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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(9): 841-851, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Establishing cardiovascular safety of new therapies for type 2 diabetes is important. Safety data are available for the subcutaneous form of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide but are needed for oral semaglutide. METHODS: We assessed cardiovascular outcomes of once-daily oral semaglutide in an event-driven, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients at high cardiovascular risk (age of ≥50 years with established cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease, or age of ≥60 years with cardiovascular risk factors only). The primary outcome in a time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of a major adverse cardiovascular event (death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). The trial was designed to rule out 80% excess cardiovascular risk as compared with placebo (noninferiority margin of 1.8 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio for the primary outcome). RESULTS: A total of 3183 patients were randomly assigned to receive oral semaglutide or placebo. The mean age of the patients was 66 years; 2695 patients (84.7%) were 50 years of age or older and had cardiovascular or chronic kidney disease. The median time in the trial was 15.9 months. Major adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 61 of 1591 patients (3.8%) in the oral semaglutide group and 76 of 1592 (4.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Results for components of the primary outcome were as follows: death from cardiovascular causes, 15 of 1591 patients (0.9%) in the oral semaglutide group and 30 of 1592 (1.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.92); nonfatal myocardial infarction, 37 of 1591 patients (2.3%) and 31 of 1592 (1.9%), respectively (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.90); and nonfatal stroke, 12 of 1591 patients (0.8%) and 16 of 1592 (1.0%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.57). Death from any cause occurred in 23 of 1591 patients (1.4%) in the oral semaglutide group and 45 of 1592 (2.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.84). Gastrointestinal adverse events leading to discontinuation of oral semaglutide or placebo were more common with oral semaglutide. CONCLUSIONS: In this trial involving patients with type 2 diabetes, the cardiovascular risk profile of oral semaglutide was not inferior to that of placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; PIONEER 6 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02692716.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
2.
Lancet ; 394(10192): 39-50, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once-daily oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg), once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (dose escalated to 1·8 mg), or placebo for 52 weeks. Two estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of study drug discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (assumed all participants were on study drug without rescue medication) in all participants who were randomly assigned. The treatment policy estimand was the primary estimand. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and non-inferiority [margin: 0·4%] and superiority vs subcutaneous liraglutide) and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in bodyweight (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and liraglutide). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02863419, and the European Clinical Trials registry, number EudraCT 2015-005210-30. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2016, and Feb 7, 2017, 950 patients were screened, of whom 711 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=285), subcutaneous liraglutide (n=284), or placebo (n=142). 341 (48%) of 711 participants were female and the mean age was 56 years (SD 10). All participants were given at least one dose of study drug, and 277 (97%) participants in the oral semaglutide group, 274 (96%) in the liraglutide group, and 134 (94%) in the placebo group completed the 52-week trial period. Mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26 was -1·2% (SE 0·1) with oral semaglutide, -1·1% (SE 0·1) with subcutaneous liraglutide, and -0·2% (SE 0·1) with placebo. Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide in decreasing HbA1c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·1%, 95% CI -0·3 to 0·0; p<0·0001) and superior to placebo (ETD -1·1%, -1·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) by use of the treatment policy estimand. By use of the trial product estimand, oral semaglutide had significantly greater decreases in HbA1c than both subcutaneous liraglutide (ETD -0·2%, 95% CI -0·3 to -0·1; p=0·0056) and placebo (ETD -1·2%, -1·4 to -1·0; p<0·0001) at week 26. Oral semaglutide resulted in superior weight loss (-4·4 kg [SE 0·2]) compared with liraglutide (-3·1 kg [SE 0·2]; ETD -1·2 kg, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·6; p=0·0003) and placebo (-0·5 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD -3·8 kg, -4·7 to -3·0; p<0·0001) at week 26 (treatment policy). By use of the trial product estimand, weight loss at week 26 was significantly greater with oral semaglutide than with subcutaneous liraglutide (-1·5 kg, 95% CI -2·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) and placebo (ETD -4·0 kg, -4·8 to -3·2; p<0·0001). Adverse events were more frequent with oral semaglutide (n=229 [80%]) and subcutaneous liraglutide (n=211 [74%]) than with placebo (n=95 [67%]). INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide and superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c, and superior in decreasing bodyweight compared with both liraglutide and placebo at week 26. Safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide were similar to subcutaneous liraglutide. Use of oral semaglutide could potentially lead to earlier initiation of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in the diabetes treatment continuum of care. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934882

