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1.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670342

RESUMO

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are involved in metabolic regulation. The purpose of the study was to assess the serum levels of NPY and PYY in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) or obesity (OB), as well as in a healthy control group (CG). The effects of potential confounders on their concentrations were also analysed. Eighty-nine adolescents were included in this study (AN = 30, OB = 30, and CG = 29). Anthropometric measurements and psychometric assessment of depressive symptoms, eating behaviours, body attitudes, and fasting serum levels of NPY and PYY were analysed. The AN group presented severe depressive symptoms, while the OB group held different attitudes towards the body. The levels of NPY were lower in the AN and OB groups as compared with the CG. The PYY levels were higher in the OB group than in the AN group and the CG. The severity of eating disorder symptoms predicted fasting serum concentrations of NPY. Lower levels of NPY in AN, as well as in OB suggests the need to look for a common link in the mechanism of this effect. Higher level of PYY in OB may be important in explaining complex etiopathogenesis of the disease. The psychopathological symptoms may have an influence on the neurohormones regulating metabolism.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/sangue , Depressão/sangue , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adolescente , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Jejum , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/psicologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232099, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330183

RESUMO

Food cues affect hunger and nutritional choices. Omnipresent stimulation with palatable food contributes to the epidemics of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate the impact of food cues on appetite-related hormones and to assess the functionality of the secreted hormones on macronutrient uptake in healthy subjects. Additionally, we aimed at verifying differences in the response of total and active ghrelin to stimulation with food pictures and to a meal followed by the stimulation. We were also interested in the identification of factors contributing to response to food cues. We recruited healthy, non-obese participants for two independent cross-over studies. During the first study, the subjects were presented random non-food pictures on the first day and pictures of foods on the second day of the study. Throughout the second study, following the picture session, the participants were additionally asked to drink a milkshake. Concentrations of blood glucose, triglycerides and hunger-related hormones were measured. The results showed that concentrations of several hormones measured in the blood are interdependent. In the case of ghrelin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) as well as ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), this co-occurrence relies on the visual cues. Regulation of total ghrelin concentration following food stimulation is highly individual and responders showed upregulated total ghrelin, while the concentration of active ghrelin decreases following a meal. Protein content and colour intensity of food pictures reversely correlated with participants' rating of the pictures. We conclude that observation of food pictures influences the concentration of several appetite-related hormones. The close link of visual clues to physiological responses is likely of clinical relevance. Additionally, the protein content of displayed foods and green colour intensity in pictures may serve as a predictor of subjective attractiveness of the presented meal.


Assuntos
Fome/fisiologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Nutrientes , Peptídeo YY/sangue
3.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228647, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032378

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to evaluate activation of the ileal brake in broiler chickens using diets containing semi-purified wheat (WS; rapidly and highly digested) and pea (PS; slowly and poorly digested) starch. Diets were formulated to contain six WS:PS ratios (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80, 0:100) and each starch ratio was fed to 236 Ross 308 male broilers housed in 4 litter floor pens. At 28 d of age, the effect of PS concentration was assessed on starch digestion, digestive tract morphology, and digesta pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) status were assessed in serum (ELISA) and via gene expression in jejunal and ileal tissue (proglucagon for GLP-1). Data were analyzed using regression analyses, and significance was accepted at P ≤ 0.05. Increasing dietary PS resulted in reduced starch digestibility in the small intestine, but had no effect in the colon. Crop content pH responded quadratically to PS level with an estimated minimum at 55% PS. Total SCFA increased linearly in the crop with PS level, but changed in a quadratic fashion in the ileum (estimated maximum at 62% PS). Ceacal SCFA concentrations were highest for the 80 and 100% PS levels. The relative empty weight (crop, small intestine, colon), length (small intestine) and content (crop jejunum, Ileum) of digestive tract sections increased linearly with increasing PS concentration. Dietary treatment did not affect serum GLP-1 or PYY or small intestine transcript abundance. In conclusion, feeding PS increased the presence of L-cell activators (starch, SCFA) and increased trophic development and content of the digestive tract, suggestive of L-cell activation. However, no direct evidence of ileal brake activation was found by measuring venous blood levels of GLP-1 or PYY or corresponding gene expression in small intestine tissue.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Íleo/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue
4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 373(1): 135-148, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015161

