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1.
Urol Clin North Am ; 48(2): 269-277, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795061

RESUMO

Although physicians enjoy extensive educational backgrounds, financial planning typically is not a significant component of the curricula they have completed. As a result, many physicians could benefit from greater financial acumen, and their preparation for retirement might be lacking in light of their relatively high-income levels. This article by a private wealth advisor with 29 years of industry experience provides physicians with the basic building blocks to understand and manage their finances. It focuses on 3 pillars of financial planning: (1) protecting themselves, their families, and their assets; (2) reducing their taxes; and (3) growing their wealth.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira/organização & administração , Administração da Prática Médica/economia , Urologistas/economia , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Humanos , Seguro de Vida/economia , Pensões , Aposentadoria/economia , Impostos/economia , Testamentos/economia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804508

RESUMO

The causal effect of public pensions on the mental wellbeing of the elderly in lower and middle-income countries deserves further investigation. This paper first constructed a theoretical framework for the impact of New Rural Society Pension Insurance pensions in China on the mental wellbeing of the rural elderly, and described potential channels through which pension income may affect mental wellbeing. We then used the fixed effect model and the instrument variable approach to estimate the casual effects of pension income on the mental wellbeing of the rural elderly. The results reveal that pension income improves mental wellbeing by relieving depression of the rural elderly; however, the beneficial effects of pension income are very limited. Pension income has no beneficial effects on the mental health of the rural elderly in the east region, whereas it slightly relieves depression of those in the middle and west regions. We also found that pension income produces small improvements in the mental health of older females, elderly persons living independently, and those with relatively poor economic conditions.


Assuntos
Seguro , Pensões , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , População Rural
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807823

RESUMO

Work disability may originate early during work history and involve sickness absences (SA) and eventually permanent disability. We studied this process over 15 years. Questionnaire data collected in 1981 on health, working conditions, and lifestyle of Finnish municipal employees aged 44-58 years (n = 6257) were linked with registers on SA (≥10 workdays), disability pension, and death from the period 1986-1995. Trajectory analysis was used to assess development in SA (days/year) over 5 years (1981-1985). We analyzed determinants of the trajectories with multinomial regression, while trajectory membership was used as a predictor of disability pension (DP) during the subsequent 10 years in survival analysis. Three SA trajectories emerged: increasing (women: 6.8%; men: 10.2%), moderate (21.2%; 22.7%), and low. In a mutually adjusted model, the increasing trajectory in women was associated with baseline musculoskeletal (MSD), mental and respiratory disorders, injuries, obesity, sleep problems, and low exercise (effect sizes OR > 2), and in men with MSD, sleep problems, smoking, low exercise, and non-satisfaction with management. The moderate trajectory associated with MSD, 'other somatic disorders', sleep problems, and awkward work postures in both genders; in women, also overweight, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity, and (inversely) knowledge-intensive work, and in men, smoking and mental disorders were thus associated. Ten-year risks of DP contrasting increasing vs. low SA were more than 10-fold in both genders and contrasting moderate vs. low SA 3-fold in women and 2-fold in men. These findings emphasize the need for early identification of workers with short-term problems of work ability and interventions regarding lifestyle, health, and working conditions, to help prevent permanent disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Aposentadoria , Adulto , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões , Licença Médica
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668892

RESUMO

Long-term care coverage is not integrated into an individual's retirement strategy. It is an additional public health service that is not considered into private pension funds. Nevertheless, this coverage is not sufficient due to the problems of financial sustainability of the public pension systems. However, there are large sums in pension plans dedicated to paying retirement pensions that can be transformed into support for long-term care coverage. This paper develops a mechanism of pension transformation through the different mortality of the beneficiary when becoming a dependent beneficiary. This mechanism allows the beneficiary to convert their pension to LTC support at their own choice, without increasing the cost of the private pension scheme. The proposed model provides consistency in the pension that a retiree receives and adapts it to a retiree's life expectancy: the retiree receives a higher pension when he/she needs it most.