RESUMO

GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) has been reported to play a vital role in neuroprotection. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model widely used to study human multiple sclerosis, a chronic demyelination disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, important studies have designated that the signaling axis of GLP-1 and its receptor controls the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of EAE. However, it is elusive whether GLP-1 receptor signaling regulates the phenotype of autoreactive T cells in the CNS. We administered dulaglutide, a well-established GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), to treat EAE mice prophylactically or semi-therapeutically and subsequently analyzed the mononuclear cells of the CNS. In this study, dulaglutide treatment significantly alleviates the clinical manifestations and histopathological outcomes of EAE. Dulaglutide decreases incidences of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cells and Th1 granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression in the CNS. Administration of dulaglutide failed to control the chemotactic abilities of encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells; however, prophylactic treatment considerably decreased the populations of dendritic cells and macrophages in the CNS parenchyma. These results obtained indicate that dulaglutide modulates the differentiation of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 and the pathogenicity of Th1 cells by influencing antigen presenting cells quantities, providing mechanism insight on T cells regulation in ameliorating EAE by GLP-1.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Imunização , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
JAMA ; 321(15): 1466-1480, 2019 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903796

RESUMO

Importance: Phase 3 trials have not compared oral semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, with other classes of glucose-lowering therapy. Objective: To compare efficacy and assess long-term adverse event profiles of once-daily oral semaglutide vs sitagliptin, 100 mg added on to metformin with or without sulfonylurea, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, phase 3a trial conducted at 206 sites in 14 countries over 78 weeks from February 2016 to March 2018. Of 2463 patients screened, 1864 adults with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin with or without sulfonylurea were randomized. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive once-daily oral semaglutide, 3 mg (n = 466), 7 mg (n = 466), or 14 mg (n = 465), or sitagliptin, 100 mg (n = 467). Semaglutide was initiated at 3 mg/d and escalated every 4 weeks, first to 7 mg/d then to 14 mg/d, until the randomized dosage was achieved. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and the key secondary end point was change in body weight, both from baseline to week 26. Both were assessed at weeks 52 and 78 as additional secondary end points. End points were tested for noninferiority with respect to HbA1c (noninferiority margin, 0.3%) prior to testing for superiority of HbA1c and body weight. Results: Among 1864 patients randomized (mean age, 58 [SD, 10] years; mean baseline HbA1c, 8.3% [SD, 0.9%]; mean body mass index, 32.5 [SD, 6.4]; n=879 [47.2%] women), 1758 (94.3%) completed the trial and 298 prematurely discontinued treatment (16.7% for semaglutide, 3 mg/d; 15.0% for semaglutide, 7 mg/d; 19.1% for semaglutide, 14 mg/d; and 13.1% for sitagliptin). Semaglutide, 7 and 14 mg/d, compared with sitagliptin, significantly reduced HbA1c (differences, -0.3% [95% CI, -0.4% to -0.1%] and -0.5% [95% CI, -0.6% to -0.4%], respectively; P < .001 for both) and body weight (differences, -1.6 kg [95% CI, -2.0 to -1.1 kg] and -2.5 kg [95% CI, -3.0 to -2.0 kg], respectively; P < .001 for both) from baseline to week 26. Noninferiority of semaglutide, 3 mg/d, with respect to HbA1c was not demonstrated. Week 78 reductions in both end points were statistically significantly greater with semaglutide, 14 mg/d, vs sitagliptin. Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin with or without sulfonylurea, oral semaglutide, 7 mg/d and 14 mg/d, compared with sitagliptin, resulted in significantly greater reductions in HbA1c over 26 weeks, but there was no significant benefit with the 3-mg/d dosage. Further research is needed to assess effectiveness in a clinical setting. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02607865.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico
5.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(1): 43-51, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047216

