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1.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(3): 365-376, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899982

RESUMO

Introduction: Functional Dyspepsia (FD), defined as chronic symptoms originating from the gastroduodenal region in absence of readily identifiable organic disease, is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. FD is divided into two subgroups: Post-Prandial Distress Syndrome (PDS) or meal-related FD, characterized by postprandial fullness and early satiation, and Epigastric Pain Syndrome (EPS) or meal-unrelated FD, characterized by epigastric pain and burning.Areas covered: This review summarizes the existing and off-label therapeutic options for FD.Expert opinion: The identification of mechanisms, the Rome IV classification, the reduction of PDS/EPS overlap and pictograms for symptom identification allow a better diagnosis and a more targeted treatment choice. Acotiamide, a first-in-class prokinetic agent available only in Japan and India, is the only agent of proven efficacy for FD, but clinicians use acid-suppressive therapy, prokinetics, neuromodulators and herbal therapies for treating FD symptoms. New emerging targets are duodenal low-grade inflammation with eosinophils and duodenal or other modified luminal microbiota.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Dispepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial , Síndrome
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 986-994, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Controlling the blood glucose level is an effective method to reduce type 2 diabetes and prevent diabetes-related complications. Ursolic acid is a plant extract that can reduce postprandial hyperglycemia effectively. This study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect and interaction mechanism of ursolic acid against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. RESULTS: In this study, the effect of ursolic acid on glycosidase was studied in vitro, in vivo, and in silico. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of ursolic acid on α-amylase and α-glucosidase was 0.482 ± 0.12 mg mL-1 and 0.213 ± 0.042 mg mL-1 , respectively. The results of enzymatic kinetics showed that ursolic acid inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity in a non-competitive manner. The fluorescence spectrum showed that the combination of ursolic acid and glycosidase caused the intrinsic fluorescence quenching of glycosidase. The observation of starch granules revealed that the activity of α-amylase was inhibited and the hydrolysis of starch granules was prevented in the presence of ursolic acid. Molecular docking results showed that ursolic acid bound to the inactive site of α-amylase and α-glucosidase through the formation of ursolic acid-glucosidase complex. Ursolic acid interacted with α-amylase and α-glucosidase mainly through hydrogen bonding. The postprandial hypoglycemic effect of ursolic acid in C57BL/6J mice showed that the high concentration of ursolic acid could quickly reduce postprandial blood glucose level. CONCLUSION: Ursolic acid can be considered as a natural ingredient in functional foods to control postprandial blood glucose levels and prevent diabetes by delaying the digestion of starch in foods. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Triterpenos/química , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): e12-e14, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859525

RESUMO

Malrotation is part of a spectrum of small and large bowel positional and fixational abnormalities caused by the failure of the fetal intestine to complete a 270-degree rotation around the superior mesenteric artery axis. Rarely, it presents in the adult as a cause of acute small bowel obstruction. Chronic symptoms of malrotation in adults are subtle, and include intermittent abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. We present two cases of malrotation in octogenarian men presenting acutely with small bowel obstruction. Both patients were treated with emergency surgery. In one case the chronic symptoms resolved postoperatively. Malrotation and midgut volvulus should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis for small bowel obstruction in adults. Suspicions should be increased when there is a history of recurrent presentations with similar symptoms.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Volvo Intestinal/congênito , Intestino Delgado/cirurgia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Volvo Intestinal/cirurgia , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Náusea/etiologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/etiologia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 742-750, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880937

