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Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (38): 89-102, Jan.-Jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1090089


Resumo O objetivo desta pesquisa foi analisar o grau de dependência de pacientes em uma Unidade de Recuperação Pós-Anestésica, comparando as necessidades de cuidados de enfermagem. Trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, transversal e descritivo. Dois instrumentos validados foram utilizados para classificar os pacientes de acordo com o grau de dependência e o índice Kappa para avaliar a concordância entre os instrumentos. Verificou-se uma prevalência na população masculina de 45 (64,3%), a especialidade médica mais atendida foi a neurocirurgia com 48 (68,6%). 65 pacientes (92,9%) foram geralmente classificados como graves e 59 (84%) a 60 (86%) que necessitaram de cuidados intensivos de enfermagem de acordo com os instrumentos que avaliam o grau de dependência. Conclui-se que o aumento da necessidade de cuidados depende inteiramente da gravidade do paciente e pode-se verificar que a faixa etária e os procedimentos invasivos realizados são variáveis que envolvem diretamente os cuidados prestados, uma vez que esses fatores contribuem diretamente para o aumento da o grau de dependência e duração da permanência no serviço de saúde.

Abstract The objective of this research was to analyze the degree of dependence of patients in a Post Anesthesia Recovery Unit comparing nursing care needs. It is a quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study. Two validated instruments were used to classify patients according to the degree of dependence, and the Kappa index was used to assess the agreement between the instruments. It was found that there is a prevalence of the male population of 45 (64.3%), the most attended medical specialty was neurosurgery with 48 (68.6%). 65 patients (92.9%) were generally classified as serious and 59 (84%) to 60 (86%) who required intensive nursing care according to the instruments that assess the degree of dependence. It is concluded that the increase in the need for care depends entirely on the severity of the patient, and it can be verified that the age group and the invasive procedures performed are variables that directly involve the care provided since these factors contribute directly to the increase in the degree of dependence and duration of stay in the health service.

Resumen El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar el grado de dependencia de los pacientes en una Unidad de Recuperación Post anestesia comparando las necesidades de atención de enfermería. Es un estudio cuantitativo, transversal y descriptivo. Se utilizaron dos instrumentos validados para clasificar a los pacientes según el grado de dependencia, y se utilizó el índice Kappa para evaluar el acuerdo entre los instrumentos. Se encontró que hay una prevalencia de la población masculina de 45 (64.3%), la especialidad médica más atendida fue la neurocirugía con 48 (68.6%). 65 pacientes (92,9%) estaban en general clasificados como graves y 59 (84%) a 60 (86%) que requerían atención de enfermería intensiva según los instrumentos que evalúan el grado de dependencia. Se concluye que el aumento en la necesidad de atención depende totalmente de la gravedad del paciente, y se puede verificar que el grupo de edad y los procedimientos invasivos realizados son variables que implican directamente la atención brindada, ya que estos factores contribuyen directamente al aumento en el grado de dependencia y duración de la estancia en el servicio de salud.

Humanos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Enfermagem em Pós-Anestésico , Gravidade do Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19240, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150060


BACKGROUND: With the improvement of anesthesia and surgical techniques, supraglottic device with assist ventilation under general anesthesia (GA) combined with nerve block is gradually applied to video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. However, the safety of assist ventilation has not been fully confirmed, and a large number of samples should be studied in clinical exploration. METHODS: The subjects included 120 patients, undergoing elective thoracoscopic GA, with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II, were randomly divided into 3 groups, 40 cases in each group. Group T: received double-lumen bronchial intubation, Group I: received intercostal nerve block using a supraglottic device, Group P: received paravertebral nerve block using a supraglottic device. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, saturation of pulse oximetry and surgical field satisfaction, general anesthetic dosage and recovery time were recorded before induction of GA (T0), at the start of the surgical procedure (T1), 15 minutes later (T2), 30 minutes later (T3), and before the end of the surgical procedure (T4). Static and dynamic pain rating (NRS) and Ramsay sedation score were recorded 2 hours after surgery (T5), 12 hours after surgery (T6), 24 hours after surgery (T7), time to get out of bed, hospitalization time and cost, patient satisfaction and adverse reactions. RESULTS: There was no significant difference with the surgical visual field of the 3 groups (P > .05). The MAP, HR and SpO2 of the 3 groups were decreased from T2 to T3 compared with T0(P < .05). Compared with group T: the total dosage of GA was reduced in group I and group P, the recovery time was shorter, the time to get out of bed was earlier (P < .05), the hospitalization time was shortened, the hospitalization cost was lower, and the patient satisfaction was higher (P < .05). The static and dynamic NRS scores were lower from T5 to T7 (P < .05). Ramsay sedation scores were higher (P < .05), and the incidence of adverse reactions was lower (P < .05). Comparison between group I and group P: Dynamic NRS score of group P was lower from T6 to T7 (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Supraglottic device with assist ventilation under general anesthesia combined with nerve block in uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and feasible.