RESUMO

AIMS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The impact of switching treatment from another GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) to semaglutide was investigated by analyses of exposure-response models. METHODS: HbA1c and body weight time-course models were developed, using up to 30 weeks of observations from four trials in the semaglutide phase 3 programme. Given the recommended dosing for each GLP-1RA, pharmacokinetic profiles were simulated based on published population pharmacokinetic models and exposure was adjusted by the relative potencies to ensure that model predictions matched the effects observed in clinical trials. After 26 weeks of simulated treatment with liraglutide, dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release, simulated semaglutide treatment was initiated 1 day after the last once-daily dose of liraglutide and 1 week after the last once-weekly doses of dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release. RESULTS: The potency-adjusted total effective GLP-1RA concentration increased after switching from another GLP-1RA to semaglutide and was associated with reductions ranging from ~0.3% to ~0.8%-points for HbA1c and from ~2% to ~4% for body weight with semaglutide 1.0 mg. Temporary slight deteriorations in HbA1c were observed after switching to semaglutide 0.25 mg from liraglutide 1.2/1.8 mg or dulaglutide 1.5 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure-response modelling suggests that switching to semaglutide from liraglutide, dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release results in further reductions in HbA1c and body weight. Initial slight deterioration in outcome values when switching to semaglutide 0.25 mg could be avoided by initiating semaglutide treatment at a higher dose.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos
6.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 138(10): 1323-1327, 2018.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270278

RESUMO

 Incretin-based therapy consists of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Whether switching from DPP-4 inhibitors to one of the GLP-1 receptor agonists, dulaglutide, has greater beneficial effects remains unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of switching from DPP-4 inhibitors to dulaglutide in four patients with type 2 diabetes. All four patients with hyperglycemia who switched from DPP-4 inhibitors to dulaglutide demonstrated noticeable decreased plasma glucose levels on the next day after switching. Two of the patients observed maintained a decreased plasma glucose level over 14 day after switching. Moreover, all patients demonstrated decreased glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels during the observation period (1-6 months) after switching and lost weight from 6 to 27 day. Minor and manageable hypoglycemia, nausea, and diarrhea were observed as side effects in one case. The current findings suggest that dulaglutide is a suitable treatment alternative in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not currently achieving adequate glycemic control with DPP-4 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/administração & dosagem , Substituição de Medicamentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/farmacologia , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 107(19): 1031-1037, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227796

RESUMO

Technological Innovations in Diabetes Therapy Abstract. In the last few years a whole array of technical innovations has dramatically increased treatment options for patients with diabetes mellitus. Capillary blood glucose measurements are increasingly replaced by continuous glucose monitoring. More and more insulin pump systems are linked up to continuous glucose monitoring, which thereby become ever more self-regulating. Novel ultra-long and ultra-short acting insulins have become available. There will soon be oral alternatives for several anti-diabetic treatments, which hitherto needed to be injected.


