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1.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0299421, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954713

RESUMO

Mold infestations in buildings pose significant challenges to human health, affecting both private residences and hospitals. While molds commonly trigger asthma and allergies in the immunocompetent, they can cause life-threatening diseases in the immunocompromised. Currently, there is an unmet need for new strategies to reduce or prevent mold infestations. Far-UVC technology can inactivate microorganisms while remaining safe for humans. This study investigates the inhibitory efficacy of far-UVC light at 222 nm on the growth of common mold-producing fungi, specifically Penicillium candidum, when delivered in low-dose on-off duty cycles, a configuration consistent with its use in real-world settings. The inhibitory effect of the low-dose duty cycles was assessed on growth induced by i) an adjacent spore-producing P. candidum donor and ii) P. candidum spores seeded directly onto agar plates. In both setups, the far-UVC light significantly inhibited both vertical and horizontal growth of P. candidum, even when the UV doses were below the Threshold Value Limit of 23 mJ/cm2. These results suggest that far-UVC light holds the potential to improve indoor air quality by reducing or preventing mold growth, also when people are present.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Raios Ultravioleta , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/efeitos da radiação , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos da radiação , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/efeitos da radiação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Níveis Máximos Permitidos
2.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 848, 2024 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38992164

RESUMO

Filamentous fungi produce polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, which is controlled by poorly understood transcriptional circuits. Here we show that a circuit comprising RsrC-RsrA-RsrB (Rsr: production of raw-starch-degrading enzyme regulator) that positively regulates production of raw starch-degrading enzymes in Penicillium oxalicum. Transcription factor (TF) RsrA is essential for biosynthesis of raw starch-degrading enzymes. RsrB and RsrC containing Zn2Cys6- and C2H2-zinc finger domains, act downstream and upstream of RsrA, respectively. RsrA activates rsrB transcription, and three nucleotides (G-286, G-287 and G-292) of rsrB promoter region are required for RsrA, in terms of TF, for binding. RsrB165-271 binds to DNA sequence 5'-TCGATCAGGCACGCC-3' in the promoter region of the gene encoding key raw-starch-degrading enzyme PoxGA15A. RsrC specifically binds rsrA promoter, but not amylase genes, to positively regulate the expression of rsrA and the production of raw starch-degrading enzymes. These findings expand complex regulatory network of fungal raw starch-degrading enzyme biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Penicillium , Fatores de Transcrição , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo , Penicillium/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/biossíntese , Redes Reguladoras de Genes
3.
Fungal Biol ; 128(4): 1885-1897, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876541

RESUMO

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Byssochlamys sp. on apples and pears. Most studies have been focused on Penicillium expansum, a common postharvest pathogen, but little is known about the characteristics of Penicillium paneum. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of temperature, pH, and relative humidity (RH) on the growth of P. paneum OM1, which was isolated from pears, and its patulin production. The fungal strain showed the highest growth rate at 25 °C and pH 4.5 on pear puree agar medium (PPAM) under 97 % RH, while it produced the highest amount of patulin at 20 °C and pH 4.5 on PPAM under 97 % RH. Moreover, RT-qPCR analysis of relative expression levels of 5 patulin biosynthetic genes (patA, patE, patK, patL, and patN) in P. paneum OM1 exhibited that the expression of the 4 patulin biosynthetic genes except patL was up-regulated in YES medium (patulin conducive), while it was not in PDB medium (patulin non-conducive). Our data demonstrated that the 3 major environmental parameters had significant impact on the growth of P. paneum OM1 and its patulin production. These results could be exploited to prevent patulin contamination by P. paneum OM1 during pear storage.


