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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 43(3): 215-218, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164091

RESUMO

Objective: To summarize and analyze the clinical and imaging characteristics of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in the early stage in Beijing. Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of 9 patients with 2019 novel coronavirus infection diagnosed in one fever clinicic in Beijing from January 18, 2020 to February 3, 2020. Results: 5 male and 4 female was included in those 9 patients, whose median age was 36 years, and the age range from 15 to 49 years. 8 of these patients had no underlying disease and one suffered from diabetes. 7 patients had a history of travel to Wuhan City or Hubei Province, and one patient was a medical staff. Two family clustered was found. The incubation period was 1 to 6 days. The clinical manifestations were fever in 8 cases (8/9) , dry cough in 5 cases (5/9) , pharyngalgia in 4 cases (4/9) , fatigue in 4 cases (4/9) , body soreness in 4 cases (4/9) , and blocked or watery nose in 1 case (1/9) . Six patients (6/9) had abnormal cell peripheral blood, of which 3 (3/9) had an increased monocyte count, 2 (2/9) had a reduced lymphocyte, and 1 (1/9) had an increased leukocyte count, while the 3 patients had normal cell blood routines. The median of CRP was 16.3 mg/L, including 5 patients with slightly elevated (5/9) , 4 patients with normal values (4/9) . the results of procalcitonin test were negative in5 patients. Three patients were examined by chest X-ray examination, one of which was normal, one case showed infiltrates of right upper lung, and another showed in right lower lung. All patients underwent chest HRCT. And 7 cases (7/9) showed multiple ground glass exudation, including 5 cases (5/7) involved bilateral lungs, 2 cases (2/7) involved unilateral lung, 3 cases (3/7) with patchy consolidation, and 2 cases (2/9) showed no abnormality. Conclusions: The patents with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in this study generally have an epidemiological history. The clinical manifestations are fever and cough. Peripheral white blood cell counts were most normal And PCT were all negative. Chest HRCT manifested as multiple ground-glass opacities with partly consolidation. Some patients had normal chest radiographs but HRCT showed pneumonia. Some patients had no pneumonia on chest HRCT.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pulmão , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tosse/etiologia , Saúde da Família , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18567, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895799

