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1.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007400, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581241

RESUMO

Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model introduces new terms, explicitly accounting for the conversion of glucose to glyceraldehye-3-phosphate, the postprandial influx of glycerol into the adipose tissue, and several physiologically relevant delays in insulin signalling in order to better describe the measured adipose tissues fluxes. We then applied our refined model to human adipose tissue flux data collected before and after a diet intervention as part of the Yoyo study, to quantify the effects of caloric restriction on postprandial adipose tissue metabolism. Significant increases were observed in the model parameters describing the rate of uptake and release of both glycerol and NEFA. Additionally, decreases in the model's delay in insulin signalling parameters indicates there is an improvement in adipose tissue insulin sensitivity following caloric restriction.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Anastomose Arteriovenosa/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Isótopos , Lipídeos/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
2.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 818-824, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499563

RESUMO

Interrupting prolonged sitting with short multiple bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) can improve postprandial cardiometabolic risk markers. This study examined the effect of high and low frequency PA bouts (matched for total PA duration and energy expenditure) on postprandial cardiometabolic responses when compared with prolonged sitting. In this three-condition randomised crossover trial, 14 sedentary, inactive females (33.8±13.4 years, BMI 27.1±6.3 kg/m2) completed 3, 7.5 h conditions: 1) prolonged sitting (SIT), 2) high-frequency PA breaks (HIGH-FREQ) consisting of 15 ×2 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill PA every 30 min, and 3) low-frequency PA breaks (LOW-FREQ) consisting of 3 ×10 min bouts of moderate-intensity treadmill PA every 180 min. The PA bouts were performed at 65% of peak oxygen uptake. Net incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for each 7.5 h condition was calculated for glucose, insulin and triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations. Insulin iAUC was significantly (p<0.026) lower during HIGH-FREQ (mean [95%CI]; 82.86 [55.02, 110.70] µU/mL∙7.5 h) than LOW-FREQ (116.61 [88.50, 144.73] µU/mL∙7.5 h) and SIT (119.98 [92.42, 147.53] µU/mL∙7.5 h). Glucose and TAG iAUC did not differ between conditions. Engaging in higher-frequency PA breaks may be effective in attenuating postprandial insulin responses compared with lower-frequency PA breaks and prolonged sitting.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Postura Sentada , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Vet J ; 251: 105341, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492392

RESUMO

Equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) is characterized by an abnormal insulin response to a glycemic challenge but despite the known insulinotropic effects of certain amino acids, there is a paucity of data evaluating the impact of dietary protein on insulin dynamics in these horses. The objective was therefore to assess insulin and amino acid responses following intake of a high protein meal in healthy horses and those with EMS. Six mature horses diagnosed with EMS and six age-matched control horses without EMS were used. Horses were fed 2g/kg body mass (BM) of a high protein pellet (31% crude protein) at time 0 and 30min, for a total of 4g/kg BM, following an overnight fast. Blood samples collected during a 4h period were analysed for plasma glucose, insulin, amino acids and urea concentrations. Glucose concentrations were not different between groups (P=0.2). Horses with EMS had a 9-fold greater insulinemic response to the consumption of a high protein meal compared with controls (P=0.046). Post-prandial levels of histidine, citrulline, tyrosine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine and ornithine were higher in horses with EMS (P<0.05). Baseline urea nitrogen concentrations were not significantly different between groups (P=0.1). Knowing that certain amino acids are insulin secretagogues, these results illustrate that consumption of a high protein meal caused a hyperinsulinemic response and affected amino acid dynamics in horses with EMS. These findings suggest that dietary protein content should be taken into consideration in the management of horses with insulin dysregulation.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Cavalos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/veterinária , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
4.
Ann Hum Biol ; 46(4): 340-346, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446783

