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1.
South Med J ; 115(10): 745-751, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe, using a statewide trauma registry, the incidence, trends, and injuries for tree stand falls while deer hunting in Pennsylvania. METHODS: Falls from tree stands were abstracted from the Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation registry (1990-2017) and combined with the number of licensed deer hunters, deer hunting days, and deer hunting-related shooting incidents (HRSIs) provided by the Pennsylvania Game Commission to calculate tree stand fall and HRSI rates (per 1 million deer hunting days) and age-group specific fall rates (per 100,000 licensed deer hunters). Poisson regression was used to assess the significance of the annual and age group rate trends (significance P < 0.05). Case fatality rate (percentage of number of deaths per number of injured hunters) also was calculated. RESULTS: There were 1229 victims of tree stand falls and 560 victims of HRSIs between 1990 and 2017. Fall rates increased from 1.5 to 10.4 (P < 0.0001), and HRSI rates decreased from 4.9 to 1.2 (P = 0.001). Fall rates surpassed HRSI rates in 1999 and increased with advancing age (P = 0.007), peaking at 7.2 for hunters aged 50 to 59 years. Most (77%) injured hunters sustained multiple injuries. The case fatality rate was only 0.8%, but 26% of the injured hunters had a dependent functional limitation at hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Tree stand falls are now the leading cause of Pennsylvania deer hunting accidents. Fall victims usually sustain multiple nonfatal but often disabling injuries. Study findings support the need for surveillance of these accidents and additional tree stand safety education.


Assuntos
Cervos , Árvores , Animais , Humanos , Caça , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Recreação
2.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 13: 21501319221129734, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226444

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVES: Medical cannabis programs across the country vary and differ in their qualifying conditions for medical cannabis use. This has led to a gap in knowledge regarding the specific needs of cannabis patients, including the most common reason patients seek medical cannabis. The purpose of this study was to examine the current needs of medical cannabis patients in order to better inform future research, and to evaluate potential needs in policy changes in states with more restrictive qualifying conditions for medical cannabis use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was administered (n = 207) at a Laurel Harvest Labs dispensary in Pennsylvania. Participants were qualified medical cannabis users and were recruited as a convenience sample when entering the dispensary. The survey asked questions regarding participant demographics, medical cannabis qualifying conditions, usage, methods of administration, adverse effects, tolerance, and impact of medical cannabis on medication, alcohol, and tobacco use. Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were conducted for analyses involving categorical data. RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 36.7 years (SD = 12.8), and the majority were male (61.4%) and white (84.7%). Respondents self-reported that anxiety disorder was the most common qualifying medical condition and the most common comorbid condition (50.1%; 69.3%) for medical cannabis use. Additionally, approximately 95% of users reported having no adverse effects from using medical cannabis, and 90% of users preferred inhalation through vaporization as the preferred method of consumption. More than 50% of participants reported an improvement in their symptoms where only 20% of users reported being tolerant to their current dose. More than 70% of respondents reported that obtaining medical cannabis was "easy" and 54% of users reported that the cost of medical cannabis was not a barrier to access. CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety disorder is a prevalent condition for which medical cannabis is used; however, many states do not recognize anxiety disorder as a qualifying condition for medical cannabis. Further research on medical cannabis use for anxiety disorders is needed to evaluate proper dosing and responses to treatment.


Assuntos
Maconha Medicinal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Obstet Gynecol ; 140(5): 812-819, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36201778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there are associations between driving distance from the patient residence to the delivery hospital and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study using 2011-2015 Pennsylvania birth records of live births at 20 weeks of gestation or more, excluding inpatient hospital transfers or implausible distances. The shortest driving distance from patient residence to the delivery hospital was calculated in ArcGIS and was evaluated in association with a composite of adverse maternal outcomes (blood transfusion, unplanned operation, ruptured uterus, unplanned hysterectomy, or intensive care unit admission) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Multivariable-adjusted Poisson models were used to estimate relative risks with 95% CIs with a referent difference of 1 km distance to the delivery hospital. RESULTS: A total 662,245 birth records were included, and the median driving distance to the hospital was 11.3 km (interquartile range 5.4-21.6 km). The overall rate of the composite maternal outcome was 0.6% and of NICU admission was 8.4%. Compared with the referent distance, increasing driving distance was significantly associated with increased adjusted risks of the maternal composite outcome (adjusted relative risk [aRR] 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.36 for 60 km; aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.53 for 70 km; and 1.53, 95% CI 1.31-1.75 for 80 km) and NICU admission (aRR 1.70, 95% CI 1.65-1.76 for 60 km; aRR 1.96, 95% CI 1.90-2.02 for 70 km; and aRR 2.25, 95% CI 2.18-2.33 for 80 km). CONCLUSION: Longer distances to the delivery hospital were associated with greater risk of adverse maternal outcomes and NICU admission. Whether these findings reflect health care delivery deficits or simply serve as a marker of social deprivation requires further study.


