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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18567, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895799

RESUMO

We investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics deaths from road traffic injury (RTI) in Beijing, and provided evidence useful for the prevention of fatal traffic trauma and for the treatment of traffic-related injuries.We retrospectively reviewed death cases provided by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center on road traffic injury deaths from 2008 to 2017. We analyzed population characteristics, time distribution, distribution of transportation modes, intervals to death, locations and injured body parts.From 2008 to 2017, there were 3327 deaths from RTI recorded by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center, with mainly males among these deaths. The average age at death was 46.19 ±â€Š17.43 years old (46.19, 0.43-100.24). In accidents with more detail recorded, pedestrians and people using nonmotorized transportation modes suffered the most fatalities (664/968, 68.60%). The most commonly injured body parts were the head (2569/3327, 77.22%), followed by the chest (180/3327, 5.41%), abdomen (130/3327, 3.91%), lower extremities (68/3327, 2.04%), pelvis (67/3327, 2.01%), spinal cord (31/3327, 0.93%), and upper extremities (26/3327, 0.78%). Burns accounted for 0.96% (32/3327), and unknown body parts were affected in 11.28% (365/3327). The average time interval from injury to death was 36.90 ±â€Š89.57 h (36.90, 0-720); 46.7% (1554/3327) died within 10 minutes after injury; 9.02% (300/3327) died between 10 min and 1 hour; 30.33% (1009/3327) died between 1 hour and 3 days; 13.95% (464/3327) died between 3 and 30 days.In Beijing, RTI is a significant cause of preventable death, particularly among pedestrians and users of non-motorized vehicles. Head trauma was the most lethal cause of RTI deaths. Our findings suggested that interventions to prevent collisions and reduce injuries, and improved trauma treatment process and trauma rescue system could address a certain proportion of avoidable RTI deaths.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
2.
Int J Biometeorol ; 64(1): 139-144, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754771

RESUMO

Limited evidence was seen as the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and physician visits for allergic rhinitis (AR), especially in countries with extreme air pollution exposure. This paper addressed the issues about the association between PM2.5 and daily outpatient visits for AR among individuals residing in Beijing, China. Data on daily outpatient visits for AR obtained from Beijing Medical Claim Data for Employees and daily PM2.5 concentrations available from US embassy reports were linked by date from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012. A time-series analysis was conducted with a generalized additive Poisson model to assess the association between PM2.5 and AR, adjusting for daily average temperature, relative humidity, day of the week, calendar time, and public holiday. Totally, 229,685 outpatient visits for AR were included in the analysis. The daily mean (SD) concentration of PM2.5 was 99.5 (75.3) µg/m3 during the study period. We found that a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 content was associated with a 0.47% (95% CI: 0.39% to 0.55%) increase in the number of outpatient visits on the same day. Furthermore, results from subgroup analyses suggested that the association was consistently significant among the groups of different ages (< 65 years and ≥ 65 years) and gender. However, this study failed to find a statistically significant association in the autumn season but found significant positive associations during the spring and summer seasons (P for interaction < 0.001). This study indicated a possible association between PM2.5 and AR outpatients, which may benefit further researches in studying PM2.5 and its influence on diseases in a real and seriously air-polluted context.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Rinite Alérgica , Pequim , China , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Material Particulado
3.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109766, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733479

RESUMO

Water management strategies play an important role in water shortage alleviation. This study evaluates the cost and water ecosystem benefit of 14 water management strategies in Beijing in the future scenarios for 2020 and 2035. In addition, optimal implements of abatement strategies are obtained within the context of legislated targets, with the consideration of interaction among strategies. The result shows that Beijing can meet its commitments for total water use and pollution control by the water management strategies implementation in both 2020 and 2035. For 14 water management strategies analyzed in this study, 5 options with negative abatement cost value achieve 12.2-24.1% of the total water ecosystem benefit in 2020 and 2035. Wastewater reclamation is the most efficient strategy in water ecosystem impact (WEI) reduction, which contributes 38.4% of the total WEI reduction with an abatement cost of 1.6 Yuan/m3 H2O -eq. However, the sequence of optimal strategy implementation rate is not in accordance with the abatement cost of the strategies. The most cost-effective option is the water-efficient shower head, while the highest implementation rate is found for promotion of production technologies. A comparison between water management optimization with and without the consideration of interactions among strategies shows that taking the interaction among strategies into account imposes almost no influence on the total WEI reduction. But it has impacts on optimal implementation rate of each water management option and the cost estimation (+10.8%) of water management implementation. Such a systematic analysis of water management strategies provides general recommendations on sustainable water resource management in water scarce regions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Pequim , Águas Residuárias , Recursos Hídricos
4.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 1-9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791483