RESUMO

Background: Increasing dietary fibre (DF) intake through a habitual diet is recommended for preventing diabetes. Aim: To investigate a stepwise approach to nutrition education on DF intake among young adults in Japan with the largest deficit in habitual DF intake from the recommended value. Subjects and methods: Plasma glucose levels were measured in 54 adults in their 20s and 30s (29 men, 25 women) during fasting and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Habitual DF intake and postprandial plasma glucose level were analysed. Results: DF intake was low (men = 5.7 ± 1.5 g/1000 kcal; women = 6.3 ± 1.2 g/1000 kcal) with no sex difference. Comparison between low- and high-DF groups based on the cut-off point (7.0 g/1000 kcal) showed that the pattern of changes in postprandial plasma glucose levels was significant, and a significant increase was observed at 30 minutes in the low-DF group. Comparison by food group demonstrated that habitual intake of potatoes, green/yellow vegetables, other vegetables, seaweed, peas and beans, and fruits was significantly higher in the high-DF group. Conclusion: This study provides valuable information regarding food selection for preventing diabetes and suggests that 7.0 g/1000 kcal of DF is an effective target value for a stepwise approach to nutrition education in Japan.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 65(7): 1022-1031, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389518

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The energy imbalance produced by an increase in caloric intake and/or decrease in energy expenditure induces obesity. However, the fatty acid composition of a diet can affect the metabolism in different ways, having a role in the development of obesity. AIM: To determine the effect of different fatty acids types and composition on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis (DIT) and postprandial energy expenditure in humans. METHODS: A search in the PubMed and Web of Science databases, yielded a total of 269 potential articles as a first result; 254 were excluded according to the criteria. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were used for this systematic review. The studies analyzed report different effects of the fatty acids of the treatment on the diet-induced thermogenesis. Evidence indicates that the consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids causes a greater DIT than saturated fatty acids. Also, the consumption of medium-chain fatty acids compared to long-chain fatty acids has been shown to increase DIT. Likewise, the use of certain oils has shown positive effects on postprandial energy expenditure, as is the case of olive oil, compared to rapeseed oil. CONCLUSIONS: The use of specific types of fatty acids in the everyday diet can increase postprandial energy expenditure in humans. Nevertheless, longer-term studies are required.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Termogênese/fisiologia
6.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295897

RESUMO

The achievement of optimal post-prandial (PP) glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) remains a great challenge. This review summarizes the main factors contributing to PP glucose response and discusses the likely reasons why PP glucose control is rarely achieved in T1DM patients. The macronutrient composition of the meal, the rate of gastric emptying and premeal insulin administration are key factors affecting the PP glucose response in T1DM. Although the use of continuous insulin infusion systems has improved PP glucose control compared to conventional insulin therapy, there is still need for further ameliorations. T1DM patients frequently present a delayed gastric emptying (GE) that produces a lower but more prolonged PP hyperglycemia. In addition, delayed GE is associated with a longer time to reach the glycemic peak, with a consequent mismatch between PP glucose elevation and the timing of premeal insulin action. On this basis, including GE time and meal composition in the algorithms for insulin bolus calculation of the insulin delivery systems could be an important step forward for optimization of PP glucose control in T1DM.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Esvaziamento Gástrico/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Insulina/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia
7.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 255-270, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234660