RESUMO

By reducing their metabolism, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibition (DPP4I) enhances the effects of numerous peptides including neuropeptide Y1-36 (NPY1-36), peptide YY1-36 (PYY1-36), and SDF-1α Studies show that separately NPY1-36, PYY1-36 and SDF-1α stimulate proliferation of, and collagen production by, cardiac fibroblasts (CFs), preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells (PGVSMCs), and glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs), particularly in cells isolated from genetically hypertensive rats. Whether certain combinations of these factors, in the absence or presence of DPP4I, are more profibrotic than others is unknown. Here we contrasted 24 different combinations of conditions (DPP4I, hypertensive genotype and physiologic levels [3 nM] of NPY1-36, PYY1-36, or SDF-1α) on proliferation of, and [3H]-proline incorporation by, CFs, PGVSMCs, and GMCs. In all three cell types, the various treatment conditions differentially increased proliferation and [3H]-proline incorporation, with a hypertensive genotype + DPP4I + NPY1-36 + SDF-1α being the most efficacious combination. Although the effects of this four-way combination were similar in male versus female CFs, physiologic (1 nM) concentrations of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME; nonestrogenic metabolite of 17ß-estradiol), abolished the effects of this combination in both male and female CFs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that CFs, PGVSMCs, and GMCs are differentially activated by various combinations of NPY1-36, PYY1-36, SDF-1α, a hypertensive genetic background and DPP4I. We hypothesize that as these progrowth conditions accumulate, a tipping point would be reached that manifests in the long term as organ fibrosis and that 2ME would obviate any profibrotic effects of DPP4I, even under the most profibrotic conditions (i.e., hypertensive genotype with high NPY1-36 + SDF-1α levels and low 2ME levels). SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This work elucidates combinations of factors that could contribute to long-term profibrotic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and suggests a novel drug combination that could prevent any potential profibrotic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors while augmenting the protective effects of this class of antidiabetic agents.


