Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 15.163
Filtrar
1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e41988, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103393

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a percepção dos docentes do curso de Graduação em Enfermagem acerca do desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico dos alunos, a partir da utilização de estratégias de ensino e suas implicações no processo ensino aprendizagem. Método: estudo exploratório, descritivo, de cunho qualitativo. Participaram da pesquisa 16 docentes de um curso de graduação em Enfermagem e Obstetrícia. Os dados foram produzidos por meio de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado e categorizados pela técnica de análise temática, sendo aprovado por Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa. Resultados: evidenciaram-se três categorias: pensamento crítico como interpretação subjetiva, estratégias de ensino utilizadas pelos docentes no curso de graduação em enfermagem, e desafios e facilidades para o desenvolvimento do pensamento crítico no curso de graduação em enfermagem. Conclusão: os docentes mantiveram opiniões positivas e pontuaram que o pensamento crítico é construído ao longo da vida do ser humano, sendo considerado inerente à construção das suas habilidades e capacidades profissionais.


Objective: to examine perceptions of undergraduate Nursing teachers of their students' development of critical thinking, based on the use of teaching strategies and their implications in the teaching-learning process. Method: sixteen professors from an undergraduate course in Nursing and Obstetrics participated in this exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study. Data were produced through interviews to a semi-structured script and categorized by the thematic analysis technique, The study was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: three categories were identified: critical thinking as subjective interpretation, teaching strategies the teachers used in the undergraduate Nursing course, and what hinders and helps the development critical thinking on the undergraduate Nursing course. Conclusion: teachers held positive opinions and pointed out that critical thinking is built over the course of life and is considered inherent to constructing professional skills and abilities.


Objetivo: analizar las percepciones de los docentes de enfermería de pregrado sobre el desarrollo del pensamiento crítico de sus alumnos, basándose en el uso de estrategias de enseñanza y sus implicaciones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje. Método: dieciséis profesores de un curso de pregrado en Enfermería y Obstetricia participaron en este estudio exploratorio, descriptivo y cualitativo. Los datos fueron producidos a través de entrevistas a un guion semiestructurado y clasificados por la técnica de análisis temático. El estudio fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: se identificaron tres categorías: pensamiento crítico como interpretación subjetiva, estrategias de enseñanza que los maestros utilizaron en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería, y lo que dificulta y ayuda al desarrollo del pensamiento crítico en el curso de pregrado en Enfermería. Conclusión: los maestros sostuvieron opiniones positivas y señalaron que el pensamiento crítico se construye a lo largo de la vida y se considera inherente a la construcción de habilidades y destrezas profesionales.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensino/educação , Pensamento , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Docentes de Enfermagem , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Aprendizagem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e21668, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in nursing and medical education is to foster the critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability for students. But the effect of different teaching methods on these abilities of nursing or medical students has not been conclusive, and few studies have directly compared the differences in the effects of different teaching methods. As a result, it is necessary for students to evaluate the impact of different teaching methods on critical thinking ability and autonomous learning ability. METHODS: A systematic search will be performed using Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data (Chinese database), VIP Information (Chinese database), Chinese Biomedical Literature, and English language databases, including PubMed and Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL Complete (EBSCO0, Cochrane library to identify relevant studies from inception to July 10, 2020. We will include random controlled trials that evaluated the different teaching methods. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 quality assessment tool will be used to assess the risk of bias in each study. Standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis will be performed using STATA V.12.0, MetaDiSc 1.40, and R 3.4.1 software to compare the diagnostic efficacy of different hormonal biomarkers. RESULTS: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will summarize the direct and indirect evidence to determine the effectiveness of different teaching methods for medical or nursing students and attempt to find the most effective teaching method. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval and patient consent are not required, because this study is a meta-analysis based on published studies. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202070017.