Assuntos
Patulina , Penicillium , Pyrus , Meios de Cultura/química , Umidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Patulina/biossíntese , Patulina/metabolismo , Penicillium/metabolismo , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Pyrus/microbiologia , Temperatura
4.
Methods Enzymol ; 699: 1-23, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38942500

RESUMO

Terpenes comprise the largest class of natural products and are used in applications spanning the areas of medicine, cosmetics, fuels, flavorings, and more. Copalyl diphosphate synthase from the Penicillium genus is the first bifunctional terpene synthase identified to have both prenyltransferase and class II cyclase activities within the same polypeptide chain. Prior studies of bifunctional terpene synthases reveal that these systems achieve greater catalytic efficiency by channeling geranylgeranyl diphosphate between the prenyltransferase and cyclase domains. A molecular-level understanding of substrate transit phenomena in these systems is highly desirable, but a long disordered polypeptide segment connecting the prenyltranferase and cyclase domains thwarts the crystallization of full-length enzymes. Accordingly, these systems are excellent candidates for structural analysis using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). Notably, these systems form hexameric or octameric oligomers, so the quaternary structure of the full-length enzyme may influence substrate transit between catalytic domains. Here, we describe methods for the preparation of bifunctional hexameric copalyl diphosphate synthase from Penicillium fellutanum (PfCPS). We also outline approaches for the preparation of cryo-EM grids, data collection, and data processing to yield two-dimensional and three-dimensional reconstructions.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Penicillium , Penicillium/enzimologia , Alquil e Aril Transferases/química , Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/isolamento & purificação , Microscopia Crioeletrônica/métodos , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Diterpenos/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/metabolismo , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/química , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/genética , Dimetilaliltranstransferase/isolamento & purificação
5.
Food Microbiol ; 122: 104532, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839238

RESUMO

Penicillium spp. produce a great variety of secondary metabolites, including several mycotoxins, on food substrates. Chestnuts represent a favorable substrate for Penicillium spp. development. In this study, the genomes of ten Penicillium species, virulent on chestnuts, were sequenced and annotated: P. bialowiezense. P. pancosmium, P. manginii, P. discolor, P. crustosum, P. palitans, P. viridicatum, P. glandicola, P. taurinense and P. terrarumae. Assembly size ranges from 27.5 to 36.8 Mb and the number of encoded genes ranges from 9,867 to 12,520. The total number of predicted biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in the ten species is 551. The most represented families of BGCs are non ribosomal peptide synthase (191) and polyketide synthase (175), followed by terpene synthases (87). Genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes) were reconstructed for each of the newly sequenced Penicillium species allowing for the prediction of orthologous relationships among our species, as well as other 20 annotated Penicillium species available in the public domain. We investigated in silico the presence of BGCs for 10 secondary metabolites, including 5 mycotoxins, whose production was validated in vivo through chemical analyses. Among the clusters present in this set of species we found andrastin A and its related cluster atlantinone A, mycophenolic acid, patulin, penitrem A and the cluster responsible for the synthesis of roquefortine C/glandicoline A/glandicoline B/meleagrin. We confirmed the presence of these clusters in several of the Penicillium species conforming our dataset and verified their capacity to synthesize them in a chestnut-based medium with chemical analysis. Interestingly, we identified mycotoxin clusters in some species for the first time, such as the andrastin A cluster in P. flavigenum and P. taurinense, and the roquefortine C cluster in P. nalgiovense and P. taurinense. Chestnuts proved to be an optimal substrate for species of Penicillium with different mycotoxigenic potential, opening the door to risks related to the occurrence of multiple mycotoxins in the same food matrix.


Assuntos
Genoma Fúngico , Família Multigênica , Micotoxinas , Penicillium , Filogenia , Metabolismo Secundário , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Micotoxinas/genética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Patulina/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Nozes/microbiologia , Policetídeo Sintases/genética , Policetídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Corylus/microbiologia , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Indóis , Piperazinas
6.
Mar Drugs ; 22(6)2024 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38921547

