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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e25288, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787614

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Target-controlled infusion of remifentanil is known to reduce cough effectively during emergence from general anesthesia. The effect of smoking on emergence cough remains controversial. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil in the male patients undergoing laparoscopic or robotic cholecystectomy for suppressing emergence cough in smokers and non-smokers.Twenty smokers and 24 non-smokers (sex, male; age range, 20-65 years) were enrolled in this study. Anesthesia was maintained using sevoflurane and remifentanil. The Ce of remifentanil in 50% (EC50) and 95% (EC95) of the patients required for suppressing emergence cough were determined for each group (smokers and non-smokers) using Dixon up-and-down method and isotonic regression method with a bootstrapping approach.Dixon up-and-down method revealed that the EC50 value was significantly higher in smokers (3.51 ±â€Š0.60 ng/mL) than in non-smokers (2.71 ±â€Š0.30 ng/mL) (P < 0.001). In smokers and non-smokers, isotonic regression revealed EC50 to be 4.40 (83% CI, 4.17-4.58) ng/mL and 2.58 (83% CI, 2.31-2.87) ng/mL, respectively, and EC95 to be 4.76 (95% CI, 4.73-4.78) ng/mL and 3.15 (95% CI, 3.04-3.18) ng/mL, respectively.The Ces of remifentanil required to prevent cough during emergence were significantly higher in smokers than in non-smokers. Therefore, clinicians should pay attention to the smoking history of a patient to prevent cough during emergence.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Antitussígenos/administração & dosagem , Colecistectomia , Tosse/prevenção & controle , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(8): e24842, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663105