RESUMO

In order to study the concentrations of major components, characteristics and comparison in hazy and non-hazy days of PM10 in Beijing, aerosol samples were collected at urban site in Beijing from December 29, 2014 to January 22, 2015. Heavy metals like Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, As, V, Cr and Cd were deeply studied considering their toxic effects on human being; nine water-soluble inorganic ions (SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+ and Mg2+) and carbon fractions (OC and EC) were also analyzed. The concentrations of heavy metals were 1.03-1.98 times higher in hazy days than those in non-hazy days, mainly due to biomass burning and coal burning. The trends in total heavy metals concentrations were basically consistent with the trends in PM concentrations except for two obvious periods (12.29-12.30; 1.14-1.15); but when air masses accumulated locally or around Beijing, trends in PM concentrations and heavy metals were opposite. The proportion for NO3-/SO42- indicated that mobile sources such as automobiles were important reasons for haze in Beijing. Correlation between OC and EC during non-hazy days was strong (R2 = 0.95) but it was low (R2 = 0.67) during hazy days, and large variations for OC/EC values occurred in hazy days. The calculated mass concentration of SOC is 2.58 µg/m3, which only accounted for 10.1% of the OC concentration. When air masses from the far north-west, they decreased PM concentration in Beijing and they were relatively clean; however, those from the near east, south-east and south of the mainland increased PM concentration and they were dirty.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , Biomassa , Carbono , Carvão Mineral , Íons , Metais Pesados , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano
5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 213-227, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791494

RESUMO

Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and its surrounding areas are very important to air pollution control in China. To analyze the characteristics of BTH and its surrounding areas of China, we collected 5,641,440 air quality data from 161 air monitoring stations and 37,123,000 continuous monitoring data from air polluting enterprises in BTH and surrounding cities to establish an indicator system for urban air quality portraits. The results showed that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <2.5 µm (PM2.5), particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of <10 µm (PM10) and SO2 improved significantly in 31 cities from 2015 to 2018, but ozone deteriorated. Air quality in BTH and the surrounding areas showed obvious seasonal characteristics, among which PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 showed a "U" type distribution from January to December, while O3 had an "inverted U" distribution. The hourly changes in air quality revealed that peaks of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 appeared from 8:00 to 10:00, while those for O3 appeared at 15:00-16:00. The exposure characteristics of the 31 cities showed that six districts in Beijing had the highest air quality population exposure, and that exposure levels in Zhengzhou, Puyang, Anyang, Jincheng were higher than the average of the 31 investigated cities. Additionally, multiple linear regression revealed a negative correlation between meteorological factors (especially wind and precipitation) and air quality, while a positive correlation existed between industrial pollution emissions and air quality in most of BTH and its surrounding cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Pequim , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Material Particulado/análise
6.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109751, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675594

RESUMO

Using 2025 as the target year, we quantitatively assessed the reduction potentials of emissions of primary pollutants (including CO, HC, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10) under different vehicle control policies and the impacts of vehicle emission control policies in the BTH region on the regional PM2.5 concentration in winter and the surface ozone (O3) concentration in summer. Comparing the different scenarios, we found that (1) vehicle control policies will bring significant reductions in the emissions of primary pollutants. Among the individual policies, upgrading new vehicle emission standards and fuel quality in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei will be the most effective policy, with emission reductions of primary pollutants of 26.3%-54.7%, 38.0%-70.3% and 46.0%-81.6% in 2025, respectively; (2) for PM2.5 in winter, the Combined Scenario (CS) will lead to a reduction of 0.5-3.9 µg m-3 (3.5%-11.6%) for the monthly average PM2.5 concentrations in most areas. The monthly nitrate and ammonium concentrations would reduce by 5.8% and 5.3%, respectively, in the whole BTH region, indicating that vehicle emission control policies may play an important role in the reduction of PM2.5 concentrations in winter, especially for nitrate aerosols; and (3) for O3 concentrations in summer, vehicle emission control policies will lead to significant decreases. Under the CS scenario, the maximum reduction of monthly average O3 concentrations in the summer is approximately 3.6 ppb (5.9%). Most areas in the BTH region have a decrease of 15 ppb (7.5%) in peak values compared to the base scenario. However, in some VOC-sensitive areas in the BTH region, such as the southern urban areas, significant reductions in NOx may lead to increases in ozone concentrations. Our results highlight that season- and location-specific vehicle emission control measures are needed to alleviate ambient PM2.5 and O3 pollution effectively in this region due to the complex meteorological conditions and atmospheric chemical reactions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado , Emissões de Veículos
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(1): 385-393, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854941