Assuntos
Pensões , Aposentadoria , Feminino , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Salários e Benefícios
5.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 27, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to culturally translate the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ) to the Swedish language and examine the reliability and validity of the new Swedish version to measure stigma towards disability pension applicants in the Swedish context among psychiatrists and general practitioners. METHODS: The AQ was translated from the original English version into Swedish using the recommended guidelines for cultural translation of questionnaires. Steps included forward/back-translation, use of expert committee and pretesting. Cronbach's alpha was used to determine internal consistency and structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the responsibility model of stigma compared to the original English version. RESULTS: 1,414 physicians completed the questionnaire (23.6%). Cultural translation resulted in many modifications to the original questionnaire to increase the external validity. Internal reliability of the AQ Swedish version (AQ-S) was 0.733 and is considered acceptable. Pity and Segregation-coercion sub-scales showed limited consistency. SEM findings show that the responsibility model of stigma is an acceptable fit for the Swedish setting. CONCLUSION: Findings show that the AQ-S is comparable to the other versions of the AQ and is a reliable measure to assess and monitor stigma among physicians in the Swedish setting. Our study shows that cultural translation does not significantly impact the validity of the questionnaire.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Pensões , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Psiquiatria , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suécia
6.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040941, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495252

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the course of sickness absence (SA), disability pension (DP) and work-related economic situation defined as earnings (EA) and disposable income (DI), after spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Associations of SA, DP, EA and DI with demographic factors were also studied. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study of all 1932 people in Sweden who in January 2005 to December 2010 had a first time SAH when aged 17 to 64 years and survived during the 3-year follow-up. Microdata from four nationwide administrative registers were used. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the presence of SA and DP and how this changed during the study period of 5 years (the year before, the year of SAH and the following 3 years). The secondary outcome was the development of the income variables EA and DI. Demographic factors analysed were sex, age, source of bleeding, country of birth, family situation, educational level and type of living area. RESULTS: The year before the SAH, 7.9% of women and 4.6% of men had some SA registered (p<0.004). A model consisting of female sex, higher education and living single predicted having SA that year. At the end of the follow-up, 39.2% of women and 28.3% of men had SA and/or DP (p<0.0001). A model consisting of female sex, living in a village/ rural area and having a defined bleeding source for the SAH was predicting having SA and/or DP at end of follow-up. The levels of EA decreased, while DI increased during follow-up and were at the end of follow-up associated with age, sex, type of living area, country of birth, educational level and family situation. The women's EA was lower than the men's during all years. CONCLUSIONS: SAH influenced future SA, DP, as well as EA. Both SA, DP and the economic variables studied were predicted by models including sex.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Licença Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Licença Médica/economia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status quo and factors that influence the preferences of the elderly for the combination of medical care and pension (CMCP) in long-term care (LTC) facilities and to provide an evidence-based basis for building a multi-tiered, continuous LTC system with CMCP. METHODS: Using a multi-stage sampling method, face-to-face questionnaire surveys were conducted on 3260 elderly people aged 60 years or over in 44 communities in 16 sub-districts in six districts in Xiamen. Based on the Andersen model, the chi-square test was used to analyze differences in population distribution, and binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors affecting the elderly's preference for CMCP in LTC institutions in terms of the factors of predisposition, enablement, and personal needs. RESULTS: Most elderly people choose traditional home care (82.01%), and only 12.89% choose LTC facilities with CMCP. This choice is influenced by a number of predisposing factors. The elderly who are at the upper end of the age range, have a higher education level, and live in rural areas are more likely to choose CMCP (odds ratio (OR) value greater than 1, p < 0.05). With regard to enabling factors, the elderly who were married, mainly taken care of by spouses, and had better economic status also tended to choose CMCP (OR > 1, p < 0.01). In terms of personal needs, the elderly with worse self-care status tended to choose CMCP (OR > 1, p < 0.01). Enabling factors have the largest contribution to the model, and they have the greatest impact on elder preference for CMCP services. In addition, the elderly with higher age and education level, non-remarried, with better economic status, and with poorer health status have a demand for a wider variety of CMCP services. Compared to those in urban areas, the elderly in rural areas have greater needs, mainly related to personal care, medical care, and psychological counseling. CONCLUSION: The preference of the elderly for CMCP are lower compared to their preference for home care in Xiamen, China. Preference for CMCP is affected by a range of factors such as age, education level, residence, income, and self-care ability, among which the enabling factors have the greatest impact.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707781

RESUMO

Scholars of social inequality in China have commonly concentrated on strata-related social welfare systems that divide the population into urban and rural dwellers, and additionally, into different welfare classes such as civil servants, employees, and migrant workers. Following Esping-Andersen, Siaroff, Sainsbury, and others, this paper brings the perspective of "gendering welfare" into the study of Chinese social policy. Focusing upon two major social policy branches in China-the old age pension insurance system and care services within the household-it discusses the role of Chinese women in these two fields. Through a gender-sensitive analysis, this paper elaborates the social phenomenon of "silent reserves" (namely, women) within the Chinese welfare regime. While women assume a crucial role in intrafamily care services, constituting the chief contributors of long-term care and childcare, their care contributions at home are not recognized as "social achievements" and are not monetarily compensated by the patriarchal Chinese welfare state. In addition, this paper argues that women are systematically disadvantaged by pension insurance arrangements. Furthermore, the individualization of care services in the intrafamily context weakens the pension entitlements of women, since their unpaid care constrains their ability to maintain full-time jobs in the labor market.