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: An association between animals and volatile anaesthetic requirements has been shown; however, evidence related to the postoperative outcome of human patients is lacking. Our aim was to investigate whether there is a difference in the requirement for sevoflurane among people undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.We observed 390 adult patients who underwent gastrointestinal surgery with an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status of I or II with an expected surgery duration of > 2 hours. We used the bispectral index (BIS) to guide the regulation of end-tidal sevoflurane concentration (ETsevo). The mean ETsevo from 20 minutes after endotracheal intubation to 2 hours after the start of surgery was calculated for all patients. Differential sevoflurane requirements were identified according to ETsevo. The BIS, ETsevo, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, dose of sufentanil and cisatracurium, tracheal extubation time, incidence of intraoperative awareness, and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were compared between patients with a low requirement for sevoflurane (group L) and patients with a high requirement for sevoflurane (group H).The mean ETsevo of the 390 patients was 1.55% ±â€Š0.26%. Based on our definition, patients with an ETsevo of < 1.29% were allocated to the low requirement group (group L; n = 69), while patients with an ETsevo of > 1.81% were allocated to the high requirement group (group H; n = 78). The ETsevo of group L was significantly lower than the ETsevo of group H (1.29% ±â€Š0.014% vs 1.82% ±â€Š0.017%, P < .001). There was no significant difference in the ETsevo, BIS, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, dose of sufentanil and cisatracurium, tracheal extubation time, incidence of intraoperative awareness, and incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The tracheal extubation time in the L group was significantly shorter than that in the H group. No intraoperative awareness occurred.There was a significant difference in the requirement for sevoflurane in adult patients. The tracheal extubation time in group L was significantly shorter than that in group H.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacocinética , Sevoflurano/farmacocinética , Extubação/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Monitores de Consciência , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem
3.
J Anesth ; 35(2): 239-245, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smart Pilot View (SPV) (Dräger Medical) provide information about the estimated drug effect of anesthetic drugs. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to evaluated the recovery time in SPV-guided general anesthesia compared with usual practice in patients with desflurane general anesthesia. METHOD: Thirty-four American Society of Anesthesiologist's physical status I-II patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in the study. The patients were allocated to one of the following two groups: the Smart Pilot View group (group SPV) or the control group (group C). General anesthesia was induced by propofol and maintained by desflurane end-tidal concentration of 4.2%. During the procedure, desflurane concentration was adjusted to maintain BIS values between 40 and 60 and above MAC 90. In group SPV, desflurane concentration and infusion rate of remifentanil were decreased to achieve MAC 90 about 10 min before the end of the procedure. In group C, the desflurane concentration and infusion rate of remifentanil were maintained unchanged until the end of the procedure. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were enrolled in group C, and seventeen of these were enrolled in group SPV. The time taken for the opening of the patient's eyes was 292 ± 53 s in group C and 218 ± 44 s in group SPV. The time taken for recovery of orientation was 451 ± 100 s in group C and 316 ± 57 s in group SPV. Both times were significantly faster in the group SPV. CONCLUSION: Smart Pilot View guided anesthesia enabled faster recovery from desflurane general anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios , Isoflurano , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Desflurano , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012968, 2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women. Surgical removal of the cancer is the mainstay of treatment; however, tumour handling during surgery can cause microscopic dissemination of tumour cells and disease recurrence. The body's hormonal response to surgery (stress response) and general anaesthesia may suppress immunity, promoting tumour dissemination. Paravertebral anaesthesia numbs the site of surgery, provides good analgesia, and blunts the stress response, minimising the need for general anaesthesia. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of paravertebral anaesthesia with or without sedation compared to general anaesthesia in women undergoing breast cancer surgery, with important outcomes of quality of recovery, postoperative pain at rest, and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: On 6 April 2020, we searched the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group (CBCG); CENTRAL (latest issue), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (via OvidSP); Embase (via OvidSP); the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal; and ClinicalTrials.gov for all prospectively registered and ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in adult women undergoing breast cancer surgery in which paravertebral anaesthesia with or without sedation was compared to general anaesthesia. We did not include studies in which paravertebral anaesthesia was given as an adjunct to general anaesthesia and then this was compared to use of general anaesthesia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted details of trial methods and outcome data from eligible trials. When data could be pooled, analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis, and the random-effects model was used if there was heterogeneity. When data could not be pooled, the synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) approach was applied. The GRADE approach was used to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Nine studies (614 participants) were included in the review. All were RCTs of parallel design, wherein female patients aged > 18 years underwent breast cancer surgery under paravertebral anaesthesia or general anaesthesia. None of the studies assessed quality of recovery in the first three postoperative days using a validated questionnaire; most assessed factors affecting quality of recovery such as postoperative analgesic use, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), hospital stay, ambulation, and patient satisfaction. Paravertebral anaesthesia may reduce the 24-hour postoperative analgesic requirement (odds ratio (OR) 0.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.34; 5 studies, 305 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to general anaesthesia. Heterogeneity (I² = 70%) was attributed to the fixed dose of opioids and non-steroidal analgesics administered postoperatively in one study (70 participants), masking a difference in analgesic requirements between groups. Paravertebral anaesthesia probably reduces the incidence of PONV (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.30; 6 studies, 324 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), probably results in a shorter hospital stay (mean difference (MD) -79.39 minutes, 95% CI -107.38 to -51.40; 3 studies, 174 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and probably reduces time to ambulation compared to general anaesthesia (SWiM analysis): percentages indicate vote counting based on direction of effect (100%, 95% CI 51.01% to 100%; P = 0.125; 4 studies, 375 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Paravertebral anaesthesia probably results in higher patient satisfaction (MD 5.52 points, 95% CI 1.30 to 9.75; 3 studies, 129 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) on a 0 to 100 scale 24 hours postoperatively compared to general anaesthesia. Postoperative pain at rest and on movement was assessed at 2, 6, and 24 postoperative hours on a 0 to 10 visual analogue scale (VAS). Four studies (224 participants) found that paravertebral anaesthesia as compared to general anaesthesia probably reduced pain at 2 postoperative hours (MD -2.95, 95% CI -3.37 to -2.54; moderate-certainty evidence). Five studies (324 participants) found that paravertebral anaesthesia may reduce pain at rest at 6 hours postoperatively (MD -1.54, 95% CI -3.20 to 0.11; low-certainty evidence). Five studies (278 participants) found that paravertebral anaesthesia may reduce pain at rest at 24 hours postoperatively (MD -1.19, 95% CI -2.27 to -0.10; low-certainty evidence). Differences in the methods of two studies (119 participants) and addition of clonidine to the local anaesthetic in two studies (109 participants), respectively, contributed to the heterogeneity (I² = 96%) observed for these two outcomes. Two studies (130 participants) found that paravertebral anaesthesia may reduce pain on movement at 6 hours (MD-2.57, 95% CI -3.97 to -1.17) and at 24 hours (MD -2.12, 95% CI -4.80 to 0.55; low-certainty evidence). Heterogeneity (I² = 96%) was observed for both outcomes and could be due to methodological differences between studies. None of the studies reported mortality related to the anaesthetic technique. Eight studies (574 participants) evaluated adverse outcomes with paravertebral anaesthesia: epidural spread (0.7%), minor bleeding (1.4%), pleural puncture not associated with pneumothorax (0.3%), and Horner's syndrome (7.1%). These complications were self-limiting and resolved without treatment. No data are available on disease-free survival, chronic pain, and quality of life. Blinding of personnel or participants was not possible in any study, as a regional anaesthetic technique was compared to general anaesthesia. Risk of bias was judged to be serious, as seven studies had concerns of selection bias and three of detection bias. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence shows that paravertebral anaesthesia probably reduces PONV, hospital stay, postoperative pain (at 2 hours), and time to ambulation and results in greater patient satisfaction on the first postoperative day compared to general anaesthesia. Paravertebral anaesthesia may also reduce postoperative analgesic use and postoperative pain at 6 and 24 hours at rest and on movement based on low-certainty evidence. However, RCTs using validated questionnaires are needed to confirm these results. Adverse events observed with paravertebral anaesthesia are rare.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Viés , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Deambulação Precoce , Feminino , Síndrome de Horner/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Tempo de Internação , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Satisfação do Paciente , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24314, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578527

