Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.375
Filtrar
1.
Am Ann Deaf ; 169(1): 40-56, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38973462

RESUMO

The researchers examined the associations between thinking styles and grit. A cross-sectional design was adopted, with two weeks of data collection. The Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised II and the Grit Scale were administered to 365 signing deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) Arts and Design students and 443 hearing university students in mainland China. CFA, MANOVA, hierarchical multiple regression analyses, and a multi-group analysis were executed for data analysis. DHH and hearing students with Type I styles (i.e., more creativity-generating, less structured, and cognitively more complex) had higher grit levels, with large effect sizes for the identified relationships. There were no differences in the relations for either group. The associations between thinking styles and grit may protect against psychological pressure and rehabilitation problems and enable university/school administrators, counselors, social workers, teachers, parents, and students to enhance the grit of students who are deaf or hard of hearing.


Assuntos
Surdez , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Estudantes , Pensamento , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Adulto Jovem , Estudantes/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/psicologia , China , Surdez/psicologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Adolescente , Criatividade , Adulto , Educação de Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/métodos
2.
Sci Am ; 330(2): 10, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39017465
4.
Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being ; 19(1): 2375660, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38967618

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Research indicates that exam anxiety may decline with mindfulness-based interventions but there is a lack of research on adolescents' accounts of the processes involved. We explored high-school students' descriptions of how they perceived and applied mindfulness in managing anxiety-inducing thoughts related to academic performance following an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) course. METHOD: Post-course individual semi-structured interviews with 22 high school students (2 males, mean age 17.8 years) were transcribed verbatim and analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. RESULTS: The analyses identified six themes: (1) Noticing and attending to the attention-binding "maelstrom" of anxious thoughts and feelings (2) Attending to the breath to cope with the maelstrom, (3) "removing" and "getting rid of" anxious thoughts (4) Being able to "think" (5) awareness of more helpful thoughts, and (6) Agency and control. The findings are discussed in light of the Buddhist notion of "unwholesome thoughts" and the distinction between thought suppression and the use of breathing as a benign distraction. We propose that mindfulness encompasses both a receptive, nonjudgmental awareness and an active, intentional redirection of attention. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness training aided participants by enhancing their capacity to disengage from fear-engaging thoughts, thereby maintaining them within their window of tolerance and facilitating cognitive processing.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes/psicologia , Pensamento , Atenção , Estresse Psicológico , Ansiedade , Adaptação Psicológica , Conscientização , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ansiedade aos Exames , Medo , Budismo
5.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 45(11): e26781, 2024 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39023172

RESUMO

Attention lapses (ALs) are complete lapses of responsiveness in which performance is briefly but completely disrupted and during which, as opposed to microsleeps, the eyes remain open. Although the phenomenon of ALs has been investigated by behavioural and physiological means, the underlying cause of an AL has largely remained elusive. This study aimed to investigate the underlying physiological substrates of behaviourally identified endogenous ALs during a continuous visuomotor task, primarily to answer the question: Were the ALs during this task due to extreme mind-wandering or mind-blanks? The data from two studies were combined, resulting in data from 40 healthy non-sleep-deprived subjects (20M/20F; mean age 27.1 years, 20-45). Only 17 of the 40 subjects were used in the analysis due to a need for a minimum of two ALs per subject. Subjects performed a random 2-D continuous visuomotor tracking task for 50 and 20 min in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. Tracking performance, eye-video, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were recorded simultaneously. A human expert visually inspected the tracking performance and eye-video recordings to identify and categorise lapses of responsiveness as microsleeps or ALs. Changes in neural activity during 85 ALs (17 subjects) relative to responsive tracking were estimated by whole-brain voxel-wise fMRI and by haemodynamic response (HR) analysis in regions of interest (ROIs) from seven key networks to reveal the neural signature of ALs. Changes in functional connectivity (FC) within and between the key ROIs were also estimated. Networks explored were the default mode network, dorsal attention network, frontoparietal network, sensorimotor network, salience network, visual network, and working memory network. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a significant increase in blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in the overlapping dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area region but no significant decreases in activity; the increased activity is considered to represent a recovery-of-responsiveness process following an AL. This increased activity was also seen in the HR of the corresponding ROI. Importantly, HR analysis revealed no trend of increased activity in the posterior cingulate of the default mode network, which has been repeatedly demonstrated to be a strong biomarker of mind-wandering. FC analysis showed decoupling of external attention, which supports the involuntary nature of ALs, in addition to the neural recovery processes. Other findings were a decrease in HR in the frontoparietal network before the onset of ALs, and a decrease in FC between default mode network and working memory network. These findings converge to our conclusion that the ALs observed during our task were involuntary mind-blanks. This is further supported behaviourally by the short duration of the ALs (mean 1.7 s), which is considered too brief to be instances of extreme mind-wandering. This is the first study to demonstrate that at least the majority of complete losses of responsiveness on a continuous visuomotor task are, if not due to microsleeps, due to involuntary mind-blanks.