RESUMO

To avoid boar taint before slaughtering, late castration by immunisation against gonadotrophin releasing hormone or immunocastration has been developed. The current study aimed at determining whether differences in feed efficiency between castrated male (CM), immune castrated (IM) and entire male pigs (EM) can be explained by differences in nutrient plasma profiles after a meal. In this study, 24 male pigs (n = 8/type) were enrolled between 14 to 19 weeks of age. Entire and IM pigs ate less and were more feed efficient than CM pigs (p < 0.05). The postprandial plasma profiles of glucose, insulin, urea and amino acids (AA) were determined before (d -6), just after (d 8) and well after (d 16) the decrease in testicular hormones in IM pigs. For each test day, pigs were fasted overnight and subsequently fed a small meal (400 g). On d -6, postprandial profiles of plasma glucose of IM pigs did not differ from the two other types of pigs. On d 8, EM pigs had a greater average plasma glucose concentration than IM and CM pigs (p < 0.05) but the profiles did not differ. On d 16, the differences between profiles of glucose suggest a lower clearance of glucose in EM compared with IM and CM pigs. Plasma insulin did not significantly differ between the three types. Plasma urea profiles did not differ between CM, EM and IC pigs on d -6 whereas CM pigs showed higher plasma urea concentrations than EM and IM thereafter (p < 0.01). Among AA, Lys plasma concentrations were greater in CM than in EM and IM pigs on d -6, d 8 and d 16 (p < 0.05), whereas on d 16 plasma Hypro concentrations were lower in CM than in EM and IM pigs (p < 0.05). The finding that plasma glucose profiles were modified by immunocastration much faster and earlier than urea and AA profiles, suggest that the decrease in testicular hormones impacted energy metabolism more rapidly than protein metabolism.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Nitrogênio/sangue , Nutrientes/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Imunização/veterinária , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Sus scrofa/cirurgia
8.
East Mediterr Health J ; 25(4): 282-289, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210349

RESUMO

Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance with onset during the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of pregnant women who were not screened for gestational diabetes mellitus and compare the maternal and fetal outcomes of women who had undergone GDM screening. Methods: Women who refused to attend the gestational diabetes screening test (n = 162) at a maternity hospital in Ankara, Turkey, between October 2014 and January 2015 were included in this prospective cohort study. The control group (matched for age and body mass index) was recruited from women who agreed to have the gestational diabetes screening test (n = 194). Results: Just 12% of pregnant women did not attend gestational diabetes screening test; these women were at higher risk for idiopathic polyhydramnios (P = 0.026). Prevalence of GDM was 8.8% (n = 17) in the control group and 30.9% (n = 50) in those who refused GDM screening. The maternal and fetal outcomes of GDM patients were similar in both groups. Women who did not attend GDM screening test had increased risk for mild idiopathic polyhydramnios in late gestation. Conclusions: Fasting and postprandial plasma glucose screening can replace gestational diabetes mellitus screening in women who refuse to have the glucose load test.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/métodos , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Poli-Hidrâmnios/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
9.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 57(215): 67-68, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080251

RESUMO

Higher fasting blood glucose level than postprandial level can be seen in variety of conditions in both normal population and diabetics. Various modifiable factors along with underlying condition of patient behind such laboratory picture are discussed in this article. Keywords: clinical laboratory; diabetes; fasting blood glucose; postprandial blood glucose.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Jejum/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Humanos
10.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(6): 417-427, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042670

RESUMO

Objective To investigate how weight loss by different diets impacts postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon. Methods In this single-centre, parallel group 2-year trial, 70 healthy postmenopausal obese women were randomised to the Paleolithic diet or a healthy control diet based on Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Both diets were without calorie restriction. The primary outcome was the change in fat mass. Here, secondary analyses on GLP-1, GIP and glucagon measured during an OGTT are described. Results In the Paleolithic diet group, mean weight loss compared to baseline was 11% at 6 months and 10% at 24 months. In the control diet group, mean weight loss was 6% after 6 and 24 months (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.049 for the comparison between groups at 6 and 24 months respectively). Compared to baseline, the mean incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1 increased by 34 and 45% after 6 and 24 months in the Paleolithic diet group and increased by 59% after 24 months in the control diet group. The mean iAUC for GIP increased only in the Paleolithic diet group. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucagon increased during the first 6 months in both groups. The fasting glucagon increase correlated with the ß-hydroxybutyrate increase. Conclusions Weight loss caused an increase in postprandial GLP-1 levels and a further rise occurred during weight maintenance. Postprandial GIP levels increased only after the Paleolithic diet. Reduced postprandial glucagon suppression may be caused by a catabolic state.


