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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1531, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707532

RESUMO

The multidisciplinary diagnosis and treatment (MDT) model has significant advantages in the diagnosing and treatment of intricate cases. In addition, it can eliminate subspecialty barriers and provide a more accurate and individualized diagnosis and treatment plan. It has been assumed that the future development of diagnosis and treatment will retain this course, and the MDT is an essential type of clinical thinking, especially for medical students. This study attempted to guide stomatology undergraduates' thinking via an MDT simulation in oral histopathology practicums through typical case-based education and paired-teachers' explanations. The aim was to cultivate clinical thinking among students based on individual cases and to improve class participation and students' clinical thinking ability. Forty-six undergraduates in a 5-year stomatology program who enrolled in 2018 participated in a simulation MDT model. Ten typical clinical cases were selected, and they were previously collected and analyzed by clinicians in accordance with the simulation MDT model and handed out to teachers and students before the class. Two to three cases were interpreted by teacher pairs that included a pathologist (oral pathology teacher) and a radiologist (oral imaging teacher). The rest of the cases were used for simulation MDT student groups in class. The oral pathology teacher and oral imaging teacher illustrated the corresponding data from typical cases in advance. The simulation MDT group members acting as a surgeon, pathologist, or radiologist demonstrated their own cases assigned randomly before the class. A curriculum satisfaction survey illustrated that the simulation MDT group agreed that simulation MDT was novel for them, and they had a strong sense of participation. The mimic MDT training with typical cases guided by paired teachers was useful for establishing student clinical thinking.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Modelos Educacionais , Treinamento por Simulação , Humanos , Currículo , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/terapia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Pensamento
2.
Cogn Sci ; 47(1): e13236, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36625330

RESUMO

Task-unrelated thought (TUT) occurs frequently in our daily lives and across a range of tasks, but we know little about how this phenomenon arises during and influences the way we communicate. Conversations also provide a novel opportunity to assess the alignment (or divergence) in TUT during dyadic interactions. We conducted a study to determine: (a) the frequency of TUT during conversation as well as how partners align/diverge in their rates of TUT, (b) the subjective and behavioral correlates of TUT and TUT divergence during conversation, and (c) if perceived social group identity impacts TUT and TUT divergence during conversation. We used a minimal groups induction procedure to assign participants (N = 126) to either an ingroup, outgroup, or control condition. We then asked them to converse with one another via a computer-mediated text chat application for 10 min while self-reporting TUTs. On average, participants reported TUT about once every 2 min; however, this rate was lower for participants in the ingroup condition, compared to the control condition. Conversational pairs in the ingroup condition were also aligned more in their rates of TUT compared to the outgroup condition. Finally, we discuss subjective and behavioral correlates of TUT and TUT divergence in conversations, such as valence, turn-taking ratios, and topic shifts.


Assuntos
Atenção , Pensamento , Humanos , Comunicação
3.
BMC Psychol ; 11(1): 6, 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing hemodialysis are exposed to psychological problems, such as despair, which in turn can be a trigger for them to abandon the treatment process. This study aimed to determine the effect of positive thinking training on hope and adherence to treatment in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was performed on 80 hemodialysis patients referred to two hemodialysis centers in Shiraz, Iran. They were randomly divided into an intervention and a control group. Eight sessions of positive thinking skills training carried out individually on the patients' bedsides. The primary and secondary outcomes were hope and adherence to treatment, respectively. The data were collected using Snyder Hope Questionnaire, End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire, laboratory tests, and weight measurements. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and Paired and Independent T-test using SPSS software version 18. RESULTS: After the intervention, the mean score of hope was significantly higher in the intervention group (42.1 ± 6.1) than in the control group (38.7 ± 6.5) (p = 0.024). Moreover, after the intervention, the mean score of adherence to treatment was significantly higher in the intervention group (1070.2 ± 80.1) compared to the control group (1018.4 ± 105.3) (p = 0.019). In addition, blood urea nitrogen, phosphate and inter-dialytic weight gain were lower in the intervention group compared to the control group after the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings showed that positive thinking interventions could lead to improvement in hope and adherence to treatment in hemodialysis patients. Positive thinking training could be used in caring of hemodialysis patients to improve their hope and adherence to treatment. Trial registration RCT Registry: Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials; RCT registration number: IRCT20180915041044N1; Registration date: 19/12/2018.