Assuntos
Automonitorização da Glicemia/instrumentação , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Invenções , Pâncreas Artificial , Administração Oral , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
9.
Lancet ; 392(10148): 637-649, 2018 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major public health issue, and new pharmaceuticals for weight management are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutide in comparison with liraglutide and a placebo in promoting weight loss. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo and active controlled, multicentre, dose-ranging, phase 2 trial. The study was done in eight countries involving 71 clinical sites. Eligible participants were adults (≥18 years) without diabetes and with a body-mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. We randomly assigned participants (6:1) to each active treatment group (ie, semaglutide [0·05 mg, 0·1 mg, 0·2 mg, 0·3 mg, or 0·4 mg; initiated at 0·05 mg per day and incrementally escalated every 4 weeks] or liraglutide [3·0 mg; initiated at 0·6 mg per day and escalated by 0·6 mg per week]) or matching placebo group (equal injection volume and escalation schedule to active treatment group) using a block size of 56. All treatment doses were delivered once-daily via subcutaneous injections. Participants and investigators were masked to the assigned study treatment but not the target dose. The primary endpoint was percentage weight loss at week 52. The primary analysis was done using intention-to-treat ANCOVA estimation with missing data derived from the placebo pool. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02453711. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1, 2015, and Feb 11, 2016, 957 individuals were randomly assigned (102-103 participants per active treatment group and 136 in the pooled placebo group). Mean baseline characteristics included age 47 years, bodyweight 111·5 kg, and BMI 39·3 kg/m2. Bodyweight data were available for 891 (93%) of 957 participants at week 52. Estimated mean weight loss was -2·3% for the placebo group versus -6·0% (0·05 mg), -8·6% (0·1 mg), -11·6% (0·2 mg), -11·2% (0·3 mg), and -13·8% (0·4 mg) for the semaglutide groups. All semaglutide groups versus placebo were significant (unadjusted p≤0·0010), and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing (p≤0·0055). Mean bodyweight reductions for 0·2 mg or more of semaglutide versus liraglutide were all significant (-13·8% to -11·2% vs -7·8%). Estimated weight loss of 10% or more occurred in 10% of participants receiving placebo compared with 37-65% receiving 0·1 mg or more of semaglutide (p<0·0001 vs placebo). All semaglutide doses were generally well tolerated, with no new safety concerns. The most common adverse events were dose-related gastrointestinal symptoms, primarily nausea, as seen previously with GLP-1 receptor agonists. INTERPRETATION: In combination with dietary and physical activity counselling, semaglutide was well tolerated over 52 weeks and showed clinically relevant weight loss compared with placebo at all doses. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Liraglutida/farmacologia , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Injeções Subcutâneas/métodos , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Placebos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Diabetes Care ; 41(9): 1926-1937, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of once-daily semaglutide in comparison with once-daily liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This 26-week, multicenter, double-blind trial involved patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes with HbA1c 7.0-10.0% (53-86 mmol/mol) and treated with diet and exercise with or without metformin. Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to once-daily semaglutide, liraglutide, or placebo in one of four volume-matched doses (semaglutide 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 mg and liraglutide 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, or 1.8 mg, with both compared within each volume-matched dose group). Primary end point was change in HbA1c from baseline to week 26. RESULTS: In total, 705 randomized patients were exposed to trial products. At week 26, a dose-dependent change in HbA1c was observed with semaglutide from -1.1% (0.05 mg) to -1.9% (0.3 mg) and with liraglutide from -0.5% (0.3 mg) to -1.3% (1.8 mg) (all P < 0.001 in favor of volume-matched semaglutide dose). Change with pooled placebo was -0.02% (P < 0.0001 vs. semaglutide). Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders were the most common adverse events (AEs) with semaglutide and liraglutide, occurring in 32.8-54.0% and 21.9-41.5% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily semaglutide at doses up to 0.3 mg/day resulted in greater reductions in HbA1c compared with liraglutide or placebo but with a higher frequency of GI AEs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta , Exercício/fisiologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Liraglutida/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metformina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(8): 869-877, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29897249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the first oral glucagon-like peptide-1 analog comprises semaglutide co-formulated with an absorption enhancer, sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate, which induces a transient, localized increase in gastric pH, we have investigated whether a proton pump inhibitor affects the pharmacokinetics of oral semaglutide. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial investigated pharmacokinetic interactions of oral semaglutide with omeprazole (40 mg once-daily) in 54 healthy subjects. Primary endpoints were area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 24 h for semaglutide (AUC0-24h,semaglutide,Day10) and maximum concentration of semaglutide (Cmax,semaglutide,Day10) at day 10. RESULTS: Exposure of semaglutide appeared to be slightly increased, although not statistically significantly, with oral semaglutide plus omeprazole versus oral semaglutide alone (AUC0-24h,semaglutide,Day10 [estimated treatment ratio 1.13; 90%CI 0.88, 1.45] and Cmax,semaglutide,Day10 [estimated treatment ratio 1.16; 90%CI 0.90, 1.49]). Gastric pH was higher with oral semaglutide and omeprazole versus oral semaglutide alone. Adverse events were mild or moderate and, most commonly, gastrointestinal disorders. CONCLUSIONS: There was a slight non-statistically significant increase in semaglutide exposure when oral semaglutide was administered with omeprazole, but this is not considered clinically relevant and no dose adjustment is likely to be required.