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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142323, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182196

RESUMO

Controlling anthropogenic mercury emissions is an ongoing effort and the effect of atmospheric mercury mitigation is expected to be impacted by accelerating climate change. The lockdown measures to restrict the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the following unfavorable meteorology in Beijing provided a natural experiment to examine how air mercury responds to strict control measures when the climate becomes humid and warm. Based on a high-time resolution emission inventory and generalized additive model, we found that air mercury concentration responded almost linearly to the changes in mercury emissions when excluding the impact of other factors. Existing pollution control and additional lockdown measures reduced mercury emissions by 16.7 and 12.5 kg/d during lockdown, respectively, which correspondingly reduced the concentrations of atmospheric mercury by 0.10 and 0.07 ng/m3. Emission reductions from cement clinker production contributed to the largest decrease in atmospheric mercury, implying potential mitigation effects in this sector since it is currently the number one emitter in China. However, changes in meteorology raised atmospheric mercury by 0.41 ng/m3. The increases in relative humidity (9.5%) and temperature (1.2 °C) significantly offset the effect of emission reduction by 0.17 and 0.09 ng/m3, respectively, which highlights the challenge of air mercury control in humid and warm weather and the significance of understanding mercury behavior in the atmosphere and at atmospheric interfaces, especially the impact from relative humidity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Mercúrio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , Betacoronavirus , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Meteorologia
2.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127818, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771707

RESUMO

Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) are capable of biodegrading polystyrene (PS) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). This study tested biodegradation of one expanded PS (EPS) with a weight-average molecular weight (Mw) 256.4 kDa and two LDPE foams with respective Mw of 130.6 kDa (PE-1) and 288.7 kDa (PE-2) in T. monitor larvae obtained in Beijing, China. The larvae consumed EPS and both LDPEs over a 60 day. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses of frass confirmed the formation of new oxygen-containing functional groups, as well as a change in physical property and chemical modification, indicating that biodegradation of EPS and LDPE occurred. Gel permeation chromatography analysis confirmed broad depolymerization of EPS and PE-1 (i.e., a decrease in both Mw and a number-average molecular weight (Mn)) but revealed limited extent depolymerization of PE-2 (i.e., increase in Mn and decrease in Mw). For all materials, the size-average molecular weight (Mz) was decreased. Biodegradation and oxidation of EPS and LDPE were confirmed using FTIR and TGA analysis. Depression of gut microbes by the antibiotic gentamicin resulted in significant inhibition of EPS depolymerization but did not stop LDPE depolymerization, resulting in the increase in Mn and revealing that PS biodegradation was gut microbe-dependent but LDPE biodegradation was less dependent or independent of gut microbes. Gut microbial community analysis indicated that, as expected, under different dietary conditions, the intestinal flora significantly shifted to communities associated with biodegradation of EPS and LDPE. The results indicated the complexity and limitation of biodegradation of plastics in plastics-eating T. molitor larvae.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Besouros/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Tenebrio/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Pequim , China , Cromatografia em Gel , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Gentamicinas , Larva/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Polietileno/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141726, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889464

RESUMO

Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are of concern because of their high pulmonary deposition efficiency. However, present control measures are generally targeted at fine particles (PM2.5), with little effect on UFPs. The health effects of UFPs at different PM2.5 concentrations may provide a basic for controlling UFPs but remain unclear in polluted areas. School children spend the majority of their time in the classrooms. This study investigated the different short-term effects of indoor UFPs on school children in Beijing, China when indoor PM2.5 concentrations exceeded or satisfied the recently published Chinese standard for indoor PM2.5. Cardiopulmonary functions of 48 school children, of whom 46 completed, were measured three times. Indoor PM2.5 and UFPs were monitored in classrooms on weekdays. Measurements were separated into two groups according to the abovementioned standard. Mixed-effect models were used to explore the health effects of the air pollutants. Generally, UFP-associated effects on children's cardiopulmonary function persisted even at relatively low PM2.5 concentrations, especially on heart rate variability indices. The risks associated with high PM2.5 concentrations are well-known, but the effects of UFPs on children's cardiopulmonary function deserve more attention even when PM2.5 has been controlled. UFP control and standard setting should therefore be considered.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141641, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892037

