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1.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 41(1): 37-38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860484

RESUMO

This pilot study showed how concept mapping during debriefing made a difference in the learning experience of participants. After a 20-minute video showing the clinical interaction between nurses and a patient, 34 nursing students debriefed their observations in either a traditional team debriefing session or in a debriefing session using concept mapping. Results showed an increase in analysis of thoughts, feelings, and critical thinking and connections to clinical concepts for students who used concept mapping during the debriefing session. Results suggest the application of concept mapping during debriefing as a useful teaching modality to help make connections to clinical concepts.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Pensamento , Humanos , Projetos Piloto
2.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e262, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826751

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack discuss the benefits of temporal reasoning mainly with respect to future planning and decision making. I point out that, for humans, the ability to represent particular past times has distinct benefits, which are independent from contributing to future-directed cognition. Hence, the evolution of the temporal reasoning system was not necessarily driven primarily by its benefits for future-directed cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pensamento , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Resolução de Problemas
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e273, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826761

RESUMO

Hoerl & McCormack (H&M) discuss the possible function of meta-representations in temporal cognition but ultimately take an agnostic stance. Here we outline the fundamental role that we believe meta-representations play. Because humans know that their representations of future events are just representations, they are in a position to compensate for the shortcomings of their own foresight and to prepare for multiple contingencies.


Assuntos
Cognição , Pensamento , Previsões , Humanos
4.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e258, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826797

RESUMO

Two issues should be addressed to refine and extend the distinction between temporal updating and reasoning advocated by Hoerl & McCormack. First, do the mental representations constructed during updating differ from those used for reasoning? Second, are updating and reasoning the only two processes relevant to temporal thinking? If not, is a dual-systems framework sensible? We address both issues below.


Assuntos
Resolução de Problemas , Pensamento , Cognição
5.
Estud. pesqui. psicol. (Impr.) ; 18(4): 1299-1322, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-995100

RESUMO

Se describe la integración de tres mujeres argentinas a la carrera científica durante la década de 1960 desde sus estudios doctorales en un laboratorio extranjero. Se analizan los auspicios personales y los apoyos en políticas públicas que les otorgaron oportunidades para producir y gestionar ciencia. Se trata de Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva y Ana María Insúa quienes comenzaron su actividad profesional en el ámbito educativo accediendo a la Psicología. Cuando en el país no existía tradición de promover doctorados en esa disciplina, ellas lo lograron en el Laboratorio de Psicometría de la Universidad de Loyola (Chicago) bajo la dirección de Horacio Rimoldi, quien las impulsó en su carrera. Desde modelos factoriales, condujeron investigaciones sobre procesos de pensamiento para la resolución de problemas que se convirtieron en referencia internacional. Las tres mujeres se desempeñaron en instituciones de Estados Unidos con financiamiento de agencias oficiales de salud y educación. Dos de ellas regresaron a Argentina donde ingresaron al Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Se discute el rol de dicha institución en la promoción de la investigación en psicología, el lugar de la misma en las carreras universitarias y su incidencia en el perfil de psicólogo.(AU)


O processo de integração de três mulheres argentinas na carreira científica é descrito a partir do momento em que eles obtiveram um doutorado em psicologia enquanto estavam trabalhando em um laboratório estrangeiro durante a década de 1960. A trajetória de Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva e Ana María Insúa é retratada revelando sua chegada da educação ao campo da psicologia. Enquanto não havia tradição de promover o doutorado em psicologia na Argentina, eles conseguiram nesse objetivo sob a direção de Horacio Rimoldi no Laboratório Psicométrico da Universidade de Loyola (Chicago), que as encorajou em suas carreiras. Eles realizaram pesquisas sobre o processo de pensamento para resolução de problemas, com o modelo fatorial, consideradas como referência internacional. Trabalharam para organizações apoiadas pelas agências de Saúde e Educação dos Estados Unidos. Duas delas retornaram à Argentina onde trabalharam para o Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Discute-se o papel desta instituição na promoção da pesquisa psicológica bem como o lugar da pesquisa no treinamento e perfil dos psicólogos.(AU)