Assuntos
Otimismo , Diálise Renal , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Sistema de Registros , Pensamento
4.
J Nurs Educ ; 62(1): 47-50, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional clinical education does not prepare future nurses well for practice. Clinical immersion models are recommended to enhance critical thinking, clinical judgment, and confidence with nursing roles and skills. This study explored the effects of implementing an innovative clinical immersion model on readiness for nursing practice for accelerated Bachelor of Science in nursing students. METHOD: The Casey-Fink readiness for practice survey was used to determine graduate students' confidence and comfort with nursing roles and skills based on descriptive statistics for each survey question. RESULTS: Study results indicated students who experienced the clinical immersion model had high levels of confidence with nursing roles and felt prepared for practice. CONCLUSION: Nursing programs should consider implementing clinical immersion models in undergraduate nursing education programs. [J Nurs Educ. 2023;62(1):47-50.].


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Imersão , Pensamento , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1581, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709372

RESUMO

Some studies have asked participants about attentional state on a scale from on-task to off-task, which set the middle option as attention focused on both, including the possibility of the coexistence of thoughts. In addition, studies using multidimensional probes explicitly assumed coexistence within spontaneous thoughts and task-focus dimensions. Although several studies have assumed the coexistence of some thought dimensions, none has explored whether these are different types of thoughts (task-focus, mind-wandering, task-related, external stimuli-related). To examine whether this coexistence of thought types occurred, we used thought probes to determine the degree of immersion in each. The participants responded to probes presented at random during a sustained attention task. The results revealed a mixture of thought types in many self-reports. In addition, the state of attentional allocation behind self-reports was estimated using the hidden Markov model. We observed the following attentional states: task-focused, task-unrelated, task-related, external stimuli-focused, and task-focused-but also focused on other thoughts. These results suggest that individuals can simultaneously allocate attention to thought types and discriminate between reporting. In some cases, probe options should also be considered for this coexistence. We also examined the relationship between self-reports and behavioral indexes, and discussed the necessity of separately measuring the degree of immersion for each thought type.


Assuntos
Atenção , Autorrelato , Pensamento , Humanos
6.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 228: 105618, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36587437

RESUMO

Cuing adults to imagine their personal futures enhances prudent choice in delay discounting tasks. However, it has not been established that such cueing also reduces discounting in children. We assessed the effect of episodic future thinking (EFT) on delay of gratification in children using EFT cues specifically related to the rewards on offer. One hundred and thirty-nine 8-12-year-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: (i) EFT (imagine spending money in the future), (ii) Imagine Place (imagine being in a certain place), or (iii) No Cue. They were cued on each trial of two tasks: a delay discounting task with hypothetical monetary rewards and a real delay choice task involving choices between real rewards over real delays (coins that could be swapped for treats). In the delay discounting task, the Imagine Place group showed significantly higher discounting than the other two groups. In the real delay choice task, the Imagine Place group made significantly fewer delayed choices than the EFT group. However, the EFT group did not differ from the No Cue group in either task. The lack of a difference between the EFT and No Cue conditions supports previous findings suggesting children struggle to benefit from EFT cues. Poorer performance of the Imagine Place group suggests that cued imagination is cognitively taxing for children, using up cognitive resources required to delay gratification.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Pensamento , Recompensa , Previsões , Sinais (Psicologia)
7.
Neuropsychologia ; 179: 108446, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36529264