RESUMO

Archaea have an important role in the elemental biogeochemical cycle and human health. However, characteristics of airborne archaea affected by anthropogenic and natural processes are unclear. In this study, we investigated the abundance, structures, influencing factors and assembly processes of the archaeal communities in the air samples collected from Beijing in springtime using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), high-throughput sequencing technology and statistical analysis. The concentrations of airborne archaea ranged from 101 to 103 copies m-3 (455 ± 211 copies m-3), accounting for 0.67% of the total prokaryote (sum of archaea and bacteria). An increase in airborne archaea was seen when the air quality shifted from clean to slightly polluted conditions. Sandstorm dust imported a large number of archaea to the local atmosphere. Euryarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota and Crenarchaeota were the dominant phyla, revealing the primary role of soil in releasing archaea to the ambient environment. Dispersal-related neutral processes play an important role in shaping the structure of airborne archaeal assembly. Of all phyla, methanogenic Euryarchaeota were most abundant in the air parcels come from the south of Beijing. Air masses from the west of Beijing, which brought sandstorm to Beijing, carried large amounts of ammonia oxidizing archaea Nitrososphaera. The results demonstrate the importance of air mass sources and local weather conditions in shaping the local airborne archaea community.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Poeira , Archaea/genética , Pequim , China , Poeira/análise , Humanos , Filogenia
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141942, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896793

RESUMO

To evaluate the environmental impact of receiving water from the Qinghe River sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents in Beijing, we collected sediments and Bellamya aeruginosa (Up-site, Discharge-site, and Down-site) both in 2017 and 2018 and analyzed the samples via chemical analysis, biological responses and transcriptomics. In two years of data, our biological results showed that AChE activities presented different degrees of influence on B. aeruginosa captured at sampling points of the STP compared to control sites (P < 0.05). Additionally, indicators of the antioxidant system (e.g., SOD, CAT, GST, EROD activity) and MDA content were significantly increased in the whole tissue at the Up-site of the STP. Integration of the assessed biomarkers using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) index ranked the environmental impact at sites as Up-site > Discharge-site > Down-site. In terms of the transcriptome data, B. aeruginosa collected from the Discharge-site of the STP showed greater transcriptomic response than it did from all other sites. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that sewage significantly altered the expression of genes involved in xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, drug metabolism-cytochrome P450, glutathione metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, citrate (TCA) cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, apoptotic and Parkinson's disease. The concentrations of 34 organic pollutants (17 PAHs, 10 PAEs, 7 EDCs) were measured. The chemical concentrations of pollutants decreased from Up-site to Down-site and were well correlated with enzyme activity, IBR, and transcriptomic results. Our results demonstrated that the combined use of chemical analysis, biological responses and transcriptome data is necessary to validate the efficacy of a battery of biomarkers chosen to detect environmental stress due to pollution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Pequim , Monitoramento Biológico , Biomarcadores , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(18): 4490-4499, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164380

RESUMO

To analyze the study advance of Cichorium intybus, a kind of medicinal food, this study systematically retrieved Chinese and English literatures of C.intybus-related studies based on CNKI and the Web of Science database platforms by literature metrological research method and CiteSpace 5.5.R2 software, and visualized the literatures. A total of 1 247 Chinese literatures and 1 488 English literatures were included. Author analysis showed that HAN Yongfen in Guizhou Grass Industry Research Institute and W VAN DEN ENDE in Belgium Catholic University of Leuven had the most publications in Chinese and English C.intybus literatures respectively. ZHANG Bing's team was the core study team of C. intybus in China. Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Belgium Catholic University of Leuven had the largest number of Chinese and English Cichorium literatures. There was a few cooperation between Chinese study institutions and close cooperation between foreign research institutions. Keywords analysis showed that C.intybus studies mainly focused on breeding and growth performance, composition analysis and content determination, nutritional value and medicinal value, in which C.intybus composition and its role in reducing uric acid were the hotspots of current studies. This study found that C.intybus has a high economic value and medicinal value, and its food nutrition and medicinal activity will be the main directions of future studies.