Assuntos
2-Metoxiestradiol/farmacologia , Quimiocina CXCL12/sangue , Colágeno/biossíntese , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Hipertensão/sangue , Neuropeptídeo Y/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , 2-Metoxiestradiol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/patologia , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY
5.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 28-41, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altered meal-related gut hormone secretion seems important for weight loss and diabetes remission after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Elucidating the responsible meal components and receptors could aid discovery of new treatments of obesity and diabetes. Enteroendocrine cells respond to digestion products of dietary triacylglycerol, especially long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and 2-oleoyl-glycerol (2-OG), but not medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of olive oil (20 mL) and its derivates, LCFAs and 2-OG, on enteroendocrine secretions [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), and neurotensin (NT)] and on glucose, lipid, and bile acid metabolism in RYGB-operated and unoperated individuals. METHODS: In an exploratory randomized crossover design, 10 RYGB-operated patients and 10 matched controls ingested 3 equimolar triacylglycerol formulations on separate days: olive oil (digested to 2-OG + LCFAs), C8-dietary oil (2-OG + MCFAs), and tricaprylin (MCFAs; negative control). Hormone responses were calculated as area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Independent of group status, olive oil had greater effects than C8-dietary oil on AUCs of plasma GLP-1 (+32%; 95% CI: 23%, 43%; P < 0.01), CCK (+53%, P < 0.01), and NT (+71%, P < 0.01), whereas the effect on GIP differed between groups (+90% in controls, P < 0.01; +24% in RYGB, P = 0.10). Independent of group status, C8-dietary oil had greater effects than tricaprylin on AUCs of plasma CCK (+40%, P < 0.01) and NT (+32%, P < 0.01), but not GLP-1 (+5%; 95% CI: -2.9%, 13%; P = 0.22), whereas the effect on GIP again differed between groups (+78% in controls, P < 0.01; +39% in RYGB, P = 0.01). Distal (GLP-1/PYY/NT), but not proximal (CCK/GIP), enteroendocrine responses were generally greater in RYGB patients than in controls. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of LCFAs plus 2-OG was substantially more effective than 2-OG plus MCFAs in stimulating enteroendocrine secretion in RYGB-operated and matched control individuals. Distal lipid-induced gut hormone release was greater after RYGB.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03223389.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Derivação Gástrica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glicerídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(2): 319-328, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The viscosity of oat ß-glucan (OBG) determines its effect on serum cholesterol and glycemic responses, but whether OBG viscosity affects gastric emptying, appetite, and ad libitum food intake is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of altering the amount or molecular weight (MW) and, hence, viscosity of OBG in a breakfast meal on the primary endpoint of food intake at a subsequent meal. METHODS: Overnight-fasted males (n = 16) and nonpregnant females (n = 12) without diabetes, aged 18-60 y, with BMI 20.0-30.0 kg/m² who were unrestrained eaters participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study at a contract research organization. Participants consumed, in random order, breakfast meals equivalent in weight, energy, and macronutrients consisting of white-bread, butter, jam, and 2% milk plus hot cereal [Cream of Rice (CR), or instant-oatmeal plus either 3 g oat-bran (2gOBG), 10 g oat-bran (4gOBG), or 10 g oat-bran plus ß-glucanase (4gloMW) to reduce OBG MW and viscosity compared with 4gOBG]. Gastric emptying, subjective appetite, and glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) responses were assessed for 3 h and then subjects were offered an ad libitum lunch (water and pizza). RESULTS: Pizza intakes (n = 28) after CR, 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW (mean ± SEM: 887 ± 64, 831 ± 61, 834 ± 78, and 847 ± 68 kcal, respectively) were similar (nonsignificant). Compared with CR, 4gOBG significantly reduced glucose (78 ± 10 compared with 135 ± 15 mmol × min/L) and insulin (14.0 ± 1.6 compared with 26.8 ± 3.5 nmol × min/L) incremental area-under-the-curve and delayed gastric-emptying half-time (geometric mean: 285; 95% CI: 184, 442, compared with geometric mean: 105; 95% CI: 95, 117 min), effects not seen after 4gloMW. Subjective appetite, PYY, and ghrelin responses after 2gOBG, 4gOBG, and 4gloMW were similar to those after CR. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that OBG viscosity determines its effect on postprandial glucose, insulin, and gastric emptying. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of OBG on appetite or food intake, regardless of its viscosity.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03490851.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Avena , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , beta-Glucanas/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Viscosidade , Adulto Jovem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(1): 131-140, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) patients suffer postprandial aversive symptoms, which can lead to anorexia and malnutrition. Changes in the regulation of gut hormones and gut dysmotility are believed to play a role. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate small-bowel motility and gut peptide responses to a standard test meal in CD by using MRI. METHODS: We studied 15 CD patients with active disease (age 36 ± 3 y; BMI 26 ± 1 kg/m 2) and 20 healthy volunteers (HVs; age 31 ± 3 years; BMI 24 ± 1 kg/m 2). They underwent baseline and postprandial MRI scans, symptom questionnaires, and blood sampling following a 400-g soup meal (204 kcal). Small-bowel motility, other MRI parameters, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), polypeptide YY (PYY), and cholecystokinin peptides were measured. Data are presented as means ± SEMs. RESULTS: HVs had significantly higher fasting motility indexes [106 ± 13 arbitrary units (a.u.)], compared with CD participants (70 ± 8 a.u.; P ≤ 0.05). Postprandial small-bowel water content showed a significant time by group interaction (P < 0.05), with CD participants showing higher levels from 210 min postprandially. Fasting concentrations of GLP-1 and PYY were significantly greater in CD participants, compared with HVs [GLP-1, CD 50 ± 8 µg/mL versus HV 13 ± 3 µg/mL (P ≤ 0.0001); PYY, CD 236 ± 16 pg/mL versus HV 118 ± 12 pg/mL (P ≤ 0.0001)]. The meal challenge induced a significant postprandial increase in aversive symptom scores (fullness, distention, bloating, abdominal pain, and sickness) in CD participants compared with HVs (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in fasting small-bowel motility noted in CD participants can be ascribed to the increased fasting gut peptides. A better understanding of the etiology of aversive symptoms in CD will facilitate identification of better therapeutic targets to improve nutritional status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03052465.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colecistocinina/sangue , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16161, 2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695063