RESUMO

Superhongmi is a new rice variety, which was developed for the enrichment of bioactive compounds through cross-breeding three varieties of rice breeds in Korea. The high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector quadrupole and tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/PDA/QTOF-MS) analysis has revealed that superhongmi bran extract contained four taxifolin derivatives as well as cyanidin 3-glucoside. The high-performance countercurrent chromatography (CCC) and reversed-phase HPLC led to the isolation of aforementioned five compounds, and spectroscopic analysis identified cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), along with (2R,3R)-taxifolin 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (2), (2R,3R)-4'-O-methyltaxifolin 3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (a novel compound) (3), (2R,3R)-taxifolin (4), and (2R,3R)-4'-O-methyltaxifolin (5). Compound 2 had the highest rat small intestinal sucrase inhibitory activity (0.54 mM) relevant for potentially managing postprandial hyperglycemia, followed by compound 1 (0.97 mM) and compound 4 (1.74 mM, IC50). The anti-hyperglycemic effect of compound 4 (taxifolin), a main peak in HPLC analysis was investigated using a Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model. Compared to a control, taxifolin treatment (p < 0.001) reduced significantly after sucrose loading the observed postprandial blood glucose and the maximum blood glucose (Cmax) by 15% (203.60 ± 15.86 to 172.30 ± 12.74). These results indicate that taxifolin derivatives that inhibit the activity of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes resulting in reduced dietary carbohydrate absorption can potentially be used as a strategy to manage diabetes.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Oryza/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Orv Hetil ; 160(49): 1927-1934, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786941

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and their receptor agonists - beside their blood glucose lowering and central effects- affect also the gastrointestinal function in many respects. They slow down the stomach emptying, the motility of the small bowel and colon - this is the explanation for the "ileal brake" terminology -, stimulate the function of exocrine pancreatic acinar cells and increase amylase production. GLP1 receptor agonists belong to the defining tools of the blood glucose lowering therapy in type 2 diabetes. Their long- and short-acting derivatives have different influence on the fasting and the postprandial blood glucose, respectively. By introducing the term non-prandial and prandial type analogues - which seems to be forced in light of the newer data - the potential slowdown in gastric emptying is the center of interest, lately, however, especially in the case of long-acting GLP1 variants, at least such attention should be paid to controlling bowel function. The article reviews the physiological effects of GLP1 on the gastrointestinal tract and draws attention to the potential for the prevention of possible side effects through detailed patient information and dietary advises. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(49): 1927-1934.


Assuntos
Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Humanos , Íleo/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 995-1000, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644346

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare glucose concentrations in peripheral venous and capillary blood samples collected from dogs before and after consumption of a meal and measured with a veterinary-specific portable blood glucose meter (PBGM). ANIMALS: 12 dogs (96 blood samples). PROCEDURES: A veterinary-specific PBGM was used to measure blood glucose concentrations. Glucose concentrations in capillary blood samples obtained from the carpal pad, medial aspect of a pinna, and oral mucosa were compared with glucose concentrations in blood samples obtained from a lateral saphenous vein. Samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours and again 2 hours after consumption of a meal. RESULTS: Location of capillary blood collection had a significant effect on glucose concentrations measured with the PBGM. Glucose concentration in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna did not differ significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples, whereas glucose concentrations in blood samples collected from the carpal pad and oral mucosa differed significantly from the glucose concentration in peripheral venous blood samples. There was no significant difference between preprandial and postprandial blood glucose concentrations. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Glucose concentrations in capillary blood collected from the medial aspect of the pinna of dogs better reflected glucose concentrations in venous blood than concentrations measured in capillary blood collected from the carpal pad or oral mucosa.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/veterinária , Cães/sangue , Animais , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial
7.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(7): 419-426, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most frequent causes of death in the world. Inflammation and oxidative damage contribute significantly to the development of atherosclerosis and CVDs. European Food Safety Authority scientific opinion has acknowledged that hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol) and derivatives, contained in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), typically used in Mediterranean diet may play a crucial role in the reduction of the inflammatory pathway and in the prevention of CVDs. The aim of the study was to determine the effect in healthy volunteers of 25 g of phenols-rich EVOO (p-EVOO). METHODS: The clinical study was a randomized, controlled trial to determine the acute effect in the postprandial time of 25 g of p-EVOO. We evaluated nutritional status using anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum metabolites, oxidative stress biomarkers and gene expression of eight genes related to oxidative stress and human inflammasome pathways, lasting 2 h after p-EVOO administration. Twenty-two participants resulted as eligible for the study. RESULTS: A significant reduction of oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, triglycerides and visceral adiposity index was highlighted (P < 0.05). Significant upregulation of catalase, superoxide dismutase 1 and upstream transcription factor 1 were observed (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The current study shows that intake of 25 g of p-EVOO has been able to be modulated, in the postprandial time, the antioxidant profile and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes, as superoxide dismutase 1, upstream transcription factor 1 and catalase. We also observed a significant reduction of oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, triglycerides and visceral adiposity index. We have demonstrated that a daily intake of phenols and antioxidants can reduce the inflammatory pathway and oxidative stress and therefore the risk of atherosclerosis and CVDs. More studies on a larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions can be drawn.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Nutrigenômica/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fenóis/sangue , Álcool Feniletílico/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Catalase/sangue , Catalase/genética , Dieta Mediterrânea , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Álcool Feniletílico/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Roma , Superóxido Dismutase-1/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/sangue , Fatores Estimuladores Upstream/genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17501, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) is unsatisfactory in a subgroup of patients with FD, and the potential role of antidepressant medications also has not been definitely clarified. To provide more evidence for future optimal practice recommendations, we reviewed a 1-year clinical database of antidepressant agents applied in outpatients with FD. METHODS: Clinical presentations, treatment course, and outcomes were determined by chart review of patients referring to the functional gastrointestinal disorders specialist clinic. One hundred thirty patients with FD were included for further analysis. RESULTS: Patients were treated with different antidepressant drugs according to individual symptoms. The most commonly used drugs were flupenthixol melitracen and fluoxetine. Improvement and complete remission occurred in 93.8% and 54.6% of patients, respectively. There was a trend toward superior outcome for citalopram compared to sulpiride and mirtazapine in overall analysis. Meanwhile, regimens containing fluoxetine had significant increased remission rate compared to any other antidepressant regimens in postprandial distress syndrome subgroup analysis. Furthermore, older patients were more likely to achieve remission. However, sex and symptom duration were not associated with symptom remission. Finally, 11.5% of patients experienced adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective cohort study indicated that small dose antidepressant therapy, especially citalopram and fluoxetine, is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for refractory FD.


