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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159857, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328253

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to increases in the incidence of lung cancer. However, more evidence is needed to conclude its effects on lung cancer survival. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to explore the relationship between long-term PM2.5 exposure and lung cancer survival and evaluated the benefits of clean air actions in Beijing. METHODS: A whole-population cohort study was conducted on lung cancer patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2017. An atmospheric chemical transport model was used to estimate exposure under a counterfactual scenario without the policy and then quantified the effect of the policy. Cox regression models were used with the seasonality-adjusted PM2.5 as the main effect. RESULTS: A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was estimated to be with a 6.5 % (95 % CI: 4.8 %, 8.2 %) increase in the mortality rates. The association was heterogeneous and modified by individual-level characteristics. The clean air actions were estimated to have prevented 3548 (95 % CI: 3280, 3825) premature deaths and to have prolonged survival time by 4.29 months (95 % CI: 0.01, 25.11). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that PM2.5 exposure lowers the survival rate for lung cancer. The clean air actions implemented in Beijing can protect lung cancer patients by increasing their survival time. SYNOPSIS: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 can lower lung patients' survival rates whereas the clean air actions in Beijing have prolonged these patients' survival time by reducing PM2.5 level.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Taxa de Sobrevida , Exposição Ambiental , Pequim/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Material Particulado/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 2): 159831, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36336049

RESUMO

Continuous measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and related parameters were conducted between April 2020 and March 2021 in Beijing, China, to characterize potential sources of VOCs and their impacts on secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and O3 levels. The annual average mixing ratio of VOCs was 17.4 ± 10.1 ppbv, with monthly averages ranging from 11.6 to 25.2 ppbv. According to the empirical kinetic modeling approach (EKMA), O3 formation during O3 season was "VOCs-limited", while it was in a "transition" regime during O3 pollution episodes. In the O3 season, higher ozone formation potential (OFP) of m/p-xylene, o-xylene, toluene, isopentane, and n-butane were evident during O3 pollution episodes, in line with the increasing contributions of solvent usage and coating, as well as gasoline evaporation to OFP obtained through a matrix factorization model (PMF). Aromatics contributed the most to the secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP). In the non-O3 season, the contribution of vehicle exhaust to SOAFP elevated on hazy days, thereby revealing the importance of traffic-derived VOCs for PM2.5 pollution. Our results indicate that the prior control of different VOC sources should vary by season, thereby facilitating the synergistic control of O3 and PM2.5 in Beijing.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , China
3.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114581, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a severe public health problem globally. Previous studies have revealed insufficient and inconsistent associations between air pollutants, meteorological factors and TB cases. Yet few studies have examined the associations between air pollutants, meteorological factors and TB cases in Beijing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of air pollutants and meteorological factors on TB in Beijing, and to provide novel insights into public health managers to formulate control strategies of TB. METHODS: Data on the daily case of TB in Beijing during 2014-2020 were obtained from Chinese tuberculosis information management system. Concurrent data on the daily PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO and O3, were obtained from the online publication platform of the Chinese National Environmental Monitoring Center. Daily average temperature, average wind speed, relative humidity, sunshine duration and total precipitation were collected from the China Meteorological Science Data Sharing Service System. A distributed lag non-linear model was fitted to identify the non-linear exposure-response relationship and the lag effects between air pollutions, meteorological factors and TB cases in Beijing. RESULTS: In the single-factor model, the excess risk (ER) of TB was significantly positively associated with every 10 µg/m3 increase in NO2 in lag 1 week (ER: 1.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4%, 2.3%) and every 0.1 m/s increase in average wind speed in lag 5 weeks (ER: 0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 0.5%), and was negatively associated with every 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 in lag 1 week (ER: -1.2%; 95% CI: -1.8%, -0.5%), every 5 °C increase in average temperature (ER: -1.7%; 95% CI: -2.9%, -0.4%) and every 10% increase in average relative humidity (ER: -0.4%; 95% CI: -0.8%, -0.1%) in lag 10 weeks, respectively. In the multi-factor model, the lag effects between TB cases and air pollutants, meteorological factors were similar. The subgroup analysis suggests that the effects of NO2, O3, average wind speed and relative humidity on TB were greater in male or labor age subgroup, while the effect of CO was greater in the elderly. In addition, no significant associations were found between PM2.5, SO2, sunshine duration and TB cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a better understanding of air pollutants and meteorological factors driving tuberculosis occurrence in Beijing, which enhances the capacity of public health manager to target early warning and disease control policy-making.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Tuberculose , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Feminino , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Fatores de Tempo , Poluição do Ar/análise , Conceitos Meteorológicos , China/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/etiologia , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 3): 159538, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270355