RESUMO

We investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics deaths from road traffic injury (RTI) in Beijing, and provided evidence useful for the prevention of fatal traffic trauma and for the treatment of traffic-related injuries.We retrospectively reviewed death cases provided by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center on road traffic injury deaths from 2008 to 2017. We analyzed population characteristics, time distribution, distribution of transportation modes, intervals to death, locations and injured body parts.From 2008 to 2017, there were 3327 deaths from RTI recorded by the Beijing Red Cross Emergency Center, with mainly males among these deaths. The average age at death was 46.19 ±â€Š17.43 years old (46.19, 0.43-100.24). In accidents with more detail recorded, pedestrians and people using nonmotorized transportation modes suffered the most fatalities (664/968, 68.60%). The most commonly injured body parts were the head (2569/3327, 77.22%), followed by the chest (180/3327, 5.41%), abdomen (130/3327, 3.91%), lower extremities (68/3327, 2.04%), pelvis (67/3327, 2.01%), spinal cord (31/3327, 0.93%), and upper extremities (26/3327, 0.78%). Burns accounted for 0.96% (32/3327), and unknown body parts were affected in 11.28% (365/3327). The average time interval from injury to death was 36.90 ±â€Š89.57 h (36.90, 0-720); 46.7% (1554/3327) died within 10 minutes after injury; 9.02% (300/3327) died between 10 min and 1 hour; 30.33% (1009/3327) died between 1 hour and 3 days; 13.95% (464/3327) died between 3 and 30 days.In Beijing, RTI is a significant cause of preventable death, particularly among pedestrians and users of non-motorized vehicles. Head trauma was the most lethal cause of RTI deaths. Our findings suggested that interventions to prevent collisions and reduce injuries, and improved trauma treatment process and trauma rescue system could address a certain proportion of avoidable RTI deaths.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/mortalidade , Pedestres/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
3.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105324, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Side crashes between vehicles which usually lead to high casualties and property loss, rank first among total crashes in China. This paper aims to identify the factors associated with injury severity of side crashes at intersections and to provide suggestions for developing countermeasures to mitigate the levels of injuries. METHOD: In order to investigate the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously, bivariate probit model was proposed and Bayesian approach was employed to evaluate the model, compared to the corresponding univariate probit model. DATA: Crash data from Beijing, China for the period 2009-2012 were used to carry out the statistical analysis. Based on the investigation with vehicles and data analysis on events, 130 intersection side crash cases were selected to form a specific dataset. Then, the influence of human, vehicles, roadway and environmental variables on crash severity was examined by means of bivariate probit regression within Bayesian framework. RESULTS: The effects of the factors on striking vehicle drivers and struck vehicle drivers were considered separately and simultaneously to find more targeted conclusions. The statistical analysis revealed vehicle type, lane number, no non-motorized lane and speeding have the corresponding influence on the injury severity of striking vehicles, while time of day and vehicle type of struck vehicles increased the likelihood of being injured. CONCLUSIONS: From the results it can be concluded that there indeed exists correlation between striking and struck vehicles in side crashes, although the correlation is not so strong. Importantly, Bayesian bivariate probit model can address the role of striking and struck vehicles in side crashes simultaneously and can accommodate the correlation clearly, which extends the range of univariate probit analysis. The general and empirical countermeasures are presented to improve the safety at intersections.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim/epidemiologia , Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Veículos Automotores/classificação , Veículos Automotores/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 807, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practice clinics are the main primary care institutions providing ambulatory care in the rural areas of Beijing, rational use of medicines is crucial for the rural primary care system. This study investigated the prescribing patterns of general practice clinics in rural Beijing to provide a baseline for monitoring and promoting the rational use of medicines. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study at 14 rural community health service centers in 6 non-central districts of Beijing sampled through a multistage approach, 85 general practitioners were selected from the 14 centers. Total 8500 prescriptions were derived by recording 100 consecutive patients of each the general practitioner. The World Health Organization drug use indicators and an additional indicator were adopted to assess the prescribing patterns. RESULTS: The median number of medicines per encounter was 2.0 (1.0, 2.0); the percentage of generics and essential medicines prescribed were 97.0 and 58.2%, respectively; the percentage of encounters with antibiotics prescribed was 15.1%; the percentage of encounters with injections prescribed was 3.7%; the percentage of encounters with traditional Chinese patent medicines prescribed was 52.5%; the median duration of consultation time was 6.0 (4.0, 10.0) minutes. The most frequently prescribed medicine was aspirin (low dose, 4.6%). The prescribing indicators were influenced by different patient characteristics, patients with new cooperative rural medical scheme were less likely to be prescribed with ≥3 medicines (OR 0.865), essential medicines (OR 0.812) and traditional Chinese patent medicines (OR 0.631), but were more likely to be prescribed with injections (OR 1.551) in the encounter. Patients with ≥3 problems were more likely to be prescribed with ≥3 medicines (OR 6.753), antibiotics (OR 2.875) and traditional Chinese patent medicines (OR 2.926) in the encounter. CONCLUSIONS: Most indicators in this study showed similar or fair performance in comparison with World Health Organization and domestic reports, except the percentage of medicines prescribed from the essential medicine list. Regular monitoring on the prescription quality of general practice clinics in rural Beijing should be maintained.


Assuntos
Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica , Pequim/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Encaminhamento e Consulta , População Rural
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1413-1421, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726569

