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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032378

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate activation of the ileal brake in broiler chickens using diets containing semi-purified wheat (WS; rapidly and highly digested) and pea (PS; slowly and poorly digested) starch. Diets were formulated to contain six WS:PS ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, 0:100) and each starch ratio was fed to 236 Ross 308 male broilers housed in 4 litter floor pens. At 28 d of age, the effect of PS concentration was assessed on starch digestion, digestive tract morphology, and digesta pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) status were assessed in serum (ELISA) and via gene expression in jejunal and ileal tissue (proglucagon for GLP-1). Data were analyzed using regression analyses, and significance was accepted at P ≤ 0.05. Increasing dietary PS resulted in reduced starch digestibility in the small intestine, but had no effect in the colon. Crop content pH responded quadratically to PS level with an estimated minimum at 55% PS. Total SCFA increased linearly in the crop with PS level, but changed in a quadratic fashion in the ileum (estimated maximum at 62% PS). Ceacal SCFA concentrations were highest for the 80 and 100% PS levels. The relative empty weight (crop, small intestine, colon), length (small intestine) and content (crop jejunum, Ileum) of digestive tract sections increased linearly with increasing PS concentration. Dietary treatment did not affect serum GLP-1 or PYY or small intestine transcript abundance. In conclusion, feeding PS increased the presence of L-cell activators (starch, SCFA) and increased trophic development and content of the digestive tract, suggestive of L-cell activation. However, no direct evidence of ileal brake activation was found by measuring venous blood levels of GLP-1 or PYY or corresponding gene expression in small intestine tissue.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Íleo/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue
3.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 319-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viscosity of oat ß-glucan (OBG) determines its effect on serum cholesterol and glycemic responses, but whether OBG viscosity affects gastric emptying, appetite, and ad libitum food intake is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of altering the amount or molecular weight (MW) and, hence, viscosity of OBG in a breakfast meal on the primary endpoint of food intake at a subsequent meal. METHODS: Overnight-fasted males (n = 16) and nonpregnant females (n = 12) without diabetes, aged 18-60 y, with BMI 20.0-30.0 kg/m² who were unrestrained eaters participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study at a contract research organization. Participants consumed, in random order, breakfast meals equivalent in weight, energy, and macronutrients consisting of white-bread, butter, jam, and 2% milk plus hot cereal [Cream of Rice (CR), or instant-oatmeal plus either 3 g oat-bran (2gOBG), 10 g oat-bran (4gOBG), or 10 g oat-bran plus ß-glucanase (4gloMW) to reduce OBG MW and viscosity compared with 4gOBG]. Gastric emptying, subjective appetite, and glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) responses were assessed for 3 h and then subjects were offered an ad libitum lunch (water and pizza). RESULTS: Pizza intakes (n = 28) after CR, 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW (mean ± SEM: 887 ± 64, 831 ± 61, 834 ± 78, and 847 ± 68 kcal, respectively) were similar (nonsignificant). Compared with CR, 4gOBG significantly reduced glucose (78 ± 10 compared with 135 ± 15 mmol × min/L) and insulin (14.0 ± 1.6 compared with 26.8 ± 3.5 nmol × min/L) incremental area-under-the-curve and delayed gastric-emptying half-time (geometric mean: 285; 95% CI: 184, 442, compared with geometric mean: 105; 95% CI: 95, 117 min), effects not seen after 4gloMW. Subjective appetite, PYY, and ghrelin responses after 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW were similar to those after CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that OBG viscosity determines its effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of OBG on appetite or food intake, regardless of its viscosity.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03490851.