RESUMO

Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key precursor of the hydroxyl radicals (OH) and has a significant impact on air quality. Nowadays, the source of HONO is still controversial due to its complex formation mechanisms, which is widely explored in extensive field and laboratory studies. In this study, the pollution characteristics and source contribution of HONO under different air quality conditions in summer in Beijing were analyzed. The observation periods were classified as three typical periods: clean, ozone pollution, and double high pollution (co-occurrence of high PM2.5 and O3 concentrations). The average concentrations of observed HONO were 0.38 ± 0.35 ppb, 0.21 ± 0.18 ppb, 0.26 ± 0.20 ppb and 0.54 ± 0.45 ppb during the whole, clean, ozone and double high periods, respectively. The elevated HONO levels at night were attributed to vehicle emissions and the RH-dependent heterogeneous conversion of NO2 to HONO. The average emission ratio (HONO/NOx) was 0.85 % ± 0.38 %, and the mean value of calculated nocturnal NO2 to HONO conversion frequency was 0.0076 ± 0.0031 h-1. Based on daytime HONO budget analysis, the largest potential source of HONO was the homogeneous reaction of NO and OH (0.33 and 0.34 ppb h-1), followed by the unknown source (0.11 and 0.21 ppb h-1) during clean and ozone periods, while the unknown source (0.49 ppb h-1) played the predominant role during double high period. The unknown sources of HONO could be attributed to the photo-enhanced heterogeneous conversion of NO2 and the photolysis of particulate nitrate. Furthermore, the photolysis of ozone (0.17, 0.34 and 0.44 ppb h-1) was the major contributor to primary OH during three typical periods. HONO photolysis contributed considerable amounts of primary OH (0.32 ppb h-1) during double high period. These results are helpful to further understand the linkage between HONO and air quality variation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Ácido Nitroso/análise , Ozônio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Pequim , Material Particulado/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , China
5.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 247: 114076, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427387

RESUMO

Air pollutants can cause serious harm to human health and a variety of respiratory diseases. This study aimed to explore the associations between air pollutants and outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) under urbanization process in the sub-center of Beijing. The data of ILI in sub-center of Beijing from April 1, 2014 to December 31, 2020 were obtained from Beijing Influenza Surveillance Network. A generalized additive Poisson model was applied to examine the associations between the concentrations of air pollutants and daily outpatient visits for ILI when controlling meteorological factors and holidays. A total of 322,559 patients with ILI were included. The results showed that in the early urbanization period, the effects of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, O3, and CO on lag0 day, and PM2.5, PM10, O3, and CO on lag1 day were not significant. In the later urbanization period, AQI and the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 and CO on lag1 day were all significantly associated with an increased risk of outpatient visits for ILI, which increased by 0.34% (95%CI 0.23%, 0.45%), 0.42% (95%CI 0.29%, 0.56%), 0.44% (95%CI 0.33%, 0.55%), 0.36% (95%CI 0.24%, 0.49%), 0.91% (95%CI 0.62%, 1.21%) and 0.38% (95%CI 0.26%, 0.49%). The concentration of O3 on lag1 day was significantly associated with a decreased risk of outpatient visits for ILI, which decreased by 0.21% (95%CI 0.04%, 0.39%). We found that the urbanization process had significantly aggravated the impact of air pollutants on ILI outpatient visits. These findings expand the current knowledge of ILI outpatient visits correlated with air pollutants under urbanization process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Influenza Humana , Viroses , Humanos , Urbanização , Pequim/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 855: 158873, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126704