RESUMO

In 2015, 443 atmospheric PM2.5 samples were collected at five sampling sites in Beijing. The concentrations of PM2.5-bound PAH8 (Chr, BaA, BbF, BkF, B[a]P, DBA, BghiP, and IND) were determined via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The annual concentration of PM2.5-bound PAH8, lifetime cancer risk, and the increasing value due to heating season factors (heating and meteorological conditions) were analyzed. The results showed that the sum concentration of PM2.5-bound PAH8 during heating season was 72.6 ng/m3 and higher than the non-heating season concentration of 4.77 ng/m3. The annual concentration was 10.6 ng/m3, which increased 5.83 ng/m3 due to heating season factors. The B[a]P annual concentration was 1.67 ng/m3 and higher than the limit of 1 ng/m3, which was 15.2 times that of non-heating season. Diesel vehicles and gasoline vehicles were the primary PAH8 sources during non-heating season, while the mixed sources of diesel vehicles, gasoline vehicles, and combustion were the dominant PAH8 sources during heating season. The most significant health hazard pollutant was B[a]P, which accounted for 72%, 74%, and 69% of the B[a]P equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) of PAH8 during heating season, non-heating season, and throughout 2015, respectively. The lifetime cancer risk was 2.67 × 10-6, which increased 1.36 × 10-6 due to heating season factors. Therefore, heating season factors nearly doubled the annual concentration of PM2.5-bound ∑PAH8 and lifetime cancer risk. The results indicated that to protect human health, it is very important to control PM2.5-bound ∑PAH8 emissions during heating season, especially B[a]P emissions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Material Particulado/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Pequim/epidemiologia , Calefação , Humanos , Estações do Ano
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 910, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On September 4, 2018, a boarding school in the Shunyi District of Beijing, China reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. At least 209 suspected students caused of diarrhea and vomiting. The case was investigated, and control measures were taken to prevent further spread. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the school students and staff in order to test hypothesis that high risk of food served at the school canteen. We collected information on demographics, refectory records, person to person transmission by uniform epidemiological questionnaire. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Stool specimens of cases and canteen employees, retained food, water, and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. RESULTS: We identified 209 cases (including 28 laboratory-confirmed cases) which occurred from August 29 to September 10. All cases were students, and the average age was 20, 52% were male. The outbreak lasted for 13 days, and peaked on September 5. Consumption of Drinks stall and Rice flour stall on September 1 (RR:3.4, 95%CI:1.5-7.8, and RR:7.6, 95%CI:2.8-20.2), Rice flour stall and Fish meal stall on September 2 (RR:4.0, 95%CI:1.2-13.6, and RR:4.6, 95%CI:1.7-12.5), muslim meal stall on September 4 (RR:2.7, 95%CI:1.3-5.4), Barbeque stall on September 5 (RR:3.0, 95%CI:1.2-7.0) were independently associated with increased risk of disease within the following 2 days. Among 35 specimens of rectal swabs or feces from students, 28 specimens were positive. Norovirus GI.6 alone was detected in 23 specimens, Bacillus cereus alone in 3 specimens and both norovirus GI.6 and Bacillus cereus in 2 specimens. Ten specimens of rectal swabs from canteen employees were positive for norovirus GI, and 2 specimens were positive for Bacillus cereus. Four retained food specimens were positive for Bacillus cereus, and environmental samples were negative for any viruses or bacteria. CONCLUSION: Our investigation indicated that canteen employees were infected by two pathogens (norovirus and Bacillus cereus) and transmission may have been possible due to unhygienic practices. Student consumption of food or drink at high-risk stalls was determined as the probable cause of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Diarreia/complicações , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vômito/complicações , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 31(9): 1072-1077, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare the epidemiology of Sepsis-1 and Sepsis-3 in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing, and to estimate the incidence of Sepsis-3 in China. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted. Through the database of Beijing Public Health Information System, the medical records of all adult residents hospitalized from July 1st, 2012 to June 30th, 2014 in Yuetan Subdistrict were reviewed. According to the clinical data of these patients, patients with Sepsis-1 and Sepsis-3 were enrolled in this analysis and the demographic characteristics of them were compared. Incidence and in-hospital mortality was calculated. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors of sepsis. RESULTS: Compared with non-septic patients with infections, patients with Sepsis-1 or Sepsis-3 were more likely to be male, older, had more comorbidities and lower body mass index (BMI), had more lower respiratory tract infections, more intra-abdominal infections and more blood flow infections, but had fewer urogenital tract infections, fewer upper respiratory tract infections, fewer gastrointestinal infections and fewer skin and soft tissue infections, and had pure prognosis with longer length of hospital stay [days, Sepsis-1 compared with non-Sepsis-1: 18 (10, 34) vs. 14 (9, 22), Sepsis-3 compared with non-Sepsis-3: 20 (11, 39) vs. 14 (9, 25)] and higher mortality [Sepsis-1 compared with non-Sepsis-1: 20.6% (353/1 716) vs. 2.5% (44/1 733), Sepsis-3 compared with non-Sepsis-3: 32.0% (299/935) vs. 3.9% (98/2 514), all P < 0.01]. Logistic regression analysis showed that male, elder (age ≥ 65 years old), low BMI, bed-rest state, and combined with cerebrovascular disease and hematological malignancies were risk factors for Sepsis-1 [all odds ratio (OR) > 1, all P < 0.05], while the male, elder (age ≥ 65 years old), low BMI, bed-rest state, and combined with cerebrovascular disease, rheumatic immune disease, malignant diseases of blood system and dementia were risk factors for Sepsis-3 (all OR > 1, all P < 0.05). Sepsis-3 was more common in males [OR = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was 1.01-1.40, P < 0.05] and elderly patients (age 65-84 years old: OR = 1.60, 95%CI was 1.28-1.99, P < 0.01; age ≥ 85 years old: OR = 1.76, 95%CI was 1.39-2.23, P < 0.01) as compared with Sepsis-1. After adjusted for gender and age, the standardized incidence of Sepsis-1 was 461 per 100 000 person-year, and that of Sepsis-3 was 236 per 100 000 person-year, with the standardized mortality of 79 per 100 000 person-year and 67 per 100 000 person-year, respectively, in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing. Corresponding to a speculative extrapolation of 4 856 532 new cases for Sepsis-1 and 2 487 949 new cases for Sepsis-3, there were 831 674 deaths and 700 437 deaths per year in China, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Male, elder, more comorbidities and low BMI were risk factors for sepsis. The standardized incidence of Sepsis-3 in Yuetan Subdistrict of Beijing was 236 per 100 000 person-year, and speculated there were 2.5 million new cases of Sepsis-3 per year, resulting in more than 700 000 deaths in China. According to the diagnostic criterion of Sepsis-3, 2.36 million new cases per year were reduced, and the mortality was increased by 11.4%, as compared with the criterion of Sepsis-1.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17527, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593127