Assuntos
Educação Médica/métodos , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Currículo , Educação Médica/normas , Educação em Enfermagem/normas , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Pensamento
3.
Invest. educ. enferm ; 38(3): [e14], Octubre 20 2020. Table 1
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1129011

RESUMO

Objective. The objective was to identify the presence of the capacity for reflexive-critical thinking or similar, in Nursing Curricula in Iberian America. Methodology. The article gathers the results of one of the objectives of the macro-project developed by the Iberian American Network on Nursing Education Research, titled Strategies to develop reflective and critical thinking in nursing students: Iberian America situation. To achieve this, a descriptive and exploratory research was conducted with qualitative approach. An instrument created for this project was used, along with some guiding questions to focus the information. Results. Eight countries participated (Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Spain, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela), which contributed information from 189 curricular plans. The R&CT was found in the majority of the curricula, although with diverse denominations. The principal learning strategies used were problem-based learning, group dynamics, reflective reading, clinical practice, and simulation laboratories. The evaluation methods used are the knowledge test, case analysis, and practical exam. Conclusion. Significant stress exists in the discourse and curricular organization. Incongruences were found and a clear inclination toward the formation of professionals with broad technical skills under a traditional, memory, banking and knowledge accumulation education.


Objetivo. Identificar la presencia de la competencia de pensamiento reflexivo-crítico o afines en los currículos de Enfermería en Iberoamérica. Metodología: El artículo recoge los resultados de uno de los objetivos del macro-proyecto que desarrolla la Red Iberoamericana de Investigación en Educación en Enfermería (RIIEE) titulado Estrategias para desarrollar en el estudiante de enfermería el pensamiento reflexivo y crítico (PRyC): situación Iberoamérica. Para lograrlo se realizó una investigación descriptiva y exploratoria con abordaje cualitativo. Se empleó un instrumento creado para este proyecto y algunas preguntas orientadoras para focalizar la información. Resultados. Participaron ocho países (Bolivia, Brasil, Colombia, Ecuador, España. México, Perú y Venezuela) que aportaron la información de 189 planes curriculares. El PRyC se encontró en la mayoría de los currículos, aunque con diversas denominaciones. Las principales estrategias de aprendizaje empleadas fueron: el aprendizaje basado en problemas, las dinámicas grupales, la lectura reflexiva, la práctica clínica y los laboratorios de simulación. Los métodos de evaluación utilizados son el examen de conocimientos, el análisis de casos y el examen práctico. Conclusión. Existe una tensión significativa en el discurso y la organización curricular. Se encuentran incongruencias y una clara inclinación hacia la formación de profesionales con amplias capacidades técnicas bajo una educación tradicional, memorística, bancaria y de acúmulo de conocimientos.


Objetivo. O objetivo foi identificar a presença da competência de pensamento reflexivo e crítico ou relacionado, nos currículos de enfermagem na América Latina. Métodos. O artigo reúne os resultados de um dos objetivos do macroprojeto desenvolvido pela Rede Ibero-americana de Pesquisa em Educação em Enfermagem (RIIEE) intitulado Estratégias para Desenvolver o Pensamento Reflexivo e Crítico em Estudantes de Enfermagem (PRyC): a situação ibero-americana. Para conseguir, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva e exploratória com abordagem qualitativa. Um instrumento criado para este projeto e algumas perguntas orientadas para enfocar as informações. Resultados. Participaram oito países (Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Equador, Espanha, México, Peru e Venezuela) que contribuíram com informações de 189 planos curriculares. O PRyC foi encontrado na maioria dos currículos, embora com nomes diferentes. As principais estratégias de aprendizagem utilizadas foram: aprendizagem baseada em problemas, dinâmica de grupo, leitura reflexiva, prática clínica e laboratórios de simulação. Os métodos de avaliação utilizados são o teste de conhecimentos, a análise de casos e o teste prático. Conclusão. Existe uma tensão significativa no discurso e na organização do currículo. Há incongruências e uma clara inclinação para a formação de profissionais com amplas capacidades técnicas sob uma educação tradicional, de memória, bancária e de acumulação de conhecimento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pensamento , Currículo , Educação em Enfermagem
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121028

RESUMO

Due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, there are many restrictions in effect in clinical nursing practice. Since effective educational strategies are required to enhance nursing students' competency in clinical practice, this study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of simulation problem-based learning (S-PBL). A quasi-experimental control group pretest-post-test design was used. Nursing students were allocated randomly to the control group (n = 31) and the experimental group (n = 47). Students in the control group participated in a traditional maternity clinical practicum for a week, while students in the experimental group participated S-PBL for a week. The students in the experimental group were trained in small groups using a childbirth patient simulator (Gaumard® Noelle® S554.100, Miami, USA) based on a standardized scenario related to obstetric care. The students' learning attitude, metacognition, and critical thinking were then measured via a self-reported questionnaire. Compared with the control group, the pre-post difference in learning attitude and critical thinking increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the experimental group. S-PBL was found to be an effective strategy for improving nursing students' learning transfer. Thus, S-PBL that reflects various clinical situations is recommended to improve the training in maternal health nursing.