The integration of three Argentine women in the scientific career is described from the time they obtained a PhD in Psychology while working at a foreign laboratory in the 60's. The auspices under which they were integrated in the scientific career and the public policies which supported them are analyzed to understand how they took advantage from the opportunities they had to produce and manage science. The paths of Hermelinda Fogliatto, Rosalía Paiva and Ana María Insúa are portrayed revealing their arrival from education to the field of psychology. While there was no tradition of promoting PHDs on psychology in Argentina, they achieved this goal at the Psychometric Laboratory of Loyola University (Chicago) under the direction of Horacio Rimoldi, who encouraged their careers. Applying factorial models, they conducted research on the thinking process for problem solving, which was considered work of international reference. These women worked for organizations supported by Health and Education agencies of the United States. Two of them returned to Argentina where they worked for the National Council of Scientific and Technical Research. The role of this institution for the promotion of psychology research is discussed, as well as the place research had in psychologists training and profiles.(AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/psicologia , Pensamento , Análise Fatorial
6.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4691-4697, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617900

RESUMO

Undergraduate research involves experiential learning methods that helps animal science students gain critical thinking skills. There is high demand for these opportunities. For example, 77.9% of incoming freshmen in the Department of Animal Sciences & Industry at Kansas State University in Fall 2017 and Fall 2018 planned to conduct research sometime during their undergraduate career (422 of 542 students). Conventional, one-on-one mentoring methods in the department were only serving 1.7% of the undergraduate population (21 of 1,212 students). This creates a unique challenge of increasing the number of undergraduate research opportunities, while maintaining the impact of individualized experiential learning. One method to address this challenge is the incorporation of a course-based research program. In this model, research projects are conducted during a conventional semester during scheduled classroom hours, with project components divided into 3 sections: (1) research preparation, including compliance requirements, hypothesis testing, experimental design, and protocol development; (2) data collection; and (3) data interpretation and dissemination. Students collect data as a team, but individually develop their own research abstract and poster to maintain a high level of experiential learning. By teaching multiple sections of this course per semester and incorporating the concepts into existing laboratories, 13.5% of students in the department completed undergraduate research in the 2018-2019 academic year (162 of 1,197 students). To monitor the quality of these experiences, student critical thinking ability was assessed using the online Critical Thinking Basic Concepts & Understanding Test (Foundation for Critical Thinking, Tomales, CA). Undergraduate research experiences increased (P = 0.028) the growth in student critical thinking score, but the type of research experience did not influence assessed skills (P > 0.281). Thus, course-based undergraduate research experiences may be an option for growing the quantity and quality of undergraduate research experience in animal science.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Pesquisa/educação , Ciência/educação , Estudantes/psicologia , Animais , Currículo , Humanos , Kansas , Pensamento , Universidades
7.
Soins Gerontol ; 24(139): 1, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540713
8.
Dent Clin North Am ; 63(4): 679-693, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470922

RESUMO

The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a critical thinking skill set in decision-making and synthesis for caries diagnosis, and risk-adjusted and personalized management based on emulating the intended activity of the expert, (2) offer patient/case scenarios for application of the critical thinking skill set, (3) compare and contrast the results of applying an algorithm and expert thought process approach to patient analyses, (4) offer characteristics of the person making decisions and synthesizing information, and (5) for patients with complex health and social histories, include perspectives from other health care team members.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Pensamento , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
9.
Percept Mot Skills ; 126(6): 1058-1083, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407960

RESUMO

The controlled measurement of creative potential in early childhood is imperative for researchers seeking to fully understand the initial emergence and development of creativity. Evidence for original ideation has been demonstrated in infants as young as one year old, through their performance of movement-based, interactive creativity tasks. In this focused review of developmental research, we suggest that embodied movements and interactive play may uniquely facilitate creative thinking in early childhood (i.e., from birth to age six). From this review, we propose that embodied movement reinforces physical interactions that influence cognitions underlying creative behavior. Embodied creativity may supplement traditional creativity measures, as young children may be more inclined to represent their inner thoughts and experiences through movement rather than through language alone. Thus, we explored the importance of embodied creativity as a means of informing current researchers about the development of creativity, and we suggest future experimental research in this area.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Criatividade , Movimento , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Pensamento
11.
Neural Netw ; 119: 113-138, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404805

RESUMO

Behavioral and neural data suggest that visual attention spreads along contour segments to bind them into a unified object representation. Such attentional labeling segregates the target contour from distractors in a process known as mental contour tracing. A recurrent competitive map is developed to simulate the dynamics of mental contour tracing. In the model, local excitation opposes global inhibition and enables enhanced activity to propagate on the path offered by the contour. The extent of local excitatory interactions is modulated by the output of the multi-scale contour detection network, which constrains the speed of activity spreading in a scale-dependent manner. Furthermore, an L-junction detection network enables tracing to switch direction at the L-junctions, but not at the X- or T-junctions, thereby preventing spillover to a distractor contour. Computer simulations reveal that the model exhibits a monotonic increase in tracing time as a function of the distance to be traced. Also, the speed of tracing increases with decreasing proximity to the distractor contour and with the reduced curvature of the contours. The proposed model demonstrated how an elaborated version of the winner-takes-all network can implement a complex cognitive operation such as contour tracing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção de Forma , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Pensamento , Atenção/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Pensamento/fisiologia
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3816, 2019 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444333