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disparities in health outcomes across countries/areas are a central concern in public health and epidemiology. However, few authors have discussed legends that can be complemental to choropleth maps (CMs) and merely linked differences in outcomes to other factors like density in areas. Thus, whether health outcome rates on CMs showing the geographical distribution can be applied to publication citations in bibliometric analyses requires further study. The legends for visualizing the most influential areas in article citation disparities should have sophisticated designs. This paper illustrates the use of cumulative frequency (CF) map legends along with Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients (GC) to characterize the disparity of article citations in areas on CMs, based on the quantile classification method for classes. METHODS: By searching the PubMed database (pubmed.com), we used the keyword "Medicine" [journal] and downloaded 7042 articles published from 1945 to 2016. A total number of 41,628 articles were cited in Pubmed Central (PMC). The publication outputs based on the author's x-index were applied to plot CM about research contributions. The approach uses two methods (i.e., quantiles and equal total values for each class) with CF legends, in order to highlight the difference in x-indices across geographical areas on CMs. GC was applied to observe the x-index disparities in areas. Microsoft Excel Visual Basic for Application (VBA) was used for creating the CMs. RESULTS: Results showed that the most productive and cited countries in Medicine (Baltimore) were China and the US. The most-cited states and cities were Maryland (the US) and Beijing (China). Taiwan (x-index = 24.38) ranked behind Maryland (25.97), but ahead of Beijing (16.9). China earned lower disparity (0.42) than the US (0.49) and the rest of the world (0.53) when the GCs were applied. CONCLUSION: CF legends, particularly using the quantile classification for classes, can be useful to complement CMs. They also contain more information than those in standard CM legends that are commonly used with other classification methods. The steps of creating CM legends are described and introduced. Bibliometric analysts on CM can be replicated in the future.