Assuntos
Atenção , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Adulto , Feminino , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Atenção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Pensamento/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 759, 2024 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39010040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International student education has become an important part of higher education and an important symbol to measure the level of higher education. To change the traditional teaching model, here we introduced a combination of Case-Based Learning (CBL)and Flipped Classroom (FC) into the pathophysiology course for international students. This study aimed to explore whether the active learning ability and critical thinking ability of international students can be improved, based on this new teaching model, improving the innovation ability of teachers' team and students' attitude to the reform. METHODS: The two chapters of Cardiac Insufficiency and Apoptosis in Pathophysiology are designed as a CBL + FC teaching method. Distribute the Self-assessment Scale on Active Learning and Critical Thinking (SSACT) and satisfaction questionnaire to international students to evaluate teaching reform based on CBL + FC. RESULTS: Compared with the traditional classroom, the online flipped classroom based on CBL has significantly improved the learning enthusiasm, as these students are required to independently complete literature review, actively participate in classroom teaching, learn to use multiple learning strategies, and collaborate with other students to complete PowerPoint (PPT)production. At the same time, the students' ability to raise problems and solve problems has been greatly improved by analyzing clinical cases; By consulting the literature, the theoretical knowledge learned can be better applied to clinical analysis. The results of the satisfaction survey also show that international students are more likely to accept the flipped classroom teaching mode. CONCLUSIONS: This teaching mode will stimulate the learning motivation of international students, enhance teaching attraction and increase teaching interaction; At the same time, the CBL + FC teaching method can strengthen the evaluation of international students' in and out of class and online learning, enhance students' active learning ability and critical thinking ability, promote the development of personalized learning, and integrate with international medical education.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pensamento , Humanos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Modelos Educacionais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação Educacional , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Masculino
7.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0307094, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39024294

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, the improvement of people's health literacy is one of the fundamental public health challenges in the 21st century. The key issue in teaching health literacy is to develop critical thinking skills. As health literacy and critical thinking should be developed at school age, we reviewed teaching methods or educational interventions used in empirical studies focused on the development of critical thinking regarding health and implemented by teachers in preschools, primary schools, or secondary schools. We searched seven databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, ERIC, ProqQuest, PsycArticles, and CINAHL) from inception to 20 September 2023 for any type of empirical studies. Due to the heterogeneity in interventions and inadequate reporting of results, a descriptive synthesis of studies was performed in addition to quantitative analysis. Of the 15919 initial records, 115 studies were included in the review. Most of the educational interventions focused on lifestyle-related health issues such as substance use, sexual and reproductive health, and nutrition. The popularity of health issues changed over time and depended on the geographical context. Six dimensions that differentiated the teaching methods were identified: central teaching component, central educator, pupils' activity level, teaching context, educational materials, and significance of critical thinking. Many educational interventions did not address the development of critical thinking skills in a comprehensive manner, and the significance of critical thinking varied greatly. Interventions in which critical thinking had high and very high significance applied mainly problem-solving methods and involved pupils' activity. The evidence on the effectiveness of the teaching methods that develop critical thinking is limited because most articles failed to provide detailed information on the teaching methods or did not examine their effects. We recommend that a checklist is developed to facilitate a detailed description of health educational interventions and thus promoting their replicability. Study registration: The protocol of the review was registered in the OSF Registries on 13 January 2022 (doi: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/46TEZ).