Assuntos
Política Pública , Seguridade Social , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões , População Rural , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
J Aging Soc Policy ; 32(4-5): 488-498, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538320

RESUMO

The COVID-19 economic crisis makes it vitally important that workers who earned defined benefit pensions receive them at retirement. Unfortunately, billions of dollars that could help cushion the financial shock are sitting unclaimed, because the people who they belong to cannot locate the company responsible for paying them. As defined benefit pension plans have been terminated, merged and moved over the years, large numbers of deferred vested participants have not been notified about their benefits. The widespread and growing practice of insurance company pension buy-outs can be especially problematic for participants without notice. Broader use of electronic disclosures for pensions also threatens to make the situation worse. In the wake of COVID-19, policy makers should take steps to ensure that pension benefits are part of the economic recovery.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aposentadoria/economia , Betacoronavirus , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 9(5): 218-221, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563225

RESUMO

Japan has been aging faster than other industrialized nations, and its experience offers useful lessons to others. Japan has been willing to expand its welfare state with a long-term care (LTC) insurance to finance home care and nursing home care for frail elderly. As Ikegami shows, it created new facilities and expanded specialized staffing for home care, developed a country-wide assessment system and shifted responsibilities between the central and local authorities over that assessment and the determination of co-payments for LTC. Faced with rapid growth in demand for LTC, the government felt the need for new cost control measures. The Japanese experience illustrates that new social policies take time to develop. There is often a need to adjust. But there are also other lessons. The main one is that there is no direct relation between the degree of population aging and total health spending. While aging requires adjustments in the organization of care, and expanding LTC for frail elderly, international studies show there is no need to worry about the 'unaffordability' of aging. In this commentary, we have framed four "What, Why, Who, and How" questions about LTC to (re-)define the borderlines between public and private responsibilities for the range of activities for which some (but certainly not all) frail elderly as well as many non-elderly require support in daily life.


Assuntos
Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Japão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530927

RESUMO

Public pension insurance has become a major form of social protection around the world. However, little is known about the association between public pension expansion and individuals' fertility in developing economies. In this paper, we examine the effects of the New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) on the fertility of married women in rural China. Using data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), the difference-in-differences approach is employed to estimate the impact of NRPS expansion on fertility outcomes. The robustness of results is checked through additional estimations, including difference-in-differences with propensity score matching, fixed-effects model, and instrumental variable approach. Results show that the NRPS expansion has a significantly negative effect on the number of children, and it reduces the likelihood of having a second child. The fertility-reducing effect of the NRPS is larger for the younger, well-educated women and those in high-income families. Considerations of the fertility effects and their population differences are needed in the impact evaluations of relevant public pension reform.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Pensões , População Rural , Adulto , China , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Análise de Regressão
12.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(3): 341-352, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440805

RESUMO

Ghana is one of the countries in sub-Sahara Africa that is experiencing rapid growth of its elderly population. The elderly phase of life is often associated with degenerative conditions that affect the human capacity to function effectively and requires specialized care and income support to ensure the elderly do not suffer poverty, neglect and rejection. In 2008, policy makers in the country introduced a three-tier pension system to provide income security in old age and a cash transfer program to lift the poorest among the elderly out of poverty. In addition, the country's health insurance scheme grants exemption from payments of premiums to the elderly population. These interventions notwithstanding, evidence suggests that the elderly population continues to face several challenges. This paper critically analyses the three intervention and draws attention to the limitations that impede efficacy of the policies; and discusses options to improve the ability of programs associated with the various policies to deliver on their objectives.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Seguro Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Idoso , Gana , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pensões , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403380

RESUMO

Aim: Analyse factors affecting retirement decisions comparing employees expecting to retire before, at, and after the state pension age. Methods: In the SeniorWorkingLife cohort, 12,269 workers aged +50 replied to questions about expected retirement age, reasons for leaving, and reasons for staying longer. Results: For all groups, poor health, wish for more leisure, and economy were the most salient expected reasons for retiring. Many would stay longer if there were better possibilities for more leisure time, more work flexibility, and economic benefits. Those expecting to retire before state pension age were more likely to point at desire for more leisure time as expected reason for retiring, and less likely to point at economic reasons, and more likely to point at health and work demands as possible reasons for prolonging working life. Those expecting to retire after state pension age were more likely to point at external factors and recognition from the management. Conclusion: Factors influencing retirement decisions are similar across the groups. Initiatives for better work-life balance, healthy lifestyle, and economic incentives to continue working may help prevent early retirement and motivate prolonging work life beyond retirement. Results also indicate that less strenuous work is particularly relevant to prevent early retirement.