RESUMO

The central mechanisms underlying the marked beneficial metabolic effects of bariatric surgery are unclear. Here, we characterized global gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). 60 days post-RYGB, the Arc was isolated by laser-capture microdissection and global gene expression was assessed by RNA sequencing. RYGB lowered body weight and adiposity as compared to sham-operated DIO rats. Discrete transcriptome changes were observed in the Arc following RYGB, including differential expression of genes associated with inflammation and neuropeptide signaling. RYGB reduced gene expression of glial cell markers, including Gfap, Aif1 and Timp1, confirmed by a lower number of GFAP immunopositive astrocyte profiles in the Arc. Sham-operated weight-matched rats demonstrated a similar glial gene expression signature, suggesting that RYGB and dietary restriction have common effects on hypothalamic gliosis. Considering that RYGB surgery also led to increased orexigenic and decreased anorexigenic gene expression, this may signify increased hunger-associated signaling at the level of the Arc. Hence, induction of counterregulatory molecular mechanisms downstream from the Arc may play an important role in RYGB-induced weight loss.


Assuntos
Núcleo Arqueado do Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Dieta Redutora , Derivação Gástrica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gliose/genética , Adiposidade , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Alimentos , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/análise , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Inflamação/genética , Microdissecção e Captura a Laser , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/biossíntese , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Perda de Peso
9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 110: 104428, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590062

RESUMO

The recent increase in childhood obesity prevalence rates illustrates the extreme relevance of biological, psychosocial and familial factors implicated in body weight status, which at the moment remain unclear. The study aims to compare biological, psychosocial and familial markers between preadolescents with obesity and their non-overweight peers, and explore the relationship with psychiatric diagnosis on these markers. Both groups were composed of 40% of males with a mean age of 10 years, and no differences in socio-demographic variables were found between groups. No sex differences were found on bio/psycho/family markers. While 48% (n = 24) of the preadolescents with obesity presented a DSM-IV diagnosis (OGD), only 2% (n = 1) of the non-overweight peers (NG) met diagnostic criteria. Significant differences were found for all bio/psycho/family markers among obese preadolescents with the exceptions of cortisol, peptide YY and maternal state-anxiety and depression. The preadolescents with obesity without a diagnosis (OGND) presented greater levels of leptin than NG (p = 0.01). For psychosocial markers, statistically significant differences were found between groups in the majority of the variables (p < 0.01), with the exception of trait anxiety where a tendency towards significance was revealed (p = 0.06). For family markers, we found statistically significant differences in emotional over-involvement (p = 0.01), with NG mothers presenting lower scores than OGD and OGND. Include psychosocial and family factors in obesity intervention programs is necessary. Also, health professionals working with children with obesity must take care to assess the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis amongst this population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores , Família , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Peptídeo YY/análise , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Physiol Rep ; 7(20): e14223, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642205