Assuntos
Chicória , Pequim , China , Bases de Dados Factuais , Software
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1184-1189, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147914

RESUMO

Objective: To develop the Core Occupational Stress Scale (COSS) for key occupational populations, and to assess the reliability and validity of COSS in China. Methods: According to the literature review, in-depth interview and expert evaluation, the item pool of COSS was established. A total of 20 981 employees (3 703 employees from 2018 and 17 178 employees from 2019) of manufacturing, medical, and traffic polices, etc. from Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Hunan, Guangdong and Hubei were investigated using convenient sampling of those participating in general or occupational health examination of the day. Item differential test and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) were used to screen items from the item pool; confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test structure validity; criterion and convergent validity were tested by Pearson correlation. Cronbach's α coefficient was used to test the reliability of the scale. Results: The EFA suggested a four-factor structure for a 17-item version of COSS, which were social support, organization and reward, demand and effort, and control. It explained 62.06% of the total variance and factor loadings ranged from 0.447 to 0.918. The CFA confirmed the hypothesized four-factor model (GFI=0.904, CFI=0.912, RMSEA=0.079). The COSS scores were positively correlated with burnout, depressive symptoms, and effort-reward imbalance scores with r ranging from 0.357 to 0.567 (P<0.05). The total COSS and each dimension of Cronbach's α coefficients were 0.772-0.896. Conclusions: The COSS has good reliability and validity and can be used as an occupation stress assessment for occupational populations in China.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Pequim , China , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1220-1226, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147920

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the knowledge awareness and service acceptance of HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) men who have sex with men (MSM) among college students in three cities of China. Methods: Male college students in 10 universities of Beijing, Shenzhen and Kunming aged 18 and above who had sex with men in the last 3 months were recruited as research objects by cluster stratified sampling from March 15, 2019 to April 14, 2019.Basic information, sexual behavior characteristics, knowledge, and service acceptance of nPEP were collected through online questionnaire survey. Multivariate dichotomy and unconditioned logistic regression model was used to explore related factors about knowledge awareness and service acceptance of nPEP. Results: A total of 293 MSM were surveyed. The average age was (21.0±0.2) years old, and 91.1% (267) were undergraduates. In the last 3 months before the survey, 54.3%(159) used condom each time of sex; 4.4%(13) had intercourse with the HIV infected men, and 9.2% (27)suffered STDs in the past 6 months. The 29.4% (86) had not received HIV testing in the past year. The nPEP knowledge awareness rate was 47.8% (140). The 21.2% (62) counseled nPEP services, and 9.9% (29) received nPEP services. After multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with those who not received HIV testing in the past year, OR (95%CI) value of those who received HIV testing for more than twice in the past year to aware the nPEP knowledge was 3.15 (1.01-9.86). Compared with those who not received HIV testing in the past year, OR (95%CI) value of those who received HIV testing for more than twice in the past year to counsel the nPEP services was 5.29 (1.51-18.51). Compared with those who never used rush in the last 3 months, OR(95%CI) value of those who ever used rush in the last 3 months to receive the nPEP services was 3.86 (0.99-14.98). Compared with those who not sexed with HIV infected in the last 3 months, OR (95%CI) value of those who sexed with HIV infected in the last 3 months to receive the nPEP services was 14.30 (3.35-61.03). Conclusion: The proportions of awareness of nPEP knowledge and acceptance of nPEP services are low. MSM among college students need further health education of the nPEP knowledge to improve the accessibility of services.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adulto , Pequim , China , Cidades , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Comportamento Sexual , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1283-1288, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147930

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the comprehensive control situation and related factors of diabetes mellitus. Methods: From August to December of 2017, 13 259 residents aged 18 to 79 years old were randomly selected as the subjects by stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. Questionnaire, physical examination and laboratory tests were conducted. The effective sample size was 13 240. A total of 1 592 diabetes patients were found. In this study, 917 diabetes patients who had been diagnosed before the investigation were selected as subjects. The comprehensive control of diabetes patients was analyzed. The situation of diabetes patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight and obesity, coronary heart diseases was analyzed. Logistic regression analysis of complex sampling was used to analyze the related factors of diabetes comprehensive control. Results: The average age of 917 patients with diabetes was (58.5±0.7) years old. The proportion of people who participated in diabetes follow-up management was 29.0%. There were 89.5% diabetes patients with one or more chronic diseases. The comprehensive control rate of diabetes mellitus was 2.0%, men and women were 1.8% and 2.3%, respectively (P>0.05). The rate of comprehensive control among those diabetes patients with chronic diseases was 0.4%, lower than that of those without chronic diseases (15.6%, P<0.05). The comprehensive control rate of people who participated in diabetes follow-up management was 1.4%. The control rate of blood glucose, blood pressure, blood lipid and weight of diabetes mellitus was 30.9%, 30.2%, 17.4% and 27.7%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis of complex sampling showed that excessive intake of red meat, with chronic diseases and qualified core knowledge were all related with comprehensive control of diabetes mellitus, OR value was 31.41, 39.98 and 0.29, P<0.05. Conclusion: The comprehensive control rate of diabetes mellitus was low. Excessive intake of red meat, with chronic diseases and qualified core knowledge were all related with comprehensive control of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Dislipidemias , Hipertensão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22932, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126357