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ensino , Pensamento , Humanos , Criança , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Letramento em Saúde
8.
Diagn. tratamento ; 29(2): 45-47, abr-jun. 2024.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1553881

Assuntos
Pensamento
9.
Trends Cogn Sci ; 28(7): 597-599, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849285

RESUMO

Creativity often entails gaining a novel perspective, yet it remains uncertain how this is accomplished. Atypical salience processing may foster creative thinking by prioritizing putatively irrelevant information, thereby broadening the material accessible for idea generation and inhibiting attentional fixedness; in essence, motivating creative individuals to incorporate information that others overlook.


Assuntos
Atenção , Criatividade , Humanos , Atenção/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia
10.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 78: 104015, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38852273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The unfolding case-study learning approach is a growing modernized learning strategy implemented in different health disciplines. However, there is a lack of existing research that examines the effects of unfolding case studies in advanced nursing courses. AIM: To examine the impact of applying an unfolding case-study learning approach on critical care nursing students' knowledge, critical thinking, and self-efficacy. METHODS: This posttest-only, quasi-experimental study was conducted at XXX University in Palestine. A single-stage cluster sampling was used to assign nursing students enrolled in the critical care nursing course into experiment and conventional groups. The intervention group (n= 91) underwent unfolding case-study learning for selected cardiovascular topics, whereas the conventional group (n= 78) was taught using the traditional teaching methods. The posttest assessment was conducted using Knowledge Acquisition tests, Yoon`s Critical Thinking Disposition Instrument (YCTD), and the Self-Efficacy for Learning and Performance instruments. The Social Constructivist Theoretical Framework was integrated into the study. RESULTS: Homogeneity was achieved between both groups concerning Age, Gender, and GPA. The experiment group scored significantly higher than the conventional group regarding the posttest knowledge acquisition tests (7.12 vs. 5.49, respectively, t=-12.7, P<0.001, CI: -1.89 to -1.38), critical thinking (4.32 vs. 3.63 respectively, t=17.390, p<0.001, CI: -77 to -61) and self-efficacy (6.12 vs. 4.4 respectively, t=-30.897, p<0.001, CI: -1.82 to -1.60). Multivariate analysis revealed that 69 % of the variations of posttest scores were influenced by critical thinking scores (Adjusted R Squared=0.690, F=3.47, P=0002, η2=0.969). Similarly, self-efficacy has been shown to contribute by 74 % to the variations of scores after conducting the study program (Adjusted R Squared=0.743, F=4.21, P=0001, η2=0.974). However, the variations of both critical thinking and self-efficacy scores were not significantly influenced by the contribution of knowledge acquisition (p=0.772 and 0.857, respectively) and students' GPA (p=0.305 and 0.956, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of knowledge level and GPA, the unfolding case-study learning approach can enhance the critical thinking and self-efficacy of students enrolling in advanced nursing courses.


Assuntos
Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Avaliação Educacional , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Autoeficácia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pensamento , Humanos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos/educação , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Competência Clínica
11.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 78: 104021, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38917560