Assuntos
PubMed/instrumentação , Saúde Pública/tendências , Publicações/tendências , Algoritmos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Bibliometria , China/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Mapeamento Geográfico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Maryland/epidemiologia , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 871, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On 7th June, 2018, a primary school in Beijing, China notified Shunyi CDC of an outbreak of acute respiratory disease characterized by fever and cough among students and resulting in nine hospitalization cases during the preceding 2 weeks. We started an investigation to identify the etiologic agent, find additional cases, develop and implement control measures. METHODS: We defined probable cases as students, teachers and other staffs in the school developed fever (T ≥ 37.5 °C) with cough or sore throat; or a diagnosis of pneumonia during May 1-June 31, 2018. Confirmed cases were probable cases with Mycoplasma pneumoniae detected in oropharyngeal (OP) swabs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). We searched case by reviewing school absenteeism records and interviewing students, teachers and staff in this school. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from symptomatic students. Two qPCR) assay, a duplex qPCR assay, and sequencing were performed to determine the pathogen, genotype and macrolide resistance at the gene level, respectively. RESULTS: From May 1st to June 31st, 2018, we identified 55 cases (36 probable and 19 confirmed), of whom 25 (45%) were hospitalized for complications. All cases were students, none of the teachers and other staffs in the school were with similar symptoms. The attack rate (AR) was 3.9% (55/1398) for all students. The cases were mainly male (58%), with an age range of 7-8 years (median: 7 years). 72% (18/25) of inpatients had radiograph findings consistent with pneumonia, and some cases were hospitalized for up to 4 weeks. Pathogen detection results indicated that Mycoplasma pneumonia (M. pneumoniae) P1 type 1 was the causative agent in this outbreak, and the strain harbored one point mutation of A to G at position 2063. CONCLUSIONS: The infections by macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae are not always mild and pneumonia was common and M. pneumoniae could causes serious complications which require long-term hospitalization. In the future infectious disease prevention and control practice, M. pneumoniae should be paid more attention. It is necessary to establish and improve the pathogen and drug resistance surveillance system in order to prevent and control such mutated strains of M. pneumoniae from causing future outbreaks or epidemics in China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Tosse/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genética , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Faringite/epidemiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/complicações , Mutação Puntual , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 589-593, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of foodborne acute gastrointestinal illness(AGI) in community residents, and to provide the basis for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. METHODS: Muli-stage stratified random cluster sampling was used to select samples in community population. A retrospective cross-sectional face-to-face household interviews were conducted over a 12-month period. Respondents were asked questions about vomiting and diarrhea within the 28 days prior to the interviews, healthcare seeking behavior and the related cost due to AGI. RESULTS: There were 0. 15(95%CI 0. 13-0. 16)AGI episodes per person-year, foodboren infection resulted in 911975 AGI cases. About 290 190 cases sought healthcare, resulting in 9120 hospitallizations. The overall economic burden of foodborne AGI was 147 million Yuan per year, accounting for 0. 07᾿of the GDP. The direct cost of medical care was 107 million Yuan(medical costs and non-medical cost were 9. 4 million and 1. 2 million), and the direct cost was 4 million Yuan. CONCLUSION: The burden of foodborne AGI in Beijing should not be ignored. It is necessary to improve the foodborne disease surveillance system to more accurately assess the impact of foodborne disease on society and health.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(10): 1274-1278, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31658530

