filogenia , Proteína Quinase C/química , Vibrio alginolyticus/fisiologia
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 534-545, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721776

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) causes hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis (HPM) in shrimp. HPM is not normally associated with shrimp mortality, but is associated with significant growth retardation. In this study, the responses induced by EHP were investigated in hepatopancreas of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using proteomics and metabolomics. Among differential proteins identified, several (e.g., peritrophin-44-like protein, alpha2 macroglobulin isoform 2, prophenoloxidase-activating enzymes, ferritin, Rab11A and cathepsin C) were related to pathogen infection and host immunity. Other proteomic biomarkers (i.e., farnesoic acid o-methyltransferase, juvenile hormone esterase-like carboxylesterase 1 and ecdysteroid-regulated protein) resulted in a growth hormone disorder that prevented the shrimp from molting. Both proteomic KEGG pathway (e.g., "Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis" and "Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism") and metabolomic KEGG pathway (e.g., "Galactose metabolism" and "Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids") data indicated that energy metabolism pathway was down-regulated in the hepatopancreas when infected by EHP. More importantly, the changes of hormone regulation and energy metabolism could provide much-needed insight into the underlying mechanisms of stunted growth in shrimp after EHP infection. Altogether, this study demonstrated that proteomics and metabolomics could provide an insightful view into the effects of microsporidial infection in the shrimp L. vannamei.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/fisiologia , Metaboloma/imunologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Proteoma/imunologia , Animais , Hepatopâncreas/imunologia , Penaeidae/metabolismo
18.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 88: 335-343, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772398

RESUMO

Harmful effects of water pollutants are myriad. Sulfide from water bodies affects the aquatic animals. Intestine barrier function serves as the front-line of animals defense. Our previous study confirmed the toxic effect of sulfide on intestine immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the transcriptomic and microbiota responses of the L. vannamei intestine subjected to acute sulfide exposure. Sulfide decreased bacterial richness and altered the intestine microbiota composition. Specifically, sulfide increased the abundances of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, but decreased the abundance of Proteobacteria. At the genus level, sulfide increased typical cellulolytic characteristics bacteria, such as Formosa, Sphingomonas, and Demequina. RNA-seq analysis identified differential expression of 1799 genes (701 up-regulated and 1098 down-regulated) were grouped into 267 pathways. The most enriched pathway 'amoebiasis' was related to the intestine mucus homeostasis. A number of immune-related genes associated with antimicrobial, antioxidant, pathogen attachment and recognition, and apoptosis processes in contrasting accessions; they were correlated with the abundance of intestine bacterial at the phylum level. This study provides an insight into the mechanisms associated with molecular and microbiota response and processes involved in adaptation strategies towards sulfide stress.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Penaeidae/microbiologia , Sulfetos/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Imunidade Inata/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/metabolismo
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 755-764, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790658

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) are pathogens that cause epidemics in kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) during aquaculture, resulting in severe economic losses to local farmers. To characterise the mechanisms of the molecular responses to V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV infection in M. japonicus, the transcriptome of hepatopancreas was sequenced using next-generation sequencing after infection. A total of 29,180 unigenes were assembled, with an average length of 1,151 bp (N50 = 1,951 bp). After BLASTX searching against the Nr database (E-value cut-off = 10-5), 15,176 assembled unigenes remained, with 3,039 and 1,803 differentially expressed transcripts identified in the V. parahaemolyticus- and WSSV-infected groups, respectively. Of these, 1466 transcripts were up-regulated and 1573 were down-regulated in V. parahaemolyticus-infected shrimps, and 970 transcripts were up-regulated and 833 were down-regulated in the WSSV-infected shrimps. Additionally, 761 transcripts were differentially expressed in both V. parahaemolyticus- and WSSV-infected shrimps. Several known immune-related genes including caspase 4, integrin, crustin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, C-type lectin, and α2-macroglobulin were among the differentially expressed transcripts. These results provide valuable information for characterising the immune mechanisms of the shrimp responses of to V. parahaemolyticus andWSSV infection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Hepatopâncreas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 87: 853-870, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794933

RESUMO

In order to understand the mediation function of surface proteins in probiotic effects executed by Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 in midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei, the immune and digestion related enzymes and the transcriptome expression were analyzed after shrimp fed with normal HC-2 or with stripped surface proteins HC-2 by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment. The results showed that the shrimp fed with normal HC-2 produced much higher immune and digestion related enzymes than the control group or LiCl-treated HC-2 group to defense the Vibrio parahaemolyticus E1 infection. We obtained total over 275,099 unigenes from L. vannamei midgut, 981 genes were significant differentially expressed in normal HC-2 group compared with control, 1314 genes were significant differentially expressed in LiCl-treated HC-2 group compared with control, and 1689 genes were significant differentially expressed in LiCl-treated HC-2 group compared with normal HC-2 group. The GO/KEGG enrichment analysis of the significantly different genes demonstrated that L. vannamei fed with normal HC-2 induced immune-related, signal transduction, ion homeostasis, cell-cell adhesion, response stress/stimulus, vascular endothelial growth factor and peritrophin genes up-regulation, which were important genes involved in improving the shrimp intestine immune response, nutrition and growth performance, and bacteria adhesion and colonization, but these genes were suppressed in the midgut of shrimp fed with deprived surface proteins bacteria. Taken together, these results indicated that the surface proteins were essential for HC-2 executing probiotic effects in midgut of shrimp. Our data contribute to improve the current understanding of host - Lactobacillus interaction and the probiotic mechanisms in shrimps.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/imunologia , Lactobacillus pentosus/fisiologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Probióticos/química , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Intestinos/imunologia , Lactobacillus pentosus/genética , Penaeidae/imunologia , Transcriptoma/imunologia
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