RESUMO

When environments lack compelling goals, humans often let their minds wander to thoughts with greater personal relevance; however, we currently do not understand how this context-dependent prioritisation process operates. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) maintains goal representations in a context-dependent manner. Here, we show this region is involved in prioritising off-task thought in an analogous way. In a whole brain analysis we established that neural activity in DLPFC is high both when 'on-task' under demanding conditions and 'off-task' in a non-demanding task. Furthermore, individuals who increase off-task thought when external demands decrease, show lower correlation between neural signals linked to external tasks and lateral regions of the DMN within DLPFC, as well as less cortical grey matter in regions sensitive to these external task relevant signals. We conclude humans prioritise daydreaming when environmental demands decrease by aligning cognition with their personal goals using DLPFC.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nurs Manag (Harrow) ; 26(2): 37-41, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468762

RESUMO

Reflection is a hallmark of professional practice and an important element of the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. Following two previous continuing professional development articles, on reflection and professional learning and on reflection and personal learning, this article will aim to explore the specific elements of reflection required for revalidation. This publication should help demystify and support registrants embarking on the process.


Assuntos
Certificação/organização & administração , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pensamento , Humanos , Sociedades de Enfermagem , Reino Unido
14.
BMJ ; 366: l5112, 2019 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462399
15.
Pap. psicol ; 40(2): 81-88, mayo-ago. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183638

RESUMO

El debate acerca de la eficacia diferencial de los distintos modelos de psicoterapia y el conocido como "veredicto del pájaro Dodo", el hecho de que se haya encontrado una eficacia equivalente entre diferentes enfoques terapéuticos, es analizado en ese trabajo desde una nueva óptica cultural: la memética. Un meme es una unidad de información cultural que se replica y evoluciona por mecanismos de selección. La memética es el campo que se ocupa del estudio de los memes y de cómo se distribuyen y evolucionan. En este artículo nos proponemos analizar conceptos importantes de la psicoterapia y la psicología clínica desde el enfoque de la memética. Consideramos que esta perspectiva tiene importantes implicaciones en la conceptualización, estudio y mejora de la psicoterapia, arrojando luz sobre aspectos estancados y ofreciendo nuevas posibilidades investigadoras


The debate about the differential effectiveness of the different models of psychotherapy and the so-called "Dodo Bird Verdict", the fact that equivalent efficacy has been found between different therapeutic approaches, is analyzed in this work from a new perspective: memetics. A meme is a unit of cultural information that is replicated and evolved by selection mechanisms. Memetics is the field that deals with the study of memes and how they are distributed and evolved. The aim of this article is to analyze important issues of psychotherapy and clinical psychology based on a memetics approach. We consider this perspective to have important implications for the conceptualization, research, and improvement of psychotherapy, shedding light on stagnant issues and offering new research possibilities


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicoterapia/classificação , Psicoterapia/métodos , Modelos Psicológicos , Evolução Biológica , Conscientização , Pensamento , Evolução Cultural
16.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 152-158, mayo-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004853

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: El pensamiento crítico es un componente importante de la formación en Enfermería. Diferentes organizaciones exigen estrategias de pensamiento crítico para acreditar programas universitarios. Sin embargo, existe poca evidencia sobre la medición de sus niveles. Objetivo: Comparar el nivel de pensamiento crítico, en estudiantes de primero y último semestre de Enfermería en una universidad de Medellín-Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio cuantitativo descriptivo, trasversal y comparativo del pensamiento crítico en una muestra a conveniencia de estudiantes de primero y último semestre. Resultados: En ambos grupos, el nivel es medio (primero 44,47; último 53,14 p<0,001). No obstante, se observa un incremento de 19,49% con respecto al primer semestre, con cambios significativos en los dominios: evaluación, argumentación e interpretación. No se encontraron diferencias en los dominios de inferencia y análisis. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos muestran un cambio positivo en el nivel de pensamiento crítico, que son un punto de partida para el análisis del proceso enseñanza aprendizaje en la facultad donde se desarrolló el estudio, con el fin de fortalecer los dominios donde se observaron incrementos significativos y desarrollar estrategias que favorezcan el desarrollo de habilidades en los que no se observaron cambios. Es importante desarrollar investigaciones con mediciones longitudinales e instrumentos confiables.