RESUMO

The distribution characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in five vegetable base soils from Beijing, China, were assessed. The composition of ARGs and MGEs in soil samples were analyzed by HT-qPCR. We detected 92-121 ARGs and 4-6 MGEs. The ARGs and MGEs in vegetable base soils from different districts were separated from each other. The dominant ARGs shared by vegetable bases were oprD, acrA-04, and acrA-05 of a multidrug, mphA-01 of MLSB, and ß-Lactamase fox5, vanC-03 of vancomycin. The shared MGE among the five vegetable base soils was intI1. A total of seven antibiotics were detected in the soil of several vegetable bases. The dominant antibiotics included enoxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), oxytetracycline (OTC), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The numbers and abundance of antibiotics in the soil of vegetable bases from the Shunyi district were the highest, followed by those from Tongzhou and Changping. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the abundance of ARGs and the abundance of antibiotics in the soil of vegetable bases (P<0.05). These results provide basic theoretical data for controlling the transmission of ARGs.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , Microbiologia do Solo , Pequim , Verduras
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Side crashes between vehicles which usually lead to high casualties and property loss, rank first among total crashes in China. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with injury severity of side crashes at intersections and to provide suggestions for developing countermeasures to mitigate the levels of injuries. METHOD: In order to investigate the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously, bivariate probit model was proposed and Bayesian approach was employed to evaluate the model, compared to the corresponding univariate probit model. DATA: Crash data from Beijing, China for the period 2009-2012 were used to carry out the statistical analysis. Based on the investigation with vehicles and data analysis on events, 130 intersection side crash cases were selected to form a specific dataset. Then, the influence of human, vehicles, roadway and environmental variables on crash severity was examined by means of bivariate probit regression within Bayesian framework. RESULTS: The effects of the factors on striking vehicle drivers and struck vehicle drivers were considered separately and simultaneously to find more targeted conclusions. The statistical analysis revealed vehicle type, lane number, no non-motorized lane and speeding have the corresponding influence on the injury severity of striking vehicles, while time of day and vehicle type of struck vehicles increased the likelihood of being injured. CONCLUSIONS: From the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim/epidemiologia , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade
9.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1487-1491, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838826

RESUMO

HIV molecular network is a recently reported method for studying the transmission characteristics of HIV-infected people. Countries have used this method to conduct a large number of researches on transmission relations, transmission hotspots and epidemic surveillance for the purpose of providing evidence for precise AIDS intervention and control. At present, there are three major methods for constructing molecular networks in the world, i.e. genetic distance method based on pairwise alignment, phylogenetic node support method, and joint parameter method based on the two methods. This paper reviews the progress of the three methods for constructing HIV molecular network to study the transmission characteristics of HIV-infected patients, in order to provide data support for the prevention and control of HIV. Since the emergence of the molecular network method, Beijing, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Sichuan and other provinces in China have reported relevant research results using molecular network analysis, which provided scientific data for further precise AIDS prevention and control. Recent international studies have also predicted that molecular network based transmission cluster detection is expected to become a new method to stop AIDS epidemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/genética , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Pequim , China , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia
10.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(11): 3844-3854, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833698