Anestesia Geral/instrumentação , Bloqueio Nervoso/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Gerais/administração & dosagem , Pressão Sanguínea , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Oximetria
Orthopade ; 49(4): 306-312, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112226


Whereas only a few years ago the only expectation of skilful anesthesia was an undisturbed execution of surgical procedures, today this has changed to a perioperative responsibility in which all physicians involved in the treatment process try to optimize the existing circumstances and risks of the patient before, during and after surgery. Thus, the tasks for the anesthesiologist have been mainly extended to a rapid recovery strategy with as few side effects as possible, such as nausea and vomiting or postoperative cognitive deficits (POCD). The establishment of evident structures and the introduction of suitable perioperative procedures with the goal of maintaining homeostasis, adequate opioid-sparing pain treatment and rapid postoperative convalescence determine the anesthesiological fast-track concept.

Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia por Condução , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Raquianestesia , Anestesiologia/métodos , Artroplastia , Manejo da Dor , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Cognitivas Pós-Operatórias , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e919971, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198342


BACKGROUND Intravenous lidocaine administered during surgery improves postoperative outcomes; however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between intravenous lidocaine and volatile anesthetics requirements. This study assessed the effects of lidocaine treatment on sevoflurane consumption and postoperative consciousness disorders in children undergoing major spine surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Patients were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups: lidocaine and placebo (control). The lidocaine group received lidocaine as a bolus of 1.5 mg/kg over 30 min, followed by a continuous infusion at 1 mg/kg/h to 6 h after surgery. The following data were assessed: end-tidal sevoflurane concentration required to maintain a bispectral index BIS between 40 and 60, intraoperative blood pressure, heart rate, demand for fentanyl, and consciousness level assessed after surgery using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. Any treatment-related adverse events were recorded. RESULTS Compared to the control group, lidocaine treatment reduced by 15% the end-tidal sevoflurane concentration required to maintain the intraoperative hemodynamic stability and appropriate level of anesthesia (P=0.0003). There were no intergroup differences in total dose of fentanyl used, average mean arterial pressure, or heart rate measured intraoperatively. The postoperative level of patient consciousness did not differ during the first 6 h between groups. After 9 h, more patients in the control group were still sleepy (P=0.032), and there were fewer perioperative complications in the lidocaine group. CONCLUSIONS Lidocaine treatment decreases sevoflurane consumption and improves recovery profiles in children undergoing major spine surgery.

Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Sevoflurano/administração & dosagem , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adolescente , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Combinados/administração & dosagem , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Período Intraoperatório , Lidocaína/efeitos adversos , Lidocaína/sangue , Masculino , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Sevoflurano/sangue
Rev. SOBECC ; 25(1): 33-41, 31-03-2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096325


Objetivos: Analisar e comparar o índice de satisfação profissional (ISP) de enfermeiros do bloco cirúrgico (BC). Método: Estudo de campo, comparativo e quantitativo que utilizou o ISP na avaliação da autonomia, interação, remuneração, normas organizacionais, status profissional e requisitos do trabalho de enfermeiros atuantes do BC de um hospital privado de São Paulo. Resultados: Dos 49 enfermeiros da amostra, 39 atuavam em centro cirúrgico (CC) e sala de recuperação pós-anestésica (SRPA) e 10 no centro de material e esterilização (CME). A interação foi o componente de maior importância, e o status profissional, o de menor, no entanto status profissional obteve o maior nível de satisfação, e requisitos do trabalho, o menor. O ISP foi 11,04 (baixo nível), considerando possível variação entre 0,9 e 37,1. Houve diferença significante para interação, com maior satisfação dos enfermeiros do CC/SRPA em comparação com os do CME. Conclusão: A satisfação profissional de enfermeiros do BC avaliada pelo ISP foi baixa. Conhecer os fatores que influenciam nesse índice é importante, pois a satisfação interfere diretamente na qualidade da assistência, previne doenças ocupacionais, além de ser indicador de resultados no processo de trabalho.