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Avena , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , beta-Glucanas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 131-140, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) patients suffer postprandial aversive symptoms, which can lead to anorexia and malnutrition. Changes in the regulation of gut hormones and gut dysmotility are believed to play a role. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate small-bowel motility and gut peptide responses to a standard test meal in CD by using MRI. METHODS: We studied 15 CD patients with active disease (age 36 ± 3 y; BMI 26 ± 1 kg/m 2) and 20 healthy volunteers (HVs; age 31 ± 3 years; BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m 2). They underwent baseline and postprandial MRI scans, symptom questionnaires, and blood sampling following a 400-g soup meal (204 kcal). Small-bowel motility, other MRI parameters, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), polypeptide YY (PYY), and cholecystokinin peptides were measured. Data are presented as means ± SEMs. RESULTS: HVs had significantly higher fasting motility indexes [106 ± 13 arbitrary units (a.u.)], compared with CD participants (70 ± 8 a.u.; P ≤ 0.05). Postprandial small-bowel water content showed a significant time by group interaction (P < 0.05), with CD participants showing higher levels from 210 min postprandially. Fasting concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY were significantly greater in CD participants, compared with HVs [GLP-1, CD 50 ± 8 µg/mL versus HV 13 ± 3 µg/mL (P ≤ 0.0001); PYY, CD 236 ± 16 pg/mL versus HV 118 ± 12 pg/mL (P ≤ 0.0001)]. The meal challenge induced a significant postprandial increase in aversive symptom scores (fullness, distention, bloating, abdominal pain, and sickness) in CD participants compared with HVs (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in fasting small-bowel motility noted in CD participants can be ascribed to the increased fasting gut peptides. A better understanding of the etiology of aversive symptoms in CD will facilitate identification of better therapeutic targets to improve nutritional status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03052465.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colecistocinina/sangue , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 28-41, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered meal-related gut hormone secretion seems important for weight loss and diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Elucidating the responsible meal components and receptors could aid discovery of new treatments of obesity and diabetes. Enteroendocrine cells respond to digestion products of dietary triacylglycerol, especially long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and 2-oleoyl-glycerol (2-OG), but not medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of olive oil (20 mL) and its derivates, LCFAs and 2-OG, on enteroendocrine secretions [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and neurotensin (NT)] and on glucose, lipid, and bile acid metabolism in RYGB-operated and unoperated individuals. METHODS: In an exploratory randomized crossover design, 10 RYGB-operated patients and 10 matched controls ingested 3 equimolar triacylglycerol formulations on separate days: olive oil (digested to 2-OG + LCFAs), C8-dietary oil (2-OG + MCFAs), and tricaprylin (MCFAs; negative control). Hormone responses were calculated as area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Independent of group status, olive oil had greater effects than C8-dietary oil on AUCs of plasma GLP-1 (+32%; 95% CI: 23%, 43%; P < 0.01), CCK (+53%, P < 0.01), and NT (+71%, P < 0.01), whereas the effect on GIP differed between groups (+90% in controls, P < 0.01; +24% in RYGB, P = 0.10). Independent of group status, C8-dietary oil had greater effects than tricaprylin on AUCs of plasma CCK (+40%, P < 0.01) and NT (+32%, P < 0.01), but not GLP-1 (+5%; 95% CI: -2.9%, 13%; P = 0.22), whereas the effect on GIP again differed between groups (+78% in controls, P < 0.01; +39% in RYGB, P = 0.01). Distal (GLP-1/PYY/NT), but not proximal (CCK/GIP), enteroendocrine responses were generally greater in RYGB patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of LCFAs plus 2-OG was substantially more effective than 2-OG plus MCFAs in stimulating enteroendocrine secretion in RYGB-operated and matched control individuals. Distal lipid-induced gut hormone release was greater after RYGB.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03223389.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615150