RESUMO

Near-surface atmospheric CO2 concentration and δ13C value in four greenspaces and on their adjacent roads in Beijing were measured by off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy to analyze the influence of urban greenspace on spatial distribution of near-surface atmospheric CO2. The results showed that atmospheric CO2 concentration and δ13C value varied substantially both temporally and spatially. The highest CO2 concentration was found in the urban area, followed by the suburbs, and the lowest CO2 concentration was in the outer suburbs. There was a clear near-surface atmospheric CO2 dome, but a reverse pattern for δ13C value. During the non-growing season, the ΔCO2 and Δ13C between greenspace and adjacent roads were low. The differences among the four experimental sites were not significant. In the growing season, the ΔCO2 and Δ13C at the BLA4th RR (Beijing Institute of Landscape Architecture and 4th Ring Road) and BOP5th RR (Beijing Olympic Forest Park and 5th Ring Road) in urban areas were significantly higher than those at DPSR (Daoxianghu Park and Sujiatuo Road) and MTGMR (Mentougou forest experimental station and an adjacent road) in the suburbs. During the growing and non-growing seasons, CO2 concentration of all examined sites was significantly positively related with the traffic volume, indicating that traffic volume was an important factor affecting the spatial distribution of CO2. The δ13C value was significantly negatively related with traffic volume during non-growing season, but no significant relationship was found during the growing season. The ΔCO2 concentration between the four green-spaces and their adjacent roads were significantly negatively related with leaf area index (LAI). The Δ13C value were significantly logarithmically related to LAI. Results from stepwise regression showed that solar radiation, temperature, and LAI significantly affected ΔCO2 in urban areas and suburbs during the growing season, and that temperature and solar radiation were the major driving factors for Δ13C. During the growing season, plants in the greenspaces assimilated CO2 via photosynthesis and thus reduced the near-surface atmospheric CO2 concentration. Our results indicate that green-spaces play a positive role in improving ecological environment in urban areas.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Fotossíntese , Pequim , China , Estações do Ano
11.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 49(5): 312-318, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795601

RESUMO

Doctor of Medicine Tatarinov(Татаринов) came to China, as a member of the Russian Orthodox Mission(also known as the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission). He wrote a report on Chinese medicine in 1855. In its preface, he recorded in detail and commented the books of medicine in China, the status of Chinese physicians, and their services of diagnosis and therapy. The records of the clinics in Beijing, its diagnostic fee and service way of the practitioners were very rare in other literatures. Its comments on traditional Chinese medicine reflected western doctors' ideas at that time. His view came from unique angle, and had high value on the study of Chinese medicine history.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Médicos , Pequim , China , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino , Federação Russa
12.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2745-2752, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854667

RESUMO

As an important urban drinking water source, reservoirs are a special type of water body formed by artificial dams. Water quality of reservoirs directly affects the residents' drinking water safety. In order to reveal the characteristics of stratification and vertical changes of bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir, a drinking water source of Beijing, vertical stratified samples were collected during the stable stratified period of the reservoir (autumn). The vertical distribution characteristics of bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir were studied by using 16S rDNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR. Cluster analysis and multivariate statistical analysis were used to reveal the response relationships between bacterial communities and environmental factors. The results were as follows. ①The thermocline of the Miyun Reservoir was located at a water depth of 20-30 m, and the water temperature range was 15-19℃. The cluster analysis data of the seven sampled water layers were divided into an aerobic area (upper layer) and anoxic area (lower layer). The temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH gradually decreased below 15 m. The electrical conductivity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, and total nitrogen changed significantly after 15 m. The water quality showed obvious features in the vertical direction. ② The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that there were obvious vertical changes in the dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen between the aerobic and anoxic water layer. Those factors were the main environmental factors affecting the vertical distribution of the bacterial communities in the Miyun Reservoir. ③ The total bacterial number fluctuated with changes in the water depth. The Shannon-Wiener index and the number of T-RFs of bacteria in the aerobic zone were significantly higher than those in the anoxic zone, which indicates that there was significant stratification in the distribution of bacterial communities in the water of the Miyun Reservoir in autumn. This study explored the effects of water stratification on reservoir water quality and bacterial communities, and the findings provide a scientific basis for predicting water quality changes and reservoir management.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água , Pequim , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente
13.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(12): 1000-1004, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877597