RESUMO

Clavatols exhibit a wide range of biological activities due to their diverse structures. A genome mining strategy identified an A5cla cluster from Penicillium sp. MYA5, derived from the Arctic plant Dryas octopetala, is responsible for clavatol biosynthesis. Seven clavatols, including one new clavatol derivate named penicophenone F (1) and six known clavatols (2-7), were isolated from Penicillium sp. MYA5 using a transcriptome mining strategy. These structures were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis. Antibacterial, aldose reductase inhibition, and siderophore-producing ability assays were conducted on compounds 1-7. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated inhibitory effects on the ALR2 enzyme with inhibition rates of 75.3% and 71.6% at a concentration of 10 µM, respectively. Compound 6 exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with MIC values of 4.0 µg/mL and 4.0 µg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compounds 1, 5, and 6 also showed potential iron-binding ability.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Penicillium , Staphylococcus aureus , Penicillium/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Genômica/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Transcriptoma , Regiões Árticas , Sideróforos/farmacologia , Aldeído Redutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aldeído Redutase/genética
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 273(Pt 1): 133109, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38871099

RESUMO

Green (Penicillium digitatum) mold can severely endanger the citrus fruits production and quality. Targeting the protection of lemon fruits from green mold infestations with nanobiotechnology approach, the fenugreek seed mucilage (FM) was extracted and exploited for biosynthesis of selenium (SeNPs) nanoparticles; their nanocomposites (NCs) with chitosan (CT) was constructed and employed as antifungal materials and edible coating (ECs) to protect lemon fruits against green mold. The nanoparticles formation and conjugations were verified by infrared (FTIR) analysis and electron microscopy. The FM-synthesized SeNPs had particles average of 8.35 nm, were the NCs of them with CT had size mean of 49.33 nm and charged with +22.8 mV. The CT/FM/SeNPs composite exhibited superior antifungal actions toward P. digitatum isolates, up to 32.2 mm inhibition diameter and 12.5 mg/mL inhibitory concentration, which exceeded the actions of imazilil. The microscopic screening of exposed P. digitatum to NCs clarified their mycelial destructive action within 30 h. The coating of infected lemons with fabricated NCs led to complete elimination of green mold development after 10 days of coating, without any infestation remarks. The innovative fabrication of NCs from CT/FM/SeNPs is strongly suggested to protect citrus crops from green mold and preserve fruits quality.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Citrus , Nanocompostos , Mucilagem Vegetal , Sementes , Selênio , Trigonella , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Nanocompostos/química , Citrus/química , Citrus/microbiologia , Sementes/química , Trigonella/química , Selênio/química , Selênio/farmacologia , Mucilagem Vegetal/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 421: 110801, 2024 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38924974

RESUMO

Blue cheeses, including renowned mold-ripened varieties such as Roquefort (France), Gorgonzola (Italy), Stilton (UK), Danablue (Denmark), and Cabrales (Spain), owe their distinct blue-green color and unique flavor to the fungal species Penicillium roqueforti. In Turkey, traditional cheeses similar to blue cheeses, namely mold-ripened Tulum and Civil, employ production techniques distinct from their European counterparts. Notably, mold-ripening in Turkish cheeses is spontaneous and does not involve starter cultures. Despite P. roqueforti being recognized for its distinct genetic populations sourced from various blue cheeses and non-cheese origins globally, the characteristics of the P. roqueforti population within Turkish cheeses remain unexplored. This study aimed to unravel the genetic characteristics and population structure of P. roqueforti from Turkish mold-ripened cheeses. Analysis of mold-ripened Civil (n = 22) and Tulum (n = 8) samples revealed 66 P. roqueforti isolates (76.6 % of total fungal isolates). Subsequently, these isolates (n = 66) and those from previous studies (Tulum n = 53, Golot n = 1) were used to assess genetic characteristics and mating genotypes. All 120 isolates harbored horizontal transfer regions (Wallaby and CheesyTer) and predominantly possessed the MAT1-2 mating genotype, similar to global blue cheese populations. However, most lacked the mpaC deletion associated with such populations. Analysis of the population with three polymorphic microsatellite markers revealed 36 haplotypes (HTs). Some cheeses contained isolates with different HTs or opposite mating genotypes, aligning with spontaneous fungal growth. Tulum and Civil isolates exhibited similar population diversity without forming distinct subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of 20 selected isolates showed 75 % aligning with global blue cheese isolates, while 25 % formed unique clades. Overall, Turkish P. roqueforti isolates share genetic similarities with global populations but exhibit unique characteristics, suggesting potential new clades deserving further investigation. This research illuminates the characteristics of P. roqueforti isolates from Turkish cheeses, contributing to the knowledge of the global intraspecific diversity of the P. roqueforti species.