Assuntos
Maternidades , Nascido Vivo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274758, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112581

RESUMO

Evaluation of geographic disparities in type 2 diabetes (T2D) onset requires multidimensional approaches at a relevant spatial scale to characterize community types and features that could influence this health outcome. Using Geisinger electronic health records (2008-2016), we conducted a nested case-control study of new onset T2D in a 37-county area of Pennsylvania. The study included 15,888 incident T2D cases and 79,435 controls without diabetes, frequency-matched 1:5 on age, sex, and year of diagnosis or encounter. We characterized patients' residential census tracts by four dimensions of social determinants of health (SDOH) and into a 7-category SDOH census tract typology previously generated for the entire United States by dimension reduction techniques. Finally, because the SDOH census tract typology classified 83% of the study region's census tracts into two heterogeneous categories, termed rural affordable-like and suburban affluent-like, to further delineate geographies relevant to T2D, we subdivided these two typology categories by administrative community types (U.S. Census Bureau minor civil divisions of township, borough, city). We used generalized estimating equations to examine associations of 1) four SDOH indexes, 2) SDOH census tract typology, and 3) modified typology, with odds of new onset T2D, controlling for individual-level confounding variables. Two SDOH dimensions, higher socioeconomic advantage and higher mobility (tracts with fewer seniors and disabled adults) were independently associated with lower odds of T2D. Compared to rural affordable-like as the reference group, residence in tracts categorized as extreme poverty (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.11 [1.02, 1.21]) or multilingual working (1.07 [1.03, 1.23]) were associated with higher odds of new onset T2D. Suburban affluent-like was associated with lower odds of T2D (0.92 [0.87, 0.97]). With the modified typology, the strongest association (1.37 [1.15, 1.63]) was observed in cities in the suburban affluent-like category (vs. rural affordable-like-township), followed by cities in the rural affordable-like category (1.20 [1.05, 1.36]). We conclude that in evaluating geographic disparities in T2D onset, it is beneficial to conduct simultaneous evaluation of SDOH in multiple dimensions. Associations with the modified typology showed the importance of incorporating governmentally, behaviorally, and experientially relevant community definitions when evaluating geographic health disparities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
5.
Theriogenology ; 192: 52-61, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049382

RESUMO

Nocardioform placentitis (NP) has been associated with mid to late pregnancy loss in mares. To date, disease outbreaks have been described only in central Kentucky, although sporadic, isolated cases have been reported globally. This study describes a series of cases of NP that occurred in a sample population of 299 mares foaling in southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland in 2020. These cases coincided with an outbreak of NP that occurred in Kentucky that same year. On farms that reported information on both normal and abnormal foalings, nocardioform organisms/DNA were isolated from 6.3% of placental samples based on aerobic culture and/or PCR. In cases with characteristic gross lesions of the chorion, 41% of cases were positive on aerobic culture and/or PCR. NP was confirmed in 16 mares that had not resided in Kentucky for breeding or any part of gestation. Characteristics of mares confirmed positive for NP, including age, gestation length, and problems during gestation are described. Standardbred mares bred by artificial insemination were less likely to be affected than Thoroughbred mares bred by natural cover. Affected mares had prolonged Stage III labor compared with normal mares. These findings suggest that regional increases in NP may occur outside of Kentucky, potentially in parallel with Kentucky outbreaks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Doenças Placentárias , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Placenta/patologia , Doenças Placentárias/veterinária , Gravidez
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 93(6): 786-792, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher center-level operative volume is associated with lower mortality after complex elective surgeries, but this relationship has not been robustly demonstrated for operative trauma. We hypothesized that trauma centers in Pennsylvania with higher operative trauma volumes would have lower risk-adjusted mortality rates than lower volume institutions. METHODS: We queried the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study database (2017-2019) for injured patients 18 years or older at Level I and II trauma centers who underwent an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10), procedure code -defined operative procedure within 6 hours of admission. The primary exposure was tertile of center-level operative volume. The primary outcome of interest was inpatient mortality. We entered factors associated with mortality in univariate analysis (age, injury severity, mechanism, physiology) into multivariable logistic regression models with tertiles of volume accounting for center-level clustering. We conducted secondary analyses varying the form of the association between the volume and mortality to including dichotomous and fractional polynomial models. RESULTS: We identified 3,650 patients at 29 centers meeting the inclusion criteria. Overall mortality was 15.9% (center-level range, 6.7-34.2%). Operative procedure types were cardiopulmonary (7.3%), vascular (20.1%), abdominopelvic (24.3%), and multiple (48.3%). The mean annual operative volume over the 3 years of data was 10 to 21 operations for low-volume centers, 22 to 47 for medium-volume centers, and 47 to 158 for high-volume centers. After controlling for patient demographics, physiology, and injury characteristics, there was no significant difference in mortality between highest and lowest tertile centers (odds ratio, 0.92; confidence interval, 0.57-1.49). Secondary analyses similarly demonstrated no relationship between center operative volume and mortality in key procedure subgroups. CONCLUSION: In a mature trauma system, we found no association between center-level operative volume and mortality for patients who required early operative intervention for trauma. Efforts to standardize the care of seriously injured patients in Pennsylvania may ensure that even lower-volume centers are prepared to generate satisfactory outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological; Level III.


