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2.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(9): 488-494, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486321

RESUMO

Semaglutide (Ozempic®) is a new once-weekly agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors (GLP-1 AR) indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Phase III clinical trials of the SUSTAIN programme demonstrated both the efficacy and safety of semaglutide in patients with T2D treated by diet and exercise, oral antidiabetic agents or even insulin. Direct and indirect comparative clinical trials showed that semaglutide (subcutaneous 0.5 or 1.0 mg once weekly) exerts a better glucose-lowering activity and a greater weight loss than other GLP-1 AR. Presented as prefilled pens for subcutaneous injection, semaglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure of antidiabetic therapy including metformin (HbA1c superior to 7,5 % or 58 mmol/mol) in T2D patients with body mass index ? 30 kg/m².


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Hipoglicemiantes , Bélgica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1 , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 1534365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396537

RESUMO

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective glucose-lowering drugs, but there is concern that they may increase the risk of malignant neoplasia. The present meta-analysis examined the safety of GLP-1 receptor agonists with regard to malignant neoplasia. Methods: We analyzed data from randomized controlled trials with a minimum duration of 24 weeks that assessed the incidence of neoplasms in type 2 diabetes patients receiving GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with placebo or other hypoglycemic drugs. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases with a language restriction of English through October 1, 2018, and carried out a meta-analysis of the available trial data using a fixed effects model to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for neoplasia. Results: Thirty-four relevant articles, providing data for 50452 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the incidence of malignant neoplasia with placebo or other interventions, no increase in malignant neoplasm formation was observed with the use of GLP-1 receptor agonists (OR 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-1.15; p = 0.46), liraglutide (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.91-1.27; p = 0.38), exenatide (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86-1.16; p = 1.00), semaglutide (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.35-2.22; p = 0.80), or albiglutide (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.23-4.88; p = 0.93). A subanalysis of trials lasting longer than 3 years also showed no increase in the neoplasia risk with GLP-1 receptor agonist use (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.92-1.15; p = 0.60). Between-trial statistical heterogeneity was low for all comparisons. Conclusion: GLP-1 receptor agonists can be used without safety concerns related to malignant neoplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco
4.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 131-138, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduced renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at risk for cardiovascular disease. We assessed the long-term effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on renal outcomes in an exploratory analysis of the REWIND trial of the effect of dulaglutide on cardiovascular disease. METHODS: REWIND was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo and followed up at least every 6 months for outcomes. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACRs) and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) were estimated from urine and serum values measured in local laboratories every 12 months. The primary outcome (first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes), secondary outcomes (including a composite microvascular outcome), and safety outcomes of this trial have been reported elsewhere. In this exploratory analysis, we investigate the renal component of the composite microvascular outcome, defined as the first occurrence of new macroalbuminuria (UACR >33·9 mg/mmol), a sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more from baseline, or chronic renal replacement therapy. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). At baseline, 791 (7·9%) had macroalbuminuria and mean eGFR was 76·9 mL/min per 1·73 m2 (SD 22·7). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9) comprising 51 820 person-years, the renal outcome developed in 848 (17·1%) participants at an incidence rate of 3·5 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 970 (19·6%) participants at an incidence rate of 4·1 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·85, 95% CI 0·77-0·93; p=0·0004). The clearest effect was for new macroalbuminuria (HR 0·77, 95% CI 0·68-0·87; p<0·0001), with HRs of 0·89 (0·78-1·01; p=0·066) for sustained decline in eGFR of 30% or more and 0·75 (0·39-1·44; p=0·39) for chronic renal replacement therapy. INTERPRETATION: Long-term use of dulaglutide was associated with reduced composite renal outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Albuminúria/prevenção & controle , Creatinina/urina , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Lancet ; 394(10193): 121-130, 2019 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three different glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists reduce cardiovascular outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk with high glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) concentrations. We assessed the effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide on major adverse cardiovascular events when added to the existing antihyperglycaemic regimens of individuals with type 2 diabetes with and without previous cardiovascular disease and a wide range of glycaemic control. METHODS: This multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done at 371 sites in 24 countries. Men and women aged at least 50 years with type 2 diabetes who had either a previous