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the prevalence characters of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and associated factors among people aged 35 and above in Beijing. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 5 208 community-based individuals aged equal and above 35 in Beijing were chosen with stratified multistage random sampling method. Structure questionnaire was used to collected the information of demographic factors, habits and chronic disease history. Ankle brachial blood pressure was detected and ankle brachial index (ABI) was calculated. ABI was used to diagnose PAD (ABI≤0.90). Based on the 2010 Beijing Municipal Population Census, the age-and gender-specific weight-adjusted sample was acquired to estimate the prevalence of PAD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the associated factors of PAD. Results: The age-and sex-standardized prevalence of PAD was 3.84% (200/5 208, 95%CI 3.32%-4.36%). There was no significant difference between male and female (3.83%(102/2 664, 95%CI 3.10%-4.56%) vs. 3.85% (98/2 544, 95%CI 3.10%-4.60%), P=0.965). The prevalence of PAD in urban was higher than that in rural (4.34% (163/3 755, 95%CI 3.69%-4.99%) vs. 2.55% (37/1 453, 95%CI 1.74%-3.36%), P=0.001). Furthermore, the prevalence of PAD increased with age (P(trend)<0.01), and the difference between genders did not change with ageing (all P>0.05). In addition, age (OR=1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.04), urban (OR=1.52, 95%CI 1.08-2.12), smoking (OR=1.83, 95%CI 1.29-2.59), hypertension (OR=1.61, 95%CI 1.17-2.22) and diabetes (OR=1.44, 95%CI 1.08-1.93) were related with increased risk of PAD in logistic regression analysis models. Conclusions: The prevalence of PAD increases with age in Beijing and there are significant difference between urban and rural on prevalence of PAD. Age, urban, smoking, hypertension and diabetes are related with increased risk of PAD.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Adulto , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5473-5483, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854620

RESUMO

In sustainable development assessment of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the ability to dynamically estimate the value of ecosystem services is of great significance. This study considers the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region as the research area, based on the google earth engine (GEE); the classification and decision tree (CART) classification algorithm was adopted to supervise and classify the Landsat Thematic Mapper/Operational Land Imager (TM/OLI) images in the study area in 1998, 2003, 2008, 2013, and 2018, and land use types in these five periods were obtained. Quantitative analysis of the dynamic changes of land use in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region from 1998 to 2018 was carried out. Then, the ecosystem service value (ESV) equivalent estimation method was used to quantitatively estimate the ESV in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and combine it with a 15 km×15 km scale grid to detect its temporal and spatial dynamics. The main results were as follows. ① From 1998 to 2018, the area of construction land (increased by 16.67%) and grassland (reduced by 13.73%) in the six land use types in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region was the largest, and the change in the proportion of water bodies (0.2%) was the smallest. ② The total value of ESV in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region experienced a short-term increase from 1998 to 2003 (an increase of 91.97×108 yuan), and continued to decrease from 2003 to 2018 (a decrease of 239.07×108 yuan), mainly related to the expansion of construction land area in the other three time periods excluding 1998 and 2003. Among the six land use types, the forest provides the highest value of ecosystem services, and the construction land and unused land provide the lowest value of ecosystem services. ③ The ESV time-space analysis based on the 15 km×15 km scale grid showed that the ESV medium area in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region gradually decreased from 1998 to 2018, the ESV lower area and the higher area gradually increased, and the ESV lower-area growth rate was higher than for the higher area. ④ The revised value of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (sensitivity coefficient range 0-0.83) has good significance and reliability. In future economic development, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region should rationally optimize the land use pattern and strengthen the protection of forest land, grassland, water bodies and cultivated land.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Agricultura , Pequim , China , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(7): 3242-3248, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854724

RESUMO

Tramadol (TRA) and fentanyl (FEN) are used as common painkillers in clinical practice, but they have been increasingly abused in recent years due to their addictive nature. Two substances and their metabolites enter wastewater through urine and are collected and treated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) before being discharged into the aquatic environment. In this study, wastewater analysis was performed to examine the patterns of TRA and FEN use in the urban area of Beijing for the first time. Influent and effluent samples were collected from 23 WWTPs during two sampling campaigns. Concentrations TRA in influents were found to range from(10.2±8.7)to(175.3±59.7) ng·L-1, while FEN was not detected in most of the samples, or occurred at very low concentrations. Relatively low TRA removal was observed at plants with activated sludge processes. Moreover, TRA loads in the central area of Beijing were significantly higher than those in the suburban areas. Annual TRA use was estimated through wastewater-based epidemiology. The greatest TRA use, approximately 202.5 kg, was found in Haidian district. Seasonal variation in TRA loads was significant, with greater use in the summer than in winter. The method presented in this study can be used as an important reference for monitoring TRA and FEN use via wastewater-based epidemiology and for assessing the risk of the abuse of these compounds in China.