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Postsurgical patients usually have difficulty in answering the self-report pain scales due to the residual effects of anesthetic or sedative agents in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). A comparative analysis of pain assessment tools used in the PACU is lacking.In this prospective observational study, we compared the intensity of pain using the 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) and the 4-category verbal rating scale (VRS) thrice, 5 minutes after PACU admission, 20 minutes after the first assessment, and just before discharge from the PACU in 200 patients undergone surgery. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between 2 scales, and the weighted kappa (κ) coefficient was performed to evaluate inter-scale reliability. Response rates of the 2 scales were also compared.VRS and NRS were highly correlated during all 3 comparisons (r = 0.767, 0.714, and 0.653, respectively; P < .0001). Each category of VRS showed a statistically significant difference in pain intensity measured by NRS during all 3 assessments. Inter-scale reliability had a fair strength of agreement for all 3 measurements (weighted κ = 0.519, 95% CI: 0.421-0.618; weighted κ = 0.511, 95% C.I: 0.409-0.613; weighted κ = 0.452, 95% C.I: 0.352-0.551, respectively). VRS showed a higher response rate for PACU patients compared to NRS in all 3 measurements (96% vs 77.5%, 99% vs 81.5%, and 96.5% vs 86.5%, respectively; P < .0001).In the PACU, VRS is a reasonable and practical pain intensity measurement tool for postsurgical patients, considering the high correlation between VRS and NRS, and a higher response rate.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor/tendências , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Idoso , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/classificação , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Escala Visual Analógica
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(1): 52-56, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423445

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypothermia and its risk factors in patients after general anesthesia in the post anesthesia recovery unit (PACU). Methods: A total of 10 341 patients after general anesthesia in the PACU of Peking University People's Hospital from January to December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. According to whether hypothermia occurred in the PACU, the patients were divided into hypothermia group and non-hypothermia group. After propensity score matching based on age and gender, 336 cases in hypothermia group and 336 cases in non-hypothermia group were finally included. The clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared, and the potential risk factors of hypothermia in the PACU were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model. Results: The incidence of hypothermia in PACU was 3.3% (339/10 341). The age of hypothermia group was (54.1±17.1) years, with 156 males and 180 females; the age of non-hypothermia group was (53.1±16.0) years, with 156 males and 180 females. There was no statistically significant difference in age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification and operation type between the two groups (all P>0.05). Compared with the non-hypothermia group, the body mass index (BMI) [(22.8±3.5) kg/m2 vs (24.7±4.2) kg/m2] and baseline body temperature [(36.3±0.5)℃ vs (36.5±0.5)℃] were lower, and anesthesia time [(4.4±1.6) h vs (3.2±1.5) h] and operation time [(3.1±1.4) h vs (2.1±1.3) h] were longer in hypothermia group. The amount of intraoperative bleeding, blood transfusion and intravenous fluid was larger in hypothermia group (all P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that larger amount of blood loss (L) (OR=5.361, 95%CI: 2.863-10.037, P<0.001), prone position operation (OR=3.653, 95%CI: 2.104-6.342, P<0.001), longer anesthesia time (h) (OR=1.421, 95%CI: 1.227-1.646, P<0.001), and general anesthesia combined with regional nerve block (OR=1.708, 95%CI: 1.026-2.843, P=0.039) were independent risk factors of hypothermia in the PACU, and higher BMI (OR=0.849, 95%CI: 0.801-0.900, P<0.001) was an independent protective factor. Conclusions: The incidence of hypothermia in patients after general anesthesia in the PACU remains relatively high. Therefore, more attention should be paid to identify high-risk patients, and active preventive measures should be taken for the risk factors of hypothermia.