Assuntos
Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Metacognição , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pensamento , Betacoronavirus , Competência Clínica , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Preceptoria , Gravidez
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21697, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a critical thinking intervention (CTI) on stress management among undergraduates of adult education and extramural studies programs. METHOD: A total of 44 undergraduates were randomly sorted into experimental and waitlist control groups. We used the Perceived Stress Scale for data collection at the pre-test, post-test, and follow-up stages. We used unpaired t and paired t-tests to analyze the data collected. SPSS version 22.0 was used for the data analyses (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). RESULTS: It was shown that the CTI was effective in reducing the mean stress of the participants compared to the control group both in the post-test (t[42] = -22.453, P < .001) and follow-up periods (t[42] = -34.292, P < .001). There were statistically significant changes in the mean stress of participants in the experimental group from the pre-test to post-test phases (t[23] = 26.30, P = .000, r = .08], and from pre-test to follow-up(t[23] = 37.10, P = .000, r = .30). The mean stress of the participants in the experimental group from post-test to follow-up signified the sustained positive influence of the CTI on the mean stress (t[23] = 2.41, P = .000, r = .46) of the undergraduates. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the literature by showing that a CTI is a valuable strategy for stress reduction in a university environment. Given that the CTI demonstrated the ability to reduce stress among undergraduates enrolled in adult education and extramural studies programs, we hope that similar interventions will be adopted to manage and prevent stress among students in other departments and disciplines.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento , Universidades , Adulto , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3557-3562, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876262

RESUMO

Thinking about the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic implies the study of general and unique dimensions for the historical evolution of Latin America and the Caribbean. From the individual to the collective, from biomedical sciences to social sciences and collective health, from risk groups to exclusive societies and the inequities constituting the colonial, patriarchal, modern capitalist heritage in the State and societies. The objective of this article is to review what are called the three intersections for Latin American critical health thinking. Seeking to analyze and reflect on the assumptions and logic present in the responses to the health emergency with reference to: 1. Critical health theory and its intersections with Latin American critical thinking; 2. The decolonial implications of problematizing the State and public health systems; and 3. The geopolitics of global health security as a roadmap for the global North. They outline approaches on the risks of capitalism's acceleration of the post-pandemic disaster and the alternative ways of addressing creative tensions in the reconstruction of emancipatory processes for regional health sovereignty and Health from the South.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Capitalismo , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Saúde Global , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pensamento
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925961