Objectives: To analyze and compare the professional satisfaction index (PSI) of surgical block (SB) nurses. Method: Comparative and quantitative field study that used the PSI in the evaluation of autonomy, interaction, compensation, organizational standards, professional status and work requirements of nurses working in the SB of a private hospital in São Paulo. Results: Of the 49 nurses in the sample, 39 worked in the operating room (OR) and post-anesthesia recovery room (PARR) and 10 worked in the material and sterilization center (MSC). Interaction was the most important component, and professional status was the least important. However, professional status obtained the highest level of satisfaction, while work requirements received the lowest. The PSI was 11.04 (low level), considering possible variation between 0.9 and 37.1. There was a significant difference for interaction, with greater satisfaction of OR/PARR nurses compared to MSC nurses. Conclusion: Professional satisfaction of SB nurses assessed by PSI was low. It is important to have knowledge of the factors that influence this index, as satisfaction directly interferes in the quality of care and prevents occupational diseases, besides being an indicator of results in the work process.

Objetivos: analizar y comparar el índice de satisfacción profesional (ISP) de las enfermeras en el quirófano. Método: Estudio de campo, comparativo y cuantitativo que utilizó el ISP en la evaluación de autonomía, interacción, remuneración, normas organizacionales, estatus profesional y requisitos de trabajo de enfermeras que trabajan en el BC de un hospital privado en São Paulo. Resultados: De las 49 enfermeras de la muestra, 39 trabajaron en el centro quirúrgico (CQ) y la sala de recuperación postanestésica (SRPA) y 10 en el centro de material y esterilización (CME). La interacción fue el componente más importante, y el estado profesional, el más bajo, sin embargo, el estado profesional obtuvo el mayor nivel de satisfacción y los requisitos laborales, el más bajo. El ISP fue 11.04 (nivel bajo), considerando una posible variación entre 0.9 y 37.1. Hubo una diferencia significativa en la interacción, con una mayor satisfacción de las enfermeras de CQ/SRPA en comparación con las de CME. Conclusión: La satisfacción profesional de las enfermeras de quirófano evaluadas por el ISP fue baja. Es importante conocer los factores que influyen en este índice, ya que la satisfacción interfiere directamente con la calidad de la atención, previene enfermedades ocupacionales, además de ser un indicador de resultados en el proceso de trabajo.

Humanos , Enfermagem de Centro Cirúrgico , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Condições de Trabalho , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Esterilização
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(3): e18773, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011469


Cervical epidural anesthesia (CEA) is generally not used during upper-arm vascular surgery for hemodialysis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, despite its advantages. The Quality of Recovery-40 questionnaire (QOR-40) has been validated as a tool for assessing the degree of recovery after surgery. We hypothesized that CEA could provide a better outcome on the QOR-40 than general anesthesia after upper-arm vascular surgery for hemodialysis in ESRD patients.We divided anesthetic methods into general anesthesia and CEA. The QOR-40 was administered to 70 patients on the night before surgery and at 24 hours after surgery. Additional data, including consumption of opioid analgesics, occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, and scores on a numeric rating scale (NRS) were collected.The total QOR-40 scores of the two groups differed significantly (P = .024) on postoperative day 1. Opioid consumption (P = .005) and occurrence of postoperative nausea (P = .019) in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) were significantly lower in the CEA group, whose NRS scores were significantly lower in the PACU (P < .001) and at postoperative day 1 (P = .016).Assessment of postoperative quality of recovery after upper-arm vascular surgery in ESRD patients showed that the CEA group had significantly better total QOR-40 and NRS scores. CEA could be used as an alternative anesthetic technique for upper-arm vascular surgery for hemodialysis in ESRD patients to improve the quality of recovery.

Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Epidural/métodos , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Braço/irrigação sanguínea , Braço/cirurgia , Derivação Arteriovenosa Cirúrgica , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(1): 136-141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915349


This study was designed to observe the haemodynamic changes, recovery status and cost effectiveness during anaesthesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy with medical air in comparison to anaesthesia with nitrous oxide associated with maintain of adequate analgesia and was conducted in the department of Analgesia and Intensive Care Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2017 to June 2017. Nitrous oxide is popularly using as an analgesic in current balanced general anesthesia in addition carrier agent for anesthetic. Intraoperative pain intensity depends on many variables including, type of surgery, surgical stimulation and surgical incision. It is difficult to measure intraoperative pain properly under general anesthesia therefore anesthetist depends on the surrogate marker of inadequate analgesia like raised heart rate, blood pressure, sweating and lacrimation. However, unfortunately, these parameters may changes in same direction with light plane of anesthesia, hypercarbia and ongoing procedural status of the patient.

Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestesia/métodos , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Óxido Nitroso/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/economia , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/economia , Bangladesh , Colelitíase/cirurgia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Óxido Nitroso/economia , Período Pós-Operatório
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(52): e18406, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876713


As an anesthetic reversal agent, there are concerns with cholinesterase inhibitors regarding worsening of Parkinson's disease (PD)-related symptoms. Sugammadex, a relatively new reversal agent, does not inhibit acetylcholinesterase and does not require co-administration of an antimuscarinic agent. The present study compared the recovery profiles of 2 agents initially administered for reversal of neuromuscular blockade in patients with advanced PD who underwent deep brain stimulator implantation.A total of 121 patients with PD who underwent deep brain stimulator implantation were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into 1 of 2 groups according to the type of neuromuscular blockade reversal agent (pyridostigmine vs sugammadex) initially administered. Recovery profiles reflecting time to extubation, reversal failure at first attempt, and hemodynamic stability, including incidence of hypertension or tachycardia during the emergence period, were compared.Time to extubation in the sugammadex group was significantly shorter (P < .001). In the sugammadex group, reversal failure at first attempt did not occur in any patient, while it occurred in seven (9.7%) patients in the pyridostigmine group (P = .064), necessitating an additional dose of pyridostigmine (n = 3) or sugammadex (n = 4). The incidence of hemodynamic instability during anesthetic emergence was significantly lower in the sugammadex group than in the pyridostigmine group (P = .019).Sugammadex yielded a recovery profile superior to that of pyridostigmine during the anesthesia emergence period in advanced PD patients. Sugammadex is also likely to be associated with fewer adverse effects than traditional reversal agents, which in turn would also improve overall postoperative management in this patient population.

Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Eletrodos Implantados , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Implantação de Prótese , Brometo de Piridostigmina/uso terapêutico , Sugammadex/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Neuromuscular/efeitos adversos , Implantação de Prótese/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
Rev. SOBECC ; 24(4): 231-237, 30-12-2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096096


Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento de acadêmicos de enfermagem relacionado aos cuidados e às ações desenvolvidas pelo enfermeiro em sala de recuperação pós-anestésica com vistas à segurança do paciente. Método: Estudo descritivo-exploratório, de abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 30 acadêmicos de enfermagem de uma instituição privada de ensino superior da Região Sul do Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu no mês de outubro de 2018, mediante aplicação de questionário semiestruturado. Empregou-se a análise de conteúdo de Bardin para tratamento dos dados. Resultados: Com base nos depoimentos dos entrevistados, emergiu a seguinte categoria: Cuidados e ações do enfermeiro para segurança do paciente, em sala de recuperação pós-anestésica, percebidos pelos acadêmicos de enfermagem. Cuidados rotineiros e mecanicistas, comunicação, liderança, aplicação do processo de enfermagem e uso de protocolos e escalas foram reconhecidos pelos acadêmicos como fundamentais para a segurança do paciente na recuperação. Conclusão: Os acadêmicos de enfermagem reconheceram elementos promotores do cuidado seguro relacionados à assistência de enfermagem na recuperação anestésica.

Objective: To identify the knowledge of nursing students about nursing care and actions in the post-anesthesia care unit regarding patient safety. Method: This is an exploratory descriptive study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 30 nursing students from a private higher education institution in Southern Brazil. Data were collected by administering a semi-structured questionnaire in October 2018. We adopted Bardin's content analysis for data processing. Results: The following category emerged based on the interviewees' statements: Nursing care and actions in the post-anesthesia care unit regarding patient safety, perceived by nursing students. The students acknowledge routine and mechanistic care, communication, leadership, nursing process application, and use of protocols and scales as fundamental for patient safety when recovering. Conclusion: Nursing students identified safe care elements related to nursing care in anesthesia recovery

Objetivo: identificar el conocimiento de los estudiantes de enfermería relacionados con la atención y las acciones desarrolladas por las enfermeras en la sala de recuperación postanestésica, con miras a la seguridad del paciente. Método: Este es un estudio descriptivo y exploratorio con un enfoque cualitativo, realizado con 30 estudiantes de enfermería de una institución privada de educación superior en el sur de Brasil. La recopilación de datos tuvo lugar en octubre de 2018, mediante la aplicación de un cuestionario semiestructurado. El análisis de contenido temático de Bardin se utilizó para el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: surgió la siguiente categoría: Atención de enfermería y acciones para la seguridad del paciente en una sala de recuperación postanestésica, según lo perciben los estudiantes de enfermería. Los cuidados académicos y de rutina, la comunicación, el liderazgo, la aplicación del proceso de enfermería y el uso de protocolos y escalas fueron reconocidos por los académicos como críticos para la seguridad del paciente en la recuperación. Conclusión: los estudiantes de enfermería reconocieron elementos que promueven la atención segura, relacionados con la atención de enfermería en la recuperación anestésica