RESUMO

The micronutrients vitamins B9 and B12 act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism involved in transmethylation reactions which critically influence epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. Both vitamins are essential for proper development, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders, including persisting growth retardation. Energy homeostasis and feeding are centrally regulated by the hypothalamus which integrates peripheral signals and acts through several orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators. We studied this regulating system in a rat model of methyl donor deficiency during gestation and lactation. At weaning, a predominance of the anorexigenic pathway was observed in deficient pups, with increased plasma peptide YY and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA, in line with abnormal leptin, ghrelin, and insulin secretion and/or signaling during critical periods of fetal and/or postnatal development of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that early methyl donor deficiency can affect the development and function of energy balance circuits, resulting in growth and weight deficits. Maternal administration of folic acid (3 mg/kg/day) during the perinatal period tended to rectify peripheral metabolic signaling and central neuropeptide and receptor expression, leading to reduced growth retardation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Grelina/genética , Peptídeo YY/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Grelina/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/genética , Lactação , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Metilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Vitamina B 12/genética , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1055-1066, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 A-allele is associated with higher acyl-ghrelin (AG) concentrations, higher energy intake, and obesity, although exercise may mitigate rs9939609 A-allele-linked obesity risk. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyzes AG to des-acyl-ghrelin (DAG), potentially decreasing appetite. However, the effects of the FTO rs9939609 genotype and exercise on BChE activity, AG, DAG, and energy intake are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals homozygous for the obesity-risk A-allele (AAs) would exhibit higher postprandial AG and energy intake than individuals homozygous for the low obesity-risk T-allele (TTs), but that exercise would increase BChE activity and diminish these differences. METHODS: Twelve AA and 12 TT normal-weight males completed a control (8 h rest) and an exercise (1 h of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake, 7 h rest) trial in a randomized crossover design. A fixed meal was consumed at 1.5 h and an ad libitum buffet meal at 6.5 h. Appetite, appetite-related hormones, BChE activity, and energy intake were assessed. RESULTS: AAs displayed lower baseline BChE activity, higher baseline AG:DAG ratio, attenuated AG suppression after a fixed meal, and higher ad libitum energy intake compared with TTs [effect sizes (ESs) ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.049]. Exercise increased Δ BChE activity in both genotypes (ESs = 0.37, P = 0.004); however, exercise lowered AG and the AG:DAG ratio to a greater extent in AAs (P ≤ 0.023), offsetting the higher AG profile observed in AAs during the control trial (ESs ≥ 1.25, P ≤ 0.048). Exercise did not elevate energy intake in either genotype (P = 0.282). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise increases BChE activity, suppresses AG and the AG:DAG ratio, and corrects the higher AG profile observed in obesity-risk AA individuals. These findings suggest that exercise or other methods targeting BChE activity may offer a preventative and/or therapeutic strategy for AA individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03025347.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Apetite , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Grelina/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Genótipo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue
8.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 52, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the major role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the regulation of adiposity, this study examined the effects induced by a diet based on the Japanese tradition (SMART WASHOKU) on the visceral fat area (VFA) and GIP secretions. METHODS: Overweight/obese men (n = 21; mean age, 41.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI, 25.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) without diabetes were placed on either a SMART WASHOKU or control meal for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over setup with a four-week washout period. RESULTS: For the meal tolerance test, blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min post-meal, followed by measuring blood glucose, insulin, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Relative to a control meal, SMART WASHOKU meal yielded significantly lower plasma postprandial GIP concentrations (AUC: 700.0 ± 208.0 vs. 1117.0 ± 351.4 pmol/L・4 h, P < 0.05); however, between meals, there was no significant difference in the levels of GLP-1, peptide YY, and ghrelin. Compared to the control meal, SMART WASHOKU intervention significantly reduced VFA and the levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and HbA1c after the chronic meal intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a SMART WASHOKU meal may decrease VFA and improve metabolic parameters in overweight/obese men, possibly via suppressing GIP secretion.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546629

RESUMO

Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 ± 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 ± 3.9 kg/m2) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p < 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p < 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p < 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Endocanabinoides/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Idoso , Apetite/fisiologia , Ácidos Araquidônicos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Glicerídeos/sangue , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/fisiologia , Perda de Peso
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466276