Assuntos
Dieta Paleolítica , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucagon/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086034

RESUMO

Collagen is characterized by its high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline, and is found to exert beneficial effects on joint pain related to activity and osteoarthritis. However, to exert any beneficial effects it is essential that collagen is optimally absorbed. This study aimed to investigate the postprandial absorption of collagen and elucidate the impact of an exogenous enzymatic hydrolysis on absorption rate and bioavailability. A randomized, blinded, cross-over study was conducted where ten healthy male subjects received either 35 g enzymatically hydrolyzed collagen protein (EHC), 35 g non-enzymatically hydrolyzed collagen protein (NC) or placebo (250 mL water) on three nonconsecutive days. Blood samples were drawn before, and up to 240 min following, ingestion and the blood metabolome was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. A significant increase in the plasma concentration of nearly all amino acids (AAs) was observed over a 240 min period for both EHC and NC. In addition, the absorption rate and bioavailability of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline were significantly higher for EHC (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ingestion of collagen hydrolysates increases postprandial plasma concentrations of AAs over a period of 240 min, and an enzymatic hydrolysis increases the absorption rate and bioavailability of the collagen-rich AAs glycine, proline and hydroxyproline.


Assuntos
Colágeno/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/química , Hidrolisados de Proteína/metabolismo , Adulto , Aminoácidos/sangue , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(7): 755-765, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093764

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the effect of walking before dinner on 24-h glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes using the standardized multi-site Exercise-Physical Activity and Diabetes Glucose Monitoring (E-PAraDiGM) Protocol. METHODS: Eighty participants were studied under two conditions (exercise vs. non-exercise control) separated by 72 h in a randomized crossover design. Each condition lasted 2 days during which standardized meals were provided. Exercise consisted of 50 min of treadmill walking at 5.0 km/h before the evening meal, while control involved 50 min of sitting. The primary outcome measure was mean glucose during the 24-h period following exercise (or sitting) measured by continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: Of the 80 participants who were initially randomized, 73 completed both exercise and control. Sixty-three participants [29 males, 34 females; age = 64 ± 8 years, body mass index = 30.5 ± 6.5 kg/m2 and HbA1c = 51 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.8 ± 0.7%), mean ± SD] complied with the standardized diets and had complete continuous glucose monitoring data. Exercise did not affect mean 24-h glucose compared to control (0.03 mmol/L; 95% CI - 0.17, 0.22, P = 0.778) but individual differences between conditions ranged from - 2.8 to +1.8 mmol/L. Exercise did not affect fasting glucose, postprandial glucose or glucose variability. Glucose concentrations measured by continuous glucose monitoring were reduced during the 50 min of walking in exercise compared to sitting in control (- 1.56 mmol/L; 95% CI - 2.18, - 0.95, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Contrary to previous acute exercise studies, 50 min of walking before dinner in the E-PAraDiGM protocol did not affect 24-h glucose profiles. However, highly heterogeneous responses to exercise were observed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02834689.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Refeições , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 96, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of pregnant women present an increase in lipids. To investigate the influence of the non-fasting state in the lipid and lipoprotein profile in pregnancy, we have aimed to assess the dynamic change of serum lipid and lipoprotein profile with serum glucose in pregnancy to contrast the differences between fasting and non-fasting state. METHODS: Forty-five pregnant women and 41 controls were included in our study. All serum samples were assayed for TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoB, ApoA-1, Lp(a), sdLDL, and Glu concentrations. The comparison between pregnant women and controls (fasting and 2 h after breakfast), differences of these measurement results at three point-in-time, the associations between the concentrations of serum lipid and some maternal and fetus characteristics was conducted with statistical analysis. RESULTS: Except Glu (p < 0.001), there were no significant differences of all lipids between three point-in-time in pregnant women (p > 0.1). The statistically higher levels were found in fasting TC (p = 0.003), TG (p = 0.019), LDL-C (p = 0.002), ApoB (p = 0.001), ApoA1 (p = 0.013) and sdLDL (p < 0.001) of pregnant women compared with controls. Besides, the statistically significances were also found in 2-h TC (p = 0.001), LDL-C (p = 0.001), ApoB (p < 0.001), Glu (p = 0.013), ApoA-1 (p = 0.009) and sdLDL (p < 0.001) of pregnant women compared with controls. Otherwise, in non-fasting status (2 h after breakfast), pregnancy complication was relevant to TC (p = 0.041), HDL-C (p = 0.014), Glu (p = 0.004). Delivery mode was relevant to TC (p = 0.012), HDL-C (p = 0.013), LDL-C (p = 0.026), ApoA-1 (p = 0.012), and sdLDL (p = 0.044). BMI was relevant to TG (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: We have suggested the non-fasting lipids detection can be used for estimate lipid metabolism in pregnant women.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteína B-100/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Gravidez
14.
J Nutr Sci ; 8: e13, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019684