RESUMO

Field measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted simultaneously at an urban site and one industrial park site in Beijing in summer. The VOCs concentrations were 94.3 ± 157.8 ppbv and 20.7 ± 8.9 ppbv for industrial and urban sites, respectively. Alkanes and aromatics were the major contributors to VOCs in industrial site, while oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) contributed most in urban site. The most abundant VOC species were n-pentane and formaldehyde for industrial site and urban site, respectively. The calculated ozone formation potential (OFP) and OH loss rates (LOH) were 621.1 ± 1491.9 ppbv (industrial site), 102.9 ± 37.3 ppbv (urban site), 22.0 ± 39.0 s-1 (industrial site) and 5.3 ± 2.2 s-1 (urban site), respectively. Based on the positive matrix factorization (PMF) model, solvent utilization I (34.1 %), solvent utilization II (27.9 %), mixture combustion source (19.3 %), OVOCs related source (9.6 %) and biogenic source (9.1 %) were identified in the industrial site, while OVOCs related source (27.8 %), vehicle exhaust (22.1 %), solvent utilization (19.3 %), coal combustion (16.0 %) and biogenic source (14.8 %) were identified in the urban site. The results of O3-VOCs-NOx sensitivity indicated that O3 formation were respectively under the VOC-limited and NOx-limited conditions in Beijing urban and industrial regions. Additionally, aromatics accounted remarkable SOA formation ability both in the two sites, and SOA potentials of xylene, toluene and ethylbenzene as the indicator species for the solvent utilization in industrial site were remarkable higher than those obtained in urban regions. The hazard index values in the industrial and urban sites were 1.72 and 3.39, respectively, suggesting a high non-carcinogenic risks to the exposed population. Formaldehyde had the highest carcinogenic risks in the two sites, and the cumulative carcinogenic risks in the industrial site and urban site were 1.95 × 10-5 and 1.21 × 10-5, respectively.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Ozônio/análise , Medição de Risco , Solventes , Formaldeído , China
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 440-450, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182152

RESUMO

The turbulent standard deviations and the turbulent third-order and fourth-order moments are the key turbulence dispersion parameters in Lagrangian dispersion models. However, the characteristics of these parameters under heavy haze conditions in urban areas have not been fully investigated, and the commonly used similarity relations of these parameters in models were based on observations in highly flat and sparsely populated areas. In this paper, the vertical profiles of these parameters and their local similarity relations under heavy haze conditions in the wintertime of Beijing have been analyzed by using data collected at a 325-m meteorological tower. The heavy haze process has been divided into three stages: transport stage (TS), cumulative stage (CS), and dispersion stage (DS). Results show that the turbulent dispersion parameters behave differently during three stages. In the TS and DS, the maxima appear in the profiles of the turbulent standard deviations above the urban canopy; in the CS, the turbulent standard deviation are almost constant with height. The analysis of the third and fourth order moments shows that the wind velocities above the urban canopy in the TS deviate from the Gaussian distribution more significantly than those in the CS and DS. The local similarity relations of the turbulent dispersion parameters in the TS, especially for the longitudinal wind components, are normally different from those in the CS and DS. Thus, different from the common assumptions in Lagrangian models, the turbulence dispersion in horizontal directions is anisotropic and should be parameterized by multiple similarity relations under heavy haze conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Vento , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Meteorologia
8.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 513-521, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182160

RESUMO

Over the past decade, the emission standards and fuel standards in Beijing have been upgraded twice, and the vehicle structure has been improved by accelerating the elimination of 2.95 million old vehicles. Through the formulation and implementation of these policies, the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 2019 were 147.9, 25.3, 43.4, and 0.91 kton in Beijing, respectively. The emission factor method was adopted to better understand the emissions characteristics of primary air pollutants from combustion engine vehicles and to improve pollution control. In combination with the air quality improvement goals and the status of social and economic development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period in Beijing, different vehicle pollution control scenarios were established, and emissions reductions were projected. The results show that the emissions of four air pollutants (CO, VOCs, NOx, and PM2.5) from vehicles in Beijing decreased by an average of 68% in 2019, compared to their levels in 2009. The contribution of NOx emissions from diesel vehicles increased from 35% in 2009 to 56% in 2019, which indicated that clean and energy-saving diesel vehicle fleets should be further improved. Electric vehicle adoption could be an important measure to reduce pollutant emissions. With the further upgrading of vehicle structure and the adoption of electric vehicles, it is expected that the total emissions of the four vehicle pollutants can be reduced by 20%-41% by the end of the 14th Five-Year Plan period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 544-556, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182162

