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1.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795430

RESUMO

Hallucinations, a central symptom of psychotic disorders, are attributed to excessive dopamine in the brain. However, the neural circuit mechanisms by which dopamine produces hallucinations remain elusive, largely because hallucinations have been challenging to study in model organisms. We developed a task to quantify hallucination-like perception in mice. Hallucination-like percepts, defined as high-confidence false detections, increased after hallucination-related manipulations in mice and correlated with self-reported hallucinations in humans. Hallucination-like percepts were preceded by elevated striatal dopamine levels, could be induced by optogenetic stimulation of mesostriatal dopamine neurons, and could be reversed by the antipsychotic drug haloperidol. These findings reveal a causal role for dopamine-dependent striatal circuits in hallucination-like perception and open new avenues to develop circuit-based treatments for psychotic disorders.


Assuntos
Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Alucinações/fisiopatologia , Percepção , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Feminino , Alucinações/psicologia , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Humanos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Recompensa , Estriado Ventral/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1149, 2021 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608533

RESUMO

An outstanding challenge for consciousness research is to characterize the neural signature of conscious access independently of any decisional processes. Here we present a model-based approach that uses inter-trial variability to identify the brain dynamics associated with stimulus processing. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of any task or behavior, the electroencephalographic response to auditory stimuli shows bifurcation dynamics around 250-300 milliseconds post-stimulus. Namely, the same stimulus gives rise to late sustained activity on some trials, and not on others. This late neural activity is predictive of task-related reports, and also of reports of conscious contents that are randomly sampled during task-free listening. Source localization further suggests that task-free conscious access recruits the same neural networks as those associated with explicit report, except for frontal executive components. Studying brain dynamics through variability could thus play a key role for identifying the core signatures of conscious access, independent of report.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Comportamento , Neurociência Cognitiva , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Neuron ; 109(6): 984-996.e4, 2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561398

RESUMO

Correlational evidence in humans suggests that selective difficulties hearing in noisy, social settings may reflect premature auditory nerve degeneration. Here, we induced primary cochlear neural degeneration (CND) in adult mice and found direct behavioral evidence for selective detection deficits in background noise. To identify central determinants for this perceptual disorder, we tracked daily changes in ensembles of layer 2/3 auditory cortex parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons and excitatory pyramidal neurons with chronic two-photon calcium imaging. CND induced distinct forms of plasticity in cortical excitatory and inhibitory neurons that culminated in net hyperactivity, increased neural gain, and reduced adaptation to background noise. Ensemble activity measured while mice detected targets in noise could accurately decode whether individual behavioral trials were hits or misses. After CND, random surges of hypercorrelated cortical activity occurring just before target onset reliably predicted impending detection failures, revealing a source of internal cortical noise underlying perceptual difficulties in external noise.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cóclea/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Camundongos
4.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626073

RESUMO

Face masks are an important tool for preventing the spread of COVID-19. However, it is unclear how different types of masks affect speech recognition in different levels of background noise. To address this, we investigated the effects of four masks (a surgical mask, N95 respirator, and two cloth masks) on recognition of spoken sentences in multi-talker babble. In low levels of background noise, masks had little to no effect, with no more than a 5.5% decrease in mean accuracy compared to a no-mask condition. In high levels of noise, mean accuracy was 2.8-18.2% lower than the no-mask condition, but the surgical mask continued to show no significant difference. The results demonstrate that different types of masks generally yield similar accuracy in low levels of background noise, but differences between masks become more apparent in high levels of noise.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Máscaras , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , /psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Ruído , Fala/fisiologia
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 968, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579910

RESUMO

How can deceptive communication signals exist in an evolutionarily stable signalling system? To resolve this age-old honest signalling paradox, researchers must first establish whether deception benefits deceivers. However, while vocal exaggeration is widespread in the animal kingdom and assumably adaptive, its effectiveness in biasing listeners has not been established. Here, we show that human listeners can detect deceptive vocal signals produced by vocalisers who volitionally shift their voice frequencies to exaggerate or attenuate their perceived size. Listeners can also judge the relative heights of cheaters, whose deceptive signals retain reliable acoustic cues to interindividual height. Importantly, although vocal deception biases listeners' absolute height judgments, listeners recalibrate their height assessments for vocalisers they correctly and concurrently identify as deceptive, particularly men judging men. Thus, while size exaggeration can fool listeners, benefiting the deceiver, its detection can reduce bias and mitigate costs for listeners, underscoring an unremitting arms-race between signallers and receivers in animal communication.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Decepção , Voz/fisiologia , Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Evolução Biológica , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1040, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589613

RESUMO

Animals exhibit innate defense behaviors in response to approaching threats cued by the dynamics of sensory inputs of various modalities. The underlying neural circuits have been mostly studied in the visual system, but remain unclear for other modalities. Here, by utilizing sounds with increasing (vs. decreasing) loudness to mimic looming (vs. receding) objects, we find that looming sounds elicit stereotypical sequential defensive reactions: freezing followed by flight. Both behaviors require the activity of auditory cortex, in particular the sustained type of responses, but are differentially mediated by corticostriatal projections primarily innervating D2 neurons in the tail of the striatum and corticocollicular projections to the superior colliculus, respectively. The behavioral transition from freezing to flight can be attributed to the differential temporal dynamics of the striatal and collicular neurons in their responses to looming sound stimuli. Our results reveal an essential role of the striatum in the innate defense control.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Reação de Congelamento Cataléptica/fisiologia , Instinto , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/anatomia & histologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/anatomia & histologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Som , Colículos Superiores/anatomia & histologia , Colículos Superiores/fisiologia
7.
Codas ; 32(6): e20190201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503210