Assuntos
Antracenos/uso terapêutico , Dispepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Flupentixol/uso terapêutico , Antracenos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Flupentixol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mirtazapina/uso terapêutico , Período Pós-Prandial , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eRB4898, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508659

RESUMO

Alongside a proper diet, ergogenic aids with potential direct and/or indirect physical performance enhancing effects are sought after for improved adaptation to physical training. Nutritional ergogenics include diet composition changes and/or dietary supplementation. Branched-chain amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine are widely popular among products with ergogenic claims. Their major marketing appeal derives from allegations that branched-chain amino acids intake combined with resistance physical exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis. Evidence supporting the efficacy of branched-chain amino acids alone for muscle hypertrophy in humans is somewhat equivocal. This brief review describes physiological and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effects of complete protein source and branched-chain amino acid intake on skeletal muscle growth in the postabsorptive and post-exercise state. Evidence in favor of or against potential anabolic effects of isolated branched-chain amino acid intake on muscle protein synthesis in humans is also examined.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/biossíntese , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Exercício/fisiologia , Absorção Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Postgrad Med ; 131(8): 566-571, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524035

RESUMO

Background: Compared with traditional outpatient follow up, short message service (SMS) provides more convenience for diabetes self-management. However, the feasibility, effectiveness, and satisfaction of SMS intervention remain unclear.Methods: A systematic retrieval of databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library, was used to evaluate the effect of SMS on the diabetes glycemic control. Complete quantitative reports on the changes of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before and after intervention were collected. The study type was limited to randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Results: 13 RCTs were identified as eligible for this subject. Overall result revealed a statistical decline of HbA1c by -0.62% (95% CI -0.82 to -0.41). The longest intervention duration was 12 months with the noteworthy improvement of HbA1c by -1.63% (-2.27 to -0.99). Compared with control groups, five trials quantitatively demonstrated a significant decline in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) by -0.45 (95% CI -0.7 to -0.19) and -1.05 (95% CI -1.35 to -0.75) in 2-h postprandial blood glucose (2hPBG).Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that text message intervention indeed leads to a decline in HbA1c and improvement of blood glucose control. No convincing evidence was found on quality of life improvement, satisfaction, body mass index (BMI), blood lipid levels, the frequency of hypoglycemia, self-monitoring of blood glucose or complications reduction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Autogestão/métodos , Mensagem de Texto , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Lipídeos/sangue , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pós-Prandial , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 485-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544530