RESUMO

Chronic hot water immersion (HWI) confers health benefits, including a reduction in fasting blood glucose concentration. Here we investigate acute glycemic control immediately after HWI. Ten participants (age: 25 ± 6 years, body mass: 84 ± 14 kg, height 1.85 ± 0.09 m) were immersed in water (39°C) to the neck (HWI) or sat at room temperature (CON) for 60 min. One hour afterward they underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with blood collected before and after HWI/CON and during the 2 h OGTT. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the OGTT was higher for HWI (HWI 233 ± 88, CON 156 ± 79 mmol·L-1 ·2 h, P = 0.02). Insulin iAUC did not differ between conditions (HWI 4309 ± 3660, CON 3893 ± 3031 mU·L-1 ·2 h, P = 0.32). Core temperature increased to 38.6 ± 0.2°C during HWI, but was similar between trials during the OGTT (HWI 37.0 ± 0.2, CON 36.9 ± 0.4°C, P = 0.34). Directly following HWI, plasma average adrenaline and growth hormone concentrations increased 2.7 and 10.7-fold, respectively (P < 0.001). Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and acylated ghrelin concentrations were not different between trials during the OGTT (P > 0.11). In conclusion, HWI increased postprandial glucose concentration to an OGTT, which was accompanied by acute elevations of stress hormones following HWI. The altered glycemic control appears to be unrelated to changes in gut hormones during the OGTT.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Imersão , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto , Epinefrina/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(20)2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615150