Assuntos
Fentanila/análise , Tramadol/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3568-3576, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854762

RESUMO

To clarify the spatial distribution characteristics of zooplankton communities and the relationship between zooplankton and water environmental factors, 81 samples from 28 rivers and lakes in Beijing were collected in September 2017. A total of 68 species of zooplankton were identified, including 17 species of protozoa (25%), 36 species of rotifers (53%), 13 species of cladocera (19%), and copepods (3%, which were mainly copepodids and nauplii). Among 15 dominant species, 12 were copepods and rotifers. Zooplankton communities varied between the different rivers:The zooplankton in rivers in mountainous areas were mainly protozoa and copepods; in suburban areas, communities were dominated by copepods; and in urban areas, rotifers were dominant. A comprehensive water quality index, the Shannon-Wiener index, the Pielou evenness index, and the Margalef richness index were also calculated. Results showed that the water quality of the rivers in mountainous areas was generally better than in urban areas, which was better than in suburban areas. TN was found to be the main form of pollution using the single factor water quality index. Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) identified that NH4+-N, BOD5, and COD had a significant effect on zooplankton community characteristics.


Assuntos
Rios , Zooplâncton , Animais , Pequim , Estações do Ano , Qualidade da Água
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 3924-3934, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854854

RESUMO

Based on the concentrations of 21 inorganic elements in particulate matter with diameters less than 10 µm (PM10) in 2004, and PM2.5 in 2004 and 2013 of representative road dust in Beijing, the pollution characteristics and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in this dust were analyzed and discussed. The results showed that the six main elements in road dust in Beijing were Si, Ca, Al, Fe, Mg, and K, and the proportions of the total content of the six elements in PM10 in 2004, PM2.5 in 2004, and PM2.5 in 2013 accounted for 96.51%, 96.42%, and 96.53% of the total content of all elements tested, respectively. The elemental enrichment level and the pollution degree and the potential ecological risk of heavy metal in road dust in Beijing in 2004 were PM2.5>PM10. Se, a characteristic element of coal dust, was highly enriched in PM2.5 in 2004, and Cd was high in PM10 and PM2.5 in 2004 with enrichment factors of 1024.03, 68.15, and 871.55, respectively. Co, Zn, Ca, and Cu were significantly enriched in PM10 and PM2.5 in 2004 with enrichment factors of 12.93, 12.33, 8.30, and 8.07 in PM10 and 17.41, 21.80, 12.83, and 19.73 in PM2.5, respectively; Na and Si were not enriched in the road dust. The pollution load index (PLI) of heavy metals was 3.95 in PM10 and 7.71 in PM2.5 in 2004. Owing to the implementation of dust, motor vehicles, and combustion source control measures in Beijing and the relocation of the Shougang corporation, the elemental enrichment level, pollution degree, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in road dust PM2.5 in 2013 were significantly lower than those in 2004. The enrichment factors of Cd and Se in PM2.5 in 2013 decreased to 98.47 and 0.95, respectively; those of Cu, Ca, and Zn decreased to 11.90, 8.84, and 8.20, respectively; and PLI decreased to 2.56. The results showed that the total potential ecological risk of heavy metals in road dust in Beijing was extremely strong. Heavy metal Cd was the most significant pollution factor and the main potential ecological risk source; its potential ecological risk index (RI) contribution to the total RI of heavy metals was more than 85%. In 2004, the pollution degree of heavy metals in road dust of main roads was significantly higher than that for other road types. The pollution degree of heavy metals in PM10 was main road > expressway entrance to Beijing > secondary main road > ring road; that for PM2.5 was main road > ring road > expressway entrance to Beijing > secondary main road. For PM2.5 in 2013, however, the order was expressway entrance to Beijing > main road > ring road > secondary main road. The pollution degree of heavy metals in road dust of secondary main roads was significantly lower than that for other road types. In 2013, for road dust PM2.5 in Beijing, the correlation of heavy metals Ti, Zn, V, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Ni was significant owing mainly to traffic-related emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Metais Pesados , Medição de Risco , Pequim , Poeira , Ecologia , Monitoramento Ambiental
18.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 54(12): 902-906, 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887815