Assuntos
Hipotermia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Temperatura Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotermia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 38(1): 73-81, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that monitoring the levels of both hypnosis and antinociception could reduce periods of inadequate anaesthesia. However, the evidence regarding associated benefits of this monitoring is still limited. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to confirm that guidance of anaesthesia by depth of hypnosis and antinociception monitoring decreases the number of inadequate anaesthesia events in comparison with standard clinical practice. DESIGN: A multicentre, single-blinded, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: The study was conducted in four European University hospitals in four different countries between December 2013 and November 2016. PATIENTS: The study population consisted of a total of 494 adult patients undergoing elective surgery requiring tracheal intubation. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were allocated to one of two groups. The first group was treated using Entropy for depth of hypnosis and surgical pleth index to determine depth of antinociception (adequacy of anaesthesia group; AoA group). The second group was monitored using standard monitoring alone (control group). Anaesthesia was conducted with target-controlled infusions of propofol and remifentanil. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome of the study was the number of total unwanted events for example signs of inadequately light or unintentionally deep anaesthesia. RESULTS: Evidence of inadequate anaesthesia had an incidence of around 0.7 events per patient in both groups with no difference between groups (P = 0.519). In the AoA group, the overall consumption of propofol was significantly reduced (6.9 vs. 7.5 mg kg h, P = 0.008) in comparison with the control group. The consumption of remifentanil was equal in both groups. The times to emergence [8.0 vs. 9.6 min (P = 0.005)] and full recovery in the postanaesthesia care unit (P = 0.043) were significantly shorter in the AoA group. No differences were seen in postoperative pain scores or in the use of analgesics. CONCLUSION: In the current study, the guidance of total intravenous anaesthesia by Entropy and surgical pleth index in comparison with standard monitoring alone was not able to validate reduction of unwanted anaesthesia events. However, there was a reduction in the use of propofol, and shorter times for emergence and time spent in the postanaesthesia care unit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01928875.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Intravenosos , Propofol , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa , Humanos , Padrões de Referência
9.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(1): 102809, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The literature remains scarce in terms of comparing different anesthesia modalities in sialendoscopy. Due to the lack of a standard of care or guidelines to anesthetic care, it is generally accepted that surgeons perform these surgeries under the anesthetic modality in which they are most comfortable. In this study, we evaluate time spent on the day of surgery and post-surgical outcomes for patients receiving sialendoscopy under monitored anesthesia care versus general anesthesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively assessed patients who underwent sialendoscopy using a solely endoscopic approach for sialadenitis or sialolithiasis from March 2017 to December 2019. Anesthesia modality (monitored anesthesia care versus general anesthesia) was compared. Main outcomes included total time in hospital, operative time, total time in operating room, anesthesia time, and recovery time. Secondary outcomes included rate of resolution of symptoms, requiring further medical management, requiring further surgical intervention, and complications. RESULTS: A total of 172 procedures were included. Sialendoscopy under monitored anesthesia care center compared to general anesthesia decreased median hospital time (141 min reduction), anesthesia time (46 min reduction), operative time (24 min reduction), time in operating room (43 min reduction), and recovery time (56 min reduction). Utilizing monitored anesthesia care demonstrated similar rates of post-operative resolution of symptoms, complications, and further medical or surgical intervention compared to the general anesthesia cohort. CONCLUSION: Sialendoscopy can be safely performed under monitored anesthesia care for appropriate sialadenitis or sialolithiasis cases while decreasing hospital time, operative time, time in operating room, anesthesia time, and recovery time while maintaining similar post-operative outcomes. Monitored anesthesia care should be considered for solely endoscopic cases as guided by surgeon and patient comfort.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral , Anestesia/métodos , Endoscopia/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Cálculos das Glândulas Salivares/cirurgia , Sialadenite/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(4): 241-246, 21-12-2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1141402

RESUMO

Objetivo: Identificar a frequência, o perfil e o tempo de permanência de pacientes intensivos admitidos na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica (SRPA). Método: Estudo transversal e retrospectivo, realizado com base em registros de admissões na SRPA de um hospital público no Rio Grande do Sul, entre julho de 2012 e julho de 2017. Resultados: No período estudado, admitiram-se no setor 22.333 pacientes, sendo 717 (3,2%) pacientes intensivos por indisponibilidade de leito na unidade de terapia intensiva. Destes, 67,6% eram do sexo feminino, 61,2% em idade adulta, submetidos à neurocirurgia (61,5%). O tempo de permanência médio no setor foi de 10,7 horas, e 4,1% dos pacientes foram a óbito. Conclusão: A permanência de pacientes intensivos na SRPA requer adequação do setor em sua estrutura física e operacional, especialmente no que diz respeito à equipe assistencial tanto em quantidade de pessoal quanto em capacitação técnica necessária para assegurar uma assistência de qualidade.


Objective: To identify the frequency, profile, and length of stay of intensive care patients admitted to the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Method: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study based on PACU admission records of a public hospital in Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil, between July 2012 and June 2017. Results: In the study period, 22,333 patients were admitted to the PACU; 717 (3.2%) of them were intensive care patients due to the unavailability of beds in the intensive care unit. Among them, 67.6% were women, 61.2% were adults, and 61.5% were individuals submitted to neurosurgery. The mean length of stay in the unit was 10.7 hours, and 4.1% of patients died. Conclusion: The stay of intensive care patients in the PACU requires adapting the physical and operational structure of the unit, particularly in aspects related to the care team, including the number of personnel and the technical training necessary to ensure the quality of care.