Assuntos
Queijo , Variação Genética , Penicillium , Queijo/microbiologia , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/classificação , Turquia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genótipo , Filogenia
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 327, 2024 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38922442

RESUMO

Lignocellulose biomass raw materials have a high value in energy conversion. Recently, there has been growing interest in using microorganisms to secret a series of enzymes for converting low-cost biomass into high-value products such as biofuels. We previously isolated a strain of Penicillium oxalicun 5-18 with promising lignocellulose-degrading capability. However, the mechanisms of lignocellulosic degradation of this fungus on various substrates are still unclear. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide profiling and comparative analysis of strain 5-18 cultivated in liquid media with glucose (Glu), xylan (Xyl) or wheat bran (WB) as sole carbon source. In comparison to Glu culture, the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) induced by WB and Xyl was 4134 and 1484, respectively, with 1176 and 868 genes upregulated. Identified DEGs were enriched in many of the same pathways in both comparison groups (WB vs. Glu and Xly vs. Glu). Specially, 118 and 82 CAZyme coding genes were highly upregulated in WB and Xyl cultures, respectively. Some specific pathways including (Hemi)cellulose metabolic processes were enriched in both comparison groups. The high upregulation of these genes also confirmed the ability of strain 5-18 to degrade lignocellulose. Co-expression and co-upregulated of genes encoding CE and AA CAZy families, as well as other (hemi)cellulase revealed a complex degradation strategy in this strain. Our findings provide new insights into critical genes, key pathways and enzyme arsenal involved in the biomass degradation of P. oxalicum 5-18.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lignina , Penicillium , Transcriptoma , Xilanos , Penicillium/genética , Penicillium/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Glucose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(26): 18172-18183, 2024 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38888159

RESUMO

Crosstalk-oriented chemical evolution of natural products (NPs) is an efficacious strategy for generating novel skeletons through coupling reactions between NP fragments. In this study, two NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibitors, sorbremnoids A and B (1 and 2), with unprecedented chemical architectures were identified from a fungus Penicillium citrinum. Compounds 1 and 2 exemplify rare instances of hybrid NPs formed via a major facilitator superfamily (MFS)-like enzyme by coupling reactive intermediates from two separate biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs), pcisor and pci56. Both sorbremnoids A and B are NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors. Sorbremnoid A demonstrated strong inhibition of IL-1ß by directly binding to the NLRP3 protein, inhibiting the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro, with potential application in diabetic refractory wound healing through the suppression of excessive inflammatory responses. This research will inspire the development of anti-NLRP3 inflammasome agents as lead treatments and enhance knowledge pertaining to NPs derived from biosynthetic crosstalk.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Penicillium , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Penicillium/metabolismo , Penicillium/química , Humanos , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Estrutura Molecular
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1355094, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38915753

RESUMO

Introduction: The presence of the Penicillium section Aspergilloides (formerly known as Penicillium glabrum) in the cork industry involves the risk of respiratory diseases such as suberosis. Methods: The aim of this study was to corroborate the predominant fungi present in this occupational environment by performing a mycological analysis of 360 workers' nasal exudates collected by nasal swabs. Additionally, evaluation of respiratory disorders among the cork workers was also performed by spirometry. Results: Penicillium section Aspergilloides was detected by qPCR in 37 out of the 360 nasal swabs collected from workers' samples. From those, 25 remained negative for Penicillium sp. when using culture-based methods. A significant association was found between ventilatory defects and years of work in the cork industry, with those people working for 10 or more years in this industry having an approximately two-fold increased risk of having ventilatory defects compared to those working less time in this setting. Among the workers who detected the presence of Penicillium section Aspergilloides, those with symptoms presented slightly higher average values of CFU. Discussion: Overall, the results obtained in this study show that working in the cork industry may have adverse effects on worker's respiratory health. Nevertheless, more studies are needed (e.g., using serological assays) to clarify the impact of each risk factor (fungi and dust) on disease etiology.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Penicillium , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Portugal , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Espirometria , Indústrias
12.
Steroids ; 208: 109449, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38851553