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Plague is an acute, often fulminating infectious disease caused by Yersinia Pestis transmitted by rodents. It is rarely encountered in clinics, although natural plague foci are widely distributed around the world. PATIENT CONCERNS: A couple who are cattle and sheep herdsmen from the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region presented with cough, expectoration and fever. The husband developed sudden onset of fever and bloody sputum after working the soil on his farm. The wife also developed fever after nursing his husband. Both patients were preliminarily diagnosed with severe pneumonia, but antimicrobial treatments in the local hospital were unsuccessful. Their conditions deteriorated and they were transferred to our center. DIAGNOSIS: Preliminary etiological examinations were unremarkable, while blood and sputum specimens were found to be positive by RT-PCR and colloidal gold-immunochromatography assay targeting the F1 antigen and by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay. Pneumonic plague was confirmed. INTERVENTIONS: Both patients were transferred to special infectious disease hospital for further treatment. OUTCOMES: The condition of the female patient deteriorated. The male recovered after treatment, while the female patient finally died. CONCLUSION: There are 3 main forms of plague: bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic. Humans can be infected by the bites of bacterium-bearing fleas or direct contact of wild animals that died from plague. Human plague can be transmitted by close contact through coughing droplet. Neglected diagnosis of plague could cause severe consequences. Strict surveillance and protection measures should be taken and the public should be alerted about potential risks when epizootic plague is detected.


Assuntos
Peste/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peste/diagnóstico por imagem , Peste/etiologia , Radiografia Torácica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Yersinia pestis
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 2358-2360, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054582

RESUMO

Under the ongoing COVID-19 prevention and control measures in China, increasing the laboratory severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid testing capacity has become the top priority. Since the COVID-19 outbreak in Xinfadi market in Beijing in June 2020, large-scale screening of key populations has been carried out, challenging the nucleic acid testing capabilities of hospital laboratories. Therefore, within 48 hours, Peking University People's Hospital (PKUPH) transformed a non-nucleic acid testing laboratory into a SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing laboratory. Based on the original structure of the building, we adapted measures to local conditions, sorted out a new testing process, and quickly started testing for COVID-19. The nucleic acid testing process has been optimized, including quality control, personal operating specifications, and the timeliness of the release of LIS results to form closed-loop management. This high-throughput COVID-19 testing optimization process provides a reference model for other countries that are fighting the epidemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , RNA Viral/genética , Pequim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
12.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2487-2494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116465

RESUMO

Background: Social distancing and restriction measures during the COVID-19 epidemic may have impacts on medication availability and healthcare utilization for COPD patients, and thereby affect standard disease management. We aimed to investigate the change of respiratory symptoms, pharmacological treatment and healthcare utilization of COPD patients during the epidemic in Beijing, China. Methods: We conducted a single-center, cross-sectional survey performed at Peking University Third Hospital and recruited patients with COPD who were interviewed by phone call. Clinical data, including respiratory symptoms, pharmacological treatment, management and healthcare access before and during the COVID-19 epidemic from January 25 to April 25, 2020, were collected. Results: A total of 153 patients were enrolled for analysis. Before the epidemic, 81.7% (125/153) had long-term maintenance medication and ICS/LABA (60.8%) and LAMA (57.5%) were most commonly used. During the epidemic, 75.2% (115/153) maintained their pharmacological treatment and 6.5% (10/153) had to reduce or stop taking medications, with a slight decrease of patients taking ICS/LABA (53.6%) and LAMA (56.9%). Most of the patients [76.5% (117/153)] had a low symptom burden, with a CAT score <10 during the epidemic. Of 153 patients, 45 (29.4%) patients reported worsening of respiratory symptoms but only 15.6% (7/45) sought medical care in hospitals, while the remaining expressed concerns about cross-infection in the hospital (55.5%, 25/45) or had mild symptoms which were managed by themselves (28.8%, 13/45). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Beijing, most of our COPD patients maintained their long-term pharmacological treatment and had mild-to-moderate symptoms. Approximately, 30.0% of the patients experienced worsening of respiratory symptoms, but most of them did not seek medical care in the hospital due to concerns about cross-infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Autogestão
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4776-4785, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124222