cardiovascular event or cardiovascular risk factors were randomly assigned (1:1) to either weekly subcutaneous injection of dulaglutide (1·5 mg) or placebo. Randomisation was done by a computer-generated random code with stratification by site. All investigators and participants were masked to treatment assignment. Participants were followed up at least every 6 months for incident cardiovascular and other serious clinical outcomes. The primary outcome was the first occurrence of the composite endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes (including unknown causes), which was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01394952. FINDINGS: Between Aug 18, 2011, and Aug 14, 2013, 9901 participants (mean age 66·2 years [SD 6·5], median HbA1c 7·2% [IQR 6·6-8·1], 4589 [46·3%] women) were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive dulaglutide (n=4949) or placebo (n=4952). During a median follow-up of 5·4 years (IQR 5·1-5·9), the primary composite outcome occurred in 594 (12·0%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·4 per 100 person-years in the dulaglutide group and in 663 (13·4%) participants at an incidence rate of 2·7 per 100 person-years in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·79-0·99; p=0·026). All-cause mortality did not differ between groups (536 [10·8%] in the dulaglutide group vs 592 [12·0%] in the placebo group; HR 0·90, 95% CI 0·80-1·01; p=0·067). 2347 (47·4%) participants assigned to dulaglutide reported a gastrointestinal adverse event during follow-up compared with 1687 (34·1%) participants assigned to placebo (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Dulaglutide could be considered for the management of glycaemic control in middle-aged and older people with type 2 diabetes with either previous cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
Lancet ; 394(10192): 39-50, 2019 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are effective treatments for type 2 diabetes, lowering glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and weight, but are currently only approved for use as subcutaneous injections. Oral semaglutide, a novel GLP-1 agonist, was compared with subcutaneous liraglutide and placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 3a trial, we recruited patients with type 2 diabetes from 100 sites in 12 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, with HbA1c of 7·0-9·5% (53-80·3 mmol/mol), on a stable dose of metformin (≥1500 mg or maximum tolerated) with or without a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) with an interactive web-response system and stratified by background glucose-lowering medication and country of origin, to once-daily oral semaglutide (dose escalated to 14 mg), once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide (dose escalated to 1·8 mg), or placebo for 52 weeks. Two estimands were defined: treatment policy (regardless of study drug discontinuation or rescue medication) and trial product (assumed all participants were on study drug without rescue medication) in all participants who were randomly assigned. The treatment policy estimand was the primary estimand. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in HbA1c (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and non-inferiority [margin: 0·4%] and superiority vs subcutaneous liraglutide) and the confirmatory secondary endpoint was change from baseline to week 26 in bodyweight (oral semaglutide superiority vs placebo and liraglutide). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered on Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02863419, and the European Clinical Trials registry, number EudraCT 2015-005210-30. FINDINGS: Between Aug 10, 2016, and Feb 7, 2017, 950 patients were screened, of whom 711 were eligible and randomly assigned to oral semaglutide (n=285), subcutaneous liraglutide (n=284), or placebo (n=142). 341 (48%) of 711 participants were female and the mean age was 56 years (SD 10). All participants were given at least one dose of study drug, and 277 (97%) participants in the oral semaglutide group, 274 (96%) in the liraglutide group, and 134 (94%) in the placebo group completed the 52-week trial period. Mean change from baseline in HbA1c at week 26 was -1·2% (SE 0·1) with oral semaglutide, -1·1% (SE 0·1) with subcutaneous liraglutide, and -0·2% (SE 0·1) with placebo. Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide in decreasing HbA1c (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·1%, 95% CI -0·3 to 0·0; p<0·0001) and superior to placebo (ETD -1·1%, -1·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) by use of the treatment policy estimand. By use of the trial product estimand, oral semaglutide had significantly greater decreases in HbA1c than both subcutaneous liraglutide (ETD -0·2%, 95% CI -0·3 to -0·1; p=0·0056) and placebo (ETD -1·2%, -1·4 to -1·0; p<0·0001) at week 26. Oral semaglutide resulted in superior weight loss (-4·4 kg [SE 0·2]) compared with liraglutide (-3·1 kg [SE 0·2]; ETD -1·2 kg, 95% CI -1·9 to -0·6; p=0·0003) and placebo (-0·5 kg [SE 0·3]; ETD -3·8 kg, -4·7 to -3·0; p<0·0001) at week 26 (treatment policy). By use of the trial product estimand, weight loss at week 26 was significantly greater with oral semaglutide than with subcutaneous liraglutide (-1·5 kg, 95% CI -2·2 to -0·9; p<0·0001) and placebo (ETD -4·0 kg, -4·8 to -3·2; p<0·0001). Adverse events were more frequent with oral semaglutide (n=229 [80%]) and subcutaneous liraglutide (n=211 [74%]) than with placebo (n=95 [67%]). INTERPRETATION: Oral semaglutide was non-inferior to subcutaneous liraglutide and superior to placebo in decreasing HbA1c, and superior in decreasing bodyweight compared with both liraglutide and placebo at week 26. Safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide were similar to subcutaneous liraglutide. Use of oral semaglutide could potentially lead to earlier initiation of GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy in the diabetes treatment continuum of care. FUNDING: Novo Nordisk A/S.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Liraglutida/administração & dosagem , Metformina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Med Econ ; 22(8): 806-813, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010349