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/administração & dosagem , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(16): e0420, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29668601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is a great challenge for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to maintain optimal glycemia, control body weight, blood pressure, and avoiding hypoglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) can stimulate glucose-dependent insulin while inhibit glucagon secretion, delay gastric emptying, reduce appetite, and energy intake. Recently, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RAs, semaglutide, has been registered to treat patients with T2DM. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and the ClinicalTrials.gov Website up to February 2018. Studies will be screened by title, abstract, and full text independently in duplicate. Phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reports efficacy and safety data of semaglutide will be eligible for inclusion. Outcome variables will be assessed included glycemic control indexes (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]%, fasting plasma glucose [FPG], self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMPG], postprandial self-monitoring of blood glucose [PSMPG]), blood pressure indexes (systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], and pulse rate), body weight control indexes (body weight, body mass index [BMI], and waist circumference), and any adverse events (including adverse events [AEs] varying degrees and AEs occurring in ≥5% patients by preferred term or other of clinical interest). Assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis will be performed using STATA software (version 12, Statacorp, College Station, Texas). Outcomes will report by weight mean difference (WMD) and risk ratios (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Heterogeneity among studies will be evaluated using the I statistic. RESULTS: This review will evaluate glycemic, blood pressure, body weight control, and any adverse events of semaglutide as compared with other therapies. CONCLUSION: Our study will provide a comprehensive picture of semaglutide in T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
13.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 14(3): 371-377, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by the gut, and in a glucose-dependent manner stimulates insulin secretion while inhibiting glucagon secretion, reduces appetite and energy intake, and delays gastric emptying. The GLP-1R agonist semaglutide has recently been registered to treat type 2 diabetes. Area covered: This review is of semaglutide in type 2 diabetes, and considers which properties of this GLP-1R agonist, may be responsible for its clinical outcome benefits . Expert opinion: The pharmacokinetics of semaglutide make it ideal for once-weekly dosing. SUSTAIN 6 (Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes With Semaglutide in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes) showed that semaglutide 0.5 or 1 mg subcutaneously once-weekly reduced cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or risk, mean age 65 years, baseline HbA1c 8.7% and mean body weight of 92 kg. Although, semaglutide may be a useful drug in this population, it increased retinopathy to a small extent and this needs further investigation. Also, it is not known whether semaglutide will improve cardiovascular outcomes in other populations including those with lower ages, HbA1c values, and body weights similar to those included in the unsuccessful clinical outcome trials with the GLP-1R agonists, lixisenatide and exenatide.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacocinética , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Insulina/metabolismo
15.
Diabetes Care ; 41(2): 258-266, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29246950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 1.0 mg s.c. with exenatide extended release (ER) 2.0 mg s.c. in subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this phase 3a, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 813 subjects with type 2 diabetes taking oral antidiabetic drugs were randomized (1:1) to semaglutide 1.0 mg or exenatide ER 2.0 mg for 56 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in HbA1c at week 56. RESULTS: Mean HbA1c (8.3% [67.7 mmol/mol] at baseline) was reduced by 1.5% (16.8 mmol/mol) with semaglutide and 0.9% (10.0 mmol/mol) with exenatide ER (estimated treatment difference vs. exenatide ER [ETD] -0.62% [95% CI -0.80, -0.44] [-6.78 mmol/mol (95% CI -8.70, -4.86)]; P < 0.0001 for noninferiority and superiority). Mean body weight (95.8 kg at baseline) was reduced by 5.6 kg with semaglutide and 1.9 kg with exenatide ER (ETD -3.78 kg [95% CI -4.58, -2.98]; P < 0.0001). Significantly more subjects treated with semaglutide (67%) achieved HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) versus those taking exenatide ER (40%). Both treatments had similar safety profiles, but gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in semaglutide-treated subjects (41.8%) than in exenatide ER-treated subjects (33.3%); injection-site reactions were more frequent with exenatide ER (22.0%) than with semaglutide (1.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Semaglutide 1.0 mg was superior to exenatide ER 2.0 mg in improving glycemic control and reducing body weight after 56 weeks of treatment; the drugs had comparable safety profiles. These results indicate that semaglutide treatment is highly effective for subjects with type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral antidiabetic drugs.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Peçonhas/administração & dosagem , Peçonhas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Exenatida , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 20(1): 42-49, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28573765