Objetivo: Identificar la frecuencia, perfil y tiempo de estancia de los pacientes de cuidados intensivos ingresados en la Sala de Recuperación Posanestésica (SRPA). Método: Estudio transversal y retrospectivo, realizado a partir de los registros de ingreso en la UCPA de un hospital público de Rio Grande do Sul, entre julio de 2012 y julio de 2017. Resultados: En el período estudiado ingresaron al sector 22.333 pacientes, 717 (3,2%) pacientes de cuidados intensivos por indisponibilidad de camas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos. De estos, el 67,6% eran mujeres, el 61,2% adultos, sometidos a neurocirugía (61,5%). La estancia media en el sector fue de 10,7 horas y falleció el 4,1% de los pacientes. Conclusión: La permanencia de los pacientes de cuidados intensivos en la SRPA requiere la adecuación del sector en su estructura física y operativa, especialmente en lo que se refiere al equipo asistencial, tanto en el número de personal como en la formación técnica necesaria para asegurar una atención de calidad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia , Sala de Recuperação , Tempo de Permanência , Tempo de Internação
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22524, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019455

RESUMO

TRIAL DESIGN: The current study is a meta-analysis designed to assess the effect of adding magnesium to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl. METHODS: The protocol was registered in PROSPERO with the number CRD42020177618. PubMed, Cochrane library, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of adding magnesium to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentanyl. The continuous data were presented as Ratio of means (RoM). Risk ratio (RR) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was utilized to assess the dichotomous data. RESULTS: Ten trials were involved in the present study with 720 adult patients. Compared with control, intrathecal magnesium prolonged time to the first analgesic requirement by an estimate of 1.23 (RoM: 1.23; 95%CI: 1.13-1.33; P < .00001), prolonged adequate sensory block duration for surgery by an estimate of 1.16 (RoM: 1.16; 95%CI: 1.05-1.27; P = .003), delayed time to maximum sensory level by an estimate of 1.38 (RoM: 1.38; 95%CI: 1.07-1.78; P = .01) and reduced the incidence of shivering following spinal anesthesia (risk ratio: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.18 to 0.81, P = .01) without influence on time to full motor recovery or incidences of hypotention, bradycardia, nausea, and vomiting or pruritis. CONCLUSION: Intrathecal magnesium, when added to a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine and fentany, prolongs the analgesic duration of spinal anesthesia without increased incidences of side effects.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tremor por Sensação de Frio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Anesth Analg ; 131(5): 1444-1455, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079868

RESUMO

Some neurological complications following surgery have been related to a mismatch in cerebral oxygen supply and demand that may either lead to more subtle changes of brain function or overt complications like stroke or coma. Discovery of a perioperative neurological complication may be outside the treatment window, thereby making prevention an important focus. Early commercial devices used differential spectroscopy to measure relative changes from baseline of 2 chromophores: oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. It was the introduction of spatially resolved spectroscopy techniques that allowed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-based cerebral oximetry as we know it today. Modern cerebral oximeters measure the hemoglobin saturation of blood in a specific "optical field" containing arterial, capillary, and venous blood, not tissue oxygenation itself. Multiple cerebral oximeters are commercially available, all of which have technical differences that make them noninterchangeable. The mechanism and meaning of these measurements are likely not widely understood by many practicing physicians. Additionally, as with many clinically used monitors, there is a lack of high-quality evidence on which clinicians can base decisions in their effort to use cerebral oximetry to reduce neurocognitive complications after surgery. Therefore, the Sixth Perioperative Quality Initiative (POQI-6) consensus conference brought together an international team of multidisciplinary experts including anesthesiologists, surgeons, and critical care physicians to objectively survey the literature on cerebral oximetry and provide consensus, evidence-based recommendations for its use in accordance with the GRading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria for evaluating biomedical literature. The group produced the following consensus recommendations: (1) interpreting perioperative cerebral oximetry measurements in the context of a preinduction baseline value; (2) interpreting perioperative cerebral oximetry measurements in the context of the physiologic variables that affect them; (3) using caution in comparing cerebral oximetry values between different manufacturers; (4) using preoperative cerebral oximetry to identify patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery; (5) using intraoperative cerebral oximetry indexed to preinduction baseline to identify patients at increased risk of adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery; (6) using cerebral oximetry to identify and guide management of acute cerebral malperfusion during cardiac surgery; (7) using an intraoperative cerebral oximetry-guided interventional algorithm to reduce intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay after cardiac surgery. Additionally, there was agreement that (8) there is insufficient evidence to recommend using intraoperative cerebral oximetry to reduce mortality or organ-specific morbidity after cardiac surgery; (9) there is insufficient evidence to recommend using intraoperative cerebral oximetry to improve outcomes after noncardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Monitorização Neurofisiológica/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Consenso , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle
13.
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(3): 159-170, 30-09-2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122703