RESUMO

AIM: This paper reflects on the experience of one Scottish University in conducting a face-to-face Objective Structured Examination (OSCE) for large cohorts of student nurses. It outlines the challenges experienced and learning gained. Borton's model of reflection frames this work due to its simplicity, ease of application and cyclical nature. BACKGROUND: The theoretical framework for the OSCE is critical thinking, enabling students to apply those skills authentically. OSCE's are designed to transfer classroom knowledge to clinical practice and offer an authentic work-based assessment. DESIGN: Validity and robustness are key considerations in any assessment and in OSCE, the number of stations that students encounter is important and debated. We used a case-study based OSCE approach initially over four stations and following reflection, changed to one long station with four phases. RESULTS: In OSCE examinations, interrater reliability is a necessity, and students expect equity of approach. We identified that despite clear marking criteria, marks were polarised, with students achieving high or low marks with little middle ground. Review of examination papers highlighted that although students' overall performance was good, some had failed in at least one station, suggesting a four-station approach may skew results. On reflection we hypothesised that using a one station case study-based, phased approach enabled the examiner to build up a more holistic picture of student knowledge and skills. It also provided the student opportunity to develop a rapport with the examiner and standardised patient, thereby putting them more at ease. We argue that this approach is holistic, authentic and student centred. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience highlights that a single station, four phase OSCE is preferrable, enabling students to integrate all aspects of the assessment and provides a holistic view of clinical skills and knowledge.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Escócia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/normas , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Competência Clínica/normas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Escolas de Enfermagem , Pensamento
12.
Neuropsychologia ; 201: 108943, 2024 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38908476

RESUMO

Research has documented changes in autobiographical memory and episodic future thinking in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, cognitive decline occurs gradually and recent findings suggest that subtle alterations in autobiographical cognition may be evident earlier in the trajectory towards dementia, before AD-related symptoms emerge or a clinical diagnosis has been given. The current study used the Autobiographical Interview to examine the episodic and semantic content of autobiographical past and future events generated by older adults (N = 38) of varying cognitive functioning who were grouped into High (N = 20) and Low Cognition (N = 18) groups based on their Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Participants described 12 past and 12 future autobiographical events, and transcripts were scored to quantify the numbers of internal (episodic) or external (non-episodic, including semantic) details. Although the Low Cognition group exhibited a differential reduction for internal details comprising both past and future events, they did not show the expected overproduction of external details relative to the High Cognition group. Multilevel modelling demonstrated that on trials lower in episodic content, semantic content was significantly increased in both groups. Although suggestive of a compensatory mechanism, the magnitude of this inverse relationship did not differ across groups or interact with MoCA scores. This finding indicates that external detail production may be underpinned by mechanisms not affected by cognitive decline, such as narrative style and the ability to contextualize one's past and future events in relation to broader autobiographical knowledge.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Pensamento , Humanos , Idoso , Masculino , Feminino , Pensamento/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Semântica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(3): 23, 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833046

RESUMO

The Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT-2) and Engineering Ethical Reasoning Instrument (EERI) are designed to measure ethical reasoning of general (DIT-2) and engineering-student (EERI) populations. These tools-and the DIT-2 especially-have gained wide usage for assessing the ethical reasoning of undergraduate students. This paper reports on a research study in which the ethical reasoning of first-year undergraduate engineering students at multiple universities was assessed with both of these tools. In addition to these two instruments, students were also asked to create personal concept maps of the phrase "ethical decision-making." It was hypothesized that students whose instrument scores reflected more postconventional levels of moral development and more sophisticated ethical reasoning skills would likewise have richer, more detailed concept maps of ethical decision-making, reflecting their deeper levels of understanding of this topic and the complex of related concepts. In fact, there was no significant correlation between the instrument scores and concept map scoring, suggesting that the way first-year students conceptualize ethical decision making does not predict the way they behave when performing scenario-based ethical reasoning (perhaps more situated). This disparity indicates a need to more precisely quantify engineering ethical reasoning and decision making, if we wish to inform assessment outcomes using the results of such quantitative analyses.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Avaliação Educacional , Engenharia , Estudantes , Humanos , Engenharia/ética , Engenharia/educação , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Universidades , Pensamento , Princípios Morais , Desenvolvimento Moral , Masculino , Feminino , Ética Profissional/educação , Resolução de Problemas/ética
14.
Nurse Educ Today ; 140: 106260, 2024 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38838395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research skills in nursing are crucial for guiding evidence-based practice and enhancing health care. However, undergraduate nursing students often encounter challenges in skill development because of curriculum constraints that prioritize clinical education. Bridging this skill gap is imperative for preparing students for evidence-based practice and nursing scholarship. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the impact of incorporating action learning into undergraduate nursing research classes to improve the quality of nurse education. DESIGN: A mixed-methods approach was employed using pre- and post-online surveys for quantitative analysis and reflective journals for qualitative analysis. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a college of nursing in Seoul, South Korea. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 19 fourth-year nursing students participated in the study. METHODS: Action learning-based nursing research classes were implemented over ten sessions, integrating lectures and team activities. Pre- and post-assessment data on communication skills, critical thinking tendencies, and problem-solving abilities were analyzed using paired t-tests. The qualitative analysis involved content analysis of individual and team reflective journals. RESULTS: Participants in action learning-based nursing research classes showed significant improvements in their communication skills (t = 3.46, p = 0.002), critical thinking tendencies (t = 3.80, p = 0.001), and problem-solving abilities (t = 1.82, p = 0.043). From the analysis of reflective journals four main themes were developed: organized team projects, dynamics of learning goal achievement, extended application of learning outcomes, and recommendations for better action learning-based classes. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights action learning as an effective educational method that integrates theory and practice in nurse education, helping students prepare for their future roles as nursing professionals. The findings underscore the effectiveness of action learning in improving undergraduate nursing students' research competency and support the need for continued development of such pedagogical approaches.