Humanos , Sala de Recuperação , Enfermagem , Anestesia , Enfermagem Perioperatória , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Segurança do Paciente
AANA J ; 87(1): 59-63, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587745


The tracheal reintubation of a surgical patient in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) is a critical event that increases patient morbidity and mortality, cost, and staff demands. We performed a descriptive retrospective cohort study to identify the incidence of reintubation after planned extubation (RAP) in the PACU from 2010 to 2017. The incidence of RAP was 0.00083% (89/107,845) for the entire study period, an incidence range from 0.00014% to 0.00172% (1/7,407 to 26/15,139) with a steady decline from 2011 to 2017. A post hoc application of published prediction tools demonstrated that most RAP cases could be predicted preoperatively when the RAP predictive risk index (described in 2013) was applied to patients over the age of 64 years. Preoperative attention to increased risk of RAP decreases the incidence of RAP. Neuromuscular blockade (NMB) must be monitored, and reversal must be ensured. Attempting to reverse moderate to deep NMB with increased dosing of neostigmine should be avoided, and NMB reversal with sugammadex should be used in these cases and when residual weakness is observed. Hypothermia must be avoided, and a multimodal pain management regimen must be adopted.

Extubação , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Intubação Intratraqueal/enfermagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras Anestesistas , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
Anesth Analg ; 129(4): 1124-1129, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584918


BACKGROUND: Sugammadex, with its novel mechanism of action of encapsulation and noncompetitive binding of aminosteroid neuromuscular-blocking agents (rocuronium and vecuronium), may offer distinct advantage to pediatric patients where residual neuromuscular blockade may be poorly tolerated. Data describing its use in the pediatric population are limited, and no large-scale studies are available evaluating the occurrence of adverse event across the full spectrum of ages. We sought to measure the occurrence of adverse events, assess the severity and clinical significance of the events, and quantify a surrogate measure of efficacy of sugammadex compared to neostigmine in a large population and in the full age range of children. METHODS: Beginning in September 2016 through initiation of data collection, we identified from our data warehouse that all patients were treated with sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade, from birth through adolescence, and retrospectively matched, by case type and age group, to historical neostigmine-treated controls. From subsequent chart review, we quantified occurrence of adverse events and administration of medications to treat adverse events. All cases in the originally identified cohort treated with epinephrine after administration of sugammadex underwent chart review to elicit the cause, in the event that an infrequently occurring event was not captured after the case-matching process. "End-Interval Time," the time from administration of reversal agent to time out of the procedure room, was measured as an indirect assessment of efficacy. RESULTS: Fewer cases of bradycardia were observed in the sugammadex group compared to the neostigmine group in the overall cohort (P < .001) and in the subgroups of older children (P < .001) and adolescents (P < .001). End-interval time, the time measured from administration of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) reversal agent to time out of the operating room, was significantly shorter in sugammadex-treated groups in the overall cohort (mean difference, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.85-3.77; P < .001) and all age groups except for first year (31 days through 12 months). This observation was most pronounced in the neonatal subgroup (mean difference, 11.94 minutes; 95% CI, 4.79-19.1; P < .001). No other adverse events measured were found to be different between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides data supporting the safe and effective use of sugammadex for reversal of neuromuscular blockade throughout the entire range of ages in the pediatric population. Within age groups, sugammadex demonstrates faster completion of operation compared with neostigmine, with the greatest difference observed in the neonatal population.

Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Neostigmina/uso terapêutico , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Sugammadex/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Data Warehousing , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neostigmina/efeitos adversos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sugammadex/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 66(8): 425-433, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187559


En los 20 años de uso de perfusiones controladas por ordenador (target controlled infusion) de propofol se ha puesto en discusión la validez de los modelos que representan el curso del efecto con preguntas como: ¿Representan los índices EEG verdaderamente el efecto? ¿Son los monitores EEG utilizados comparables entre ellos? ¿Cuáles son los tiempos de reacción de estos equipos? ¿Influye la velocidad de administración del fármaco en la modelación del efecto? ¿Cambia el ke0, o el tiempo de efecto máximo con la edad? ¿Sirven los actuales modelos de efecto máximo, teóricamente atemporales? ¿Son la inducción y el despertar fenómenos simplemente de ida y vuelta como representan los modelos de efecto máximo? Esta revisión discute asuntos relacionados con la complejidad y dificultad en obtener la representación del efecto, y la falta de definiciones consensuadas para poder construir modelos farmacológicos representativos de la instalación temporal del efecto de propofol para su uso en perfusiones controladas por ordenador