RESUMO

Aims: Several glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are available as weekly injections for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These medications vary in their injection devices, and these differences could impact quality-of-life and patient preference. The purpose of this study was to examine patient preferences and estimate health state utilities associated with injection devices for two weekly GLP-1 therapies. Materials and methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes in Italy (Milan, Rome) valued three health state vignettes in time trade-off interviews. The health states had identical descriptions of type 2 diabetes, but differed in description of the treatment process: (1) oral treatment regimen, (2) oral plus weekly dulaglutide injection, and (3) oral plus weekly semaglutide injection. Results: A total of 216 participants completed interviews (57.9% male; mean age = 60.5). Almost all patients (99.5%) preferred the oral health state over either injection health state. Comparing between the two injections, 88.4% preferred the dulaglutide health state, while 11.6% preferred the semaglutide state. Mean (SD) utilities were 0.907 (0.076) for oral, 0.894 (0.085) for dulaglutide, and 0.887 (0.087) for semaglutide. The mean (SD) utility difference between the injection device health states was 0.007 (0.019). Limitations: Although the health states were designed to match the injection device instructions for use as closely as possible, vignette-based methods are inherently limited because results are based on perceptions of the health states rather than actual patient experience with the devices. Conclusions: Results provide insight into patient preferences associated with injection devices for weekly GLP-1 receptor agonists. The majority of patients preferred the dulaglutide device over the semaglutide device, and for some patients, this difference had an impact on utility valuations. Patient preferences for injection devices could be an important factor to consider when selecting treatments for type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Preferência do Paciente , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Injeções Subcutâneas , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem
8.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1051-1060, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993527

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) with liraglutide, semaglutide, and albiglutide have shown significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events. Conversely, the CVOT with exenatide long-acting release (ELAR) confirmed cardiovascular safety of the drug, but did not reached superiority versus placebo. Herein, we systematically evaluated the effect of ELAR versus placebo or active comparators on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with T2D. METHODS: We screened the literature for randomized controlled trials reporting cardiovascular events and deaths in patients receiving ELAR versus those receiving placebo or any other glucose-lowering medications. Event rates were pooled and compared using the random-effects model. RESULT: We retrieved 16 trials comparing the occurrence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients treated with ELAR versus placebo or active comparators. The pooled rate ratio for cardiovascular events was similar in the two groups (0.99; 95% CI 0.92-1.06). The rate ratio for all-cause mortality was significantly lower in exenatide group than in comparators (0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.97). When results of the EXSCEL trial were omitted, the pooled rate ratio for cardiovascular events and mortality was 0.80 (95% CI 0.40-1.63) and 0.75 (95% CI 0.30-1.84), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with ELAR does not increase the risk of cardiovascular events and may reduce all-cause mortality.


Assuntos
Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Exenatida/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Causas de Morte , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/mortalidade , Exenatida/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade
9.
Clin Obes ; 9(3): e12310, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993900

RESUMO

The Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite) is widely used in evaluations of weight-loss interventions, including pharmaceutical trials. Because this measure was developed using input from individuals undergoing intensive residential treatment, the IWQOL-Lite may include concepts not relevant to clinical trial populations and may be missing concepts that are relevant to these populations. An alternative version, the IWQOL-Lite Clinical Trials Version (IWQOL-Lite-CT), was developed and validated according to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance on patient-reported outcomes. Psychometric analyses were conducted to validate the IWQOL-Lite-CT using data from two randomized trials (NCT02453711 and NCT02906930) that included individuals with overweight/obesity, with and without type 2 diabetes. Additional measures included the SF-36, global items, weight and body mass index. The IWQOL-Lite-CT is a 20-item measure with two primary domains (Physical [seven items] and Psychosocial [13 items]). A five-item Physical Function composite and Total score were also supported. Cronbach's alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients exceeded 0.77 at each time point; patterns of construct validity correlations were consistent with hypotheses; and scores demonstrated treatment benefit. The IWQOL-Lite-CT is appropriate for assessing weight-related physical and psychosocial functioning in populations commonly targeted for obesity clinical trials. Qualification from the FDA is being sought for use of the IWQOL-Lite-CT in clinical trials to support product approval and labelling claims.


Assuntos
Obesidade/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Peso
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934882

RESUMO

GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1) has been reported to play a vital role in neuroprotection. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model widely used to study human multiple sclerosis, a chronic demyelination disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, important studies have designated that the signaling axis of GLP-1 and its receptor controls the clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of EAE. However, it is elusive whether GLP-1 receptor signaling regulates the phenotype of autoreactive T cells in the CNS. We administered dulaglutide, a well-established GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), to treat EAE mice prophylactically or semi-therapeutically and subsequently analyzed the mononuclear cells of the CNS. In this study, dulaglutide treatment significantly alleviates the clinical manifestations and histopathological outcomes of EAE. Dulaglutide decreases incidences of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 cells and Th1 granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression in the CNS. Administration of dulaglutide failed to control the chemotactic abilities of encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells; however, prophylactic treatment considerably decreased the populations of dendritic cells and macrophages in the CNS parenchyma. These results obtained indicate that dulaglutide modulates the differentiation of encephalitogenic Th1/Th17 and the pathogenicity of Th1 cells by influencing antigen presenting cells quantities, providing mechanism insight on T cells regulation in ameliorating EAE by GLP-1.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/farmacologia , Imunização , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Clin Drug Investig ; 39(5): 469-476, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The results of large placebo-controlled clinical trials to evaluate cardiovascular risks associated with drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus indicated different cardiovascular effects among these drugs, but the detailed design of each trial was not completely the same. The aim of this study was to perform time-matched evaluation of cardiovascular risks of drugs for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We used the difference in restricted mean survival time (RMST) as a measure of cardiovascular risks. Regarding drugs for type 2 diabetes used currently, this study included all 10 clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk the results of which have been published as of 30 November 2018. Since the shortest study follow-up time was about 672 days in SUSTAIN-6, we chose 672 days as a common time point to estimate the RMSTs regarding each safety event. RESULTS: The differences of RMSTs (drugs for type 2 diabetes minus placebo: point estimate and 95% confidence interval) for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were 8 days (1, 15) for semaglutide, 5 days (1, 9) for liraglutide, and 7 days (2, 13) for empagliflozin. Those for death from cardiovascular causes were 5 days (2, 8) for empagliflozin and 2 days (1, 4) for canagliflozin. Those for death from any cause were 4 days (1, 8) for empagliflozin. CONCLUSIONS: Through the evaluation up to 672 days, semaglutide, liraglutide, and empagliflozin decreased the risk of MACE. Concerning the risk of each cardiovascular event, risk reduction was seen with empagliflozin and canagliflozin.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Canagliflozina/efeitos adversos , Canagliflozina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Seguimentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/efeitos adversos , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
12.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(5): 501-510, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730773

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exenatide once weekly (QW) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) that was approved in 2012 in Europe and the U.S.A. for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW for the treatment of T2D and evaluates the benefit-risk ratio compared to other available long-acting GLP-1RAs. In addition, the authors provide an outline of the novel formulations and delivery methods of exenatide. Expert opinion: Exenatide QW is an efficacious and safe treatment for T2D. However, head-to-head trials have demonstrated exenatide QW to be inferior to liraglutide and semaglutide with respect to effects on fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin A1c, and bodyweight. In addition, exenatide QW appears inferior to liraglutide and semaglutide in terms of cardiovascular risk reduction. Currently, the overall risk-benefit profiles for the range of GLP-1RAs point to liraglutide and semaglutide as first-choice for the management of T2D, which has been confirmed by a recently published consensus report on the treatment of T2D from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes. The pricing of exenatide QW will most likely be a key determinant for its place in the future management of T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Exenatida/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Peso Corporal , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico
13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 511(1): 154-160, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773255