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum SCNU-F0048 led to the discovery of two new steroids, ergosta-4,6,8 (14),22-tetraen-3-(3'-methyl-4'-hydroxyl-γ-butenolide) (1) and camphosterol B (2), as well as two known compounds, i.e. stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3) and 4-hydroxy-17- methylincisterol (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive nuclear mangnetic resonance, spectrum analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Bioassay disclosed that compound 1 showed strong cytotoxicity to a panel of tumor cell lines. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 showed excellent antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum with IC50 values of 0.016 and 0.022 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Esteroides , Trichoderma , Esteroides/química , Esteroides/farmacologia , Humanos , Trichoderma/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/química , Conformação Molecular , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais
13.
Phytochemistry ; 225: 114202, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38944099

RESUMO

The genus Penicillium has provided us with the household antibiotic penicillin and the well-known lipid-lowering agent mevastatin. The strain Penicillium sp. SZ-1 was found to grow vigorously in an intact Pinus koraiensis seed, it is inferred that the strain may develop unique mechanisms associated with the biosynthesis of rare metabolites. Further fermentation of the strain on solid rice medium yielded thirteen undescribed compounds, including three andrastin-type meroterpenoids (1-3), two α-pyrone polyketides (4 and 5), and eight sesquicarane derivatives (6-13), along with seven known compounds (14-20). Their structures were determined by detailed analysis of the spectroscopic and spectrometric data (NMR and HRESIMS), in addition to comparisons of the experimental and calculated ECD data for absolute configurational assignments. The hemiacetal moiety in compounds 1 and 2 and the 3α-hydroxy group in compound 3 were rarely found in the andrastin-type meroterpenoid family. The sesquicaranes belong to a small group of sesquiterpenoid that are rarely reported. Bioassay study showed that compound 1 exhibited inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 with MIC values of 64 and 32 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 displayed weak DPPH radical scavenging activities. The andrastins and sesquicaranes in this study enriched the structural diversity of these classes of terpenoids. Of note, this study is the first report on the metabolites of a fungus isolated from P. koraiensis seed.


Assuntos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicillium , Pinus , Policetídeos , Sementes , Terpenos , Pinus/microbiologia , Pinus/química , Penicillium/química , Sementes/química , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Policetídeos/química , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Policetídeos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Pironas/química , Pironas/farmacologia , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
J Food Drug Anal ; 32(2): 184-193, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38934688

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1, a major global food safety concern, is produced by toxigenic fungi during crop growing, drying, and storage, and shows increasing annual prevalence. This study aimed to detect aflatoxin B1 in chili samples using ATR-FTIR coupled with machine learning algorithms. We found that 83.6% of the chili powder samples were contaminated with Aspergillus and Penicillium species, with aflatoxin B1 levels ranging from 7.63 to 44.32 µg/kg. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in the fingerprint region (1800-400 cm-1) showed peak intensity variation in the bands at 1587, 1393, and 1038 cm-1, which are mostly related to aflatoxin B1 structure. The PCA plots from samples with different trace amounts of aflatoxin B1 could not be separated. Vibrational spectroscopy combined with machine learning was applied to address this issue. The logistic regression model had the best F1 score with the highest %accuracy (73%), %sensitivity (73%), and %specificity (71%), followed by random forest and support vector machine models. Although the logistic regression model contributed significant findings, this study represents a laboratory research project. Because of the peculiarities of the ATR-FTIR spectral measurements, the spectra measured for several batches may differ, necessitating running the model on multiple spectral ranges and using increased sample sizes in subsequent applications. This proposed method has the potential to provide rapid and accurate results and may be valuable in future applications regarding toxin detection in foods when simple onsite testing is required.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Aspergillus , Capsicum , Contaminação de Alimentos , Capsicum/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aspergillus/química , Pós/química , Penicillium/química
15.
J Nat Prod ; 87(6): 1643-1651, 2024 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848113