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the influencing factors of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus in Beijing from 2014 to 2018. Methods: Data of acute gastroenteritis events caused by norovirus in Beijing from April 2014 to March 2018 were collected. Unconditional logistic regression model was conducted to identify the risk factors of the outbreaks. Results: A total of 765 acute gastroenteritis epidemics caused by norovirus were reported in Beijing, in which 85.88% (657/765) were cluster events and 14.12% (108/765) were outbreaks. Among the outbreaks, 70.37% (76/108) were reported in 2017; 84.26% (91/108) were reported in winter and spring; 88.89% (96/108) were reported in kindergartens, primary or secondary schools; 81.48% (88/108) were through person-to-person transmission; 93.52% (101/108) were caused by norovirus GⅡ infection. The risk of outbreaks in suburban and out suburb area were 1.84 times (95%CI: 1.13-3.02) and 3.78 times (95%CI: 1.62-8.82) as high as that in urban area, respectively. The risks of outbreaks in primary, secondary schools and other institutions were 6.26 times (95%CI: 3.53-11.10), 14.98 times (95%CI: 6.23-36.01) and 8.71 times (95%CI: 3.07-24.71) as high as that in kindergartens, respectively. The risk of outbreak in which patients having lower hospital visiting rate than the median rate of all events was 2.29 times than that in the context of having higher hospital visiting rate (95%CI:1.42-3.68). The risk of foodborne outbreak was 14.55 times as high as that transmitted through person-to-person (95%CI: 3.15-67.07). Conclusion: Measures such as strengthening the prevention and control of norovirus outbreaks in suburbs, primary schools, secondary schools and other institutions, promoting patients to visit the hospital actively, improving the management of foodborne events and kitchen workers should be taken to reduce the incidence of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks caused by norovirus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus , Pequim/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos
12.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113147, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522002

RESUMO

This study investigated the spatial and temporal distributions of particulate and gaseous air pollutants in a primary school in Beijing and assessed their health impact on the children. The results show that air quality inside the classroom was greatly affected by the input of outdoor pollutants; high levels of pollution were observed during both the heating and nonheating periods and indicate that indoor and outdoor air pollution posed a threat to the children's health. Traffic sources near the primary school were the main contributors to indoor and outdoor pollutants during both periods. Moreover, air quality in this primary school was affected by coal combustion and atmospheric reactions during the heating and nonheating periods, respectively. Based on the estimation by exposure-response functions and the weighting of indoor and outdoor pollutants during different periods, the levels of PM2.5, PM 10 and O3 at school had adverse respiratory health effects on children. Longer exposures during the nonheating period contributed to higher health risks. These results emphasized that emission sources nearby had a direct impact on air quality in school and children's respiratory health. Therefore, measures should be taken for double control on air pollution inside and outside the classroom to protect children from it.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Carvão Mineral , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 771, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although worldwide measles elimination achieved great progress for decades, outbreaks were still reported in certain countries. This study describes the epidemiologic features of a substantial measles outbreak in an office building in Beijing and explores control strategies in a crowded city. METHODS: We performed descriptive analyses of data on demographic characteristic, laboratory testing and epidemiological information. RESULTS: From February 25 to March 28, 2016, 43 outbreak-related measles cases occurred in an office building in Beijing. The total crude attack rate was 1.20% in the building. The age range of patients was 23 to 45 years old, of whom 30 (69.8%) were migrants and 5 (11.6%) were vaccinated but without documentation. The attack rate of the department and the company of the source case was 22.73 and 11.86%, respectively. The attack rate in the building was 1.78%, except for the commercial center on the lower floors, which was 0.34%. Of the 43 measles cases, only 19 cases (53.5%) were reported by hospitals through the National Notifiable Disease Reporting System (NNDRS), and the rest were found through active surveillance. Outbreak response immunization was conducted for 6216 persons. CONCLUSIONS: Office buildings in crowded metropolis are prone to large-scale measles outbreaks, and require a rapid outbreak response. Early Outbreak response immunization and active surveillance are important strategies to control outbreaks such as the one reported herein.


Assuntos
Aglomeração , Surtos de Doenças , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Urbanização , Vacinação/normas , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(9): 941-943, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474078

RESUMO

From September 2017 to February 2018, 650 disabled children and adolescents aged 6-to 17-year-old in Beijing were matched 1∶1 to those in normal physical condition with same age, gender and place of residence. All children and adolescents were investigated for self-injury status in the last year to understand the difference of self-injury incidence between groups. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression model was applied for exploring relevant factors of self-injury of children and adolescents. This study found that the disability, insufficient sleep, difficulty falling asleep, and sleeping late were associated with self-injury of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Crianças com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Sono
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470512