RESUMO

Short-term feeding studies have highlighted a phenomenon in Ca regulation that raises concerns around Ca absorption in dogs that may make an impact on commercial diets near to the maximum recommended level. A recent study to determine responses in dogs fed one of two diets differing in dietary Ca over 40 weeks found no evidence to suggest a concern across a range of biological parameters hypothesised to be affected by Ca. Unforeseen consequences of dietary Ca could have occurred and metabolic profiling was deemed a suitable data-driven approach to identify effects of dietary Ca. The objectives were to compare the fasted plasma metabolome (sampled at 8-week intervals over 40 weeks) of dogs fed one of two diets, near to the minimum and maximum recommended levels of dietary Ca. Comparisons with the control diet were also investigated across the postprandial time course (1-4 h) following acute (1 d) and long-term (24 weeks) feeding of the test diet. Comparing fasted plasma samples at each time point, no significant effect (adjusted P < 0·05) of diet on metabolites was observed. In the postprandial state, only phosphate was consistently different between diets and was explained by additional dietary P to maintain Ca:P. Metabolic profiling analysis supports the view that the dietary Ca upper limit is safe. Additionally, the canine plasma metabolome was characterised, providing insights into the stability of individual profiles across 40 weeks, the response to consumption of a nutritionally complete meal over a 4 h postprandial time course and different kinetic categories of postprandial absorption.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Plasma/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cães , Jejum , Feminino , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 629-635, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Potential mechanisms of abnormal food intake, such as dysregulation of meal-related appetite hormones, including acyl ghrelin (AG) and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG), were investigated among men and women with obesity, with and without binge eating (BE). METHODS: Participants (n = 42: 19 female, 23 male) were assigned to a liquid meal and water condition in counterbalanced order, and blood samples for measuring hormones were obtained before and after these conditions. RESULTS: Participants with BE had significantly lower fasting and postingestive AG concentrations than participants without BE in both conditions. During the meal condition, postprandial decreases in AG concentrations were significantly smaller for the BE group than for the non-BE group. There were no significant differences in DAG by BE group. Leptin increased significantly less after meals for those with BE compared with those without BE. There were no differences in other hormones by BE group. Fasting and postmeal hunger ratings were significantly higher for those with BE than for those without BE. CONCLUSIONS: In individuals with BE, lower fasting AG may be due to downregulation by habitual overeating, and a smaller postmeal decline in AG may contribute to overeating. Lower postmeal leptin concentrations may also contribute to overeating.


Assuntos
Apetite/fisiologia , Bulimia/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/sangue , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/complicações , Bulimia/complicações , Colecistocinina/sangue , Feminino , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Humanos , Hiperfagia/sangue , Hiperfagia/complicações , Insulina/sangue , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Gastroenterology ; 156(6): 1627-1641.e1, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742833