RESUMO

Five cyclopenta[d]pyrano[4,3-b]pyran-1,7(6H)-dione 6/6/5-fused tricyclic ring system containing metabolites peniapyrones A-E (1-5), and four previously undescribed cyclopenta[4,5]furo[3,2-c]pyran-1-one 6/5/5-fused tricyclic ring system containing compounds peniapyrones F-I (6-9), were isolated from the endophytic Penicillium brefeldianum F4a. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined through spectroscopic analysis and quantum chemical calculations. Peniapyrones D (4) and E (5) were a pair of diastereoisomers. Compounds 1, 3, and 5-9 showed cytotoxic activity against AsPC-1, CRL-2234, and MCF-7 cancer cell lines. Compounds 1, 3, 6, 8, and 9 inhibited the Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue (KRAS) mutant AsPC-1 cell line.


Assuntos
Penicillium , Pironas , Pironas/química , Pironas/farmacologia , Pironas/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral
16.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 3712024 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849297

RESUMO

Biogenic coalbed methane (CBM) is a developing clean energy source. However, it is unclear how the mechanisms of bio-methane production with different sizes of coal. In this work, pulverized coal (PC) and lump coal (LC) were used for methane production by mixed fungi-methanogen microflora. The lower methane production from LC was observed. The aromatic carbon of coal was degraded slightly by 2.17% in LC, while 11.28% in PC. It is attributed to the proportion of lignin-degrading fungi, especially Penicillium, which was reached 67.57% in PC on the 7th day, higher than that of 11.38% in LC. The results suggested that the limited interaction area in LC led to microorganisms hardly utilize aromatics. It also led the accumulation of aromatic organics in the fermentation broth in PC. Increasing the reaction area of coal and facilitating the conversion of aromatic carbon are suggested means to increase methane production in situ.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Mineral , Fungos , Lignina , Metano , Metano/metabolismo , Carvão Mineral/microbiologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Lignina/metabolismo , Fermentação , Penicillium/metabolismo
17.
BMC Microbiol ; 24(1): 209, 2024 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877423

RESUMO

Fungi can spoil the majority of baked products. Spoilage of cake during storage is commonly associated with fungi. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the quality of different types of cakes sold in the market. The most predominant fungal genera in the tested cake samples (14 samples) were Aspergillus spp., and Penicillium spp. On Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), the medium fungal total count was 43.3 colonies /g. Aspergillus was the most dominant genus and was isolated from six samples of cake. Aspergillus was represented by 3 species namely, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. nidulans, represented by 13.32, 19.99, and 3.33 colonies /g respectively. On Malt Extract Agar (MEA) Medium, the fungal total count was 123.24 colonies / g. Aspergillus was the most dominant isolated genus from 11 samples of cake and was represented by 5 species, namely, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceous, A. terreus, and A. versicolor (26. 65, 63.29, 3.33, 6.66, and 3.33 colonies / g , respectively). Twenty-four isolates (88.88 %) of the total tested twenty-seven filamentous fungi showed positive results for amylase production. Ten isolates (37.03%) of the total tested filamentous fungi showed positive results for lipase production, and finally eleven isolates (40.74 %) of the total fungal isolates showed positive results for protease production. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and ochratoxin A were not detected in fourteen collected samples of cake. In this study, clove oil was the best choice overpeppermint oil and olive oil for preventing mold development when natural agents were compared. It might be due to the presence of a varietyof bioactive chemical compounds in clove oil, whose major bioactive component is eugenol, which acts as an antifungal reagent. Therefore, freshly baked cake should be consumed within afew days to avoid individuals experiencing foodborne illnesses.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos , Micotoxinas , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/genética , Micotoxinas/análise , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/enzimologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Aflatoxinas/análise , Lipase/metabolismo , Amilases/metabolismo , Amilases/análise
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 605, 2024 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND PAECILOMYCES: and Penicillium are considered as rare opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised hosts, and pneumonia caused by Paecilomyces and Penicillium is rare. In this study, we present first case of severe pneumonia with pleural effusion caused by co-infection of Paecilomyces variotii (P. variotii) and Penicillium oxalicum (P. oxalicum) in a 66-year-old female with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old woman patient presented to hospital for nausea, poor appetite, and vomiting for one day. On the second day of admission, blood culture and renal puncture fluid culture grew multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (imipenem/cilastatin sensitive), and she received combination therapy with imipenem/cilastatin (1 g, every 8 h) and vancomycin (0.5 g, every 12 h). On the fourth day, she developed symptoms of respiratory failure. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) showed an increase in pneumonia compared to before, with minor pleural effusion on both sides. Two fungi were isolated repeatedly from BALF culture, which were confirmed as P. variotii and P. oxalicum by Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Her pleural effusion was completely absorbed, pneumonia symptoms have significantly improved and discharged with receiving liposomal amphotericin B treatment for four weeks. CONCLUSIONS: It is worth noting that clinicians and laboratory personnel should not simply consider Paecilomyces and Penicillium species as contaminants, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early fungal identification and antifungal drug sensitivity are crucial for clinical drug selection and patient prognosis.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Paecilomyces , Penicillium , Derrame Pleural , Humanos , Feminino , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Derrame Pleural/microbiologia , Derrame Pleural/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Paecilomyces/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 420: 110769, 2024 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38823189