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the snoring status and related family factors of children from 3 to 14 years old in Beijing. Methods: From May to July, 2015, data of children from 3 to 14 years old were obtained from a status survey from 7 districts(Xicheng, Chaoyang, Changping, Shunyi, Fangshan, Huairou and Mentougou) in Beijing. A total of 11 420 children from 25 primary and middle schools were randomly selected. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and a self-administered questionnaire were carried out for the adopted children. Self-administered questionnaire included the snoring related family factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odd ratio(OR) with 95% confidence intervals for variables. Results: A total of 9 198 children meet the inclusion criteria and are analyzed in the study, of whom 901 (9.80%) were found with snoring behavior. The incidence of boys is higher than girls. Obese children take higher risk of snoring. Compared with younger children (≤6 years old), older children (≥12 years old) have a significantly lower risk of snoring (OR=0.464, 95%CI 0.368-0.585). There is no statistical association between full-term infants, infant feeding pattern, parental cigarette smoking and child snoring.The children with family history of snoring have a significantly higher risk of snoring occurrence. The educational background of mother is statistically related to children snoring (OR=1.241, 95%CI 1.058-1.457). Conclusions: The incidence of children snoring in Beijing is 9.80%, male gender, obesity, and young age are all risk factors for children snoring. There is a significantly statistical relationship between snoring and related family factors, such as family snoring history and education experience.


Assuntos
Sono , Ronco , Adolescente , Pequim , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ronco/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(6): 1144-1149, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the cigarette smoking status and periodontal status, and to study the correlation between cigarette smoking and periodontal status. METHODS: Questionnaires were distributed (including self-assessed periodontal status, such as bleeding while brushing teeth, oral odor, tooth loosening, gum swelling, etc.) and clinical periodontal examinations performed for parameters including probing depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), attachment loss (AL), plaque index (PLI) and amount of teeth loss, which was recorded in the population above 35 years of a community in Beijing. A total of 974 subjects were recruited in the study. The population was divided into current smokers and non-smokers, and the differences of self-assessed periodontal status and periodontal parameters between the groups analyzed. RESULTS: The smokers had significantly less bleeding during toothbrushing, and in the meantime, had significantly more self-reported tooth loosening compared with the non-smokers. The smokers brushed their teeth less than the non-smokers (P<0.05). The self-reported gum swelling and oral odor had no significant difference between the smokers and non-smokers. The smokers had 0.565 times and 1.572 times the risk of bleeding during toothbrushing, self-reported tooth loosening and from Logistic regression analyses, respectively (P<0.05). The mean PD, AL, PLI and the amount of tooth loss of the smokers were significant higher than the non-smokers (P<0.05). However, the mean BI of the smokers was slightly less than the non-smokers' (1.93±0.540 vs. 1.94±0.512, P=0.707). The smokers had 2.129 times, 1.698 times and 1.933 times the risk of the mean PD>3 mm, the mean AL>3 mm, and the amount of tooth loss above 8, respectively compared with the non-smokers (P<0.05) from Logistic regression analyses. CONCLUSION: The self-assessed periodontal status is different between smokers and non-smokers in the population of a community in Beijing. Smokers have less bleeding during toothbrushing but no significant difference with BI. Smokers also have more self-reported tooth loosening. Compared with non-smokers, smokers have more severe periodontal destruction.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Adulto , Pequim , Índice de Placa Dentária , Humanos , Perda da Inserção Periodontal , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMJ ; 367: l6491, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of car ownership for physical activity and weight in a global city. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cross sectional study. SETTING: Beijing, China, 2011-15. PARTICIPANTS: People aged 18 and older from a random sample of households who had entered a permit lottery to purchase a vehicle between January 2011 and November 2015. INTERVENTIONS: Permit allowing purchase of a vehicle within six months of permit issuance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Transit use (number of subway and bus rides each week), physical activity (minutes of walking or bicycling each day), and weight, measured once in early 2016. RESULTS: Of 937 people analysed in total, 180 had won a permit to purchase a new vehicle. Winning the permit lottery resulted in the purchase of an additional vehicle 91% of the time (95% confidence interval 89% to 94%; P<0.001). About five years after winning, winners took significantly fewer weekly transit rides (-2.9 rides (-5.1 to -0.7); P=0.01) and walked and cycled significantly less (-24.2 minutes (-40.3 to -8.1); P=0.003) than those who did not win the lottery. Average weight did not change significantly between lottery winners and losers. Among those aged 50 and older, however, winners' weight had increased relative to that of losers (10.3 kg (0.5 to 20.2); P=0.04) 5.1 years after winning. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that vehicle ownership in a rapidly growing global city led to long term reductions in physical activity and increase in weight. Continuing increases in car use and ownership in developing and middle income countries could adversely affect physical health and obesity rates.


Assuntos
Automóveis , Peso Corporal , Exercício , Propriedade , Adulto , Pequim , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto
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