RESUMO

A hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyser (H-TDMA) was used to observe the size-resolved hygroscopic characteristics of submicron particles in January and April 2018 in urban Beijing. The probability distribution of the hygroscopic growth factor (HGF-PDF) in winter and spring usually showed a bimodal pattern, with more hygroscopic mode (MH) being more dominant. The seasonal variation in particle hygroscopicity was related to the origin of air mass, which received polluted southerly air masses in spring and clean northwesterly air masses in winter. Particles showed stronger hygroscopic behaviour during heavy pollution episodes (HPEs) with elevated concentrations of secondary aerosols, especially higher mass fraction of nitrate, which were indicated using the PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter below 2.5 µm) mass concentration normalised by CO mass concentration. The hygroscopic parameter (κ) values were calculated using H-TDMA (κhtdma) and chemical composition (κchem). The closure study showed that κchem was overestimated in winter afternoon when compared with κhtdma, because the organic particle hygroscopic parameter (κorg) was overestimated in the calculations. It was influenced by the presence of a high concentration of hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) with a weak water uptake ability. A positive relationship was observed between κorg and the ratio of oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) and HOA, thereby indicating that the strong oxidation state enhanced the hygroscopicity of the particles. This study revealed the effect of local emission sources and secondary aerosol formation processes on particle hygroscopicity, which is of great significance for understanding the pollution formation mechanism in the North China Plain.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Nitratos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Compostos de Anilina , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Água , Molhabilidade
10.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 557-569, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182163

RESUMO

Atmospheric oxidizing capacity (AOC) is the fundamental driving factors of chemistry process (e.g., the formation of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA)) in the troposphere. However, accurate quantification of AOC still remains uncertainty. In this study, a comprehensive field campaign was conducted during autumn 2019 in downtown of Beijing, where O3 and PM2.5 episodes had been experienced successively. The observation-based model (OBM) is used to quantify the AOC at O3 and PM2.5 episodes. The strong intensity of AOC is found at O3 and PM2.5 episodes, and hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominating daytime oxidant for both episodes. The photolysis of O3 is main source of OH at O3 episode; the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) plays important role in OH formation at PM2.5 episode. The radicals loss routines vary according to precursor pollutants, resulting in different types of air pollution. O3 budgets and sensitivity analysis indicates that O3 production is transition regime (both VOC and NOx-limited) at O3 episode. The heterogeneous reaction of hydroperoxy radicals (HO2) on aerosol surfaces has significant influence on OH and O3 production rates. The HO2 uptake coefficient (γHO2) is the determining factor and required accurate measurement in real atmospheric environment. Our findings could provide the important bases for coordinated control of PM2.5 and O3 pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Ozônio , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Formaldeído , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Ácido Nitroso , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
11.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 1): 114469, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195159

RESUMO

In order to investigate the impact of "Blue Sky War" implemented during 2018-2020 on carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) samples were collected simultaneously in Tianjin and Handan in three consecutive winters from 2018 to 2020. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in PM2.5 were measured with the same thermal-optical methods and analysis protocols. Significant reductions in primary organic carbon (POC) and EC concentrations were observed both in Tianjin and Handan, with decreasing rates of 0.65 and 2.95 µg m-3 yr-1 for POC and 0.13 and 0.64 µg m-3 yr-1 for EC, respectively. The measured absorption coefficients of EC (babs, EC) also decreased year by year, with a decreasing rate of 1.82 and 6.16 Mm-1 yr-1 in Tianjin and Handan, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) concentrations decreased first and then increased in both Tianjin and Handan, accounting for more than half of the total OC in winter of 2020-2021 and with increasing contributions especially in highly polluted days. SOC was recognized as one of key factors influencing EC light absorption. EC in the two cities was relatively more related to coal combustion and industrial sources. The reductions of primary carbonaceous components may be attributed to the air quality regulations targeting coal combustion and industrial sources emissions in BTH area. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis results indicated that the major source areas of OC and EC in Tianjin were the southwest region of the sampling site, while the southeast areas for Handan. These findings demonstrated the effectiveness of air quality regulation in primary emissions in typical polluted cities in BTH region and highlighted the needs for further control and in-depth investigation of SOC formation along with implementation of air pollution control act in the future.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Cidades , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Aerossóis/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Carvão Mineral/análise , Carbono/análise , Estações do Ano , China
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159233, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208762