RESUMO

The compound nature of creativity entails the interplay of multiple cognitive processes, making it difficult to attribute creativity to a single neural signature. Divergent thinking paradigms, widely adopted to investigate creative production, have highlighted the key role of specific mental operations subserving creativity, such as inhibition of external stimuli, loose semantic associations, and mental imagery. Neurophysiological studies have typically shown a high alpha rhythm synchronization when individuals are engaged in creative ideation. Also, oculomotor activity and pupil diameter have been proposed as useful indicators of mental operations involved in such a thinking process. The goal of this study was to investigate whether beyond alpha-band activity other higher frequency bands, such as beta and gamma, may subserve divergent and convergent thinking and whether those could be associated with a different gaze bias and pupil response during ideas generation. Implementing a within-subjects design we collected behavioral measures, neural activity, gaze patterns, and pupil dilation while participants performed a revised version of the Alternative Uses Task, in which divergent thinking is contrasted to convergent thinking. As expected, participants took longer to generate creative ideas as compared to common ones. Interestingly, during divergent thinking participants displayed alpha synchronization along with beta and gamma desynchronization, more pronounced leftward gaze shift, and greater pupil dilation. During convergent thinking, an opposite pattern was observed: desynchronization in alpha and an increase in beta and gamma rhythm, along with a reduction of leftward gaze shift and greater pupil constriction. The present study uncovered specific neural dynamics and physiological patterns during idea generation, providing novel insight into the complex physiological signature of creative production.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Pensamento , Humanos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Cognição , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia
9.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107469, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055058

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: According to the recent adaptation of the I-PACE model, desire thinking and craving might be closely related to problematic Internet pornography use. The overall aim of the present study was to investigate the role of two components of desire thinking (imaginal prefiguration and verbal perseveration) and craving in problematic Internet pornography use. Furthermore, we examined gender differences in the underlying mechanism linking desire thinking to problematic Internet pornography use. METHOD: A total of 414 Italian adults (mean age = 27.55 years, SD = 6.13; age range = 18-58; 53.6 % men) participated in this study. Participants completed an online survey to assess problematic Internet pornography use, pornography craving, desire thinking and problematic Internet use. Path analyses and a multi-group approach were used to test the relationships among variables and to explore gender differences. RESULTS: Imaginal prefiguration was associated to pornography craving which, in turn, was associated to verbal perseveration as proximal antecedent of problematic Internet pornography use, above and beyond the effect of age, relationship status, and problematic Internet use. Two paths significantly differed between men and women: the path between verbal perseveration and problematic Internet pornography, which for women was weaker and did not reach significance; and the path between problematic Internet use and problematic Internet pornography use that was not significant for women. CONCLUSIONS: In line with the I-PACE model, the present study provided support for the potential role of desire thinking in problematic Internet pornography use as a specific Internet-use disorder and expanded the literature in the field by testing unexplored gender differences. Preventive and clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Fissura , Literatura Erótica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Uso da Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Neuropsychologia ; 179: 108451, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535422

RESUMO

Episodic future thinking (EFT) refers to the critical ability that enables people to construct and pre-experience the vivid mental imagery about future events, which impacts on the decision-making for individuals and group. Although EFT is generally believed to have a visual nature by theorists, little neuroscience evidence has been provided to verify this assumption. Here, by employing the approach of connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) and graph-theoretical analysis, we analyzed resting-state functional brain image from 191 participants to predict their variability of EFT ability (leave-one-out cross-validation), and validated the results by applying different parcellation schemas and feature selection thresholds. At the connectome strength level, CPM-based analysis revealed that EFT ability could be predicted by the connectome strength of visual network. Besides, at the network level, graph-theoretical analysis showed that EFT ability could be predicted by the network efficiency of visual network. Moreover, these findings were replicated using different parcellation schemas and feature selection thresholds. These results robustly and collectively supported that the visual network might be one of the neural substrates underlying EFT ability from a comprehensive perspective of resting-state functional connectivity strength and the neural network. This study provides indications on how the function of visual network supports EFT ability, and enhances our understanding of the EFT ability from a neural basis perspective.


Assuntos
Conectoma , Memória Episódica , Humanos , Pensamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1054023, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36568773