RESUMO

The same food formulation processed to obtain two different starch gelatinisations (SG) and resistant starch (RS) contents was evaluated in old and adult dogs, regarding apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, fermentation products in faeces, and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A diet with corn was ground and extruded in two different ways, obtaining Low RS (2.2 g/kg DM; 99.9% of SG) and High RS (15.3 g/kg DM; 62.6% of SG). Each diet was fed to adults (4.0 ± 0.7 years) or old beagle dogs (11.5 ± 0.4 years) in a 2 (ages) x 2 (RS amounts) factorial arrangement with 8 dogs per food. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and postprandial responses by analysis of variance of repeated measurements over time (p < 0.05). Diet × age interaction was observed for protein ATTD, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS than those for the other treatments (p < 0.05). No age or diet effect was verified for the ATTD of other nutrients and faecal score. Faecal moisture and pH were higher for adults than that for old dogs (p < 0.05). The High RS food increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations in faeces, regardless of age (p < 0.01). Old dogs presented lower acetate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and higher lactate and ammonia than adults (p < 0.05). Only for old dogs the intake of the High RS food reduced ammonia and increased faecal lactate (p < 0.05). An age × diet interaction was verified for glucose postprandial response, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS food (p < 0.05), while no differences were found for the other treatments. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion regardless of the diet (p < 0.05), and lower insulin increment at 180 min after the meal when fed the Low RS than when fed the High RS food (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with lower SG and higher RS improved the intestinal microenvironment, with higher butyrate and total SCFA without altering faeces production or score. Old dogs presented less acetate and total SCFA and higher lactate and ammonia in faeces than adults. The High RS food increased lactate and reduced ammonia in faeces of old dogs, with possible positive influences for gut health. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion than that of adults to maintain blood glucose, and the diet with higher RS content reduced the postprandial glucose response of old dogs.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química
12.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 818-824, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499563

RESUMO

Interrupting prolonged sitting with short multiple bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) can improve postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers. This study examined the effect of high and low frequency PA bouts (matched for total PA duration and energy expenditure) on postprandial cardiometabolic responses when compared with prolonged sitting. In this three-condition randomised crossover trial, 14 sedentary, inactive females (33.8±13.4 years, BMI 27.1±6.3 kg/m2) completed 3, 7.5 h conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT), 2) high-frequency PA breaks (HIGH-FREQ) consisting of 15 ×2 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill PA every 30 min, and 3) low-frequency PA breaks (LOW-FREQ) consisting of 3 ×10 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill PA every 180 min. The PA bouts were performed at 65% of peak oxygen uptake. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for each 7.5 h condition was calculated for glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Insulin iAUC was significantly (p<0.026) lower during HIGH-FREQ (mean [95%CI]; 82.86 [55.02, 110.70] µU/mL∙7.5 h) than LOW-FREQ (116.61 [88.50, 144.73] µU/mL∙7.5 h) and SIT (119.98 [92.42, 147.53] µU/mL∙7.5 h). Glucose and TAG iAUC did not differ between conditions. Engaging in higher-frequency PA breaks may be effective in attenuating postprandial insulin responses compared with lower-frequency PA breaks and prolonged sitting.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Vet J ; 251: 105341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492392

RESUMO

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by an abnormal insulin response to a glycemic challenge but despite the known insulinotropic effects of certain amino acids, there is a paucity of data evaluating the impact of dietary protein on insulin dynamics in these horses. The objective was therefore to assess insulin and amino acid responses following intake of a high protein meal in healthy horses and those with EMS. Six mature horses diagnosed with EMS and six age-matched control horses without EMS were used. Horses were fed 2g/kg body mass (BM) of a high protein pellet (31% crude protein) at time 0 and 30min, for a total of 4g/kg BM, following an overnight fast. Blood samples collected during a 4h period were analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, amino acids and urea concentrations. Glucose concentrations were not different between groups (P=0.2). Horses with EMS had a 9-fold greater insulinemic response to the consumption of a high protein meal compared with controls (P=0.046). Post-prandial levels of histidine, citrulline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and ornithine were higher in horses with EMS (P<0.05). Baseline urea nitrogen concentrations were not significantly different between groups (P=0.1). Knowing that certain amino acids are insulin secretagogues, these results illustrate that consumption of a high protein meal caused a hyperinsulinemic response and affected amino acid dynamics in horses with EMS. These findings suggest that dietary protein content should be taken into consideration in the management of horses with insulin dysregulation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
14.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2339-2345, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405640