Target controlled infusion (TCI) of Propofol has been the subject of discussion during its 20 years of use, including the validity of the models that represent the course of the effect, such as: Are the different EEG indexes representative of the effect? Is the reactivity of the EEG index used to build models comparable to each other? What is the real reacting time of each monitor? Is the ke0 influenced by the infusion speed? Is the ke0 or the time to peak effect affected by age? How valid are the current Emax models? Are the induction and wakening simple mirror phenomenon as they are represented in the E max models? This review discusses issues related to the complexity and difficulty in obtaining a representation of the effect, and the lack of agreed definitions to be able to construct representative models of the temporary installation of the effect of Propofol for its use in TCI

Humanos , Propofol/farmacocinética , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/tendências , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD003843, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557307


BACKGROUND: The use of clinical signs, or end-tidal anaesthetic gas (ETAG), may not be reliable in measuring the hypnotic component of anaesthesia and may lead to either overdosage or underdosage resulting in adverse effects because of too deep or too light anaesthesia. Intraoperative awareness, whilst uncommon, may lead to serious psychological disturbance, and alternative methods to monitor the depth of anaesthesia may reduce the incidence of serious events. Bispectral index (BIS) is a numerical scale based on electrical activity in the brain. Using a BIS monitor to guide the dose of anaesthetic may have advantages over clinical signs or ETAG. This is an update of a review last published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of BIS to reduce the risk of intraoperative awareness and early recovery times from general anaesthesia in adults undergoing surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science on 26 March 2019. We searched clinical trial registers and grey literature, and handsearched reference lists of included studies and related reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in which BIS was used to guide anaesthesia compared with standard practice which was either clinical signs or end-tidal anaesthetic gas (ETAG) to guide the anaesthetic dose. We included adult participants undergoing any type of surgery under general anaesthesia regardless of whether included participants had a high risk of intraoperative awareness. We included only studies in which investigators aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BIS for its role in monitoring intraoperative depth of anaesthesia or potential improvements in early recovery times from anaesthesia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence with GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 52 studies with 41,331 participants; two studies were quasi-randomized and the remaining studies were RCTs. All studies included participants undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia. Three studies recruited only participants who were at high risk of intraoperative awareness, whilst two studies specifically recruited an unselected participant group. We analysed the data according to two comparison groups: BIS versus clinical signs; and BIS versus ETAG. Forty-eight studies used clinical signs as a comparison method, which included titration of anaesthesia according to criteria such as blood pressure or heart rate and, six studies used ETAG to guide anaesthesia. Whilst BIS target values differed between studies, all were within a range of values between 40 to 60.BIS versus clinical signsWe found low-certainty evidence that BIS-guided anaesthesia may reduce the risk of intraoperative awareness in a surgical population that were unselected or at high risk of awareness (Peto odds ratio (OR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.60; I2 = 61%; 27 studies; 9765 participants). However, events were rare with only five of 27 studies with reported incidences; we found that incidences of intraoperative awareness when BIS was used were three per 1000 (95% CI 2 to 6 per 1000) compared to nine per 1000 when anaesthesia was guided by clinical signs. Of the five studies with event data, one included participants at high risk of awareness and one included unselected participants, four used a structured questionnaire for assessment, and two used an adjudication process to identify confirmed or definite awareness.Early recovery times were also improved when BIS was used. We found low-certainty evidence that BIS may reduce the time to eye opening by mean difference (MD) 1.78 minutes (95% CI -2.53 to -1.03 minutes; 22 studies; 1494 participants), the time to orientation by MD 3.18 minutes (95% CI -4.03 to -2.33 minutes; 6 studies; 273 participants), and the time to discharge from the postanaesthesia care unit (PACU) by MD 6.86 minutes (95% CI -11.72 to -2 minutes; 13 studies; 930 participants).BIS versus ETAGAgain, events of intraoperative awareness were extremely rare, and we found no evidence of a difference in incidences of intraoperative awareness according to whether anaesthesia was guided by BIS or by ETAG in a surgical population at unselected or at high risk of awareness (Peto OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.56 to 2.26; I2 = 37%; 5 studies; 26,572 participants; low-certainty evidence). Incidences of intraoperative awareness were one per 1000 in both groups. Only three of five studies reported events, two included participants at high risk of awareness and one included unselected participants, all used a structured questionnaire for assessment and an adjudication process to identify confirmed or definite awareness.One large study (9376 participants) reported a reduced time to discharge from the PACU by a median of three minutes less, and we judged the certainty of this evidence to be low. No studies measured or reported the time to eye opening and the time to orientation.Certainty of the evidenceWe used GRADE to downgrade the evidence for all outcomes to low certainty. The incidence of intraoperative awareness is so infrequent such that, despite the inclusion of some large multi-centre studies in analyses, we believed that the effect estimates were imprecise. In addition, analyses included studies that we judged to have limitations owing to some assessments of high or unclear bias and in all studies, it was not possible to blind anaesthetists to the different methods of monitoring depth of anaesthesia.Studies often did not report a clear definition of intraoperative awareness. Time points of measurement differed, and methods used to identify intraoperative awareness also differed and we expected that some assessment tools were more comprehensive than others. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative awareness is infrequent and, despite identifying a large number of eligible studies, evidence for the effectiveness of using BIS to guide anaesthetic depth is imprecise. We found that BIS-guided anaesthesia compared to clinical signs may reduce the risk of intraoperative awareness and improve early recovery times in people undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia but we found no evidence of a difference between BIS-guided anaesthesia and ETAG-guided anaesthesia. We found six studies awaiting classification and two ongoing studies; inclusion of these studies in future updates may increase the certainty of the evidence.

Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Consciência no Peroperatório , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Consciência no Peroperatório/prevenção & controle , Período Pós-Operatório , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(4): eAO4905, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508661


OBJECTIVE: To compare analgesia and opioid consumption for patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. METHODS: The medical records of patients undergoing unilateral total hip arthroplasty between January 1st, 2017 and March 31, 2018 were reviewed, and 238 patients were included in the study. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 postoperative hours. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative, post anesthesia care unit, and 48-hour opioid consumption, postoperative pain Visual Analog Scale scores, and post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Primary and secondary endpoint data were compared between patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty with preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block with patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block. RESULTS: For the patients who received quadratus lumborum block, the 24-hour total oral morphine equivalent (milligram) requirements were lower (53.82mg±37.41), compared to the patients who did not receive quadratus lumborum block (77.59mL±58.42), with p=0.0011. Opioid requirements were consistently lower for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block at each additional assessment time point up to 48 hours. Pain Visual Analog Scale scores were lower up to 12 hours after surgery for the patients who received a posterior quadratus lumborum block, and the post-anesthesia care unit length of stay was shorter for the patients who received quadratus lumborum block. CONCLUSION: Preoperative posterior quadratus lumborum block for primary total hip arthroplasty is associated with decreased opioid requirements up to 48 hours, decreased Visual Analog Scale pain scores up to 12 hours, and shorter post-anesthesia care unit length of stay. Level of evidence: III.

Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Artroplastia de Quadril , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Músculos Abdominais/inervação , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral , Raquianestesia , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Período Perioperatório/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
World Neurosurg ; 132: e28-e33, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521756


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether use of partial nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, at a train-of-four level 1, compromise facial nerve monitoring during vestibular schwannoma (VS) resection. METHODS: Sixty consecutive patients undergoing VS resection were enrolled into a partial peripheral neuromuscular blockade group or free of neuromuscular blockade group. Stimulation threshold to elicit an electromyographic response amplitude of at least 100 µV was recorded at the proximal and distal facial nerve after VS removal. The proximal-to-distal ratio of amplitude of the orbicularis oculi and oris muscles was calculated. RESULTS: All patients successfully passed the electromyography monitoring test. Mean electrical stimulation thresholds were higher in the peripheral neuromuscular blockade group than in the free of neuromuscular blockade group (0.12 mA vs. 0.06 mA at proximal site, P = 0.001; 0.08 mA vs. 0.03 mA at distal site, P = 0.0002). The differences in median proximal-to-distal amplitude ratios were not statistically significant in both groups. There was a trend toward more patients needing phenylephrine. Recovery profiles were comparable in the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although mean stimulation threshold to elicit a response amplitude was higher in the peripheral neuromuscular blockade group than in the free of neuromuscular blockade group at the proximal site, the stimulation thresholds in both groups were sufficient for facial nerve monitoring in VS surgery, indicating no clinical difference in both groups.