RESUMO

The aim was to determine the effects of dulaglutide, a synthetic once-weekly, injectable human glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue that lowers blood glucose, body weight, appetite and blood pressure, on cardiovascular outcomes. People with type 2 diabetes, aged ≥50 years, with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≤9.5%, and either a previous cardiovascular event, evidence of cardiovascular disease or ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors were randomly allocated to a weekly subcutaneous injection of either dulaglutide (1.5 mg) or placebo and followed within the ongoing Researching cardiovascular Events with a Weekly INcretin in Diabetes (REWIND) trial every 3 to 6 months. The primary cardiovascular outcome is the first occurrence of the composite of cardiovascular death or non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. Secondary outcomes include each component of the primary composite cardiovascular outcome, a composite clinical microvascular outcome comprising retinal or renal disease, hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure requiring hospitalization or an urgent heart failure visit, and all-cause mortality. Follow-up will continue until the accrual of 1200 confirmed primary outcomes. Recruitment of 9901 participants (mean age 66 years, 46% women) occurred in 370 sites located in 24 countries over a period of 2 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 10 years, mean baseline HbA1c was 7.3%, and 31% had prior cardiovascular disease. The REWIND trial's international scope, high proportion of women, high proportion of people without prior cardiovascular disease and inclusion of participants whose mean baseline HbA1c was 7.3% suggests that its cardiovascular and safety findings will be directly relevant to the typical middle-aged patient seen in general practice throughout the world.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Incretinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Incretinas/administração & dosagem , Incretinas/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/efeitos adversos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
17.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 14: 35-40, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes treatment includes very diverse drugs. It is essential to identify which drugs offer the best value for their costs. OBJECTIVES: To estimate comparative cost effectiveness for treating diabetes mellitus with dulaglutide, liraglutide, or glargine in Colombia. METHODS: A Markov model including diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications was used to estimate cost-effectiveness. We used annual cycles, a 5-year time horizon, 5% discount rate, and third-party payer's perspective. Main outcomes were quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Transition probabilities were obtained from primary studies and costs from local databases and studies. We used a threshold of 3 times the Colombian per capita gross domestic product (US $17,270 for 2015; US $1 = 2,743 Columbian pesos) to assess cost effectiveness. RESULTS: Total costs related to dulaglutide, liraglutide, and glargine were US $8,633, US $10,756, and US $5,783, yielding 3.311 QALYs, 3.229 QALYs, and 3.156 QALYs, respectively. Dulaglutide dominated liraglutide given lower total costs and higher QALYs. The estimated ICER for dulaglutide compared with glargine was US $18,385, greater than the accepted threshold. Sensibility analysis shows that decreased dulaglutide cost, increased consumption of glargine, nondaily injection, and number and cost of glucometry could result in ICERs lower than the threshold. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed consistent results. CONCLUSIONS: This estimation indicates that dulaglutide dominates liraglutide. Its ICER is, however, greater than the accepted threshold for Colombia in base case compared with glargine. By increasing population weight or glargine consumption, dulaglutide becomes cost effective compared with glargine, which could identify a niche where dulaglutide is the best option.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Colômbia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
18.
Clin Ther ; 39(11): 2284-2295, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110972

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This 28-week, randomized, double-blind study compared a once-weekly injection of dulaglutide 1.5 mg to placebo, both added to titrated once-daily insulin glargine (with or without metformin), in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and inadequate glycemia control (control defined as hemoglobin A1c, ≥7% and ≤10.5%). Patient-reported outcomes were assessed as an exploratory objective to further understand patients' physical, psychological, and social aspects of well-being and injection-device experience. METHODS: Patients not naive to injectable therapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive dulaglutide/glargine or placebo/glargine; glargine was titrated to a fasting plasma glucose target of 71 to 99 mg/dL. The Impact of Weight on Self-Perceptions (IW-SP), the EQ-5D-5L (measure of health status), the 18-item Diabetes Health Profile (DHP-18), and the Medication Device Delivery Assessment (MDDAB) instruments for assessing the dulaglutide Single-Use Pen (SUP) and glargine-delivery device were administered at baseline and 28 weeks, and also at 6 or 12 weeks for some measures. A mixed model for repeated measures was used for analyzing changes from baseline scores. FINDINGS: At 28 weeks, improvements observed in the transformed total scores on the IW-SP and DHP-18 Disinhibited Eating domain were significantly greater with dulaglutide/glargine compared with placebo/glargine (least squares mean differences, +6.06 [P = 0.019] and -4.50 [P = 0.017], respectively). There were no significant overall between-treatment differences in quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D-5L or the Barriers to Activities and Psychological Distress domains of the DHP-18. Of all patients, 95% reported that overall, the dulaglutide SUP was "easy" or "very easy" to use at 28 weeks. Device-features scores showed that most patients liked the dulaglutide SUP features, with the 3 highest-rated items relating specifically to features of the needle (not having to touch the needle, not having to attach the needle, and automatic insertion). The majority of patients (~90%) "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that they were satisfied with the overall dulaglutide SUP injection experience at 28 weeks. IMPLICATIONS: Dulaglutide/glargine-treated patients had greater improvements in weight-related quality-of-life measures compared with placebo/glargine-treated patients, which may be clinically relevant when evaluating treatment options for insulin-requiring patients who often gain weight with insulin monotherapy. Results from the MDDAB indicated overall satisfaction with the dulaglutide SUP injection experience, which may be an important factor in some patients when initiating parenteral therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02152371.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Insulina Glargina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina Glargina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida
19.
JAMA ; 318(15): 1460-1470, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049653