RESUMO

The influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties and the direct radiative forcing of PM10 and PM1 were investigated in Beijing from January 2018 to December 2019. The annual mean scattering hygroscopic growth factor at RH = 80 % [f(80 %)] of PM10 and PM1 were 1.60 ± 0.24 and 1.58 ± 0.22, respectively. The variation of aerosol hygroscopic growth factors of PM10 and PM1 aerosols was similar, which is mainly due to the fact that aerosol scattering in Beijing is dominated by fine particles. The seasonal mean f(80 %) of PM10 from spring to winter were 1.66 ± 0.23, 1.71 ± 0.25, 1.51 ± 0.20, 1.49 ± 0.16, respectively, which were higher in spring and summer, and lower in autumn and winter. The diurnal variation of f(80 %) was relatively higher from 12:00 to 18:00, which could be related to the formation of secondary aerosols by photochemical reactions. f(80 %) shows a strong positive relationship with both the scattering Angström exponent (SAE) and the single scattering albedo (ω0) under dry conditions; therefore, the scattering hygroscopic growth factor could be estimated using these two parameters. The upscatter fraction (ß) and single scattering albedo, which are the key aerosol optical properties for the calculation of direct radiative forcing, are also RH-dependent. As RH increases, the upscatter fraction (backscatter fraction) decreases and ω0 increases. The aerosol radiative forcing at RH 80 % was 1.48 times as that in the dry state. The sensitivity experiment showed that the variation in the scattering coefficient with relative humidity had the greatest influence on radiation forcing, followed by ß and ω0. The seasonal variation of ΔF(80 %)/ΔF(dry) coincides with that of the aerosol hygroscopic growth factor. Our study suggests that understanding the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties and direct radiative forcing is important for accurately estimating the radiative forcing of aerosols.


Assuntos
Molhabilidade , Pequim , Aerossóis/análise , Estações do Ano
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 1): 159426, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244483

RESUMO

Green innovation (GI) is an important way to build an ecological civilization and an innovative country. The study on urban green innovation (UGI) is of great significance for enriching the research on GI and rationally formulating high-quality urban development policies. The green patent data obtained using a web crawler was used to represent the level of UGI. The spatiotemporal evolution and influencing factors of UGI in China were analyzed by standard deviation ellipses, spatial autocorrelation, and Geodetector. The research shows that: From 2005 to 2020, the level of UGI in China tended to rise rapidly. The center of gravity of UGI in China was located in the southeast of China's geometric center and tended to move to the south and west. The standard deviation ellipse was distributed in a "northeast-southwest" pattern, the area was gradually shrinking, and the length of the two semi-axes was shortening. UGI in China showed obvious global and local spatial autocorrelations. The degree of global spatial autocorrelation was gradually increasing. Among the types of local spatial autocorrelation, the largest number of low-low agglomeration cities was mainly located in the northwest and southwest part of China, while high-high agglomeration cities were distributed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta. The government intervention expressed by the proportion of scientific and technological expenditure in fiscal expenditure and environmental regulation is the dominant factor affecting UGI.


Assuntos
Rios , Reforma Urbana , Cidades , China , Pequim , Desenvolvimento Econômico
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 831-842, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375965

RESUMO

This study represents the first quantitative evaluation of pollution transport budget within the boundary layer of typical cities in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region from the perspective of horizontal and vertical exchanges and further discusses the impact of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL)-free troposphere (FT) exchange on concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) within the ABL during heavy pollution. From the perspective of the transport flux balance relationship, differences in pollution transport characteristics between the two cities is mainly reflected in the ABL-FT exchange effect. The FT mainly flowed into the ABL in BJ, while in SJZ, the outflow from the ABL to the FT was more intense. Combined with an analysis of vertical wind profile distribution, BJ was found to be more susceptible to the influence of northwest cold high prevailing in winter, while sinking of strong cold air allowed the FT flowing into the ABL influence the vertical exchange over BJ. In addition, we selected a typical pollution event for targeted analysis to understand mechanistic details of the influence of ABL-FT exchange on the pollution event. These results showed that ABL-FT interaction played an important role in PM2.5 concentration within the ABL during heavy pollution. Especially in the early stage of heavy pollution, FT transport contributed as much as 82.74% of PM2.5 within the ABL. These findings are significant for improving our understanding of pollution transport characteristics within the boundary layer and the effect of ABL-FT exchange on air quality.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Cidades , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Material Particulado/análise , China , Estações do Ano , Pequim
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 856(Pt 2): 159234, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208764