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induce substantial weight loss and improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes, but it is not clear whether these occur via the same mechanisms. We compared absorption rates of glucose and protein, as well as profiles of gastro-entero-pancreatic hormones, in patients who had undergone SG or RYGB vs controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 12 patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy, 12 patients who had undergone RYGB, and 12 individuals who had undergone neither surgery (controls), all in Denmark. Study participants were matched for body mass index, age, sex, and postoperative weight loss, and all had stable weights. They received continuous infusions of stable isotopes of glucose, glycerol, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and urea before and during a mixed meal containing labeled glucose and intrinsically phenylalanine-labeled caseinate. Blood samples were collected for 6 hours, at 10- to 60-minute intervals, and analyzed. RESULTS: The systemic appearance of ingested glucose was faster after RYGB and SG vs controls; the peak glucose appearance rate was 64% higher after RYGB, and 23% higher after SG (both P < .05); the peak phenylalanine appearance rate from ingested casein was 118% higher after RYGB (P < .01), but similar between patients who had undergone SG and controls. Larger, but more transient increases in levels of plasma glucose and amino acids were accompanied by higher secretion of insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin after RYGB, whereas levels of ghrelin were lower after SG, compared with RYGB and controls. Total 6-hour oral recovery of ingested glucose and protein was comparable among groups. CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial glucose and protein absorption and gastro-entero-pancreatic hormone secretions differ after SG and RYGB. RYGB was characterized by accelerated absorption of glucose and amino acids, whereas protein metabolism after SG did not differ significantly from controls, suggesting that different mechanisms explain improved glycemic control and weight loss after these surgical procedures. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT03046186.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/sangue , Glucose/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Adulto , Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Glicemia/metabolismo , Caseínas/metabolismo , Colecistocinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Grelina/sangue , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Glucose/farmacocinética , Glicerol/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeo YY/sangue , Fenilalanina/sangue , Fenilalanina/farmacocinética , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia
17.
Nutrients ; 11(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744113

RESUMO

Mechanisms to explain post-prandial increases in circulating glucocorticoids are not well understood and may involve increased adrenal secretion and/or altered steroid metabolism. We have compared salivary levels of cortisol and cortisone levels in healthy male and female volunteers fed either a low or cholesterol-rich midday meal. Urinary levels of steroids, bile acids and markers of lipid peroxidation were also measured. Males and females showed expected circadian changes in salivary steroids and postprandial peaks within 1h of feeding. After a high-cholesterol meal, postprandial cortisol increases were higher in males whereas post-prandial cortisone levels were higher in females. Urinary cortisol but not cortisone levels were higher on the day when males and females ate a high-cholesterol meal. Urinary bile acid excretion and anti-oxidant markers of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and total phenol content were not affected by dietary cholesterol but tended to be higher in males. Cross-tabulation of correlation coefficients indicated positive associations between urinary markers of peroxidation, bile acids, and cortisol:cortisone ratios. We conclude that dietary cholesterol (a substrate for steroidogenesis) does not have an acute effect on adrenal glucocorticoid synthesis and that gender but not a high-cholesterol meal may influence the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. Longer term studies of the effects of dietary cholesterol are needed to analyze the associations between bile acids, steroid metabolism, and secretion and lipid peroxidation.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/metabolismo , Glucocorticoides/análise , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Adulto , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/urina , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(2): e188102, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735238