RESUMO

Ruminative thought is a style of thinking which involves repetitively focusing upon one's own negative mood, its causes and its consequences. The negative effects of rumination are well-documented, but comparatively little is known about how rumination is experienced. The evaluative nature of rumination suggests that it could involve more inner speech than non-ruminative states. The present study (N = 31) combined facial electromyography and self-report questionnaires to determine the type of inner experience that occurs in rumination. The results showed that induced rumination involved similar levels of muscle activity related to inner speech as periods of induced distraction. However, experience sampling and questionnaire responses showed that rumination involved more verbal thought, and also involved more evaluative and dialogic inner speech than distraction. These findings contribute to the understanding of inner speech as a flexible phenomenon and confirms the importance of employing multiple methods to investigate inner speech. Future research should clarify the link between inner speech in rumination and its negative effects on wellbeing.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
8.
Br J Clin Psychol ; 59(4): 565-577, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women's greater prevalence of anxiety disorders compared to men is widely assumed to be partly due to gender differences in cognitive and behavioural factors that perpetuate anxiety, such as repetitive negative thinking (RNT) and avoidance. However, past studies assessing this assumption have not controlled for gender differences in baseline symptom severity, the type of stressful life experiences against which RNT and avoidance are measured, or emotional reactivity to these experiences. DESIGN: Using a two-group design, the present study controlled for these confounds by comparing avoidance and RNT in relation to a controlled symptom provocation task in spider phobic men and women with equivalent spider fear severity on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire. METHODS: Participants engaged in a behavioural approach test (BAT) involving a live spider, during which they were assessed for avoidance (physical proximity to the spider) and subjective distress. Two weeks later, participants reported on their levels of negative affect and RNT experienced during the preceding weeks in relation to the BAT. RESULTS: Women exhibited greater avoidance and reported greater RNT than men, despite reporting comparable distress and negative affect. Gender remained a significant predictor of avoidance when accounting for distress and also remained a significant predictor of RNT when accounting for depressive symptoms and negative affect. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide in vivo evidence that heightened avoidance and RNT may perpetuate anxiety symptoms in women independently of gender differences in symptom severity, daily experiences, or emotional reactivity. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Following symptom provocation, men and women with spider phobia differ in cognitive and behavioural coping responses. Women exhibit greater avoidance and repetitive negative thinking than men, and these differences are not attributable to gender differences in symptom severity or emotional reactivity. These findings provide novel evidence for gender differences in maintaining factors that perpetuate anxiety disorders whilst accounting for confounding factors present in prior research.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Pessimismo/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21164, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Both athletes with and without disabilities can develop burnout symptoms. However, athletes with disabilities may face different or more challenges compared to their counterparts without disabilities. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effect of digital storytelling intervention on burnout thoughts of adolescent-athletes with disabilities. METHOD: This study is a randomized controlled trial involving a total of 171 adolescent-athletes with disabilities who showed a high degree of burnout symptoms. These adolescent-athletes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 85) or a waitlisted control group (n = 86). The treatment intervention for the adolescent-athletes was digital stories which were created based on the framework of rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT). The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire was used for gathering of data at three different times (baseline, post-test and follow up). Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance at a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that the digital storytelling intervention based on REBT significantly reduced burnout thoughts among disabled adolescent-athletes in the intervention group compared to athletes in the waitlisted control group as measured by the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Additionally, at follow-up evaluation, it was observed that the decrease in burnout scores was maintained by those athletes in the digital storytelling intervention. CONCLUSION: Digital storytelling intervention based on rational emotive behaviour therapy shows great potentials in addressing burnout among adolescent-athletes with disabilities.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Psicológico/terapia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Narração , Adolescente , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731648

RESUMO

This article focuses on the unique needs and concerns of nursing educators and nursing students in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. During social distancing, interacting with other human beings has been restricted. This would undermine the experiential learning of nursing students. Hence, it is important to develop and evaluate an experiential learning program (ELP) for nursing education. A pre-test and post-test design were used. The study was conducted in a university in Central Taiwan. A total of 103 nursing students participated in the study from February to June 2019. The study intervention was the experiential learning program (ELP), including bodily experiences and nursing activities with babies, pregnant women, and the elderly. After the intervention, the students completed the self-reflection and insight scale (SRIS) and Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (TCTDI) as outcome measures. An independent t-test showed that there was a significant difference between pre-test and post-test in both SRIS and TCTDI (p < 0.01). The Pearson product-moment correlation analysis showed that SRIS and TCTDI were significantly positively correlated (p < 0.01). ELP has a significant impact on the self-reflection and critical thinking of first-year nursing students, which can be used as a reference for the education of nursing students. During these turbulent times, it is especially vital for faculties to provide experiential learning instead of the traditional teaching concept.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pensamento , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Taiwan
12.
Cogn Neuropsychiatry ; 25(5): 348-363, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: One route to advancing psychological treatments is to harness mental health science, a multidisciplinary approach including individuals with lived experience and end users (e.g., Holmes, E. A., Craske, M. G., & Graybiel, A. M. (2014). Psychological treatments: A call for mental-health science. Nature, 511(7509), 287-289. doi:10.1038/511287a). While early days, we here illustrate a line of research explored by our group-intrusive imagery-based memories after trauma. METHOD/RESULTS: We illustrate three possible approaches through which mental health science may stimulate thinking around psychological treatment innovation. First, focusing on single/specific target symptoms rather than full, multifaceted psychiatric diagnoses (e.g., intrusive trauma memories rather than all of posttraumatic stress disorder). Second, investigating mechanisms that can be modified in treatment (treatment mechanisms), rather than those which cannot (e.g., processes only linked to aetiology). Finally, exploring novel ways of delivering psychological treatment (peer-/self-administration), given the prevalence of mental health problems globally, and the corresponding need for effective interventions that can be delivered at scale and remotely for example at times of crisis (e.g., current COVID-19 pandemic). CONCLUSIONS: These three approaches suggest options for potential innovative avenues through which mental health science may be harnessed to recouple basic and applied research and transform treatment development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Imagens, Psicoterapia/tendências , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19830-19836, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747567