RESUMO

The micronutrients vitamins B9 and B12 act as methyl donors in the one-carbon metabolism involved in transmethylation reactions which critically influence epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. Both vitamins are essential for proper development, and their deficiency during pregnancy has been associated with a wide range of disorders, including persisting growth retardation. Energy homeostasis and feeding are centrally regulated by the hypothalamus which integrates peripheral signals and acts through several orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators. We studied this regulating system in a rat model of methyl donor deficiency during gestation and lactation. At weaning, a predominance of the anorexigenic pathway was observed in deficient pups, with increased plasma peptide YY and increased hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA, in line with abnormal leptin, ghrelin, and insulin secretion and/or signaling during critical periods of fetal and/or postnatal development of the hypothalamus. These results suggest that early methyl donor deficiency can affect the development and function of energy balance circuits, resulting in growth and weight deficits. Maternal administration of folic acid (3 mg/kg/day) during the perinatal period tended to rectify peripheral metabolic signaling and central neuropeptide and receptor expression, leading to reduced growth retardation.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/genética , Grelina/genética , Peptídeo YY/genética , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/genética , Animais , Depressores do Apetite/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Grelina/sangue , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/genética , Lactação , Leptina/sangue , Leptina/genética , Metilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Gravidez , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Vitamina B 12/genética , Vitamina B 12/farmacologia
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1055-1066, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 A-allele is associated with higher acyl-ghrelin (AG) concentrations, higher energy intake, and obesity, although exercise may mitigate rs9939609 A-allele-linked obesity risk. Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) hydrolyzes AG to des-acyl-ghrelin (DAG), potentially decreasing appetite. However, the effects of the FTO rs9939609 genotype and exercise on BChE activity, AG, DAG, and energy intake are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals homozygous for the obesity-risk A-allele (AAs) would exhibit higher postprandial AG and energy intake than individuals homozygous for the low obesity-risk T-allele (TTs), but that exercise would increase BChE activity and diminish these differences. METHODS: Twelve AA and 12 TT normal-weight males completed a control (8 h rest) and an exercise (1 h of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake, 7 h rest) trial in a randomized crossover design. A fixed meal was consumed at 1.5 h and an ad libitum buffet meal at 6.5 h. Appetite, appetite-related hormones, BChE activity, and energy intake were assessed. RESULTS: AAs displayed lower baseline BChE activity, higher baseline AG:DAG ratio, attenuated AG suppression after a fixed meal, and higher ad libitum energy intake compared with TTs [effect sizes (ESs) ≥ 0.72, P ≤ 0.049]. Exercise increased Δ BChE activity in both genotypes (ESs = 0.37, P = 0.004); however, exercise lowered AG and the AG:DAG ratio to a greater extent in AAs (P ≤ 0.023), offsetting the higher AG profile observed in AAs during the control trial (ESs ≥ 1.25, P ≤ 0.048). Exercise did not elevate energy intake in either genotype (P = 0.282). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise increases BChE activity, suppresses AG and the AG:DAG ratio, and corrects the higher AG profile observed in obesity-risk AA individuals. These findings suggest that exercise or other methods targeting BChE activity may offer a preventative and/or therapeutic strategy for AA individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03025347.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Apetite , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Exercício Físico , Grelina/sangue , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Genótipo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue
13.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 26, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes-specific nutritional formulas (DSNFs) are frequently used by patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as part of nutrition therapy to improve glycemic control and reduce body weight. However, their effects on hunger and satiety hormones when compared to an isocaloric standardized breakfast are not fully understood. This study aims to evaluate the postprandial effects of two DSNFs-Glucerna (GL) and Ultra Glucose Control (UGC)-versus oatmeal on selected satiety and hunger hormones. METHOD: After an overnight fast, 22 patients with T2D (mean age 62.3 ± 6.8 years, A1C 6.8 ± 0.7%, body weight 97.4 ± 21.3 kg, and BMI 33.2 ± 5.9 kg/m²) were given 200 kcal of each meal on three separate days. Blood samples for amylin, cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, glucagon, leptin, and peptide-YY (PYY) were collected at baseline and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min after the start of each meal. Incremental area under the curve (iAUC0-240) for each hormone was calculated. RESULTS: iAUC0-240 for glucagon and PYY were significantly higher after GL and UGC than after oatmeal (p < 0.001 for both). No difference was observed between the three meals on postprandial amylin, CCK, ghrelin, and leptin hormones. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of DSNFs significantly increases secretion of PYY and glucagon, two important satiety hormones. While subjective satiety was not directly evaluated, the increased effect on satiety hormones may partially explain the mechanism of body weight loss associated with DSNF use.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Alimentos Formulados , Fome/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Idoso , Glicemia , Colecistocinina/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue
14.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 52, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the major role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in the regulation of adiposity, this study examined the effects induced by a diet based on the Japanese tradition (SMART WASHOKU) on the visceral fat area (VFA) and GIP secretions. METHODS: Overweight/obese men (n = 21; mean age, 41.0 ± 9.0 years; mean BMI, 25.2 ± 2.0 kg/m2) without diabetes were placed on either a SMART WASHOKU or control meal for 2 weeks, in a randomized, cross-over setup with a four-week washout period. RESULTS: For the meal tolerance test, blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min post-meal, followed by measuring blood glucose, insulin, GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. Relative to a control meal, SMART WASHOKU meal yielded significantly lower plasma postprandial GIP concentrations (AUC: 700.0 ± 208.0 vs. 1117.0 ± 351.4 pmol/L・4 h, P < 0.05); however, between meals, there was no significant difference in the levels of GLP-1, peptide YY, and ghrelin. Compared to the control meal, SMART WASHOKU intervention significantly reduced VFA and the levels of LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and HbA1c after the chronic meal intervention. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, a SMART WASHOKU meal may decrease VFA and improve metabolic parameters in overweight/obese men, possibly via suppressing GIP secretion.


Assuntos
Dieta/métodos , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546629

RESUMO

Favorable effects of a high-protein/moderate-carbohydrate (HP/MCHO) diet after weight loss on body weight management have been shown. To extend these findings, associations between perception of hunger and satiety with endocannabinoids, and with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY) were assessed. At approximately 34 months after weight loss, 22 female and 16 male participants (mean age 64.5 ± 5.9 years; body mass index (BMI) 28.9 ± 3.9 kg/m2) completed a 48 h respiration chamber study. Participants were fed in energy balance with a HP/MCHO diet with 25%:45%:30% or a moderate-protein/high-carbohydrate (MP/HCHO) diet with 15%:55%:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Endocannabinoids and related compounds, relevant postprandial hormones (GLP-1, PYY), hunger, satiety, and ad libitum food intake were assessed. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO reduced hunger perception. The lower decremental area under the curve (dAUC) for hunger in the HP/MCHO diet (-56.6% compared to MP, p < 0.05) was associated with the higher AUC for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) concentrations (p < 0.05). Hunger was inversely associated with PYY in the HP/MCHO group (r = -0.7, p < 0.01). Ad libitum food intake, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and incremental AUCs for gut peptides were not different between conditions. HP/MCHO versus MP/HCHO diet-induced reduction in hunger was present after 34 months weight maintenance in the post-obese state. HP/MCHO diet-induced decrease of hunger is suggested to interact with increased 2-AG and PYY concentrations.