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) have a higher obesity risk than Whites; however, it is unclear if appetite-related hormones and food intake are implicated. We examined differences in appetite-related hormones, appetite, and food intake between AAs (n = 53) and Whites (n = 111) with overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized into a control group or into supervised, controlled exercise groups at 8 kcal/kg of body weight/week (KKW) or 20 KKW. Participants consumed lunch and dinner at baseline and follow-up, with appetite and hormones measured before and after meals (except leptin). At baseline, AAs had lower peptide YY (PYY; p < 0.01) and a blunted elevation in PYY after lunch (p = 0.01), as well as lower ghrelin (p = 0.02) and higher leptin (p < 0.01) compared to Whites. Despite desire to eat being lower and satisfaction being higher in AAs relative to Whites (p ≤ 0.03), no racial differences in food intake were observed. Compared to Whites, leptin increased in the 8 KKW group in AAs (p = 0.01), yet no other race-by-group interactions were evident. Differences in appetite-related hormones between AAs and Whites exist; however, their influence on racial disparities in appetite, food intake, and obesity within this trial was limited.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Regulação do Apetite/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Obesidade/etnologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141968

RESUMO

Dehydration in rodents induces anorexia. In humans however, the role of dehydration in energy intake is controversial. This study investigated the effect of extreme fluid restriction on acute energy intake during and after exercise-induced dehydration. Eight physically active participants performed two exercise sessions to induce dehydration. After the exercise, the men were allowed to either rehydrate for 2 h or were maintained in a hypohydrated state, in a randomized manner. After 2 h, they were given cereal bars ad libitum for 1 h. Blood and saliva samples of the participants were collected before the exercise session, after the exercise session, after rehydration, and after the meal. Post-exercise energy intake differed between hypohydrated (1430 ± 210 kcal) and rehydrated (2190 ± 780 kcal) trials (p = 0.01). For the concentrations of ghrelin and leptin, there were no significant effects of time (p = 0.94, p = 0.21), between trials (p = 0.09, p = 0.99), or due to a trial-time interaction (p = 0.64, p = 0.68), respectively. The concentrations of peptide YY (PYY) were not different between trials (p = 0.94) but there was a significant effect of time (p = 0.0001) and a trial-time interaction (p = 0.01), with higher levels in the rehydration trial after eating in response to a higher energy intake. For saliva production, there was a significant effect of time (p = 0.02) and a trial-time interaction (p = 0.04), but no between-trial effect (p = 0.08). In conclusion, extreme fluid restriction decreased acute food intake after exercise, which may be explained by a lower flow of saliva.


Assuntos
Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Salivação , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(6): 1511-1518, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) is usually accompanied by increased appetite, a response that seems to be absent when ketogenic diets are used. It remains unknown if sex modulates the appetite suppressant effect of ketosis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine if sex modulates the impact of WL-induced changes in appetite and if ketosis alters these responses. METHODS: Ninety-five individuals (55 females) with obesity (BMI [kg/m 2]: 37  ± 4) underwent 8 wk of a very-low-energy diet, followed by 4 wk of refeeding and weight stabilization. Body composition, plasma concentration of ß-hydroxybutyrate (ß-HB) and appetite-related hormones (active ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1], total peptide YY [PYY], cholecystokinin and insulin), and subjective feelings of appetite were measured at baseline, week 9 in ketosis, and week 13 out of ketosis. RESULTS: The mean WL at week 9 was 17% for males and 15% for females, which was maintained at week 13. Weight, fat, and fat-free mass loss were greater in males (P < 0.001 for all) and the increase in ß-HB at week 9 higher in females (1.174 ± 0.096 compared with 0.783 ± 0.112 mmol/L, P = 0.029). Basal and postprandial GLP-1 and postprandial PYY (all P < 0.05) were significantly different for males and females. There were no significant sex × time interactions for any other appetite-related hormones or subjective feelings of appetite. At week 9, basal GLP-1 was decreased only in males (P < 0.001), whereas postprandial GLP-1 was increased only in females (P < 0.001). No significant changes in postprandial PYY were observed over time for either sex. CONCLUSIONS: Ketosis appears to have a greater beneficial impact on GLP-1 in females. However, sex does not seem to modulate the changes in the secretion of other appetite-related hormones, or subjective feelings of appetite, seen with WL, regardless of the ketotic state. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01834859.