Assuntos
Currículo , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Feminino , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , República da Coreia , Competência Clínica/normas , Competência Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Pensamento , Adulto
15.
Nat Neurosci ; 27(7): 1340-1348, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849521

RESUMO

When faced with a novel situation, people often spend substantial periods of time contemplating possible futures. For such planning to be rational, the benefits to behavior must compensate for the time spent thinking. Here, we capture these features of behavior by developing a neural network model where planning itself is controlled by the prefrontal cortex. This model consists of a meta-reinforcement learning agent augmented with the ability to plan by sampling imagined action sequences from its own policy, which we call 'rollouts'. In a spatial navigation task, the agent learns to plan when it is beneficial, which provides a normative explanation for empirical variability in human thinking times. Additionally, the patterns of policy rollouts used by the artificial agent closely resemble patterns of rodent hippocampal replays. Our work provides a theory of how the brain could implement planning through prefrontal-hippocampal interactions, where hippocampal replays are triggered by-and adaptively affect-prefrontal dynamics.


Assuntos
Hipocampo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Humanos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Animais
16.
Cogn Sci ; 48(6): e13470, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862266

RESUMO

When people make decisions, they act in a way that is either automatic ("rote"), or more thoughtful ("reflective"). But do people notice when others are behaving in a rote way, and do they care? We examine the detection of rote behavior and its consequences in U.S. adults, focusing specifically on pedagogy and learning. We establish repetitiveness as a cue for rote behavior (Experiment 1), and find that rote people are seen as worse teachers (Experiment 2). We also find that the more a person's feedback seems similar across groups (indicating greater rote-ness), the more negatively their teaching is evaluated (Experiment 3). A word-embedding analysis of an open-response task shows people naturally cluster rote and reflective teachers into different semantic categories (Experiment 4). We also show that repetitiveness can be decoupled from perceptions of rote-ness given contextual explanation (Experiment 5). Finally, we establish two additional cues to rote behavior that can be tied to quality of teaching (Experiment 6). These results empirically show that people detect and care about scripted behaviors in pedagogy, and suggest an important extension to formal frameworks of social reasoning.