RESUMO

This study analyzed the concentrations of exhaust gas in the process (kiln head and kiln tail) of China's cement industry, based on data from continuous emission monitoring systems network in 2018. The cement emission inventory for China with high resolution (high resolution cement emission inventory for China, HCEC), using the bottom-up approach, was established. The results indicated that during 2018, the total emissions of PM, SO2, and NOx were 72893, 92568, and 878394 t, respectively. In terms of temporal evolution, the exhaust concentration of flue gas in the main process gradually decreased, with obvious emission reduction from the Blue Sky Protection Campaign. Regionally, the exhaust concentrations of flue gas of the kiln head and kiln tail in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas, and the Yangtze River Delta and Fenwei Plain, showed a considerable decline, with a high to average level in China. The flu concentrations of each city differed; the cement industry in Anhui Province generated the largest emission in the country, while Beijing and Tianjin showed the highest emission intensity per unit area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5503, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127911

RESUMO

The spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Beijing before May, 2020 resulted from transmission following both domestic and global importation of cases. Here we present genomic surveillance data on 102 imported cases, which account for 17.2% of the total cases in Beijing. Our data suggest that all of the cases in Beijing can be broadly classified into one of three groups: Wuhan exposure, local transmission and overseas imports. We classify all sequenced genomes into seven clusters based on representative high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genomic comparisons reveal higher genomic diversity in the imported group compared to both the Wuhan exposure and local transmission groups, indicating continuous genomic evolution during global transmission. The imported group show region-specific SNPs, while the intra-host single nucleotide variations present as random features, and show no significant differences among groups. Epidemiological data suggest that detection of cases at immigration with mandatory quarantine may be an effective way to prevent recurring outbreaks triggered by imported cases. Notably, we also identify a set of novel indels. Our data imply that SARS-CoV-2 genomes may have high mutational tolerance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(10): 916-21, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance ratio of osteoporosis and bone mass of middle aged and elderly people in Beijing communities, in order to understand occurrence and development trend of abnormality of bone mass in high-risk population from community. METHODS: Based on the method of cross-sectional investigation, the information data of 1 540 middle-aged and elderly people from 10 communities were collected, including 415 males and 1 125 females, aged from 45 to 80 years old with the average of (63.02±7.15) years old; the height was (161.34±7.24) cm, the weight was (65.90±10.19) kg, body mass index was (25.29±3.32) kg /m2. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L4) and both hips were measured by dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The differences of bone mineral density and bone mass in different age groups were evaluated, and the relevance ratio of osteoporosis in different parts of the subjects was calculated. Elbow venous blood was collected on an empty stomach, and the gender differences of serum bone metabolic markers were detected and compared. RESULTS: The level of ß-CTX was(0.27±0.12) ng /ml, procollanen type 1 N-terminal propeptide(P1NP) was(51.03± 22.36) ng /ml, 25(OH) D3 was (16.68±6.24) ng /ml, serum calcium was(2.34±0.09) mmol / L, blood phosphorus was (1.43± 0.37) mmol / L, and blood magnesium was (0.94±0.07) mmol / L, alkaline phosphatase was (79.28±20.48) U/ L, parathyroid hormone was (3.09±1.60) pmol / L, osteocalcin was (13.29±6.65) ng /ml. Except for blood magnesium, the other indexes had significant differences between different sex groups(P<0.05). Results of T value of bone mineral density and level of bone mass showed that bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae and both hips fluctuated and decreased with the increase of age, and there were significant differences in level of bone mass among different age groups in women(P<0.05), and except lumbar vertebrae in males, there were significant differences in other parts of bone mass among different age groups (P<0.05). The relevance ratio of lumbar osteoporosis, left hip osteoporosis, and right hip osteoporosis was 27.89%, 14.80% and 14.47%, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are obvious differences in relevance ratio of osteoporosis and low bone mass among different sites. It is suggested that the clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis should be combined with bone mineral density and bone metabolic markers. With the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis among middle aged and elderly people in Beijing community, continuous follow-up research based on community primary health care units could promote early examination, early diagnosis, and early treatment of middle aged and elderly people at high risk of osteoporosis in community.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
16.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 738-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand the status of health literacy and its influencing factors among the residents in Haidian District of Beijing, and to provide references for targeted health education intervention. METHODS: A multi-staged probability proportionate to size sampling(PPS) sampling method was used to collect 7034 residents that aged 15-69 years old in Haidian District in 2018. RESULTS: The standardized rate of health literacy among the residents of Haidian District was 28. 56%. The standardized health literacy rate of basic health knowledge and concept literacy, health lifestyle and behavior literacy, basic health skill were 35. 79%, 30. 90% and 36. 39%, respectively. The standardized health literacy rate of 6 health literacy issues from high to low were safety and first aid(66. 39%), scientific health perspectives(51. 24%), infectious diseases prevention and treatment(39. 78%), health information(30. 25%), chronic disease control and prevention(13. 33%), and basic medical care(11. 23%), respectively. The result of multiple logistic regression showed that aged between 30-39 years old, female, high school education and above, the teacher, medical and government staff, staff of other institutions, staff of other enterprises, other employees and the annual income of the family>45000 RMB were protective factors for health literacy. Aged between 50-69 years old was risk factor for health literacy. CONCLUSION: The level of health literacy in Haidian District was low. Various forms of intervention activities should be carried out to improve the residents' health literacy, especially focused on health lifestyle and behavior literacy, chronic disease control and prevention and basic medical care.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim , Cidades , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4844-4854, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124228