Eletromiografia , Nervo Facial , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Neuroma Acústico/cirurgia , Bloqueio Neuromuscular , Adulto , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculos Oculomotores/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos Oculomotores/cirurgia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Simpatomiméticos/farmacologia
J Formos Med Assoc ; 118(10): 1450-1457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471221


BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a growing tendency in modern perioperative period management, but no protocol has been established for a strategy that optimally facilitates rapid recovery from anesthesia. We hypothesized that applying a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) method to the response surface model (RSM) would allow prediction of the emergence and endotracheal tube extubation in cases undergoing video-assisted thoracotomy surgery (VATS). METHODS: Thirty patients who were scheduled to undergo VATs under TIVA were enrolled. Pharmacokinetic profiles were calculated using a Tivatrainer. Emergence from anesthesia was observed and the exact time point of the regained response (RR) was recorded. The effect of concentration was analyzed and applied to a response surface model. RESULTS: The cumulative prediction curve of the RR was closer to the 50% probability as set by the OAA/S ≥ 4 than by the OAA/S ≥ 2 model. The median, averages, and standard deviations of the time differences were 14.5, 22.05 ± 19.23 min for the OAA/S ≥2 model and 10.4, 14.26 ± 10.40 min for the OAA/S ≥ 4 model. CONCLUSION: The OAA/S ≥ 4 model could identify the target concentration in propofol-remifentanil pairs that predicted the time of emergence from VATS in 10 min. Our results indicate that RSM can be used to derive an ERAS protocol for VATS under TIVA. Further studies should investigate application of RSM to predict ERAS for various types of procedures.

Extubação , Anestesia Geral , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Intravenosos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Propofol/farmacocinética , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Remifentanil/farmacocinética , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Fatores de Tempo
Rev. SOBECC ; 24(3): 146-153, jul-.set.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1021357


Objetivo: Verificar o conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem no que concerne à segurança do paciente na Sala de Recuperação Pós-Anestésica (SRPA), após a implantação de um protocolo assistencial no referido setor. Método: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, exploratório, com abordagem qualitativa, do tipo convergente assistencial, envolvendo sete profissionais da equipe de enfermagem, atuantes na SRPA de um hospital do oeste catarinense. Resultados: Com base nos achados, surgiram duas categorias: "Segurança do paciente na sala de recuperação pós-anestésica" e "Protocolos Assistenciais" (PA), que proporcionaram efetividade de tais protocolos na sistematização do processo de cuidar, considerando, tanto a segurança do paciente, quanto a do profissional. Conclusão: A aplicação do protocolo, por meio de checklist, além de nortear as ações da equipe, possibilitou que estas ocorressem de forma sistemática e rápida, levando-se em conta a complexidade do atendimento na SRPA.

Objective: To verify the knowledge of nursing professionals about patient safety in the Post-Anesthesia Recovery Room (PARR) after the implementation of a care protocol in the sector. Method: This is a descriptive, exploratory, convergent-care study with qualitative approach, involving seven professionals of the nursing team from the PARR of a hospital in Western Santa Catarina. Results: Based on the findings, two categories emerged: "Patient safety in post-anesthesia recovery room" and "Care Protocols", which provided effectiveness of such protocols in the systematization of the care process, considering both the patient's and the professional's safety. Conclusion: Applying the protocol through a checklist, besides guiding the actions of the team, allowed them to act systematically and quickly, taking into account the service complexity in the PARR.

Objetivo: Verificar el conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería en lo que concierne a la seguridad del paciente en la Sala de Recuperación Pos-Anestésica (SRPA), tras la implantación de un protocolo asistencial en el referido sector. Método: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, con abordaje cualitativo, del tipo convergente asistencial, involucrando siete profesionales del equipo de enfermería, actuantes en la SRPA de un hospital del oeste catarinense. Resultados: Con base en los hallazgos, surgieron dos categorías: "Seguridad del paciente en la sala de recuperación pos-anestésica" y "Protocolos Asistenciales" (PA), que proporcionaron efectividad de tales protocolos en la sistematización del proceso de cuidar, considerando, tanto la seguridad del paciente, cuanto a del profesional. Conclusión: La aplicación del protocolo, por medio de checklist, además de guiar las acciones del equipo, posibilitó que estas ocurriesen de forma sistemática y rápida, tomándose en cuenta la complejidad de la atención en la SRPA.

Humanos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Segurança do Paciente , Time Out na Assistência à Saúde , Protocolos Clínicos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Guias como Assunto