Assuntos
Cetose/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Apetite , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Cetose/sangue , Cetose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Obes Facts ; 12(2): 190-198, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928977

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to compare gut hormone secretion between high-fat-fed and control rats, and to examine the corresponding changes in the expression of sweet taste receptors and glucose transporters in the small intestine and hypothalamus. METHODS: Four-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a standard or high-fat diet for 8 weeks (10 in each group), followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (50% glucose solution, 2 g/kg). Blood was sampled for glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) assays. One week later, small intestinal and hypothalamic tissue were analyzed for sweet taste receptor and glucose transporter expression by real-time PCR. RESULTS: After oral glucose, plasma GLP-1 concentrations were higher in high-fat-fed than standard-fat-fed rats (group × time interaction, p < 0.01) with significant differences at t = 15 min (p < 0.01) and 30 min (p < 0.05). Plasma PYY concentrations were lower in high-fat-fed than control rats at t = 0, 15 min (p < 0.05, respectively) and 120 min (p < 0.01). There were no differences in the expression of sweet taste receptors or glucose transporters between high-fat-fed and control rats in the duodenum, ileum, or hypothalamus. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in GLP-1 and PYY secretion after a high-fat diet appear unrelated to any changes in the expression of sweet taste receptors or glucose transporters. Impaired PYY secretion with high-fat feeding suggests that PYY analogues may provide a potential therapy in the treatment of obesity.


Assuntos
Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Obesidade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Paladar , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/genética , Expressão Gênica , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Paladar/genética , Percepção Gustatória/genética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987357

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to examine the effect of maternal and weaning intact protein- and amino acid-based diets on regulation of food intake, intake regulatory hormones, and body weight in dams and their male offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were allocated to two groups (n = 12) and were fed either an intact protein diet (IPD) or mixed amino acid diet (AAD) from day 3 of gestation throughout gestation and lactation. Male offspring were weaned to either an IPD or AAD for 18 weeks. Food intake (FI) and body weight (BW) were measured weekly. Results: In dams, the AAD group had lower FI and BW in the post-partum period compared with the IPD group. In pups born to AAD dams, birth weight and BW were lower. However, the percentage of fat and lean mass were not affected. Food intake was influenced by maternal diet and was higher in pups born to IPD dams throughout post-weaning. Short-term FI in response to protein preloads was lower in pups born to AAD dams in 1 h. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and ghrelin were not influenced by either maternal or weaning diet. However, peptide YY (PYY) was higher in pups born to IPD dams at weaning. Conclusions: The physicochemical properties of proteins fed during pregnancy and lactation had determining effects on the body weight and development of food intake regulatory systems in offspring. Maternal AAD resulted in lower BW in dams and lower birth weight and post-weaning BWs in pups compared with maternal IPD which was consistent with their lower FI.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Desmame
15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 486-495, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911572