RESUMO

Introduction: Mind wandering is generally considered an endogenous mental state that arises spontaneously, which is one of the most common experiences of consciousness and typically occurs at a significant cost to mental health and behavioral performance. Previous studies have shown that mind wandering appears to be a stable trait and can be assessed reliably in adults. Surprisingly little, however, is known about how to measure the frequency of mind wandering in children, given that children can accurately introspect their experiences. The present studies aimed to develop the Frequency of Children's Mind Wandering Scale (CMWS-F) and the Context of Children's Mind Wandering Scale (CMWS-C) to assess the frequency of mind wandering and contexts in which mind wandering occurs for children aged 8 to 11 years. Methods: The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to develop the CMWS-F and CMWS-C. To further assess the validity of the scales, we compared the scores in CMWS-F/CMWS-C and the frequencies of probe-caught mind wandering in the typical tasks. Results: In study 1a, the EFA (n = 292) and CFA (n = 346) showed that attentional failure and spontaneous thinking were the two main dimensions of CMWS-F. In study 1b, contexts about mind wandering in children could be divided into high-demand and low-demand contexts using EFA (n = 258) and CFA (n = 347). Study 2 showed moderate positive correlations between the frequencies of probe-caught mind wandering in the tasks and the scores in the scales. Discussion: The results showed that scores on the two scales could predict the performance on the experimental tasks and further demonstrated empirical validity of the CMWS-F and CMWS-C scales. Taken together, the results of the current studies provided preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of CMWS-F and CMWS-C in children, which can be used as a reference to balance its downsides and productive aspects of mind wandering.


Assuntos
Atenção , Pensamento , Adulto , Humanos , Criança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Saúde Mental
13.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e32, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36519405

RESUMO

Empirical and theoretical advances and application to society are moved at different speed. Application work is frequently developed later because it requires the integration of knowledge from different research areas. In the present paper, we integrate literature coming from diverse areas of research in order to design a deductive reasoning intervention, based on the involved executive functions. Executive functions include working memory (WM)'s online executive processes and other off-line functions such as task revising and planning. Deductive reasoning is a sequential thinking process driven by reasoners' meta-deductive knowledge and goals that requires the construction and manipulation of representations. We present a new theoretical view about the relationship between executive function and higher-level thinking, a critical analysis of the possibilities and limitations of cognitive training, and a metacognitive training procedure on executive functions to improve deductive reasoning. This procedure integrates direct instruction on deduction and meta-deductive concepts (consistency, necessity) and strategies (search for counterexamples and exhaustivity), together with the simultaneous training of WM and executive functions involved: Focus and switch attention, update WM representations, inhibit and revise intuitive responses, and control the emotional stress yielded by tasks. Likewise, it includes direct training of some complex WM tasks that demands people to carry out similar cognitive assignment than deduction. Our training program would be included in the school curriculum and attempts not only to improve deductive reasoning in experimental tasks, but also to increase students' ability to uncover fallacies in discourse, to automatize some basic logical skills, and to be able to use logical intuitions.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Pensamento , Humanos , Pensamento/fisiologia , Resolução de Problemas , Lógica , Atenção
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 972, 2022 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Well-developed critical thinking skills are required to provide midwifery care that is safe, evidence-based, and woman-centred. A valid, reliable tool to measure is required the application of critical thinking in midwifery practice. The Carter Assessment of Critical Thinking in Midwifery (CACTiM) has previously been psychometrically assessed using classical methods at a single site. This study aims to further evaluate the properties of CACTiM tools using Rasch analysis in a diverse group of midwifery students and preceptors.  METHODS: The CACTiM tools were completed by undergraduate midwifery students studying at three Australian universities and their preceptors. Midwifery students' critical thinking was evaluated separately through student self-assessment and preceptor assessment and then matched. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the validity of the tools.  RESULTS: Rasch analysis confirmed both the preceptor and student CACTiM tools demonstrated good reliability and unidimensionality. The items can differentiate between students' ability to apply critical thinking in midwifery practice. Person reliability and item reliability were above .92 for both scales indicating excellent reliability and internal consistency. Several improvements were identified to the tools, including enhanced wording to some items, and reduction to a 5-point Likert scale. Through analysis of lower-scoring items, midwifery programs can identify curricula enhancements. CONCLUSION: The CACTiM student and preceptor tools are valid and reliable measures of critical thinking in midwifery practice. The tools can assess students' critical thinking abilities and identify areas for development for individuals and across student cohorts through curricula enhancements.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Tocologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Austrália , Tocologia/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Pensamento
15.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 29(4): 933-952, 2022.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36542031

RESUMO

This article analyzes the scientific thinking of the German polytechnic engineer Heinrich August Anton Gerber, who was employed by Minas Gerais province from 1858 to 1867. We explore the cultural and intellectual significance of his activities, particularly the idea of creating a private company within the roadway infrastructure sector and his mediating role in the importation of scientific instruments and books. Gerber also appears to have been part of efforts to send Brazilians to study engineering in Paris. Cultural exchanges between Brazil and Europe are investigated, along with the application of scientific knowledge and his encounters with practical economic and social challenges in the interior of the Empire of Brazil.