RESUMO

Anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions have a significant impact on atmospheric chemical composition and earth surface ecosystem. As one of the most important sinks of atmospheric nitrogen, the wet deposition of nitrate (rainwater NO3-) has been widely concerned. Yet, the sources and transformation processes of wet deposited NO3- were not well revealed in megacity during rainy season in the context of global climate change. Here, we investigated the concentrations of nitrogen components and dual isotopes of rainwater nitrate collected in Beijing during July to August 2021 (rainy season). The main findings showed that the concentrations of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and NO2--N ranged 0.5- 6.7 mg L-1, 0.3- 4.5 mg L-1, and 0.05- 0.18 mg L-1, respectively, with the average relative percentages of 69 %, 29 %, and 2 %. The stoichiometry analysis of characteristic ion ratios indicated that the contribution of municipal wastes and agricultural sources to rainwater NH4+-N is relatively significant, while traffics were the major contributor of NO3--N instead of the fixed emission. Rainwater δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- presented slightly 15N-depleted characteristic compared to previous studies with the average values of -3.9 ± 3.1 ‰ and 58.7 ± 12.6 ‰. These isotope compositions suggesting an origin of rainwater NO3- from the mixing of multi-sources and was mainly generated via the pathway of OH radical oxidization. Further source apportionment of rainwater NO3- by Bayesian mixing model evaluated that traffic (30.3 %) and soil (30.3 %) emissions contributed mostly to NO3-, while the contribution of biomass burning (18.8 %) and coal combustion (20.6 %) were relatively lower. This study highlighted the important role of dual isotopes in rainwater nitrate source identification and formation processes in megacity.


Assuntos
Nitratos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Nitratos/análise , Estações do Ano , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pequim , Ecossistema , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Teorema de Bayes , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/análise , China
16.
J Hazard Mater ; 441: 129907, 2023 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099735

RESUMO

Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are typical semi-volatile chemicals (SVOCs) that have been used in copious quantities in indoor material additives. SVOCs distribute dynamically between the gas phase and various condensate phases, especially organic films. Investigating the dynamic behaviors of existing CPs in indoor environments is necessary for understanding their potential risk to humans from indoor exposure. We investigate the distribution profiles of CPs in both gas phase and organic films in indoor environments of residential buildings in Beijing, China. The concentrations of CPs were in the range of 32.21-1447 ng/m3 in indoor air and in the range of 42.30-431.1 µg/m2 and in organic films. Cooking frequency was identified as a key factor that affected the distribution profiles of CPs. Furthermore, a film/gas partitioning model was constructed to explore the transportation and fate of CPs. Interestingly, a re-emission phenomenon from organic films was observed for chemical groups with lower log Koa components, and, importantly, their residue levels in indoor air were well predicted. The estimated exposure risk of CPs in indoor environment was obtained. For the first time, these results produced convincing evidence that the co-exposure risk of short-chain CPs (SCCPs), medium-chain CPs (MCCPs), and long-chain CPs (LCCPs) in indoor air could be further increased by film/gas distribution properties, which is relevant for performing risk assessments of exposure to these SVOCs in indoor environments.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Parafina/química
17.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 61(12): 1310-1317, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36456510