RESUMO

Objective: Physiological changes potentially influence disease progression and survival along the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum. The peripheral peptides that regulate eating and metabolism may provide diagnostic, metabolic, and progression biomarkers. The current study aimed to examine the relationships and biomarker potential of hormonal peptides. Methods: One hundred and twenty-seven participants (36 ALS, 26 ALS- cognitive, patients with additional cognitive behavioral features, and 35 behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 30 controls) underwent fasting blood analyses of leptin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide YY (PYY), and insulin levels. Relationships between endocrine measures, cognition, eating behaviors, and body mass index (BMI) were investigated. Biomarker potential was evaluated using multinomial logistic regression for diagnosis and correlation to disease duration. Results: Compared to controls, ALS and ALS-cognitive had higher NPY levels and bvFTD had lower NPY levels, while leptin levels were increased in all patient groups. All groups had increased insulin levels and a state of insulin resistance compared to controls. Lower NPY levels correlated with increasing eating behavioral change and BMI, while leptin levels correlated with BMI. On multinomial logistic regression, NPY and leptin levels were found to differentiate between diagnosis. Reduced Neuropeptide Y levels correlated with increasing disease duration, suggesting it may be useful as a potential marker of disease progression. Interpretation: ALS-FTD is characterized by changes in NPY and leptin levels that may impact on the underlying regional neurodegeneration as they were predictive of diagnosis and disease duration, offering the potential as biomarkers and for the development of interventional treatments.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Demência Frontotemporal/sangue , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Neuropeptídeos/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
16.
Neuropsychobiology ; 78(1): 27-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Restrained eating has been linked to binge eating under disinhibited circumstances and is therefore considered a risk factor to develop clinical eating disorders such as bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. The present study investigated the release of gastrointestinal peptides such as ghrelin and PYY after stress, as well as cortisol in young females classified as restrained and unrestrained eaters. METHODS: The study was done in the laboratory of the Department for Biological and Clinical Psychology at the University of Trier. The sample consisted of 48 females, and the stressor was the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples for peptides and salivary cortisol were taken. RESULTS: Higher ghrelin, but lower cortisol after stress was obtained for restrained eaters; no stress-related changes for PYY were observed. CONCLUSION: Restrained eaters suffer from a possible stress-related biological dysregulation of eating, posing them at risk for eating and weight disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Hormônios/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adulto Jovem
17.
Physiol Rep ; 7(7): e14048, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927343

RESUMO

Bariatric surgery is associated with significant and sustained weight loss and improved metabolic outcomes. It is unclear if weight loss alone is the main mechanism of improved metabolic health. The purpose of this trial was to compare indices of appetite regulation, insulin sensitivity and energy intake (EI) between participants achieving 10 kg of weight loss via Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) or dietary restriction (DIET); intake of a very low calorie liquid diet (800 kcal/d; 40% protein, 40% fat, 20% carbohydrate that matched the post-RYGB dietary protocol). Adults qualifying for bariatric surgery were studied before and after 10 kg of weight loss (RYGB [n = 6]) or DIET [n = 17]). Appetite (hunger, satiety, and prospective food consumption [PFC]), appetite-related hormones, and metabolites (ghrelin, PYY, GLP-1, insulin, glucose, free fatty acids [FFA], and triglycerides [TG]) were measured in the fasting state and every 30 min for 180 min following breakfast. Participants were provided lunch to evaluate acute ad libitum EI, which was similarly reduced in both groups from pre to post weight loss. Fasting ghrelin was reduced to a greater extent following RYGB compared to DIET (P = 0.04). Area under the curve (AUC) for ghrelin (P = 0.01), hunger (P < 0.01) and PFC (P < 0.01) increased after DIET compared to RYGB, following 10 kg weight loss. Satiety AUC increased after RYGB and decreased after DIET (P < 0.01). Glucose and insulin (fasting and AUC) decreased in both groups. FFA increased in both groups, with a greater increase in AUC seen after RYGB versus DIET (P = 0.02). In summary, appetite-related indices were altered in a manner that, if maintained, may promote a sustained reduction in energy intake with RYGB compared to DIET. Future work with a larger sample size and longer follow-up will be important to confirm and extend these findings.


Assuntos
Regulação do Apetite/fisiologia , Dieta Redutora , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade/terapia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/fisiologia
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 629-635, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Potential mechanisms of abnormal food intake, such as dysregulation of meal-related appetite hormones, including acyl ghrelin (AG) and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG), were investigated among men and women with obesity, with and without binge eating (BE). METHODS: Participants (n = 42: 19 female, 23 male) were assigned to a liquid meal and water condition in counterbalanced order, and blood samples for measuring hormones were obtained before and after these conditions. RESULTS: Participants with BE had significantly lower fasting and postingestive AG concentrations than participants without BE in both conditions. During the meal condition, postprandial decreases in AG concentrations were significantly smaller for the BE group than for the non-BE group. There were no significant differences in DAG by BE group. Leptin increased significantly less after meals for those with BE compared with those without BE. There were no differences in other hormones by BE group. Fasting and postmeal hunger ratings were significantly higher for those with BE than for those without BE. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with BE, lower fasting AG may be due to downregulation by habitual overeating, and a smaller postmeal decline in AG may contribute to overeating. Lower postmeal leptin concentrations may also contribute to overeating.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Bulimia/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/sangue , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Bulimia/complicações , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Hiperfagia/sangue , Hiperfagia/complicações , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 44(11): 1141-1149, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30835491