RESUMO

Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) plays an essential role in overall glycemic management. Less focus is given on managing postmeal hyperglycemia despite the facts that, it is a common feature of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). The purpose of this narrative review is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the existing literature on the nutritional approaches to improve postmeal hyperglycemia in patients with T2D. We searched multiple databases for the studies examining the nutritional approaches to manage postmeal glucose in patients with T2D. We included studies that involve human trials that were published in English for the past 10 years. Our review of the current literature indicates that the postmeal hyperglycemia can be improved with four nutritional approaches. These approaches include (i) utilizing the appropriate amount and selecting the right type of carbohydrates, (ii) using specific types of dietary protein, (iii) manipulating the meal timing and orders and (iv) others (promoting postmeal physical activity, incorporating diabetes-specific formula and certain functional foods). The potential mechanisms underlying these approaches are discussed and the identified gaps warranted further research. This array of nutritional strategies provide a set of options for healthcare professionals to facilitate patients with T2D in achieving the optimal level of postmeal glucose.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Terapia Nutricional , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial
15.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370154

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) can improve glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation in mammals by activating lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 (LANCL2). This study examined the effects of two fig fruit extracts (FFEs), each administered at two different ABA doses, on glycemic index (GI) and insulinemic index (II) to a standard glucose drink. In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 10 healthy adults consumed 4 test beverages containing FFE with postprandial glucose and insulin assessed at regular intervals over 2 h to determine GI and II responses. Test beverages containing 200 mg FFE-50× and 1200 mg FFE-10× significantly reduced GI values by -25% (P = 0.001) and -24% (P = 0.002), respectively. Two lower doses of FFE also reduced GI values compared with the reference drink (by approximately -14%), but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Addition of FFE to the glucose solution significantly reduced II values at all dosages and displayed a clear dose-response reduction: FFE-50× at 100 mg and 200 mg (-14% (P < 0.05) and -24% (P = 0.01), respectively) and FFE-10× at 600 mg and 1200 mg (-16% (P < 0.05) and -24% (P = 0.01), respectively). FFE supplementation is a promising nutritional intervention for the management of acute postprandial glucose and insulin homeostasis, and it is a possible adjunctive treatment for glycemic management of chronic metabolic disorders such as prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ficus/química , Insulina/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Período Pós-Prandial , Ácido Abscísico/química , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Adulto Jovem
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29597-29605, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446595

RESUMO

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in postprandial glucose homeostasis. Secretion of which involves a cholinergic pathway. Anticholinergic agent like atropine could act as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. This review explores studies that assess the role of atropine in GLP-1 secretion. We selected published original articles from PubMed, Science Direct, The Cochrane Library, Trip, Google and the reference lists of the selected articles. Reporting was done according to the PRISMA statement. Relevant standard and previously published tools were used to assess the risk of bias of the selected articles. Twelve articles out of 185 search results fulfilled the review criteria. Eight were in vivo studies (six animal and two human studies), three were ex vivo studies and one was an in vitro study. Animal studies had rats, mice, pigs and monkeys as the subjects. Human studies involved healthy men and women. Majority of the studies reported an atropine-mediated attenuation of GLP-1 secretion and postprandial secretion of GLP-1 was mainly affected. However, atropine failed to significantly affect GLP-1 secretion when dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme was inhibited.


Assuntos
Atropina/farmacologia , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Período Pós-Prandial , Ratos , Suínos
17.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(9): 887-894, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396651

RESUMO

A multitude of short-acting and long-acting insulin analogues are currently available for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which mimic physiological insulin secretion better than normal insulins. By the use of ultrarapid insulin analogues postprandial glucose increases can be significantly reduced. Newer long-acting insulin analogues have a very stable action profile and reduce the rate of hypoglycemia, especially nocturnal hypoglycemia, even more than first generation long-acting insulin analogues. Future developments focus on a further acceleration of prandial insulin effects with a simultaneous shorter effect time and an even more prolonged action of long-acting insulin analogues.