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the influence of hemoglobin glycation index (HGI) on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CDK) among nondiabetic patients. Methods: Prospective cohort study. At baseline, a total of 7 407 nondiabetic patients without a history of CKD from Pingguoyuan Community of the Shijingshan District in Beijing were included from December 2011 to August 2012, who were then divided into three groups according to the tertiles of their baseline HGI levels. The CKD incidence rate was compared among the different HGI groups at last follow-up. Cox multivariable regression was applied to evaluate whether HGI measures predicted CKD risk. Test for trend across tertiles were examined using ordinal values in separate models. Results: The mean age of the subjects was (56.4±7.5) years, and 4 933 (66.6%) were female. At mean follow-up of 3.23 years, 107 (1.4%) individuals developed CKD. The incidence of CKD was gradually increasing from the low to high HGI groups [1.1% (28/2 473) vs. 1.2% (31/2 564) vs. 2.0% (48/2 370), P=0.016]. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, after adjustment for potential confounders, the high HGI group had a 68.5% increased risk of CKD compared with the low HGI group (HR=1.685, 95%CI 1.023 to 2.774). CKD risk increased with increasing HGI tertiles (P for trend=0.028). Conclusion: High HGI is associated with an increased risk for CKD in the nondiabetic population, indicating that HGI may help identify individuals at high risk for CKD.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Pequim , Análise Multivariada
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2265, 2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36464692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are the two main gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere that act as oxidants. Their short-term effects and interaction on emergency room visits (ERVs) for respiratory diseases remain unclear. METHODS: We conducted a time-series study based on 144,326 ERVs for respiratory diseases of Peking University Third Hospital from 2014 to 2019 in Beijing, China. Generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson regression were performed to analyze the association of O3, NO2 and their composite indicators (Ox and Oxwt) with ERVs for respiratory diseases. An interaction model was further performed to evaluate the interaction between O3 and NO2. RESULTS: Exposure to O3, NO2, Ox and Oxwt was positively associated with ERVs for total respiratory diseases and acute upper respiratory infection (AURI). For instance, a 10 µg/m3 increase in O3 and NO2 were associated with 0.93% (95%CI: 0.05%, 1.81%) and 5.87% (95%CI: 3.92%, 7.85%) increase in AURI at lag0-5 days, respectively. Significant linear exposure-response relationships were observed in Ox and Oxwt over the entire concentration range. In stratification analysis, stronger associations were observed in the group aged < 18 years for both O3 and NO2, in the warm season for O3, but in the cold season for NO2. In interaction analysis, the effect of O3 on total respiratory emergency room visits and AURI visits was the strongest at high levels (> 75% quantile) of NO2 in the < 18 years group. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exposure to O3 and NO2 was positively associated with ERVs for respiratory diseases, particularly in younger people (< 18 years). This study for the first time demonstrated the synergistic effect of O3 and NO2 on respiratory ERVs, and Ox and Oxwt may be potential proxies.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Transtornos Respiratórios , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
19.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 1016581, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36465613

RESUMO

Background and objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular complications and kidney damage. Obesity- and lipid-related indices are closely related to MetS, and different indices have different predictive abilities for MetS. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of eight obesity- and lipid-related indicators, namely, body mass index (BMI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body roundness index (BRI), Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI), body adiposity index (BAI), abdominal volume index (AVI), triglyceride glucose index (TYG), and visceral adiposity index (VAI), for MetS. Methods: A total of 1,452 relatively healthy people in Beijing were enrolled in 2016, and the correlation between the eight indicators and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) were used to analyze the predictive ability of the eight indicators for MetS. The Delong test was used to compare the AUC values of the eight indicators. MetS was defined according to the Chinese Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (2020 edition), the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Group (NCEP-ATPIII), and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). Results: Using these three sets of criteria, LAP, TYG, CVAI, and VAI, which are based on blood lipids, had higher AUC values for MetS prediction than BMI, BRI, AVI, and BAI, which are based on anthropometry. LAP had the highest AUC values of 0.893 (0.874-0.912), 0.886 (0.869-0.903), and 0.882 (0.864-0.899), separately, based on the three sets of criteria. Conclusion: The eight obesity- and lipid-related indicators had screening value for MetS in relatively healthy people, and of the eight indicators, LAP performed the best.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Adulto , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Asiáticos , Triglicerídeos , Glucose , Pequim
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1034534, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466462

RESUMO

Background: Most studies have focused on the relationship between ambient temperature and stroke mortality, but studies on the relationship between ambient temperature and stroke occurrence are still limited and inconsistent. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effect of ambient temperature and other environmental factors on emergency stroke visits in Beijing. Methods: Our study utilized stroke visit data from the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Medical Center during 2017-2018, and applied a generalized additive model (GAM) as well as a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM), respectively, regarding the direct, lagged, and cumulative effects of ambient temperature alone and with correction for other environmental factors on stroke occurrence. Results: With a total of 26,984 emergency stroke patients in 2017-2018, both cold and hot effects were observed and weakened after correction for other environmental factors. Compared to the reference temperature, in the multi-factor model, extreme cold (-10°C) reached a maximum relative risk (RR) of 1.20 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.09, 1.32] at lag 14 days, and extreme hot (30°C) had a maximum RR of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.11) at lag 6 days. The cumulative effect of extreme cold reached a maximum of 2.02 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.67) at lag 0-14 days, whereas the cumulative effect of extreme hot temperature is greatest at lag 0-10 days, but no statistically significant effect was found. In addition, ischemic stroke patients, the elderly, and males were more susceptible to the effects of cold temperature. Conclusions: There is a non-linear relationship between ambient temperature and stroke occurrence, with cold temperature having a greater and longer-lasting impact than hot temperature.


Assuntos
Dinâmica não Linear , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Masculino , Humanos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Temperatura , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência
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