RESUMO

In this study, the hourly meteorological factors and PM2.5 concentrations during 2014-2019 in Beijing were analyzed, in order to explore the characteristics of the prevailing wind direction of pollution, and the corresponding long-term tendency. During the study period, 67% of pollution in Beijing occurred under the influence of southerly and easterly wind, and pollution was most likely to occur in winter, followed by spring and autumn. The average pollution probability of winter, spring, autumn and summer was 45.2%, 34.1%, 32.1%, and 26.1% and 47.0%, 45.8%, 39.7%, and 29.6% for southerly and easterly wind, respectively. In Beijing, the southerly wind appeared more frequently, but the pollution occurrence probability was higher under the control of easterly wind, with the maximum difference of 11.7% (2.8%-18.6%) in spring and the minimum difference of 1.8% (-7.6%-13.9%) in winter. During the past six years, the pollution probability decreased at a rate of 4.6%-8.0% and 5.5%-7.9% per year under the southerly and easterly wind influence, respectively. This was clearly reflected in reduced moderate and above levels of pollution. An analysis of both the pollution and meteorological factors under the two wind directions indicates that the visibility, mixing layer height, wind speed, and the frequency of hourly wind speed greater than 3 m·s-1 were higher, and the relative humidity and dew point temperature were lower, when pollution occurred under the southerly wind, while the PM2.5 concentration of pollution was higher in winter and significantly lower in other seasons compared to that of the easterly wind. These findings show that when pollution occurred under the southerly wind, the carrying capacity and diffusion capacity of pollutants in the atmosphere was slightly better than that of the easterly wind, and the increased atmospheric water content under the easterly wind was more conducive to the maintenance and aggravation of pollution. Moreover, under the background of original emission levels, when adding urban heating in winter, the air mass transported by the southerly wind may be more conducive to increased PM2.5 concentration. Furthermore, pollution in Beijing tended to be an "easterly wind type" in spring, summer and autumn, but remained a "southerly wind type" in winter.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Vento
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4855-4863, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124229