RESUMO

Deficiencies in protein and energy intakes are partly responsible for age-related sarcopenia. We investigated the effects of supplements matched in essential amino acid (EAA) content (7.5 g) on energy intake and appetite. Ten women aged 69.2 ± 2.7 years completed 3 trials in a randomised, crossover design. Composite appetite scores, peptide-YY (PYY), and insulin responses to a 200-mL whey protein (WP) isolate (275 kJ), a 50-mL EAA gel (GEL, 478 kJ), or nothing as the control (CON) condition were investigated over 1 h, followed by an ad libitum breakfast. Energy intake at breakfast (CON, 1957 ± 713; WP, 1413 ± 623; GEL, 1963 ± 611 kJ) was higher in CON and GEL than in WP (both P = 0.006). After accounting for supplement energy content, energy intake in GEL was higher than in CON (P = 0.0006) and WP (P = 0.0008). Time-averaged area under the curve for composite appetite scores (CON, 74 ± 20; WP, 50 ± 22; GEL, 60 ± 16 mm) was higher in CON than WP (P = 0.015). Time-averaged area under the curve for PYY (CON, 87 ± 13; WP, 119 ± 27; GEL, 97 ± 22 pg·mL-1) was higher in WP than CON (P = 0.009) and GEL (P = 0.012). In conclusion, supplementation with WP facilitated an increase in protein intake, whereas supplementation with GEL increases in both energy and protein intakes, when consumed before an ad libitum breakfast. Such findings highlight potential gel-based EAA supplementation intake for addressing age-related sarcopenia.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Essenciais/administração & dosagem , Apetite , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Energia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue
20.
Gastroenterology ; 156(6): 1627-1641.e1, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induce substantial weight loss and improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, but it is not clear whether these occur via the same mechanisms. We compared absorption rates of glucose and protein, as well as profiles of gastro-entero-pancreatic hormones, in patients who had undergone SG or RYGB vs controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 12 patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy, 12 patients who had undergone RYGB, and 12 individuals who had undergone neither surgery (controls), all in Denmark. Study participants were matched for body mass index, age, sex, and postoperative weight loss, and all had stable weights. They received continuous infusions of stable isotopes of glucose, glycerol, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and urea before and during a mixed meal containing labeled glucose and intrinsically phenylalanine-labeled caseinate. Blood samples were collected for 6 hours, at 10- to 60-minute intervals, and analyzed. RESULTS: The systemic appearance of ingested glucose was faster after RYGB and SG vs controls; the peak glucose appearance rate was 64% higher after RYGB, and 23% higher after SG (both P < .05); the peak phenylalanine appearance rate from ingested casein was 118% higher after RYGB (P < .01), but similar between patients who had undergone SG and controls. Larger, but more transient increases in levels of plasma glucose and amino acids were accompanied by higher secretion of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin after RYGB, whereas levels of ghrelin were lower after SG, compared with RYGB and controls. Total 6-hour oral recovery of ingested glucose and protein was comparable among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial glucose and protein absorption and gastro-entero-pancreatic hormone secretions differ after SG and RYGB. RYGB was characterized by accelerated absorption of glucose and amino acids, whereas protein metabolism after SG did not differ significantly from controls, suggesting that different mechanisms explain improved glycemic control and weight loss after these surgical procedures. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03046186.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Adulto , Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Glicemia/metabolismo , Caseínas/metabolismo , Colecistocinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/farmacocinética , Glicerol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilalanina/farmacocinética , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
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