Abstract Introduction: Critical thinking is an important component of nursing education. Different organizations demand critical thinking strategies in order to accredit university programs. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence in regards to how critical thinking levels can be assessed. Objective: To compare the critical thinking levels of undergraduate nursing students from first and last semesters in a university of Medellin-Colombia. Materials and methods: A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study of critical thinking carried out with an appropriate sample of students from first and last semesters. Results: Both groups showed a medium level (44.47 and 53.14 for first and last semester students, respectively). However, there is a 19.49% increase in last semester students compared to ones belonging to first semester, with significant changes in domains like evaluation, argumentation and interpretation. We did not observe significant changes in inference and analysis. Conclusions: Our findings show a positive change in the critical thinking level, a result that can be used as a starting point for the analysis of the teaching-learning processes developed in the Nursing Faculty. Our results are also important for strengthening the domains that showed significant increments and developing strategies to foster the development of skills in the areas where changes were not evident. We consider that it is relevant to carry out studies with longitudinal measurements and reliable instruments.


Assuntos
Educação Superior , Pensamento , Enfermagem
17.
Brain Cogn ; 135: 103587, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326763

RESUMO

The present study used functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) to examine the role of focused attention in divergent thinking and real-life creativity. Participants completed a Navon task, on which the stimuli consisted of a large letter made up of the smaller version of the same (congruent), or a different (incongruent) letter. Participants were cued to identify a letter at either the local or at the global level. A smaller congruency effect - how much faster people responded on the congruent than on the incongruent trials - was an index of focused attention. Overall, larger behavioral congruency effect was accompanied with increased activation in the anterior superior temporal gyrus (aSTG), and with increased activation in the left precuneus. Individual differences in divergent thinking, however, were associated with smaller behavioral congruency effect, as well as with smaller right aSTG increase on the incongruent versus congruent targets, suggesting that people with better performance on the divergent thinking tests have more focused attention. Real-world creativity was not associated with the congruency effect, or with any of the regions implicated in the congruency effect. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criatividade , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(3): 350-354, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305150

RESUMO

Recently, medical students' scientific thinking skills have been identified as an important issue in medical education. Scientific thinking cannot be imparted in conventional lectures, but rather requires actively involving students. We modified a practical course in physiology. A study was designed to test whether the new course fosters scientific thinking without impairing the transfer of physiological knowledge. The study group consisted of 226 first-year medical students at the Medical Faculty Mannheim of Heidelberg University. Written consent to participate in the study was obtained from all participants. The group was then randomly divided into two groups (traditional vs. modified course). The subject of both courses was a laboratory experiment in skeletal muscle physiology. In the traditional course, the students addressed topics already presented in lectures. In the modified course, students dealt with the same topics as in the traditional course, but the experiment was expanded to include one issue not taught before. When working on this issue, the students were instructed in scientific thinking. All participants filled out a questionnaire with 15 multiple-choice questions addressing the physiological subject matter and four open-ended questions addressing the criteria of scientific methodology. Physiological knowledge in both groups did not differ [F(1) = 2.08, P = 0.15]. Scores in scientific thinking in the modified course were higher (mean = 4.20, SD = 1.89) than in the traditional course (mean = 2.04, SD = 1.91) with F(1) = 70.69, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.24 (large effect). Our study demonstrates that small adjustments to courses in medical education can promote scientific thinking without impairing knowledge transfer.


Assuntos
Currículo , Educação Médica/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Pensamento , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317898

RESUMO

AIM: To identify the features of thinking of young people, whose mental development was carried out in conditions of life virtualization (in a networked society). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 310 mentally healthy respondents, aged from 18 to 20 years, who study in universities of St. Petersburg. Classical pathopsychological methods 'Exclusion of excess' and 'Comparison of concepts' were administered. The answers were divided into normative and non-normative, the latter were designated as psychopathological thinking phenomena (PPTP). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: PPTP were identified in 84.3% of the answers, with the frequency from 1 to 4 and more. The significant prevalence of PPTP in healthy young people was shown. PPTP in young people were unpredictable and chaotic. They were represented by generalizations based on latent signs, broad generalizations, and by a number of parameters characteristic of distortion of thinking. These features should not be considered as specific indicators of thinking disorders because they reflect only changed conditions of mental development characterized by the deformation of semantic matrices and substitution of hierarchic structures for network structures and excess of signs with multiple meanings. The results should be taken into consideration when evaluating the results of pathopsychological experiments.


Assuntos
Semântica , Pensamento , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos
20.
Br J Sociol ; 70(5): 2169-2175, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313282
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