Assuntos
Ensino , Pensamento , Humanos , Adulto , Masculino , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1455: 171-195, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38918352

RESUMO

A common research protocol in cognitive neuroscience is to train subjects to perform deliberately designed experiments while recording brain activity, with the aim of understanding the brain mechanisms underlying cognition. However, how the results of this protocol of research can be applied in technology is seldom discussed. Here, I review the studies on time processing of the brain as examples of this research protocol, as well as two main application areas of neuroscience (neuroengineering and brain-inspired artificial intelligence). Time processing is a fundamental dimension of cognition, and time is also an indispensable dimension of any real-world signal to be processed in technology. Therefore, one may expect that the studies of time processing in cognition profoundly influence brain-related technology. Surprisingly, I found that the results from cognitive studies on timing processing are hardly helpful in solving practical problems. This awkward situation may be due to the lack of generalizability of the results of cognitive studies, which are under well-controlled laboratory conditions, to real-life situations. This lack of generalizability may be rooted in the fundamental unknowability of the world (including cognition). Overall, this paper questions and criticizes the usefulness and prospect of the abovementioned research protocol of cognitive neuroscience. I then give three suggestions for future research. First, to improve the generalizability of research, it is better to study brain activity under real-life conditions instead of in well-controlled laboratory experiments. Second, to overcome the unknowability of the world, we can engineer an easily accessible surrogate of the object under investigation, so that we can predict the behavior of the object under investigation by experimenting on the surrogate. Third, the paper calls for technology-oriented research, with the aim of technology creation instead of knowledge discovery.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Pensamento , Humanos , Cognição/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Neurociência Cognitiva/métodos , Inteligência Artificial , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia
18.
Behav Brain Sci ; 47: e146, 2024 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38934438

RESUMO

Twenty-five commentaries raise questions concerning the origins of knowledge, the interplay of iconic and propositional representations in mental life, the architecture of numerical and social cognition, the sources of uniquely human cognitive capacities, and the borders among core knowledge, perception, and thought. They also propose new methods, drawn from the vibrant, interdisciplinary cognitive sciences, for addressing these questions and deepening understanding of infant minds.


Assuntos
Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Cognição/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Cognição Social , Pensamento/fisiologia
19.
Wiad Lek ; 77(4): 665-669, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38865620

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: The paper studies the attitude to critical thinking, academic integrity and the Artificial Intelligence use of the Ukrainian medical PhD students. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: In 2023, 56 medical PhD students from the Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine, underwent the survey. The participation was voluntary, upon the oral consent. The data included in the survey questions include various aspects related to critical thinking, analysis skills, and attitudes towards plagiarism. RESULTS: Results: A significant majority of the medical PhD students (75%) place high importance on critical thinking. While a majority (89.29%) apply analysis and critical thinking skills in their English studies, there's a notable percentage (7.14%) that is uncertain. Although most are aware of the unacceptability of cheating and plagiarism (75%), a small proportion admit to having plagiarized (12.5%). Only 30.4% of the respondents reported using GPT Chat for study. Responses to witnessing peers plagiarize or using Artificial Intelligence show a varied attitude, with many expressing unwillingness to report such incidents (30.36%). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The survey highlights the recognized importance of critical thinking in academic study among medical PhD students, while also points to areas where attitudes and practices regarding these skills could be improved. The study shows a vast area for improvement regarding academic integrity, as almost one-third of respondents need more defined standards. This definitely puts some questions before the present medical postgraduate education, and requires change of the educational paradigm, clear rules of academic conduct, and a system of control.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Plágio , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Ucrânia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pensamento , Masculino , Feminino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Adulto
20.
Nature ; 630(8017): 575-586, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38898296

RESUMO

Language is a defining characteristic of our species, but the function, or functions, that it serves has been debated for centuries. Here we bring recent evidence from neuroscience and allied disciplines to argue that in modern humans, language is a tool for communication, contrary to a prominent view that we use language for thinking. We begin by introducing the brain network that supports linguistic ability in humans. We then review evidence for a double dissociation between language and thought, and discuss several properties of language that suggest that it is optimized for communication. We conclude that although the emergence of language has unquestionably transformed human culture, language does not appear to be a prerequisite for complex thought, including symbolic thought. Instead, language is a powerful tool for the transmission of cultural knowledge; it plausibly co-evolved with our thinking and reasoning capacities, and only reflects, rather than gives rise to, the signature sophistication of human cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Comunicação , Idioma , Pensamento , Animais , Humanos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Cultura , Pensamento/fisiologia , Linguística
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...