RESUMO

The study prepared and used eugenol nanoemulsion loaded with nobiletin as fungistat to study its antifungal activity and potential mechanism of Penicillium italicum (P. italicum). The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eugenol nanoemulsion loaded with nobiletin (EGN) was lower than that of pure eugenol nanoemulsion (EG), which were 160 µg/mL and 320 µg/mL, respectively. At the same time, the mycelial growth inhibition rate of EGN nanoemulsion (54.68 %) was also higher than that of EG nanoemulsion (9.92 %). This indicates that EGN nanoemulsion is more effective than EG nanoemulsion. Compared with EG nanoemulsion, the treatment of EGN nanoemulsion caused more serious damage to the cell structure of P. italicum. At the same time, in vitro inoculation experiments found that EGN nanoemulsion has better control and delay the growth and reproduction of P. italicum in citrus fruits. And the results reflected that EGN nanoemulsion may be considered as potential resouces of natural antiseptic to inhibit blue mold disease of citrus fruits, because it has good antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Citrus , Emulsões , Eugenol , Flavonas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicillium , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eugenol/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Emulsões/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química
20.
Food Res Int ; 189: 114482, 2024 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38876611

RESUMO

The potential biopreservative role of a Type III sourdough (tIII-SD), produced by starter cultures of Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum ATCC 8014, was assessed for its antifungal activity in baking applications. Fermentation was carried out using different substrates to enhance the production of antifungal metabolites for 24 and 48 h. The tIII-SD samples were analyzed in relation to pH, total titratable acidity (TTA) and the production of organic acids. The water/salt-soluble extract of the tIII-SD was evaluated in relation to the inhibition potential against key fungi that contaminate bakery products including Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger. Finally, breads with 10 % of the tIII-SD were prepared and the fungi contamination was evaluated throughout the shelf life period. The lowest pH value in sourdough was obtained from 48-hour fermentation by L. plantarum. The saline extracts exhibited varying degrees of inhibition in the in vitro test; however, the greatest enhancement of this effect was obtained when whole wheat grain flour was used. The tIII-SD crafted from a blend of wheat and flaxseed flours and fermented with F. sanfranciscensis for 48 h (BSWF48h-FS), demonstrated superior performance compared to other formulations. This variant exhibited a total shelf life of 10 days, suggesting that the utilization of tIII-SD could serve as a viable alternative for natural antifungal agents, proving beneficial for the bakery industry.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Pão , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Pão/microbiologia , Pão/análise , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Penicillium/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Farinha/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , Penicillium chrysogenum , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo
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