RESUMO

Dulaglutide, a novel long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is an incretin mimetic approved for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatment. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is called type 3 diabetes. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of dulaglutide on the learning and memory impairment in AD mice induced by injection of streptozocin (STZ) via intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). 32 male C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group (CON); AD model group (STZ); dulaglutide treated (Dul); dulaglutide and exendin(9-39) (Ex). Western blotting was used to detect the levels of phosphorylated tau, neurofilament (NFs) proteins and phosphorylated PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß signaling pathway. Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess the spatial learning and memory ability. The results displayed that the hyperphosphorylation of tau and NFs were increased in the STZ and Ex groups compared to the control and Dul groups. Dulaglutide also significantly shortened the escape latency and increased the number of hidden platform crossings in MWM test. The effects of dulaglutide on decreasing the hyperphosphorylation of tau and NFs proteins through improving the PI3K/AKT/GSK3ß signaling pathway may be related to its protective effects on impairment of AD-like learning and memory.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Animais , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Filamentos Intermediários/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estreptozocina
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(6): 1717-1728, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607480

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) are gut derived hormones. GLP-1 and GLP-2 were shown to have pleiotropic effects in intestinal and pancreatic diseases. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the activities of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on nociception and inflammation in mice, involving their actions on serotonergic, nitrergic, and opioidergic systems. METHODS: Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of intraperitoneally injected GLPs were evaluated in hotplate latency test, formalin-induced behavioral, and paw edema tests. Ondansetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; L-NAME, a NOS inhibitor; and naloxone, an opioid antagonist were injected to determine the mechanisms of antinociception and anti-inflammation. We also measured blood glucose levels and performed rotarod test in order to evaluate whether the hypoglycemic effect of GLP compounds or alterations in locomotor activity may affect the latency in hotplate test and activity in formalin test. RESULTS: GLP-1 (0.2 mg/kg) and GLP-2 (0.05, 0.2 mg/kg) significantly increased pain threshold. GLP-1 (0.2 mg/kg) and GLP-2 (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 mg/kg) significantly decreased formalin-induced licking and shaking behaviors. GLP-1 or GLP-2 showed no significant inhibitory action on formalin-induced swelling in paws of mice. Antinociceptive actions of GLP-1 and GLP-2 were significantly decreased with ondansetron and naloxone, and paw shaking behavior significantly increased with naloxone. GLP-1 and GLP-2 did not impair rotarod performance, and did not cause a significant hypoglycemic effect in our normoglycemic mice after rotarod test. CONCLUSION: These finding indicated that the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of GLP-1 was related to opioidergic system. Antinociceptive effect of GLP-2 was partially related to 5-HT3 serotonergic or opioidergic system in hotplate test. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of GLP-2 was not directly related to 5-HT3, NO or opioids.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Receptores 5-HT3 de Serotonina/metabolismo , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Edema/sangue , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/patologia , Feminino , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Naloxona/farmacologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Dor/sangue , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/patologia , Medição da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Teste de Desempenho do Rota-Rod/métodos , Antagonistas do Receptor 5-HT3 de Serotonina/farmacologia
17.
J Diabetes ; 11(1): 7-10, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30221492

RESUMO

Martin J. Kurian, Peter J. Rentzepis, Ann M. Carracher, and Kelly L. Close are of Close Concerns (http://www.closeconcerns.com), a healthcare information company focused exclusively on diabetes and obesity care. Close Concerns publishes Closer Look, a periodical that brings together news and insights in these areas. Each month, the Journal of Diabetes includes this News feature, in which Kurian, Rentzepis, Carracher, and Close review the latest developments relevant to researchers and clinicians.