Analisa o pensamento científico do engenheiro politécnico Heinrich August Anton Gerber, contratado pelo governo da província de Minas Gerais de 1858 a 1867. O artigo explora o significado cultural e intelectual das atividades do engenheiro, especialmente a ideia de criação de empresa privada no setor da infraestrutura viária, bem como a mediação para importação de instrumentos científicos e livros. Os resultados também indicam que Gerber participa do envio de brasileiros para estudar engenharia em Paris. Este texto investiga as trocas culturais entre Brasil e Europa, a aplicação do conhecimento científico e o encontro com problemas práticos de ordem econômica e social pelo engenheiro no interior do Império do Brasil.


Assuntos
Pensamento , Humanos , Brasil , Europa (Continente)
16.
J Prof Nurs ; 43: 124-128, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36496234

RESUMO

Advanced health assessment (AHA) serves as the foundational course in advanced practice nurse education in which students apply clinical decision-making skills to gather appropriate subjective and objective data and to begin to formulate diagnostic hypotheses. Summative objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs) have been used in AHA courses to evaluate students' clinical competence. After implementing summative OSCEs in AHA, we found that students struggled with evaluations requiring critical thinking skills and subsequently designed a teaching tool to address this gap. An Episodic Tool was created for the six main body systems with a chief complaint and three age and gender combinations. In small groups, students used the tool to identify pertinent history and physical exam components for a specific age and gender. A faculty-facilitated group discussion followed. A pre/post design was used in this quality improvement project to compare OSCE and oral clinical exam (OCE) scores. OCEs were used in 2020 due to COVID-19 limitations. There was a statistically significant increase of 7 % in the mean OCE/OSCE scores after implementation of the tool (p < .001). Qualitative feedback from students and faculty suggested the tool effectively enhanced students' critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills and promoted consistency across course sections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Competência Clínica , Exame Físico , Pensamento , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Avaliação Educacional
18.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1020171, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408004

RESUMO

In recent years, episodic future thinking (EFT) has emerged as a promising behavioral intervention to reduce delay discounting or maladaptive health behaviors; however, considerable methodological heterogeneity in methods for eliciting engagement in EFT has been observed in prior research. In this narrative review, we briefly describe methods for generating EFT cues, the content of EFT cues, common control conditions for experiments utilizing EFT, and considerations for cue delivery and implementation. Where possible, we make suggestions for current best practices in each category while identifying gaps in knowledge and potential areas of future research. Finally, we conclude by using the NIH Stage model to better frame the current state of the literature on EFT and propose gaps to be addressed if EFT is to be both an efficacious and effective behavioral intervention.


Assuntos
Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Pensamento , Previsões , Terapia Comportamental , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde
19.
BMJ ; 379: o2704, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379517
20.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 29(6): 486-492, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371110

RESUMO

Although medical schools across the United States have updated their curricula to incorporate active learning techniques, there has been little discussion on the nature of the content presented to students. Here, we share detailed examples of our experience in using original experiments to lay the groundwork for foundational concepts in renal physiology and pathophysiology. We believe that this approach offers distinct advantages over standard case-based teaching by (1) starting with simple concepts, (2) analyzing memorable visuals, (3) increasing graphical literacy, (4) translating observations to "rules," (5) encouraging critical thinking, and (6) providing historical perspective to the study of medicine. Although we developed this content for medical students, we have found that many of these lessons are also appropriate as foundational concepts for residents and fellows and serve as an excellent springboard for increasingly complex discussions of clinical applications of physiology. The use of original experiments for teaching and learning in renal physiology harnesses skills in critical thinking and provides a solid foundation that will help learners with subsequent case-based learning in the preclerkship curriculum and in the clinical arena.


Assuntos
Currículo , Estudantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estados Unidos , Pensamento
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