RESUMO

Objetivo: Discutir a implementação dos protocolos para o cuidado ao paciente na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, considerando a disposição afetiva da equipe de enfermagem no seu cotidiano, em um hospital da região oeste de Santa Catarina. Método: Pesquisa qualitativa, com base na etnografia e na observação participante. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram nove profissionais da enfermagem. Os dados foram coletados no primeiro semestre de 2019, considerando-se a análise de conteúdo de Bardin, de onde emergiram três categorias. Resultados: Os profissionais de enfermagem compreendem a importância da disposição afetiva no cuidado aos pacientes na recuperação, elencando a alta demanda de atividades e cirurgias e o número de funcionários insuficiente como dificuldades para um cuidado afetivo, efetivo e empático em seu cotidiano. Há baixa adesão aos protocolos assistenciais disponibilizados no setor, apesar do reconhecimento de sua importância no cuidado direcionado aos pacientes. Conclusão: Como fatores determinantes apresentaram-se a alta demanda diária do setor, o quantitativo de funcionários inadequado e o atendimento a pacientes críticos por longos períodos na recuperação anestésica


Objective: The aim of this study was to discuss the implementation of protocols for patient care in the postanesthesia care unit, considering the provision of compassionate care by the nursing team in their daily routine, in a hospital in the western region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Method: Qualitative study based on ethnography and participant observation. The research subjects were nine nursing professionals. Data were collected in the first half of 2019, considering Bardin's content analysis, from which three categories emerged. Results: Nursing professionals understand the importance of providing compassion in patient care during recovery, listing the high demand for activities and surgeries and the insufficient staff as difficulties for providing compassionate and effective care in their daily routine. There is low adherence to the assistance protocols available in this unit, despite the recognition of their importance in patient care. Conclusion: Limiting factors for compassionate care of patients in postanesthesia recovery were the high daily demand in this unit, inadequate staff and care of critical patients for long periods.


Objetivo: Discutir la implementación de protocolos para el cuidado del paciente en la sala de recuperación postanestésica, considerando la disposición afectiva del equipo de enfermería en su vida diaria, en un hospital en el oeste de Santa Catarina. Método: Investigación cualitativa, basada en etnografía y observación participante. Los sujetos de investigación fueron nueve profesionales de enfermería. Los datos se recopilaron en la primera mitad de 2019, considerando el análisis de contenido de Bardin, del cual surgieron tres categorías. Resultados: Los profesionales de enfermería entienden la importancia de la disposición afectiva en la atención al paciente en recuperación, enumerando la alta demanda de actividades y cirugías y el número insuficiente de empleados, como dificultades para la atención afectiva, efectiva y empática en su vida diaria; baja adherencia al uso de protocolos de atención disponibles en el sector, a pesar del reconocimiento de su importancia en la atención dirigida a los pacientes. Conclusión: Como factores determinantes fueron la alta demanda diaria en el sector, el número inadecuado de empleados y la atención de pacientes críticos durante largos períodos en la recuperación anestésica.


Assuntos
Humanos , Sala de Recuperação , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Afeto , Profissionais de Enfermagem/psicologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 529-538, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature addresses the possible long-term cognitive effects of anaesthetics, but no study has delineated the normal trajectory of neural recovery attributable to anaesthesia alone in adults. We obtained resting-state functional MRI scans on 72 healthy human volunteers between ages 40 and 80 (median: 59) yr before, during, and after general anaesthesia with sevoflurane, in the absence of surgery, as part of a larger study on cognitive function postanaesthesia. METHODS: Region-of-interest analysis, independent component analysis, and seed-to-voxel analysis were used to characterise resting-state functional connectivity and to differentiate between correlated and anticorrelated connectivity before, during, and after general anaesthesia. RESULTS: Whilst positively correlated functional connectivity remained essentially unchanged across these perianaesthetic states, anticorrelated functional connectivity decreased globally by 35% 1 h after emergence from general anaesthesia compared with baseline, as seen by the region-of-interest analysis. This decrease corresponded to a consistent reduction in expression of canonical resting-state networks, as seen by independent component analysis. All measures returned to baseline 1 day later. CONCLUSIONS: The normal perianaesthesia trajectory of resting-state connectivity in healthy adults is characterised by a transient global reduction in anticorrelated activity shortly after emergence from anaesthesia that returns to baseline by the following day. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02275026.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Sevoflurano/farmacologia
15.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(29): 2278-2282, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746598