Assuntos
Cardiologia , Sociedades Médicas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Europa (Continente) , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
18.
Peptides ; 111: 26-32, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227157

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists augment insulin secretion and are thus used clinically to improve glycemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). As recent data reveal marked improvements in cardiovascular outcomes in T2D subjects treated with the GLP-1R agonists liraglutide and semaglutide in the LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 clinical trials respectively, there is growing interest in delineating the mechanism(s) of action for GLP-1R agonist-induced cardioprotection. Of importance, negligible GLP-1R expression in ventricular cardiac myocytes suggests that cardiac-independent actions of GLP-1R agonists may account for the reduced death rates from cardiovascular causes in T2D subjects enrolled in the LEADER trial. Conversely, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) appear to express the canonical GLP-1R, and GLP-1/GLP-1R agonists exhibit a number of salutary actions on the vascular endothelium that could potentially contribute to GLP-1R agonists directly improving cardiovascular outcomes in subjects with T2D. We review herein the described actions of GLP-1/GLP-1R agonists on the vascular endothelium, which include antiproliferative actions on VSMCs and endothelial cells, reductions in oxidative stress, and increases in nitric oxide generation. GLP-1 also increases microvascular recruitment and microvascular blood flow. Taken together, such actions may explain the antihypertensive and/or antiatherosclerotic actions attributed to GLP-1/GLP-1R agonists in preclinical and clinical studies. Nonetheless, further mechanistic studies are still necessary to determine the relative importance of such actions in accounting for reductions in macrovascular cardiovascular disease in human subjects with T2D treated with GLP-1R agonists.


Assuntos
Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/metabolismo , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico
19.
J Diabetes Investig ; 10(3): 699-705, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076787

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We compared treatment satisfaction in type 2 diabetes patients taking daily and weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was a 12-week, multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized, parallel-group comparison trial. The participants were Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes being administered with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide, daily for >3 months. Patients were randomly assigned to either continue taking liraglutide once daily (Lira group) or switch to dulaglutide once weekly (Dula group). The primary outcome was the change in the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire score from baseline to week 12 in the two groups. The secondary outcomes comprised changes in the Diabetes Therapy-Related Quality of Life score, body mass and glycemic control. RESULTS: A total of 33 participants were initially enrolled in the trial, and 31 participants completed the protocol. The change in the Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire score in the Dula group was significantly greater than that in the Lira group (+0.1 ± 4.7 in the Lira group vs +4.9 ± 5.2 in the Dula group; P = 0.013). The change in Diabetes Therapy-Related Quality of Life score in the Dula group was significantly greater than that in the Lira group (-3.7 ± 6.9 vs +8.9 ± 15.1; P = 0.007). There were no significant differences between groups in the changes in body mass, plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin. CONCLUSIONS: Weekly administration of dulaglutide was superior to liraglutide with regard to treatment satisfaction in patients with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of any negative effect on glycemic control.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/análogos & derivados , Hipoglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Satisfação Pessoal , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Glicemia/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(1): 43-51, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047216

RESUMO

AIMS: Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The impact of switching treatment from another GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) to semaglutide was investigated by analyses of exposure-response models. METHODS: HbA1c and body weight time-course models were developed, using up to 30 weeks of observations from four trials in the semaglutide phase 3 programme. Given the recommended dosing for each GLP-1RA, pharmacokinetic profiles were simulated based on published population pharmacokinetic models and exposure was adjusted by the relative potencies to ensure that model predictions matched the effects observed in clinical trials. After 26 weeks of simulated treatment with liraglutide, dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release, simulated semaglutide treatment was initiated 1 day after the last once-daily dose of liraglutide and 1 week after the last once-weekly doses of dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release. RESULTS: The potency-adjusted total effective GLP-1RA concentration increased after switching from another GLP-1RA to semaglutide and was associated with reductions ranging from ~0.3% to ~0.8%-points for HbA1c and from ~2% to ~4% for body weight with semaglutide 1.0 mg. Temporary slight deteriorations in HbA1c were observed after switching to semaglutide 0.25 mg from liraglutide 1.2/1.8 mg or dulaglutide 1.5 mg. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure-response modelling suggests that switching to semaglutide from liraglutide, dulaglutide or exenatide extended-release results in further reductions in HbA1c and body weight. Initial slight deterioration in outcome values when switching to semaglutide 0.25 mg could be avoided by initiating semaglutide treatment at a higher dose.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Hipoglicemiantes , Adulto , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Peptídeos Semelhantes ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos
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