Assuntos
Medicamentos Biossimilares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/análogos & derivados , Período Pós-Prandial , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 376-384, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the influence of oral fructose and glucose dose-response solutions in blood glucose (BG), glucagon, triglycerides, uricaemia, and malondialdehyde in postprandial states in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study had a simple-blind, randomized, two-way crossover design in which T1DM patients were selected to receive fructose and glucose solutions (75g of sugars dissolved in 200 mL of mineral-water) in two separate study days, with 2-7 weeks washout period. In each day, blood samples were drawn after 8h fasting and at 180 min postprandial to obtain glucose, glucagon, triglycerides, uric acid, lactate, and malondialdehyde levels. RESULTS: Sixteen T1DM patients (seven men) were evaluated, with a mean age of 25.19 ± 8.8 years, a mean duration of disease of 14.88 ± 4.73 years, and glycated hemoglobin of 8.13 ± 1.84%. Fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG levels than glucose (4.4 ± 5.5 mmol/L; and 12.9 ± 4.1 mmol/L, respectively; p < 0.01). Uric acid levels increased after fructose (26.1 ± 49.9 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and reduced after glucose (-13.6 ± 9.5 µmol/L; p < 0.01). The malondialdehyde increased after fructose (1.4 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p < 0.01) and did not change after glucose solution (-0.2 ± 1.6 µmol/L; p = 0.40). Other variables did not change. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose and glucose had similar sweetness, flavor and aftertaste characteristics and did not change triglycerides, lactate or glucagon levels. Although fructose resulted in lower postprandial BG than glucose, it increased uric acid and malondialdehyde levels in T1DM patients. Therefore it should be used with caution. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: NCT01713023.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Edulcorantes/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Feminino , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Método Simples-Cego , Soluções/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Paladar/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1022-1031, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The energy imbalance produced by an increase in caloric intake and/or decrease in energy expenditure induces obesity. However, the fatty acid composition of a diet can affect the metabolism in different ways, having a role in the development of obesity. AIM: To determine the effect of different fatty acids types and composition on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and postprandial energy expenditure in humans. METHODS: A search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, yielded a total of 269 potential articles as a first result; 254 were excluded according to the criteria. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were used for this systematic review. The studies analyzed report different effects of the fatty acids of the treatment on the diet-induced thermogenesis. Evidence indicates that the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids causes a greater DIT than saturated fatty acids. Also, the consumption of medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty acids has been shown to increase DIT. Likewise, the use of certain oils has shown positive effects on postprandial energy expenditure, as is the case of olive oil, compared to rapeseed oil. CONCLUSIONS: The use of specific types of fatty acids in the everyday diet can increase postprandial energy expenditure in humans. Nevertheless, longer-term studies are required.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Termogênese/fisiologia
20.
Food Chem ; 300: 125232, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352286

RESUMO

The mechanisms of main tomato carotenes (phytoene, phytofluene, lycopene and ß-carotene) intestinal absorption are still only partly understood. We thus compared carotene bioavailability in mice after gavage with carotene-rich oil-in-water emulsions. We also determined each carotene absorption profile along the duodenal-ileal axis of the intestine to identify their respective absorption sites and compared these profiles with the gene expression sites of their identified transporters, i.e. SR-BI and CD36. Our data show that phytofluene presented a significantly higher bioavailability compared to lycopene and ß-carotene (areas under the curve of 0.76 ±â€¯0.09 vs. 0.30 ±â€¯0.05, 0.09 ±â€¯0.05 and 0.08 ±â€¯0.01 µmol/L·h for phytofluene, phytoene, lycopene and ß-carotene, respectively). ß-Carotene was mostly converted in the proximal and median intestine. Phytoene and phytofluene accumulation tended to be more important in the distal intestine, which did not correlate with the proximal expression of both Scarb1 and CD36. Overall, these results highlight the high bioavailability of phytofluene.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Licopeno/farmacocinética , beta Caroteno/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Antígenos CD36/genética , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Período Pós-Prandial , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética
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