RESUMO

Importance: Emerging evidence suggests that postprandial glycemic responses (PPGRs) to food may be influenced by and predicted according to characteristics unique to each individual, including anthropometric and microbiome variables. Interindividual diversity in PPGRs to food requires a personalized approach for the maintenance of healthy glycemic levels. Objectives: To describe and predict the glycemic responses of individuals to a diverse array of foods using a model that considers the physiology and microbiome of the individual in addition to the characteristics of the foods consumed. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study using a personalized predictive model enrolled 327 individuals without diabetes from October 11, 2016, to December 13, 2017, in Minnesota and Florida to be part of a study lasting 6 days. The study measured anthropometric variables, described the gut microbial composition, and assessed blood glucose levels every 5 minutes using a continuous glucose monitor. Participants logged their food and activity information for the duration of the study. A predictive model of individualized PPGRs to a diverse array of foods was trained and applied. Main Outcomes and Measures: Glycemic responses to food consumed over 6 days for each participant. The predictive model of personalized PPGRs considered individual features, including the microbiome, in addition to the features of the foods consumed. Results: Postprandial response to the same foods varied across 327 individuals (mean [SD] age, 45 [12] years; 78.0% female). A model predicting each individual's responses to food that considers several individual factors in addition to food features had better overall performance (R = 0.62) than current standard-of-care approaches using nutritional content alone (R = 0.34 for calories and R = 0.40 for carbohydrates) to control postprandial glycemic levels. Conclusions and Relevance: Across the cohort of adults without diabetes who were examined, a personalized predictive model that considers unique features of the individual, such as clinical characteristics, physiological variables, and the microbiome, in addition to nutrient content was more predictive than current dietary approaches that focus only on the calorie or carbohydrate content of foods. Providing individuals with tools to manage their glycemic responses to food based on personalized predictions of their PPGRs may allow them to maintain their blood glucose levels within limits associated with good health.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(4): 542-550, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767409

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the effect of red raspberry intake on meal-induced postprandial metabolic responses in individuals who have overweight or obesity with prediabetes and insulin resistance (PreDM-IR), and in metabolically healthy individuals (Reference). METHODS: Thirty-two adults (PreDM-IR, n = 21; Reference, n = 11) were randomized to a controlled, three-arm, single-blinded, crossover trial. Participants were provided 0 g of frozen red raspberries (Control), 125 g of frozen red raspberries (RR-125) (~1 cup), or 250 g of frozen red raspberries (RR-250) (~2 cups), with a challenge breakfast meal (high carbohydrate/moderate fat) on three separate days. Multiple blood samples were collected up to 8 hours post breakfast with a final blood sample at 24 hours. A snack was provided at 6 hours. RESULTS: Breakfast containing RR-125 and RR-250 significantly reduced 2-hour insulin area under the curve, and RR-250 reduced peak insulin, peak glucose, and 2-hour glucose AUC compared with Control in the PreDM-IR group (P < 0.05). Postprandial triglycerides were significantly lower after RR-125 versus RR-250 (P = 0.01) but not different from Control (P > 0.05). No significant meal-related differences were observed for oxidative stress or inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that red raspberries aid in postmeal glycemic control in individuals with PreDM-IR, reducing glycemic burden with less insulin, which may be related to improved tissue insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Estado Pré-Diabético/dietoterapia , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Rubus , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Desjejum , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Rubus/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693314

RESUMO

Memory of a recently eaten meal can serve as a powerful mechanism for controlling future eating behavior because it provides a record of intake that likely outlasts most physiological signals generated by the meal. In support, impairing the encoding of a meal in humans increases the amount ingested at the next eating episode. However, the brain regions that mediate the inhibitory effects of memory on future intake are unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dorsal hippocampal (dHC) and ventral hippocampal (vHC) glutamatergic pyramidal neurons play a critical role in the inhibition of energy intake during the postprandial period by optogenetically inhibiting these neurons at specific times relative to a meal. Male Sprague Dawley rats were given viral vectors containing CaMKIIα-eArchT3.0-eYFP or CaMKIIα-GFP and fiber optic probes into dHC of one hemisphere and vHC of the other. Compared to intake on a day in which illumination was not given, inhibition of dHC or vHC glutamatergic neurons after the end of a chow, sucrose, or saccharin meal accelerated the onset of the next meal and increased the amount consumed during that next meal when the neurons were no longer inhibited. Inhibition given during a meal did not affect the amount consumed during that meal or the next one but did hasten meal initiation. These data show that dHC and vHC glutamatergic neuronal activity during the postprandial period is critical for limiting subsequent ingestion and suggest that these neurons inhibit future intake by consolidating the memory of the preceding meal.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Células Piramidais/fisiologia , Animais , Sacarose na Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Memória/fisiologia , Inibição Neural , Optogenética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sacarina , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
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