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia on postoperative recovery after long lasting tumor surgery. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients undergoing endoscopic radical esophagectomy and gastrectomy (80 cases of each surgical type) from November 2019 to March 2020 at Henan Cancer Hospital, were randomized into 4 groups(n=40): group CS (esophageal cancer+sevoflurane anesthesia), group DS (esophageal cancer+desflurane anesthesia),group CW (stomach cancer+sevoflurane anesthesia) and group DW (gastric cancer+desflurane anesthesia). General anesthesia was induced by intravenous agents in all four groups, which were maintained by inhaled anesthetic during the operation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and surplus pulse O(2) (SpO(2)) immediately before induction (T(1)), the moment of operation begin (T(2)), operation end (T(3)) and extubation (T(4)) were recorded. Also, the duration required for inhalation anesthetic alveolar concentration reaching 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) during induction, the alveolar anesthetic concentration at the beginning of the operation, the duration required for XMAC (patients specific alveolar concentration) declining to 0.5 MAC on recovery period, and the duration of alveolar concentration of 0.5 MAC declining to 0.2 MAC were determined. Additionally, the durations of spontaneous breathing recovery, eyes opening, extubation and recovery of consciousness were recorded. Finally, restlessness score (RS) during recovery period was used to evaluate postoperative agitation. Results: Compared with group CS and group CW, no significant differences in MAP, HR, SpO(2) in group DS and group DW at T(1) to T(4) were found (all P>0.05). The durations required for inhalation anesthetic alveolar concentration reaching 0.5 MAC were (5.6±1.3), (5.8±2.1), (3.5±1.5) and (3.8±1.0) min in group CS, group CW, group DS and group DW, where the durations in group DS and group DW were significantly shorter than those in group CS and group CW (F=32.538, P<0.05). The durations of alveolar concentration of 0.5 MAC declining to 0.2 MAC were (6.4±2.2), (7.0±1.5), (4.2±2.2) and (4.1±1.5) min in group CS, group CW, group DS and group DW, and the durations in group DS and group DW were significantly shortened as compared with group CS and group CW (F=42.113, P<0.05). Compared with group CS and group CW, group DS and group DW required significantly shorter time for spontaneous breathing recovery, eye opening,extubation, and directional force recovery after operation (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Both desflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia can achieve satisfactory anesthesia depth during long lasting tumor surgery. Desflurane can shorten the recovery time and early extubation, and improve the quality of recovery.


Assuntos
Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Isoflurano , Éteres Metílicos , Neoplasias , Desflurano , Humanos , Sevoflurano
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21847, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846834

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is an X-linked recessive disorder presenting with uric acid overproduction, neurocognitive disability, and behavioral disturbances. Inhalational anesthesia has been frequently used in LNS patients undergoing surgery. Characteristic compulsive self-injurious behavior and high risk of emesis may hinder inhalational induction. Propofol may be beneficial for these patients because of its easy and rapid titration for anesthetic depth during induction, early recovery from anesthesia, and antiemetic effect as well as uricosuric effect. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old male adolescent was scheduled for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. He exhibited poorly controlled muscle, self-injurious behaviors and intellectual disability. DIAGNOSIS: The patient presented with neurodevelopmental delay in the first year of life, and was diagnosed with LNS, with a substitution of phenylalanine to leucine in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) 1 gene on the X-chromosome at 3 years of age. INTERVENTIONS: Total intravenous anesthesia was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil using target-controlled infusion. OUTCOMES: Time to recovery of consciousness was prolonged after uneventful surgery. Serum uric acid levels gradually increased during postoperative period. LESSONS: Propofol anesthesia using target-controlled infusion does not provide significant clinical advantages in rapid emergence from anesthesia and management of hyperuricemia in LNS patients undergoing urological surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Hipoxantina Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/psicologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/sangue , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Lesch-Nyhan/genética , Masculino , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Vômito/induzido quimicamente
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(3): 291-297, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac surgery has one of the highest incidences of intraoperative awareness. The periods of initiation and discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass could be high-risk periods. Certain frontal EEG patterns might plausibly occur with unintended intraoperative awareness. This study sought to quantify the incidence of these pre-specified patterns during cardiac surgery. METHODS: Two-channel bihemispheric frontal EEG was recorded in 1072 patients undergoing cardiac surgery as part of a prospective observational study. Spectrograms were created, and mean theta (4-7 Hz) power and peak alpha (7-17 Hz) frequency were measured in patients under general anaesthesia with isoflurane. Emergence-like EEG activity in the spectrogram during surgery was classified as an alpha peak frequency increase by 2 Hz or more, and a theta power decrease by 5 dB or more in comparison with the median pre-bypass values. RESULTS: Data from 1002 patients were available for analysis. Fifty-five of those patients (5.5%) showed emergence-like EEG activity at least once during surgery with a median duration of 13.2 min. These patients were younger (median age, 59 vs 67 yr; P<0.001) and the median end-tidal isoflurane concentration before cardiopulmonary bypass was higher (0.82 vs 0.75 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]; P=0.013). There was no significant difference between those with or without emergence-like EEG activity in sex, lowest core temperature, or duration of surgery. Forty-six of these EEG changes (84%) occurred within a 1 h time window centred on separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that approximately one in 20 patients undergoing cardiac surgery with a volatile anaesthetic agent have a sustained EEG pattern while surgery is ongoing that is often seen with emergence from general anaesthesia. Monitoring the frontal EEG during cardiopulmonary bypass may identify these events and potentially reduce the incidence of unintended awareness. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02976584.