Assuntos
Dieta Rica em Proteínas e Pobre em Carboidratos/métodos , Endocanabinoides/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Idoso , Apetite/fisiologia , Ácidos Araquidônicos/sangue , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Glicerídeos/sangue , Humanos , Fome/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Saciação/fisiologia , Perda de Peso
16.
Peptides ; 122: 170148, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541684

RESUMO

Physiological roles of enterohormones such as secretion, absorption and digestion were supported by clinical data. Overexpression of cholecystokinin (CCK), neurotensin (NT) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors occur in gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies. The aim of the paper was to compare plasma levels of CCK, peptide YY (PYY), VIP and NT in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies and healthy controls. The study included 80 patients (37 men and 43 women) with GI malignancies (20 with gastric and 60 with colorectal cancers). Median age of the patients was 62.9 years (range: 40-85 years). Control group was comprised of 30 healthy persons with median age 59.8 years (range: 40-82 years). Fasting plasma concentrations of CKK, PYY, NT, and VIP were determined at rest, using ELISA kits for automated systems. Comparative analysis of enterohormone levels in patients with various types of gastrointestinal malignancies demonstrated presence of some cancer-specific alterations. Patients with gastric cancers presented with lower plasma concentrations of CCK than healthy controls and individuals from colorectal cancers (p = 0.02). The highest plasma concentrations of neurotensin was found in colorectal cancer patients in comparison to gastric (p = 0.02). The plasma levels of VIP observed in gastric cancer group were lower than in colorectal cancer patients (p = 0.01). Patients with GI malignancies may present with tumor-specific alterations in plasma enterohormone levels.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neurotensina/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466276

RESUMO

African Americans (AAs) have a higher obesity risk than Whites; however, it is unclear if appetite-related hormones and food intake are implicated. We examined differences in appetite-related hormones, appetite, and food intake between AAs (n = 53) and Whites (n = 111) with overweight or obesity. Participants were randomized into a control group or into supervised, controlled exercise groups at 8 kcal/kg of body weight/week (KKW) or 20 KKW. Participants consumed lunch and dinner at baseline and follow-up, with appetite and hormones measured before and after meals (except leptin). At baseline, AAs had lower peptide YY (PYY; p < 0.01) and a blunted elevation in PYY after lunch (p = 0.01), as well as lower ghrelin (p = 0.02) and higher leptin (p < 0.01) compared to Whites. Despite desire to eat being lower and satisfaction being higher in AAs relative to Whites (p ≤ 0.03), no racial differences in food intake were observed. Compared to Whites, leptin increased in the 8 KKW group in AAs (p = 0.01), yet no other race-by-group interactions were evident. Differences in appetite-related hormones between AAs and Whites exist; however, their influence on racial disparities in appetite, food intake, and obesity within this trial was limited.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Regulação do Apetite/etnologia , Ingestão de Energia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Obesidade/etnologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9989, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292496

RESUMO

C-peptide, insulin, leptin, and other metabolic hormones are assumed to play roles in breast cancer development; though, results are inconsistent. In this prospective case-control study nested within the Mano a Mano Cohort Study, we assessed the risk of breast cancer with regard to plasma levels of c-peptide, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, pancreatic polypeptide, and peptide YY. Among women followed for a median of 8.5 years, 109 breast cancer cases were identified and frequency-matched to 327 controls at a ratio of 1:3. Overall, only c-peptide was observed significantly associated with breast cancer risk. High c-peptide levels (≥ the median level of controls) were significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 2.44). In an analysis of participants stratified by age, the significant association between c-peptide levels and breast cancer risk was evident in only women age ≥51 years (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.27). Among women age <51 years, high leptin levels were significantly associated with decreased breast cancer risk (OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.82). Our findings suggest that selected metabolic hormones are associated with breast cancer development in Mexican American women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Peptídeo C/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL2/sangue , Feminino , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Regulação para Cima
19.
Diabetes Metab J ; 43(6): 879-892, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A premeal load of protein can increase satiety and reduce energy intake. Dietary fiber also conveys metabolic benefits by modulating energy intake. We made a protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB) and aimed to investigate its effects on food intake and gut hormone secretion in healthy individuals. METHODS: Twenty subjects with normal glucose tolerance were enrolled. On three separate visits, the subjects received, in a randomized order, one of the following: a PFB containing 73 kcal with 10.7 g of protein and 12.7 g of dietary fiber; a usual bar (UB) containing the same calories as the PFB but only 0.9 g of protein and no dietary fiber; or water (control). After 15 minutes, the subjects had ad libitum intake of a test meal. Food consumption, appetite, and plasma gut hormone levels were measured. RESULTS: Total energy intake, including the bar and the test meal, was significantly reduced with the PFB preload compared to the water (904.4±534.9 kcal vs. 1,075.0±508.0 kcal, P=0.016). With the UB preload, only the intake of the test meal was reduced (P=0.044) but not the total energy intake (P=0.471) than the water. Fullness was also significantly increased after the PFB. In addition, postprandial glucose levels decreased and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels increased with the PFB compared with both the UB and water. CONCLUSION: In healthy individuals, a premeal supplementation of PFB reduced total energy intake and decreased postprandial glucose excursion. This finding necessitates long-term studies regarding clinical use in obesity.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Refeições/fisiologia , Proteínas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saciação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Appetite ; 142: 104368, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) rs9939609 A-allele has been associated with obesity risk. Although the exact mechanisms involved remain unknown, the FTO rs9939609 A-allele has been associated with an impaired postprandial suppression of appetite. OBJECTIVES: To explore the influence of FTO rs9939609 genotype on fasting and postprandial appetite-related hormones and perceived appetite in a heterogeneous sample of men and women. DESIGN: 112 healthy men and women aged 18-50-years-old completed three laboratory visits for the assessment of FTO rs9939609 genotype, body composition, aerobic fitness, resting metabolic rate, visceral adipose tissue, liver fat, fasting leptin, and fasting and postprandial acylated ghrelin, total PYY, insulin, glucose and perceived appetite. Participants wore accelerometers for seven consecutive days for the assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Multivariable general linear models quantified differences between FTO rs9939609 groups for fasting and postprandial appetite outcomes, with and without the addition of a priori selected physiological and behavioural covariates. Sex-specific univariable Pearson's correlation coefficients were quantified between the appetite-related outcomes and individual characteristics. RESULTS: 95% confidence intervals for mean differences between FTO rs9939609 groups overlapped zero in unadjusted and adjusted general linear models for all fasting (P ≥ 0.28) and postprandial (P ≥ 0.19) appetite-related outcomes. Eta2 values for explained variance attributable to FTO rs9939609 were <5% for all outcomes. An exploratory correlation matrix indicated that associations between fasting and postprandial acylated ghrelin, total PYY and general or abdominal adiposity were also small (r = -0.23 to 0.15, P ≥ 0.09). Fasting leptin, glucose and insulin and postprandial insulin concentrations were associated with adiposity outcomes (r = 0.29 to 0.81, P ≤ 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Associations between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and fasting or postprandial appetite-related outcomes were weak in healthy men and women.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Apetite/genética , Jejum , Genótipo , Período Pós-Prandial , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Grelina/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Consumo de Oxigênio , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Adulto Jovem
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