Assuntos
Emprego , Motivação , Aposentadoria , Fatores Etários , Tomada de Decisões , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 232, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment resistant depression (TRD) is common among patients with depression, and is associated with clinical and functional disability. However, the risk and risk factors for being granted disability pension (DP) among patients with TRD have not been investigated. METHODS: All antidepressant initiators in Sweden with a diagnosis of depression in specialized care were identified in nationwide registers 2006-2013 and followed regarding treatment trials. TRD was defined as the start of a third sequential trial. Patients with TRD who were not on DP (N = 3204) were matched by age, sex, history of depression, calendar year, and time for treatment start with 3204 comparators with depression and ongoing antidepressant treatment. A proportional Cox Regression was performed with DP as outcome, adjusted for various sociodemographic and clinical covariates. RESULTS: Compared to the comparison cohort, TRD was associated with a doubled risk for all-cause DP (aHR 2.07; 95%CI 1.83-2.35), DP due to depression (2.28; 1.82-2.85) and to any mental disorder (2.24; 1.95-2.57) but not due to somatic diagnoses (1.25; 0.84-1.86). Among significant risk factors for DP in TRD were female sex, being > 29 years of age, unemployment and a diagnosis of comorbid personality disorder (ICD-10 codes F60.0-9). CONCLUSION: TRD is associated with an elevated risk for DP compared to other patients with depression, with large potential costs for the affected patients and for society. Clinical and therapeutic implications for patients with TRD who are granted DP should be further investigated. LIMITATION: No clinical data, e.g. type of depression or reason for treatment switch, was available for this study.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento , Pensões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 686, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childbirth has been suggested to increase sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP). This may vary by occupation; however, knowledge in this field remains limited. We explored SA and DP in the years before and after childbirth among women in four occupational groups and those without occupation. METHODS: We studied nulliparous women aged 18-39 years, living in Sweden on December 31, 2004 (n = 492,504). Women were categorized into five skill-level based occupational groups and three childbirth groups; no childbirths within 3 years (B0), first childbirth in 2005 with no childbirth within 3 years (B1), and first childbirth in 2005 with at least one more birth within 3 years (B1+). We compared crude and standardized annual mean SA (in spells> 14 days) and DP net days in the 3 years before and 3 years after first childbirth date. RESULTS: Women in the highest skill level occupations and managers, had less mean SA/DP days during most study years than women in the lowest skill level occupations group. In B1 and B1+, absolute differences in mean SA/DP, particularly in SA, among occupational groups were highest during the year before childbirth. DP was most common in B0, regardless of group and year. CONCLUSIONS: We found that women's mean SA/DP days before and after first childbirth was higher with decreasing skill-level of the occupational group and these differences were most pronounced in the year before childbirth. DP was most common among women not giving birth, regardless of occupational group.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Pessoas com Deficiência , Ocupações , Paridade , Pensões , Licença Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375336

RESUMO

Due to insufficient financial support and unceasing work, the rural elderly in China experience a range of mental disorders, and the most common one is depression. This study aims to investigate the association between public pension, labor force participation (LFP), and depressive symptoms for older men and women in rural China. A moderated mediation analysis is conducted using data in the 2015 wave extracted from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a continuous national social survey. A total of 2709 available surveys were obtained in our analysis. Using PROCESS, results revealed that the income from China's New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) was directly negatively related to depressive symptoms. However, LFP did not mediate the link between pension income (PI) and depressive symptoms in the total study population. The results of moderated mediation estimates indicated that gender significantly moderated the relationship between LFP and depressive symptoms. Specifically, for older women, the indirect effect of PI on depressive symptoms via LFP was significant, but not for the opposite sex. In order to improve the mental health of older adults in rural China, the policy makers and mental health therapists need to pay attention to the aforementioned factors.