Assuntos
Anestesia Geral/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Consciência no Peroperatório/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 614-621, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 15-item Quality of Recovery (QoR-15) scale is a validated patient-reported outcome questionnaire that measures the quality of postoperative recovery. This study aimed to validate a translated Korean version of QoR-15 (QoR-15K) in a broad range of surgical patients. METHODS: After Korean translation of the original English version of the QoR-15, we performed psychometric validation of the QoR-15K to evaluate the quality of recovery after surgery. The validity, reliability, responsiveness, and clinical feasibility of the QoR-15K were evaluated. A subgroup analysis in patients with video-assisted lung resection was performed. RESULTS: Among 193 patients, 188 (97.4%) completed the QoR-15K after surgery. We found good convergent validity between the postoperative QoR-15K and the global QoR visual analogue scale (ρ=0.61, P<0.001). The negative correlation between the QoR-15K score and the extent of surgery (ρ=-0.33, P<0.001), the duration of surgery (ρ=-0.33, P<0.001), and the severity of postoperative pain (ρ=-0.40, P<0.001) supported construct validity. The postoperative QoR-15K showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.90), split-half reliability (0.81), and test-retest reliability (0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.96). The QoR-15K score decreased from 140 (preoperative, inter-quartile range [IQR] 128-146) to 100 (postoperative day 1, IQR 75-122), median difference -36.5 (95% CI, -41 to -32.5; P<0.0001). The QoR-15K indicated excellent responsiveness with Cliff's effect size -0.78 (95% CI, -0.84 to -0.71). Subgroup analysis yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS: The QoR-15K is valid and has excellent reliability, a high degree of responsiveness, and clinical feasibility as a metric of quality of recovery in Korean surgical population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04169087.


Assuntos
Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , República da Coreia , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
20.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(5): 802-810, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32660716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive thoracic surgery causes significant postoperative pain. Erector spinae plane (ESP) block and serratus anterior plane (SAP) block promise effective thoracic analgesia compared with systemically administered opioids, but have never been compared in terms of terms of quality of recovery and overall morbidity after minimally invasive thoracic surgery. METHODS: Sixty adult patients undergoing minimally invasive thoracic surgery were randomly assigned to receive either single-shot ESP or SAP block before surgery using levobupivacaine 0.25%, 30 ml. The primary outcome was quality of patient recovery at 24 h, using the Quality of Recovery-15 (QoR-15) scale. Secondary outcomes included area under the curve (AUC) of pain verbal rating scale (VRS) over time, time to first opioid analgesia, postoperative 24 h opioid consumption, in-hospital comprehensive complication index (CCI) score and hospital stay. RESULTS: The QoR-15 score was higher among ESP patients compared with those in the SAP group, mean (standard deviation): 114 (16) vs 102 (22) (P=0.02). Time (min) to first i.v. opioid analgesia in recovery was 32.6 (20.6) in ESP vs 12.7 (9.5) in SAP (P=0.003). AUC at rest was 92 (31) mm h-1vs 112 (35) in ESP and SAP (P=0.03), respectively, whereas AUC on deep inspiration was 107 mm h-1 (32) vs 129 (32) in ESP and SAP (P=0.01), respectively. VRS pain on movement in ESP and SAP at 24 h was, median (25-75% range): 4 (2-4) vs 5 (3-6) (P=0.04), respectively. Opioid consumption at 24 h postoperatively was 29 (31) vs 39 (34) (P=0.37). Median (25-75%) CCI in ESP and SAP was 1 (0-2) vs 4 (0-26) (P=0.03), whereas hospital stay was 3 (2-6) vs 6 (3-9) days (P=0.17), respectively. CONCLUSION: Compared with SAP, ESP provides superior quality of recovery at 24 h, lower morbidity, and better analgesia after minimally invasive thoracic surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03862612.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Locais , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Levobupivacaína , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/métodos
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