RESUMO

Importance: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and are all currently available as an injection. Objectives: To compare the effects of oral semaglutide with placebo (primary) and open-label subcutaneous semaglutide (secondary) on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Patients: Phase 2, randomized, parallel-group, dosage-finding, 26-week trial with 5-week follow-up at 100 sites (hospital clinics, general practices, and clinical research centers) in 14 countries conducted between December 2013 and December 2014. Of 1106 participants assessed, 632 with type 2 diabetes and insufficient glycemic control using diet and exercise alone or a stable dose of metformin were randomized. Randomization was stratified by metformin use. Interventions: Once-daily oral semaglutide of 2.5 mg (n = 70), 5 mg (n = 70), 10 mg (n = 70), 20 mg (n = 70), 40-mg 4-week dose escalation (standard escalation; n = 71), 40-mg 8-week dose escalation (slow escalation; n = 70), 40-mg 2-week dose escalation (fast escalation, n = 70), oral placebo (n = 71; double-blind) or once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide of 1.0 mg (n = 70) for 26 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline to week 26. Secondary end points included change from baseline in body weight and adverse events. Results: Baseline characteristics were comparable across treatment groups. Of the 632 randomized patients (mean age, 57.1 years [SD, 10.6]; men, 395 (62.7%); diabetes duration, 6.3 years [SD, 5.2]; body weight, 92.3 kg [SD, 16.8]; BMI, 31.7 [SD, 4.3]), 583 (92%) completed the trial. Mean change in HbA1c level from baseline to week 26 decreased with oral semaglutide (dosage-dependent range, -0.7% to -1.9%) and subcutaneous semaglutide (-1.9%) and placebo (-0.3%); oral semaglutide reductions were significant vs placebo (dosage-dependent estimated treatment difference [ETD] range for oral semaglutide vs placebo, -0.4% to -1.6%; P = .01 for 2.5 mg, <.001 for all other dosages). Reductions in body weight were greater with oral semaglutide (dosage-dependent range, -2.1 kg to -6.9 kg) and subcutaneous semaglutide (-6.4 kg) vs placebo (-1.2 kg), and significant for oral semaglutide dosages of 10 mg or more vs placebo (dosage-dependent ETD range, -0.9 to -5.7 kg; P < .001). Adverse events were reported by 63% to 86% (371 of 490 patients) in the oral semaglutide groups, 81% (56 of 69 patients) in the subcutaneous semaglutide group, and 68% (48 of 71 patients) in the placebo group; mild to moderate gastrointestinal events were most common. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with type 2 diabetes, oral semaglutide resulted in better glycemic control than placebo over 26 weeks. These findings support phase 3 studies to assess longer-term and clinical outcomes, as well as safety. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01923181.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 20172017 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710307

RESUMO

We report two patients with chronic hyperglycaemia secondary to type 2 diabetes who developed severe vomiting on d. The first patient was diagnosed with a mixed picture of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) and the second, with DKA. They were on insulin therapy which was discontinued on commencing d because of inefficacy and weight gain. The HHS patient developed dehydration secondary to vomiting and had lactic acidosis but no other precipitant could be found in either case. It appears that the abrupt insulin discontinuation coupled with vomiting and dehydration led to the metabolic derangements. Subsequent C-peptide levels were found to be low in both patients. In view of the predisposition of patients with chronic hyperglycaemia to glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) downregulation and the lag time to optimal efficacy of GLP-1R agonists, we propose that patients should have C-peptide levels measured to determine the risk of ketosis and whether insulin should be continued with dose adjustments when starting a GLP-1R agonist.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hiperglicemia/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem
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