Assuntos
Depressão , População Rural , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Depressão/economia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pensões
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 618, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A maintained psychological wellbeing is important in order to continue working longer and remain active into older age. However, little is known about impact of different organizational factors, such as downsizing, on the mental health of older workers exiting the labor market. The aim in this study was to investigate trajectories of purchases of psychotropic drugs in relation to labor market exit later in life in a context with and without downsizing. METHOD: People living in Sweden, born 1941-1951, exiting paid work via unemployment, sickness absence/disability pension, or old-age pension were followed from 2005 to 2013 regarding purchases of psychotropic drugs. Individuals employed at a workplace closing down or downsizing with ≥18% between two subsequent years were compared to employees exiting from workplaces without downsizing or workplace closure. Generalized estimating equations was applied to derive trajectories of annual prevalence of purchased antidepressants, sedatives and anxiolytics from 4 years before to 4 years after a labour market exit. RESULTS: During the period around the exit, old-age retirees experiencing a downsizing/workplace closure did not decrease their purchases of sedatives (OR 1.01 95% CI 0.95-1.07) while the unexposed decreased their purchases during this period (OR 0.95 95% CI 0.92-0.98). Similar differences concerning sedatives and antidepressants between exposed and unexposed were seen for those exiting via sickness absence or disability pension. Furthermore, a significant difference in purchases of anxiolytics was observed between those exposed to downsizing (OR 1.10 95% CI 0.97-1.24) and the unexposed (OR 0.98 95% CI 0.91-1.06) exiting via old-age retirement during the time before the exit. CONCLUSION: Downsizing or workplace closure, although weakly, was associated with higher prevalence of psychotropic drugs certain years around the labor market exit. The results support the idea that involuntary labor market exit in mature adulthood may negatively affect the development of mental health.


Assuntos
Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Aposentadoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Pessoas com Deficiência , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Inovação Organizacional , Estudos Prospectivos , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Suécia , Desemprego/psicologia , Local de Trabalho
18.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(5): 387-397, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hearing loss affects over 1.3 billion individuals worldwide, with the greatest burden among adults. Little is known regarding the association between adult-onset hearing loss and employment. METHODS: Seven databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ABI/Inform Collection, Business Source Ultimate, Web of Science and Scopus) were searched through to October 2018. The key word terms used related to hearing loss and employment, excluding paediatric or congenital hearing loss and deaf or culturally deaf populations. RESULTS: The initial search resulted in 13 144 articles. A total of 7494 articles underwent title and abstract screening, and 243 underwent full-text review. Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were set in 10 predominantly high-income countries. Seven of the 25 studies analysed regionally or nationally representative datasets and controlled for key variables. Six of these seven studies reported associations between hearing loss and employment. CONCLUSION: The highest quality studies currently available indicate that adult-onset hearing loss is associated with unemployment. However, considerable heterogeneity exists, and more rigorous studies that include low- and middle-income countries are needed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emprego/economia , Perda Auditiva/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pensões/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32326293

RESUMO

Community home-based care has become China's main mode of care for the elderly, and the aging of the community public environment has become the focus of attention of all of society. This study uses a questionnaire survey and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) to (i) obtain the relative weights of indicators in the hierarchy structure of an aging-friendly community public environment and (ii) build a complete indicator evaluation system for the aging-friendly community public environment. The research results show that the quasi-side evaluation index framework of the aging-friendly community public environment is composed of four factors (i.e., community facilities, community road system, community environmental function, and community landscape configuration) and 24 evaluation indexes. The weights of the indicators in descending order are "community road system (w = 0.374)", "community facilities (w = 0.310)", "community environmental functions (w = 0.264)", and "community landscape configuration (w = 0.052)". The research results show that "community road systems" and "community facilities" are important indicators of the aging-friendliness of a community public environment. "Community environmental function" is an important supplemental factor of the aging-friendliness of a community public environment. "Community landscape configuration" involves improving the construction of the community public environment from the perspective of landscaping. Among all indicator levels, the weights of "Community road floor slip resistance" (w = 0.1795), "Daily health and medical facilities (w = 0.1181)", and "Provide social interaction functions (w = 0.1067)" are ranked the highest. These results show that ensuring the physical and mental health of the elderly in the community is a core criterion for evaluating the aging-friendliness of a public environment in the community. In this study, an index evaluation weight system is established to clarify the best approach to constructing an aging-friendly community public environment in accordance with previous standard specifications. This system can further clarify the scientific method for evaluating aging-friendly public environments built in the past and can serve as a reference for the practical world.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Planejamento Ambiental , Meio Ambiente , Vida Independente , Meio Social , China , Humanos , Pensões
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