RESUMO

Regional transport is an important factor when considering the prevention and control of air pollution. The aim of this study was to provide support for the joint prevention and control of air pollution in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. With a focus on an analysis of the relationship between regional transport and meteorological conditions based on the weather background, an atmospheric chemical model was developed to quantitatively estimate the impact of regional transport on Tianjin from October 2016 to September 2017. The results showed that the contribution percentage of regional transport in cities in plains in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was significantly higher than in cities in mountains. The local contribution of PM2.5 in the Tianjin area was 62.9% and the contribution of regional transport was 37.1%. This was mainly affected by transmissions of Chanzhou, Langfang, central and southern Hebei, Beijing, Tanshan, and Shandong. Regional transport was the most significant from April to June, the weakest from July to August, and the highest contributor to local emissions. Regional transport was closely related to weather situation, wind field, precipitation, and other meteorological conditions. Post-high pressure and pre-frontal low pressure were the two types of pollution weather with the highest proportion in regional transport, and the impact of air pollution transport under the southwest wind, westerly wind and south wind was the most apparent. Wind speed of 2-3 m·s-1 was beneficial to the regional transport of PM2.5, and precipitation above 5 mm will effectively reduce the regional transport of air pollutants. For different pollution types and heavy pollution stages, the contribution of regional transport was the most apparent in light pollution weather, being 20.5% higher than the average. The heavy pollution weather was controlled by static stable air mass, and because of the migration of high PM2.5 concentrations, pollution air mass in the surrounding area had a significant impact on the accumulation of pollution and transport in the region. The contribution ratio of PM2.5 transport in the heavy pollution period was more than the average and was approximately 10% and 15% higher. In the process of heavy pollution, the proportion of transport contribution in the initial accumulation stage and peak stage were higher than in other periods, and 14.5% and 19.5% higher than in the outbreak stage. The contribution of local emissions in the outbreak stage was more significant, being 9.9% higher than average.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4864-4873, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124230

RESUMO

As a typical secondary pollutant, tropospheric ozone has become the primary pollutant in Beijing in spring and summer, and meteorological factors are one of the main factors affecting the change in concentration. Using atmospheric composition and meteorological observation data from 2008 to 2017, the weather types in Beijing were divided into six categories by Lamb classification and Mann-Whitney U test. Among these, the mean and extreme values of ozone concentration of SWW and C types at Shangdianzi station were the highest, and the highest frequency was from April to September, with a total of 47.4%. The main contribution weights of the two types were determined by a multiple stepwise regression equation. The southwest wind prevailed in 54.0% of SWW and C types, and the newly discharged pollutants and secondary aging air masses were continuously transported by the southwest air flow. The vertical velocity zero layer appeared near 850 hPa. The horizontal and vertical meteorological conditions were conducive to the transport, accumulation, and secondary generation of ozone. The northeast wind prevailed in 64.7% of AN and ESN types, and the air masses source was clean. The same subsidence movement and air divergence prevailed above 1000 hPa. The discharged pollutants can also be diluted and diffused quickly, and the ozone concentration was at a low value. Taking the NW type on May 3, 2015 as an example, although the northwest air flow prevailed on the ground, with clean source, the residual high concentration of ozone above the boundary layer was transported to the near ground through the vertical subsidence of the atmosphere, resulting in the high concentration of ozone on some days.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Animais , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ozônio/análise , Estações do Ano , Ovinos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(11): 4895-4904, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124233

RESUMO

Understanding the quantitative relationship between multi-scale landscape pattern and water quality is of important theoretical significance for rational landscape configuration and non-point source pollution control. Using water quality data at nine monitoring sites on the Baihe River in the upper reaches of the Miyun Reservoir in Beijing, a correlation analysis and a multiple stepwise regression were used to determine the effects of the landscape characteristics on the water quality at different riparian buffer zone scales (100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000 m). The results showed that the impact of the landscape pattern, composed of both landscape composition and configuration, on the surface water quality, varied significantly with spatial scales. The landscape characteristics for the 300 m and 100 m buffer zones appeared to have slightly greater effects on the water quality index TN and TP, respectively. The patch density of cultivated land and the aggregation index of grassland were recognized as the dominant indices influencing TN for the 300 m buffer zone. The area proportion of rural residential at the 100 m buffer zone was the dominant index influencing TP. It is very important to optimize the landscape pattern within a 300 m width of a riparian buffer zone. In particular, the reasonable allocation of cultivated land, forest, and grassland, to improve the connectivity and aggregation of agricultural landscapes, and the control of rural residential areas and pollutant discharge along the river bank, will enhance the ecological function of the water quality of the Baihe River in Beijing. This will ensure drinking water safety from the Miyun Reservoir.


Assuntos
Rios , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas
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