RESUMO

Background: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) and to compare the risk of self-harm in Chinese children with different types and severity of disabilities. Methods: Participants were 1300 children aged 6-17 years in Beijing, China; 650 children with disabilities and 650 healthy peers matched on age, gender and residence district. Questionnaires were completed anonymously by parents or children if the age or disability made it necessary. The associations between the disability type, severity and DSH were examined using the Chi-square testing and logistic regression models. Results: Children with a single disability or multiple disabilities had statistically higher rates of DSH than children without disabilities (15.6% and 39.7% compared to 10.9%). The prevalence of DSH was associated with the severity of disability, being 36.2% among children with level 1 (the most severe) disability, 19.8% among children with level 2 disability, and 9.2% among children with level 3 + 4 disability. The multivariable odds ratio (OR) of DSH among children with any disability was statistically higher than that among children without a disability (OR = 2.40; 95% CI = 1.71, 3.36; p < 0.05). Children with multiple disabilities (OR = 6.89; 95% CI: 4.24-11.20) and level 1 severity of disability (OR = 6.11; 95% CI: 3.91-9.56) had the highest risk of DSH. Conclusions: This study clearly demonstrated associations between the severity and type of disability and DSH. This finding highlights the importance of DSH in children with disabilities, and underlines the importance of the prevention of DSH among a vulnerable pediatric population in China.


Assuntos
Crianças com Deficiência/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(12): 4033-4040, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560768

RESUMO

Purpose: To determine the prevalence of fundus tessellation and associations with ocular and systemic parameters among junior students from Greater Beijing. Methods: The school-based study included 1443 individuals with a mean age of 12.4 ± 0.5 years (range: 9-16 years). All participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination and an interview. Fundus tessellation, defined as variation in the visibility of large choroidal vessels, was differentiated into three grades. Results: The prevalence and degree of fundus tessellation were 688/1430 (48.1%; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 45.5%, 50.7%) and 0.54 ± 0.61 (median, 0.00; range, 0-3), respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, a higher degree of fundus tessellation was associated with reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness (P < 0.001; beta, -0.02; odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI: 0.98, 0.99) and longer axial length (P < 0.001; beta, 0.23; OR, 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.43). Subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased from 299 ± 61 µm (95% CI: 293, 304) in eyes without fundus tessellation to 246 ± 57 µm (95% CI: 241, 251), 197 ± 43 µm (95% CI: 187, 207), and 131 ± 30 µm (95% CI: 93, 168) in eyes with grade 1, 2, and 3 fundus tessellation, respectively. A higher degree of peripapillary fundus tessellation was associated with reduced subfoveal choroidal thickness (P < 0.001; beta, -0.02; OR, 0.98; 95% CI: 0.98, 0.99) and younger age at myopia onset (P = 0.008; beta, 0.41; OR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.04). Conclusions: The prevalence of fundus tessellation is relatively high in Chinese teenagers. As in adults, the degree of fundus tessellation is a surrogate for choroidal thickness in teenagers. Marked fundus tessellation indicates a leptochoroid and is associated with earlier myopia onset.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide/epidemiologia , Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Fundo de Olho , Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Acuidade Visual
18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 359, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to describe the imaging features in incident radiographic patellofemoral osteoarthritis (RPFOA) population in a Chinese suburban area. METHODS: The Beijing Shunyi osteoarthritis (BJS) study was a population-based, longitudinal and prospective study. Residents were recruited by randomized cluster sampling in 2014 and were followed 3 years later. Home interviews and clinical examinations were performed; weight-bearing posterior-anterior semi-flexed (45-degree) views of the tibiofemoral (TF) joints and skyline (45-degree) views of the patellofemoral (PF) joints were included. For each batch of study films (n = 100), 20 films from the year 2014 and 20 previously read PF radiographs were fed back to test inter-/intra-reader repeatability. The imaging features of incident RPFOA were analyzed. Narrative statistics, independent-sample t-tests, and nonparametric tests were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1295 participants (2590 knees) were recruited at baseline in 2014, and 967 (74.7%) residents were followed in 2017. Of all the knees (n = 1537) without RPFOA at baseline, 139 knees (13.3%) across 119 people developed incident RPFOA. Compared with the whole population, age (p = 0.031), body mass index (BMI, p = 0.042), and incidence of knee pain symptoms (p < 0.01) were significantly different in the incident RPFOA population, while range of motion (ROM, p = 0.052) and gender (0/1, p = 0.203) showed no significance. In the incident population, the changes of each imaging indicator grade were evaluated-lateral patellofemoral osteophyte (LPOST, increased by 1.02), medial patellofemoral osteophyte (MPOST, increased by 0.49), lateral joint space narrowing (LJSN, increased by 0.30), medial joint space narrowing (MJSN, increased by 0.06); indicator grade progress decreases, respectively. The progress of LPOST was the fastest among the four indicators (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based longitudinal study, among the incident RPFOA population, the imaging indicators show that marginal patellofemoral osteophyte is more pronounced than patellofemoral joint space narrowing. LPOST is the fastest-progressing indicator among all the radiographic features, which is also the most common imaging manifestation of RPFOA. In the incident RPFOA population, the proportion of elders, women, higher-BMI individuals, and people suffering knee pain is more than the normal population.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteófito/epidemiologia , Articulação Patelofemoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pequim/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteófito/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 25(5): 265-273, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378750