RESUMO

Across eight studies, we tested whether people understand the time course of their own creativity. Prior literature finds that creativity tends to improve across an ideation session. Here we compared people's beliefs against their actual creative performance. Consistent with prior research, we found that people's creativity, on aggregate, remained constant or improved across an ideation session. However, people's beliefs did not match this reality. We consistently found that people expected their creativity to decline over time. We refer to this misprediction as the creative cliff illusion. Study 1 found initial evidence of this effect across an ideation task. We found further evidence in a sample with high domain-relevant knowledge (study 2), when creativity judgments were elicited retrospectively (study 3), and across a multiday study (study 5). We theorized the effect occurs because people mistakenly associate creativity (the novelty and usefulness of an idea) with idea production (the ability to generate an idea). Study 4 found evidence consistent with this mechanism. The creative cliff illusion was attenuated among those with high levels of everyday creative experience (study 6) and after a knowledge intervention that increased awareness of the effect (study 7). Demonstrating the impact of creativity beliefs on downstream performance, study 8 found that declining creativity beliefs negatively influenced task persistence and creative performance, suggesting that people underinvest in ideation. This research contributes to work on prediction in the creative domain and demonstrates the importance of understanding creativity beliefs for predicting creative performance.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Ilusões , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 796-805, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Weight loss maintenance (WLM) is the next major challenge in obesity treatment. While most individuals who lose weight intend to keep their weight off, weight regain is common. Temporal Self-Regulation Theory posits that whether intentions lead to behavior depends on self-regulatory capacity, including delay discounting (DD; the tendency to discount a larger future reward in favor of a smaller immediate reward). Episodic Future Thinking (EFT; mental imagery of a future event for which a health goal is important) may improve DD and promote behavior change. Described herein is a trial protocol designed to examine whether EFT improves DD within the context of weight loss maintenance. METHOD: Participants who lose ≥5% of initial body weight in an online behavioral weight loss intervention will be randomly assigned to a standard weight loss maintenance program (WLM-STD) or a weight loss maintenance program plus EFT (WLM + EFT). Both interventions involve periodic phone and in-person treatment sessions. Participants in WLM + EFT will engage in daily EFT training via smartphone. To control for contact, participants in WLM-STD will engage in daily Healthy Thinking (reviewing strategies for weight management) on their smartphone. Our primary hypothesis is that WLM + EFT will yield better improvements in DD compared to WLM-STD. We will also explore whether DD mediates the relationship between intervention allocation and physical activity (secondary outcome). Weight and contextual variables will be explored. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to test whether EFT improves DD within the context of weight loss maintenance; results from this experimental medicine approach could have important implications for understanding the impact of both EFT and DD on sustained behavior change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Pensamento/fisiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237644, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797102

RESUMO

Counterfactual thoughts center on how the past could have been different. Such thoughts may be differentiated in terms of direction of comparison, such that upward counterfactuals focus on how the past could have been better, whereas downward counterfactuals focus on how the past could have been worse. A key question is how such past-oriented thoughts connect to future-oriented individual differences such as optimism. Ambiguities surround a series of past studies in which optimism predicted relatively greater downward counterfactual thinking. Our main study (N = 1150) and six supplementary studies (N = 1901) re-examined this link to reveal a different result, a weak relation between optimism and upward (rather than downward) counterfactual thinking. These results offer an important correction to the counterfactual literature and are informative for theory on individual differences in optimism.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Otimismo/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 43: e130, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645791