Assuntos
Centros de Traumatologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Mortalidade Hospitalar
7.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272954, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044529

RESUMO

We performed whole genome sequencing on SARS-CoV-2 from 59 vaccinated individuals from southwest Pennsylvania who tested positive between February and September, 2021. A comparison of mutations among vaccine breakthrough cases to a time-matched control group identified potential adaptive responses of SARS-CoV-2 to vaccination.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas Virais , Anticorpos Antivirais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Genômica , Humanos , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética
8.
mBio ; 13(5): e0210122, 2022 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000731

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic began by viral spillover from animals to humans; today multiple animal species are known to be susceptible to infection. White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are infected in North America at substantial levels, and genomic data suggests that a variant in deer may have spilled back to humans. Here, we characterize SARS-CoV-2 in deer from Pennsylvania (PA) sampled during fall and winter 2021. Of 123 nasal swab samples analyzed by RT-qPCR, 20 (16.3%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Seven whole genome sequences were obtained, together with six more partial spike gene sequences. These annotated as alpha and delta variants, the first reported observations of these lineages in deer, documenting multiple new jumps from humans to deer. The alpha lineage persisted in deer after its displacement by delta in humans, and deer-derived alpha variants diverged significantly from those in humans, consistent with a distinctive evolutionary trajectory in deer. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses have been documented to replicate in numerous species of vertebrates, and multiple spillovers of coronaviruses from animals into humans have founded human epidemics. The COVID-19 epidemic likely derived from a spillover of SARS-CoV-2 from bats into humans, possibly via an intermediate host. There are now several examples of SARS-CoV-2 jumping from humans into other mammals, including mink and deer, creating the potential for new animal reservoirs from which spillback into humans could occur. For this reason, data on formation of new animal reservoirs is of great importance for understanding possible sources of future infection. Here, we identify extensive infection in white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania, including what appear to be multiple independent transmissions. Data further suggests possible transmission among deer. These data thus help identify a potential new animal reservoir and provide background information relevant to its management.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cervos , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/veterinária
9.
J Perinatol ; 42(12): 1600-1606, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35963889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare rural obstetric patient and neonate characteristics and outcomes by birth location. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of rural residents' hospital births from California, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. Hospitals in rural counties were rural-located, those in metropolitan counties with ≥10% of obstetric patients from rural communities were rural-serving, metropolitan-located, others were non-rural-serving, metropolitan-located. Any adverse obstetric patient or neonatal outcomes were assessed with logistic regression accounting for patient characteristics, state, year, and hospital. RESULTS: Of 466,896 rural patient births, 64.3% occurred in rural-located, 22.5% in rural-serving, metropolitan-located, and 13.1% in non-rural-serving, metropolitan-located hospitals. The odds of any adverse outcome increased in rural-serving (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.10-1.46) and non-rural-serving (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.55) metropolitan-located hospitals. CONCLUSION: One-third of rural obstetric patients received care in metropolitan-located hospitals. These patients have higher comorbidity rates and higher odds of adverse outcomes likely reflecting referral for higher baseline illness severity.


Assuntos
Hospitais Urbanos , População Rural , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravidade do Paciente , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(8): 87001, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35975995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) releases chemicals that have been linked to cancer and childhood leukemia. Studies of UOGD exposure and childhood leukemia are extremely limited. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between residential proximity to UOGD and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common form of childhood leukemia, in a large regional sample using UOGD-specific metrics, including a novel metric to represent the water pathway. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based case-control study of 405 children ages 2-7 y diagnosed with ALL in Pennsylvania between 2009-2017, and 2,080 controls matched on birth year. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between residential proximity to UOGD (including a new water pathway-specific proximity metric) and ALL in two exposure windows: a primary window (3 months preconception to 1 y prior to diagnosis/reference date) and a perinatal window (preconception to birth). RESULTS: Children with at least one UOG well within 2km of their birth residence during the primary window had 1.98 times the odds of developing ALL in comparison with those with no UOG wells [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 3.69]. Children with at least one vs. no UOG wells within 2km during the perinatal window had 2.80 times the odds of developing ALL (95% CI: 1.11, 7.05). These relationships were slightly attenuated after adjusting for maternal race and socio-economic status [odds ratio (OR) =1.74 (95% CI: 0.93, 3.27) and OR=2.35 (95% CI: 0.93, 5.95)], respectively). The ORs produced by models using the water pathway-specific metric were similar in magnitude to the aggregate metric. DISCUSSION: Our study including a novel UOGD metric found UOGD to be a risk factor for childhood ALL. This work adds to mounting evidence of UOGD's impacts on children's health, providing additional support for limiting UOGD near residences. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11092.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Água
11.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 238: 109555, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pennsylvania has one of the highest opioid overdose rates in the US; however, since 2018 approximately 80% of people who experienced an opioid overdose in the state survived. More attention has been paid to opioid overdose mortality despite notable individual and geographic differences in overdose survival. Naloxone is an essential tool in increasing chances of survival after opioid overdose, but its availability and the rate at which it is administered differs by county in Pennsylvania and nationally. METHODS: We use 2018-2020 Pennsylvania Overdose Information Network data on opioid incidents and where they occurred, combined with 2015-2019 American Community Survey data, to evaluate opioid overdose survival and naloxone administration by county over a three-year period. RESULTS: Individuals who received at least one dose of naloxone following overdose had 11 times greater odds of survival. White, middle-aged men were least likely to survive opioid overdose. Both survival and naloxone administration rates differed by county with lower rates in less populated counties. CONCLUSION: Expanding naloxone distribution and administration and ensuring proper education about standing orders for naloxone administration are important tools for addressing opioid overdose mortality.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naloxona/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Opiáceos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia
12.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2022: 422-431, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854746

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has differentially impacted people according to their race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and preexisting conditions. Public health surveillance efforts, especially those occurring early in the pandemic, did not gather nor report adequate individual-level demographic information to identify these differences, and thus, neighborhood-level characteristics were used to note striking disparities in the US. We sought to determine whether risk factors associated with COVID-19 incidence and mortality in five Southeastern Pennsylvania counties could be better understood by using neighborhood-level demographic data augmented with health, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics derived from publicly available sources. Although we found that education level and age of residents were the most salient predictors of COVID-19 incidence and mortality, respectively, neighborhoods exhibited a high degree of segregation with multiple correlated factors, which limits the ability of neighborhood-level analysis to identify actionable factors underlying COVID-19 disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Características da Vizinhança , Pandemias , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Lung Cancer ; 170: 65-73, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35716633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Exposure to outdoor air pollution (OAP) is associated with increased lung cancer incidence, however little is known about the association of OAP and survival after diagnosis. METHODS: We investigated the effects of OAP and lung cancer survival in Pennsylvania using data from Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. The study population consisted of 252,123 patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2017. The Environmental Protection Agency's ambient air monitoring network provided information on OAP exposure of NO2, O3, PM2.5, and PM10. Mean OAP exposures were calculated by interpolating exposure concentrations from the five nearest monitors within a 50-kilometer radius of each patient's residential address from date of diagnosis to date of death or last contact. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) for OAP exposures for overall and lung cancer-specific survival. Statistical analyses were stratified by SEER cancer stage groupings (localized, regional, and distant) and adjusted for individual-level and area-level covariates. RESULTS: Median survival time was 0.76 [CIs: 0.75, 0.77] years for the study population and for localized, regional, and distant site diagnosis were 2.2 [CIs: 2.17, 2.23], 1.13 [CIs: 1.12, 1.15], and 0.42 [CIs: 0.41, 0.43] years, respectively. NO2 indicated the greatest HR which increased with increasing magnitude of exposure across all cancer staging groups for deaths before 2-years post-diagnosis. HRs varied by stage and magnitude of OAP exposure with greatest overall effects shown in NO2 followed by PM2.5, O3, and PM10. A subgroup analysis of patients with treatment status information (2010-2017) showed similar associations of increasing HRs with increasing exposure. CONCLUSION: These findings supported the hypotheses that OAP can influence the carcinogenic process, impairing chemotherapy treatment, and provide important public health implications since environmental factors are not often considered in prognosis of survival after diagnosis.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia
14.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 41: 100439, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691643

RESUMO

We evaluated associations of community types and features with new-onset internalizing disorders among Pennsylvania adolescents to identify the location and scale of risk. Using a nested case-control study, we drew subjects from electronic health records 2008-2016, requiring cases (n = 7974) to have two medication orders or diagnoses indicating an internalizing disorder; controls (n = 31,895) were frequency-matched. Subjects were assigned to three community classifications: townships, boroughs, city census tracts; urbanized areas, urban clusters, rural areas; and a combination. Using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we found that compared to rural-townships, the highest odds were in urban cluster-city census tracts (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.78, 1.41-2.26); lowest in urbanized area-city census tracts (0.85, 0.74-0.97). Higher community socioeconomic deprivation was associated with increased odds in urban clusters (1.21, 1.00-1.48) and higher greenness with decreased odds in urban clusters (0.73, 0.62-0.86).


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , População Rural , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35680172

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes across a 12-month period in 2020 and 2021. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using electronic health records from five academic health systems in Pennsylvania and Maryland, including patients with COVID-19 with type 2 diabetes or at risk of type 2 diabetes. Patients were classified based on 30-day outcomes: (1) no hospitalization; (2) hospitalization only; or (3) a composite measure including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), intubation, or death. Analyses were conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes and patients at risk of type 2 diabetes separately. RESULTS: We included 15 725 patients with COVID-19 diagnoses between March 2020 and February 2021. Older age and higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were associated with higher odds of adverse outcomes, while COVID-19 diagnoses later in the study period were associated with lower odds of severe outcomes. In patients with type 2 diabetes, individuals on insulin treatment had higher odds for ICU/intubation/death (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.99), whereas those on metformin had lower odds (OR=0.56, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.71). Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, Hispanic patients had higher odds of hospitalization in patients with type 2 diabetes (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.36 to 2.19) or at risk of type 2 diabetes (OR=1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18.) CONCLUSIONS: Adults who were older, in racial minority groups, had multiple chronic conditions or were on insulin treatment had higher risks for severe COVID-19 outcomes. This study reinforced the urgency of preventing COVID-19 and its complications in vulnerable populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02788903.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Insulinas , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 57: 138-148, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576794

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends in admission rates and the proportion of admissions via the ED at rural hospitals in Pennsylvania and to identify factors that may impact admission rates. METHODS: We use retrospective, longitudinal data on rural acute care hospitals in Pennsylvania for 2000-19 to investigate temporal patterns in admission rates and the proportion of admissions via the ED. Regression analysis is then used to identify factors that may impact admission rates. RESULTS: In general admission rates, which averaged 14.5%, experienced a gradual decline (Change: -16.9%; from 15.7% to 13%) between 2000 and 2019. The proportion of hospital admissions via the ED, which averaged 64.9%, increased steadily (21%; from 57% to 69%). Critical access hospitals experienced a sharp decline in admissions via the ED (-49.1%) and admission rates (-55.3%). The fixed-effects regression model revealed several hospital- and ED-level characteristics were significantly associated with admission rate. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency departments are the gatekeepers of admissions at rural acute care hospitals in Pennsylvania. Many hospitals in rural Pennsylvania, including CAHs, are admitting most of their patients through the ED, concomitant with a significant decline in admissions and admission rates. This highlights the need to strengthen primary care practices serving rural Pennsylvania as well as the need to improve rural emergency and trauma systems. In the short to medium term, policy makers should explore innovative ways to fund smaller hospitals, especially CAHs, to develop level IV trauma center capabilities.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitais Rurais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Cancer ; 22(1): 555, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35581566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is known that geographic location plays a role in developing lung cancer. The objectives of this study were to examine spatio-temporal patterns of lung cancer incidence in Pennsylvania, to identify geographic clusters of high incidence, and to compare demographic characteristics and general physical and mental health characteristics in those areas. METHOD: We geocoded the residential addresses at the time of diagnosis for lung cancer cases in the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry diagnosed between 2010 and 2017. Relative risks over the expected case counts at the census tract level were estimated using a log-linear Poisson model that allowed for spatial and temporal effects. Spatio-temporal clusters with high incidence were identified using scan statistics. Demographics obtained from the 2011-2015 American Community Survey and health variables obtained from 2020 CDC PLACES database were compared between census tracts that were part of clusters versus those that were not. RESULTS: Overall, the age-adjusted incidence rates and the relative risk of lung cancer decreased from 2010 to 2017 with no statistically significant space and time interaction. The analyses detected 5 statistically significant clusters over the 8-year study period. Cluster 1, the most likely cluster, was in southeastern PA including Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties from 2010 to 2013 (log likelihood ratio = 136.6); Cluster 2, the cluster with the largest area was in southwestern PA in the same period including Allegheny, Fayette, Greene, Washington, and Westmoreland Counties (log likelihood ratio = 78.6). Cluster 3 was in Mifflin County from 2014 to 2016 (log likelihood ratio = 25.3), Cluster 4 was in Luzerne County from 2013 to 2016 (log likelihood ratio = 18.1), and Cluster 5 was in Dauphin, Cumberland, and York Counties limited to 2010 to 2012 (log likelihood ratio = 17.9). Census tracts that were part of the high incidence clusters tended to be densely populated, had higher percentages of African American and residents that live below poverty line, and had poorer mental health and physical health when compared to the non-clusters (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These high incidence areas for lung cancer warrant further monitoring for other individual and environmental risk factors and screening efforts so lung cancer cases can be identified early and more efficiently.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Afro-Americanos , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Análise Espaço-Temporal
19.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0267468, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476841

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherent differences as well as health disparities among rural and urban populations warrant further studies focused on the characteristics and outcomes in COVID-19 patients in a rural setting. The aim of this study was to describe these elements in patients infected with SARS-CoV2, hospitalized at a single center in rural Pennsylvania. METHODS: Patients with SARS-CoV2 infections hospitalized between March-December 2020 were studied. Data were obtained from electronic health records generated reports and was retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups according to severity. Distribution of variables was studied among these three groups. Using certain variables, we ran logistic regression analysis to study the odds of death and requirement of mechanical ventilation (MV). RESULTS: Among 335 hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV2, age more than 65 years increased the severity of clinical status and in-hospital mortality. Gender did not affect odds of death nor need for MV. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity, but diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increased the risk of death. In terms of laboratory parameters, our data suggests that maximum LDH marginally increased the risk of death and maximum WBC marginally increased the risk of need for MV and death. CONCLUSION: Through our basic analysis of various characteristics of SARS-CoV2 positive patients admitted in a rural hospital, we have identified certain risk factors associated with severe disease and increased in-hospital mortality. These were found to be largely similar to current literature from studies in urban populations, bolstering the reproducibility and generalizability of existing knowledge. This information lays the foundation for future studies to investigate the role of these factors in morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 in depth.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hospitais Comunitários , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , RNA Viral , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e055558, 2022 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether internists' initial specialty certification and the maintenance of that certification (MOC) is associated with lower in-hospital mortality for their patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or congestive heart failure (CHF). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalisations in Pennsylvania, USA, from 2012 to 2017. SETTING: All hospitals in Pennsylvania. PARTICIPANTS: All 184 115 hospitalisations for primary diagnoses of AMI or CHF where the attending physician was a self-designated internist. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: In-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 2575 physicians, 2238 had initial certification and 820 were eligible for MOC. After controlling for patient demographics and clinical characteristics, hospital-level factors and physicians' demographic and medical school characteristics, both initial certification and MOC were associated with lower mortality. The adjusted OR for initial certification was 0.835 (95% CI 0.756 to 0.922; p<0.001). Patients cared for by physicians with initial certification had a 15.87% decrease in mortality compared with those cared for by non-certified physicians (mortality rate difference of 5.09 per 1000 patients; 95% CI 2.12 to 8.05; p<0.001). The adjusted OR for MOC was 0.804 (95% CI 0.697 to 0.926; p=0.003). Patients cared for by physicians who completed MOC had an 18.91% decrease in mortality compared with those cared for by MOC lapsed physicians (mortality rate difference of 6.22 per 1000 patients; 95% CI 2.0 to 10.4; p=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Initial certification was associated with lower mortality for AMI or CHF. Moreover, for patients whose physicians had initial certification, an additional advantage was associated with its maintenance.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Infarto do Miocárdio , Médicos , Certificação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Medicina Interna , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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