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our study aimed to investigate the potential pathogenetic theories of different phenotype prevalence in bicuspid aortopathy. METHODS: A total of 407 bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients with aortic dilation were retrospectively reviewed. Association was determined between aortic valve lesion types and aortic configurations to confirm the homogeneous BAV subsets, and then, dominance analysis was used to evaluate the relative importance of two components of aortic valve lesion (BAV phenotype and valvular dysfunction) that associated with aortic configurations in each subgroup. RESULTS: Dominance analysis showed that Type-1 LR was the dominant contributor (79.0% and 79.6%) associated with the higher prevalence of the dilation of aortic root (AoR) and ascending aorta (AAo) in BAV patients with Type-1 LR and aortic regurgitation (AR) or aortic stenosis (AS) + AR. However, AS was the main contributor (60.0%) associated with the raised incidence of the dilation of AAo and proximal aortic arch (PArc) in Type-0 LAT and AS. CONCLUSIONS: Different dominant pathogenetic theory determined the phenotype of BAV aortopathy. In patients of Type-1 LR with AR, inherent disposition is mainly responsible for the higher frequency of AoR dilation. Valve-related hemodynamics determined greater prevalence of the dilation of AAo and PArc in patients of Type-0 LAT with AS.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Pequim/epidemiologia , Dilatação Patológica , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Trials ; 20(1): 504, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is an acute mental disorder and common postoperative complication. Monitoring regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) in endovascular therapeutic surgery may allow real-time monitoring of cerebral desaturation, avoiding profound cerebral dysfunction, and reducing the incidence of delirium. We sought to examine the incidence of delirium in patients undergoing endovascular surgery. METHODS: This was a clinical cohort trial (registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov [NCT02356133]). We monitored the rSO2 of 43 patients undergoing general anesthesia and cerebral endovascular surgery. The occurrence of delirium after surgery was recorded with the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify the main predictor of delirium. RESULTS: rSO2 was significantly different between the delirium and no-delirium groups. The occurrence of delirium was 35% in our cohort, and higher rSO2 desaturation scores were significantly associated with profound delirium (higher CAM score; odds ratio = 1.002; P = 0.021). The maximum declines of systolic blood pressure were 24.86 (21.78-27.93) and 32.98 (28.78-37.19) in the no-delirium and delirium groups, respectively, which were significantly different (P = 0.002) but not closely associated with delirium in multivariate analysis (P = 0.512). Anesthesia, mechanical ventilation duration, and having two vascular risk factors differed significantly between groups but were poorly associated with delirium outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated rSO2 desaturation score was predictive of the occurrence of postoperative delirium following endovascular surgery. Monitoring rSO2 is invaluable for managing controlled hypotension during endovascular surgery and reducing postoperative delirium. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02356133 . Registered 1 February 2015. All statistical analysis results submitted August 4, 2018.


Assuntos
Monitorização Transcutânea dos Gases Sanguíneos , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Delírio/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Oxigênio/sangue , Pequim/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Delírio/diagnóstico , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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