RESUMO

Gilead et al. state that abstraction supports mental travel, and that mental travel critically relies on abstraction. I propose an important addition to this theoretical framework, namely that mental travel might also support abstraction. Specifically, I argue that spontaneous mental travel (mind wandering), much like data augmentation in machine learning, provides variability in mental content and context necessary for abstraction.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Pensamento
17.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to explore the potentialities of the Photovoice methodology to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health. METHOD: an exploratory and descriptive study with a qualitative approach, using different steps of the Photovoice methodology. Nursing students obtained photographs in their community, showing Social Determinants of Health, analyzed and classified the photographs, and exposed the results in the Nursing school. The students answered a questionnaire writing their perceptions. The data collected from the questionnaires were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: 91 students participated in the study. Two main categories emerged from the data: Photovoice is a good methodology to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health, and Photovoice is a good methodology to stimulate other skills (expressing beliefs and perceptions, stimulating creativity, developing research skills, strengthening ties with colleagues, and attracting attention). CONCLUSION: we explore the potentialities of the Photovoice methodology. It can be an original, simple and economical tool to stimulate critical thinking on Social Determinants of Health, and to stimulate other skills. Photovoice can be considered in teaching about aspects related to health/care in Nursing students, in order to promote critical thinking of future agents for a change in health.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Criatividade , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa em Educação de Enfermagem , Pensamento
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673334

RESUMO

Reminiscing, or thinking and talking about our past experiences, can have mood enhancing effects. Rumination is implicated in reminiscence and yet has been shown to have negative effects on mood, with important differences between age groups. However, age differences in the effects of reminiscing on mood, and particularly the effects of rumination within reminiscence, are less explored. Two different age groups completed self-report measures of the positive directive (planning for present and future behaviors) and social (communication) uses of autobiographical memory, as well as maladaptive rumination and depression symptom severity. Young participants (Mean age: 21.82) ruminated more and reported greater frequency of using the directive and social functions of thinking and talking about past experiences than older adults (Mean age: 71.82). These reminiscence processes were also differentially associated with depression symptoms between age groups when tested in structural equation models. In older participants, but not young participants, the directive function was negatively associated with depression severity; in young participants, but not old participants, the social function was negatively associated with depression severity. Furthermore, although depressive and abstract rumination was directly positively related to depression scores in both samples, this association was inverted when the effect of rumination on depression was calculated through functions of reminiscence. The implications of these results for intervention development in older versus young adults, is discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Síndrome da Ruminação/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Ruminação/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235698, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730273

RESUMO

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of risk-taking, exploitation, and exploration on creativity by taking a model-based computational approach to both divergent and convergent thinking as primary ingredients of creativity. We adopted a reinforcement learning framework of Q learning to provide a simple, rigorous account of behavior in the decision-making process and examined the determinants of divergent and convergent thinking. Our findings revealed that risk-taking has positive effects on divergent thinking, but not related to convergent thinking. In particular, divergent thinkers with a high learning capacity were more likely to engage in risk-taking when facing losses than when facing gains. This risk-taking behavior not only contributes to the rapid achievement of learning convergence, but is also associated with high performance in divergent thinking tasks. Conversely, both exploitation and exploration had no significant effects on creativity once these risk attitudes were considered. Moreover, while convergent thinking relied on personality characteristics, it was not associated with risk-taking, exploitation, or exploration.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Assunção de Riscos , Adolescente , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Q-Sort , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726352

RESUMO

Mathematics is often promoted as endowing those who study it with transferable skills such as an ability to think logically and critically or to have improved investigative skills, resourcefulness and creativity in problem solving. However, there is scant evidence to back up such claims. This project tested participants with increasing levels of mathematics training on 11 well-studied rational and logical reasoning tasks aggregated from various psychological studies. These tasks, that included the Cognitive Reflection Test and the Wason Selection Task, are of particular interest as they have typically and reliably eluded participants in all studies, and results have been uncorrelated with general intelligence, education levels and other demographic information. The results in this study revealed that in general the greater the mathematics training of the participant, the more tasks were completed correctly, and that performance on some tasks was also associated with performance on others not traditionally associated. A ceiling effect also emerged. The work is deconstructed from the viewpoint of adding to the platform from which to approach the greater, and more scientifically elusive, question: are any skills associated with mathematics training innate or do they arise from skills transfer?


Assuntos
Criatividade , Inteligência , Lógica , Matemática/educação , Resolução de Problemas/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA