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4.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 73-79, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630078

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a common comorbidity of type II diabetes and a leading cause of death worldwide. The presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) drives atherogenesis by inducing oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), adhesion molecules including vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin, and downregulating expression of the Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) transcription factor. Importantly, ox-LDL induced the attachment of THP-1 monocytes to endothelial cells. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the specific glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist dulaglutide may prevent these atherosclerotic effects of ox-LDL by preventing suppression of KLF2 by p53 protein in human aortic endothelial cells. KLF2 has been shown to play a major role in protecting vascular endothelial cells from damage induced by ox-LDL and oscillatory shear, and therefore, therapies capable of mediating KLF2 signaling may be an attractive treatment option for preventing the development and progression of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Adesão Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Monócitos/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
5.
6.
Lancet ; 394(10205): 1226, 2019 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591979
7.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(9): 488-494, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486321

RESUMO

Semaglutide (Ozempic®) is a new once-weekly agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1 AR) indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Phase III clinical trials of the SUSTAIN programme demonstrated both the efficacy and safety of semaglutide in patients with T2D treated by diet and exercise, oral antidiabetic agents or even insulin. Direct and indirect comparative clinical trials showed that semaglutide (subcutaneous 0.5 or 1.0 mg once weekly) exerts a better glucose-lowering activity and a greater weight loss than other GLP-1 AR. Presented as prefilled pens for subcutaneous injection, semaglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure of antidiabetic therapy including metformin (HbA1c superior to 7,5 % or 58 mmol/mol) in T2D patients with body mass index ? 30 kg/m².


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Hipoglicemiantes , Bélgica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
8.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1534365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396537

RESUMO

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs, but there is concern that they may increase the risk of malignant neoplasia. The present meta-analysis examined the safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists with regard to malignant neoplasia. Methods: We analyzed data from randomized controlled trials with a minimum duration of 24 weeks that assessed the incidence of neoplasms in type 2 diabetes patients receiving GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo or other hypoglycemic drugs. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases with a language restriction of English through October 1, 2018, and carried out a meta-analysis of the available trial data using a fixed effects model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for neoplasia. Results: Thirty-four relevant articles, providing data for 50452 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the incidence of malignant neoplasia with placebo or other interventions, no increase in malignant neoplasm formation was observed with the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists (OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.15; p = 0.46), liraglutide (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27; p = 0.38), exenatide (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.16; p = 1.00), semaglutide (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35-2.22; p = 0.80), or albiglutide (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.23-4.88; p = 0.93). A subanalysis of trials lasting longer than 3 years also showed no increase in the neoplasia risk with GLP-1 receptor agonist use (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.15; p = 0.60). Between-trial statistical heterogeneity was low for all comparisons. Conclusion: GLP-1 receptor agonists can be used without safety concerns related to malignant neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco
10.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 131-138, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduced renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at risk for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the long-term effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on renal outcomes in an exploratory analysis of the REWIND trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular disease. METHODS: REWIND was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo and followed up at least every 6 months for outcomes. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated from urine and serum values measured in local laboratories every 12 months. The primary outcome (first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes), secondary outcomes (including a composite microvascular outcome), and safety outcomes of this trial have been reported elsewhere. In this exploratory analysis, we investigate the renal component of the composite microvascular outcome, defined as the first occurrence of new macroalbuminuria (UACR >33·9 mg/mmol), a sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more from baseline, or chronic renal replacement therapy. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). At baseline, 791 (7·9%) had macroalbuminuria and mean eGFR was 76·9 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (SD 22·7). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9) comprising 51 820 person-years, the renal outcome developed in 848 (17·1%) participants at an incidence rate of 3·5 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 970 (19·6%) participants at an incidence rate of 4·1 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·85, 95% CI 0·77-0·93; p=0·0004). The clearest effect was for new macroalbuminuria (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·68-0·87; p<0·0001), with HRs of 0·89 (0·78-1·01; p=0·066) for sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more and 0·75 (0·39-1·44; p=0·39) for chronic renal replacement therapy. INTERPRETATION: Long-term use of dulaglutide was associated with reduced composite renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Creatinina/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 121-130, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with stratification by site. All investigators and participants were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for incident cardiovascular and other serious clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes (including unknown causes), which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants (mean age 66·2 years [SD 6·5], median HbA1c 7·2% [IQR 6·6-8·1], 4589 [46·3%] women) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9), the primary composite outcome occurred in 594 (12·0%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·4 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 663 (13·4%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99; p=0·026). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (536 [10·8%] in the dulaglutide group vs 592 [12·0%] in the placebo group; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·80-1·01; p=0·067). 2347 (47·4%) participants assigned to dulaglutide reported a gastrointestinal adverse event during follow-up compared with 1687 (34·1%) participants assigned to placebo (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Dulaglutide could be considered for the management of glycaemic control in middle-aged and older people with type 2 diabetes with either previous cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
12.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 6423987, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183384

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the effects of once-weekly dulaglutide injection and once-daily glimepiride on glucose fluctuation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). Methods: A total of 23 patients with T2DM were randomly assigned into two groups for 26 weeks: the dulaglutide group (n = 13) and the glimepiride group (n = 10). 72-hour CGMS was applied to all patients: before and after the treatment. General clinical data were collected and measured, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Results: HbA1c of the dulaglutide group was reduced from 8.38 ± 0.93% to 6.68 ± 0.73% after the treatment (P < 0.05); similarly, it was reduced from 7.91 ± 0.98% to 6.67 ± 0.74% (P < 0.05) in the glimepiride group. The levels of serum 8-iso-PGF2α, TNF-α, and IL-6 all decreased significantly in both groups after treatment, and there was no significant difference found between the two groups (P > 0.05). The Mean Blood Glucose (MBG) of the two groups declined significantly after therapy (P < 0.05). However, the Standard Deviation of Blood Glucose (SDBG) decreased significantly only in the dulaglutide group (from 2.57 ± 0.74 mmol/L to 1.98 ± 0.74 mmol/L, P < 0.05). There were no significant changes of Mean Amplitude of Glycemic Excursion (MAGE) and Absolute Means of Daily Difference (MODD) after treatment in both groups. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in MBG, SDBG, MAGE, and MODD (P > 0.05). The percentage time (PT) (>10 mmol/L and 3.9-10 mmol/L) of the two groups was significantly changed after the treatment (P < 0.05). However, this was not seen in the PT < 3.9 mmol/L after the treatment (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Once-weekly dulaglutide injection has the same effectiveness as daily glimepiride on lowering blood glucose and decreasing oxidation stress and inflammation and is more effective in controlling glucose fluctuation as compared with glimepiride. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01644500.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Esquema de Medicação , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 231: 116538, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176776

RESUMO

Apoptosis is a complicated process that involves activation of a series of intracellular signaling. Tissue injuries from diabetes mellitus mostly occur as a consequence of higher rate of apoptosis process due to activation of a series of molecular mechanisms. Several classes of anti-hyperglycaemic agents have been developed which could potentially modulate the apoptotic process resulting in fewer tissue damages. Novel types of anti-hyperglycaemic medications such as sodium glucose cotransporters-2 inhibitors, glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors have shown to provide potent anti-hyperglycaemic effects, but their influences on diabetes-induced apoptotic injuries is largely unknown. Therefore, in the current study, we reviewed the published data about the possible effects of these anti-hyperglycaemic agents on apoptosis in diabetic milieu as well as in cancer cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Surdez/tratamento farmacológico , Surdez/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/metabolismo , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/agonistas , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/metabolismo , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(9): 841-851, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing cardiovascular safety of new therapies for type 2 diabetes is important. Safety data are available for the subcutaneous form of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide but are needed for oral semaglutide. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular outcomes of once-daily oral semaglutide in an event-driven, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients at high cardiovascular risk (age of ≥50 years with established cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease, or age of ≥60 years with cardiovascular risk factors only). The primary outcome in a time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). The trial was designed to rule out 80% excess cardiovascular risk as compared with placebo (noninferiority margin of 1.8 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio for the primary outcome). RESULTS: A total of 3183 patients were randomly assigned to receive oral semaglutide or placebo. The mean age of the patients was 66 years; 2695 patients (84.7%) were 50 years of age or older and had cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease. The median time in the trial was 15.9 months. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 61 of 1591 patients (3.8%) in the oral semaglutide group and 76 of 1592 (4.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Results for components of the primary outcome were as follows: death from cardiovascular causes, 15 of 1591 patients (0.9%) in the oral semaglutide group and 30 of 1592 (1.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.92); nonfatal myocardial infarction, 37 of 1591 patients (2.3%) and 31 of 1592 (1.9%), respectively (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.90); and nonfatal stroke, 12 of 1591 patients (0.8%) and 16 of 1592 (1.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.57). Death from any cause occurred in 23 of 1591 patients (1.4%) in the oral semaglutide group and 45 of 1592 (2.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.84). Gastrointestinal adverse events leading to discontinuation of oral semaglutide or placebo were more common with oral semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with type 2 diabetes, the cardiovascular risk profile of oral semaglutide was not inferior to that of placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; PIONEER 6 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02692716.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
15.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 74: 105649, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185450

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis is a common autoimmune disease primarily characterized by chronic inflammation, the formation of an invasive pannus, and destruction of the joints. In the present study, we employed real-time PCR and western blot analysis to investigate the role of dulaglutide in human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The results of our study show that dulaglutide exerted a powerful protective effect by rescuing mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibiting the production of NOX-4, and abrogating TNF-α-induced downregulation of the antioxidant GSH. Our findings demonstrate that dulaglutide significantly ameliorated the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-1ß, IL-6, MCP-1, and HMGB-1. Matrix metalloproteinases mediate cartilage destruction, thereby aiding in pannus formation. Our findings indicate that dulaglutide treatment significantly downregulated the expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13, two crucial degradative enzymes. Importantly, the results of our study demonstrate that the beneficial effects of dulaglutide are mediated through the JNK/NF-κB signaling pathway, which has been suggested as a potential treatment target against RA. Taken together, the results of this study show that dulaglutide may exert significant protective effects against the progression of RA induced by TNF-α.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , NADPH Oxidase 4/genética , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo
17.
Lancet ; 394(10192): 39-50, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once-daily oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg), once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (dose escalated to 1·8 mg), or placebo for 52 weeks. Two estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of study drug discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (assumed all participants were on study drug without rescue medication) in all participants who were randomly assigned. The treatment policy estimand was the primary estimand. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and non-inferiority [margin: 0·4%] and superiority vs subcutaneous liraglutide) and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in bodyweight (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and liraglutide). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02863419, and the European Clinical Trials registry, number EudraCT 2015-005210-30. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2016, and Feb 7, 2017, 950 patients were screened, of whom 711 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=285), subcutaneous liraglutide (n=284), or placebo (n=142). 341 (48%) of 711 participants were female and the mean age was 56 years (SD 10). All participants were given at least one dose of study drug, and 277 (97%) participants in the oral semaglutide group, 274 (96%) in the liraglutide group, and 134 (94%) in the placebo group completed the 52-week trial period. Mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26 was -1·2% (SE 0·1) with oral semaglutide, -1·1% (SE 0·1) with subcutaneous liraglutide, and -0·2% (SE 0·1) with placebo. Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide in decreasing HbA1c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·1%, 95% CI -0·3 to 0·0; p<0·0001) and superior to placebo (ETD -1·1%, -1·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) by use of the treatment policy estimand. By use of the trial product estimand, oral semaglutide had significantly greater decreases in HbA1c than both subcutaneous liraglutide (ETD -0·2%, 95% CI -0·3 to -0·1; p=0·0056) and placebo (ETD -1·2%, -1·4 to -1·0; p<0·0001) at week 26. Oral semaglutide resulted in superior weight loss (-4·4 kg [SE 0·2]) compared with liraglutide (-3·1 kg [SE 0·2]; ETD -1·2 kg, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·6; p=0·0003) and placebo (-0·5 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD -3·8 kg, -4·7 to -3·0; p<0·0001) at week 26 (treatment policy). By use of the trial product estimand, weight loss at week 26 was significantly greater with oral semaglutide than with subcutaneous liraglutide (-1·5 kg, 95% CI -2·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) and placebo (ETD -4·0 kg, -4·8 to -3·2; p<0·0001). Adverse events were more frequent with oral semaglutide (n=229 [80%]) and subcutaneous liraglutide (n=211 [74%]) than with placebo (n=95 [67%]). INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide and superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c, and superior in decreasing bodyweight compared with both liraglutide and placebo at week 26. Safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide were similar to subcutaneous liraglutide. Use of oral semaglutide could potentially lead to earlier initiation of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in the diabetes treatment continuum of care. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(5): 377-387, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055989

RESUMO

Introduction: The GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) liraglutide has a half-life of approximately 13 h and is suitable for subcutaneous administration once daily. The use of liraglutide in people with type 2 diabetes has become popular because of the efficacy and durability in relation to glycemic control in combination with weight loss in most patients. Areas covered: PubMed searches were completed using the terms 'GLP-1 receptor agonist', 'Liraglutide', 'Liraglutide and CVD', 'Liraglutide and CVD risk factors'. The reference list of articles subsequently identified was searched and articles of interest were selected. Expert commentary: Liraglutide has been found superior to oral antidiabetic drugs and other GLP-1 RAs with greater reductions in both HbA1c and weight except when compared with semaglutide. Liraglutide has beneficial effects on blood pressure, weight, postprandial lipids, low-grade inflammation and on the myocardium. In the cardiovascular endpoint trial LEADER liraglutide reduced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke as well as cardiovascular and total mortality but had no effect on heart failure. Liraglutide reduces the progression of diabetic kidney disease. In the recent 2018 consensus report from EASD/ADA liraglutide is recommended to patients with established cardiovascular diseases after metformin.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Med Econ ; 22(8): 806-813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010349

RESUMO

Aims: Several glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are available as weekly injections for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These medications vary in their injection devices, and these differences could impact quality-of-life and patient preference. The purpose of this study was to examine patient preferences and estimate health state utilities associated with injection devices for two weekly GLP-1 therapies. Materials and methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes in Italy (Milan, Rome) valued three health state vignettes in time trade-off interviews. The health states had identical descriptions of type 2 diabetes, but differed in description of the treatment process: (1) oral treatment regimen, (2) oral plus weekly dulaglutide injection, and (3) oral plus weekly semaglutide injection. Results: A total of 216 participants completed interviews (57.9% male; mean age = 60.5). Almost all patients (99.5%) preferred the oral health state over either injection health state. Comparing between the two injections, 88.4% preferred the dulaglutide health state, while 11.6% preferred the semaglutide state. Mean (SD) utilities were 0.907 (0.076) for oral, 0.894 (0.085) for dulaglutide, and 0.887 (0.087) for semaglutide. The mean (SD) utility difference between the injection device health states was 0.007 (0.019). Limitations: Although the health states were designed to match the injection device instructions for use as closely as possible, vignette-based methods are inherently limited because results are based on perceptions of the health states rather than actual patient experience with the devices. Conclusions: Results provide insight into patient preferences associated with injection devices for weekly GLP-1 receptor agonists. The majority of patients preferred the dulaglutide device over the semaglutide device, and for some patients, this difference had an impact on utility valuations. Patient preferences for injection devices could be an important factor to consider when selecting treatments for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Preferência do Paciente , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem
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