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The speech therapy practice in mental health is questioned by the challenge of producing shared care strategies to, above all, expand the conditions and the communicational repertoire, the discursive and social circulation of people with mental suffering. Objective of this study was to identify the perception of clinical listening in professionals of Child and Adolescent Psychosocial Care Center (CAPSij), specifying the role of speech therapy in the care and listening of patientes. METHODS: This is a participatory and dialogical research. A discussion group was used to collect data. RESULTS: were grouped in the following categories: listening conception; listening and working process; listening effects; speech therapy and clinical listening. These professionals think of clinical listening as a central device for mental health care. The clinical listening favors reflection on the bio psychic dynamics of healthcare. It was observed contributions of speech therapy in intra and interinstitutional scopes, in the clinical-therapeutic work of the health professionals, patients and relatives. The speech therapist's skills and knowledge about organic aspects of child development in the opinion of professionals enhance clinical listening. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that without teamwork, care in CAPSij would not happen in a qualified way under the public health policies: Psychosocial Care Network (PSCN) and Unified Health System (SUS) frameworks. The clinical listening is a condition of possibility of the care offered by the professionals.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fala
8.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117712, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387630

RESUMO

In recent years, several ERP components have been identified as potential neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), including early negativities and late positivities. Based on experiments in the visual modality, it has recently been shown that awareness is often confounded with reporting it, possibly overestimating the NCC. It is unknown whether similar constraints also exist in the auditory modality. In order to address this gap, we presented spoken words in a sustained inattentional deafness paradigm. Electrophysiological responses were obtained in three physically identical experimental conditions that differed only with respect to the participants' instructions. Participants were either left uninformed or informed about the presence of spoken words while confronted with an auditory distractor task (U/I condition), informed about the words while exposed to the same task as before (I condition), or requested to respond to the now task-relevant speech stimuli (TR condition). After completion of the U/I condition, only informed participants reported awareness of the words. In ERPs, awareness of words in the U/I and I condition was accompanied by an anterior auditory awareness negativity (AAN). Only when stimuli were task-relevant, i.e., during the TR condition, late positivities emerged. Taken together, these results indicate that early negativities but not late positivities index awareness across sensory modalities. Thus, they provide evidence for a recurrent processing framework, which highlights the importance of early sensory processing in conscious perception.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117711, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385562

RESUMO

The deployment of neural alpha (8-12 Hz) lateralization in service of spatial attention is well-established: Alpha power increases in the cortical hemisphere ipsilateral to the attended hemifield, and decreases in the contralateral hemisphere, respectively. Much less is known about humans' ability to deploy such alpha lateralization in time, and to thus exploit alpha power as a spatio-temporal filter. Here we show that spatially lateralized alpha power does signify - beyond the direction of spatial attention - the distribution of attention in time and thereby qualifies as a spatio-temporal attentional filter. Participants (N = 20) selectively listened to spoken numbers presented on one side (left vs right), while competing numbers were presented on the other side. Key to our hypothesis, temporal foreknowledge was manipulated via a visual cue, which was either instructive and indicated the to-be-probed number position (70% valid) or neutral. Temporal foreknowledge did guide participants' attention, as they recognized numbers from the to-be-attended side more accurately following valid cues. In the magnetoencephalogram (MEG), spatial attention to the left versus right side induced lateralization of alpha power in all temporal cueing conditions. Modulation of alpha lateralization at the 0.8 Hz presentation rate of spoken numbers was stronger following instructive compared to neutral temporal cues. Critically, we found stronger modulation of lateralized alpha power specifically at the onsets of temporally cued numbers. These results suggest that the precisely timed hemispheric lateralization of alpha power qualifies as a spatio-temporal attentional filter mechanism susceptible to top-down behavioural goals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia/métodos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440710

RESUMO

In public, the role of a fire alarm is to induce a person to a certain recognition of potential danger, resulting in that person taking appropriate evacuation action. Unfortunately, the sound of the fire alarm is not internationally standardized yet, except for recommending the use of a signal with a regular temporal pattern (or T-3 pattern). To identify the effective alarm sound, the present study investigated a relationship between acoustic characteristics of the fire alarm and its subjective psychoacoustic recognition and objective electroencephalography (EEG) responses for 50 young and older listeners. As the stimuli, six different types of alarms were applied: bell, slow whoop, T-3 520 Hz, T-3 3100 Hz, and two simulated T-3 sounds (i.e., 520 and 3100 Hz) to which older adults with age-related hearing loss seemed to hear. While listening to the sounds, the EEG was recorded by each individual. The psychoacoustic recognition was also evaluated by using a questionnaire consisting of three subcategories, i.e., arousal, urgency, and immersion. The subjective responses resulted in a statistically significant difference between the types of sound. In particular, the fire alarms had acoustic features of high frequency or gradually increased frequencies such as T-3 3100 Hz, bell, and slow whoop, representing effective sounds to induce high arousal and urgency, although they also showed a limitation in being widely transmitted and vulnerable to background noise environment. Interestingly, there was a meaningful interaction effect between the sounds and age groups for the urgency and immersion, indicating that the bell was quite highly recognized in older adults. In general, EEG data showed that alpha power was decreased and gamma power was increased in all sounds, which means a relationship with negative emotions such as high arousal and urgency. Based on the current findings, we suggest using fire alarm sounds with acoustic features of high frequencies in indoor and/or public places.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Som , Estimulação Acústica , Idoso , Encéfalo , Humanos , Psicoacústica , Reconhecimento Psicológico
11.
Neuron ; 109(4): 597-610.e6, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412101

RESUMO

Decision-making strategies evolve during training and can continue to vary even in well-trained animals. However, studies of sensory decision-making tend to characterize behavior in terms of a fixed psychometric function that is fit only after training is complete. Here, we present PsyTrack, a flexible method for inferring the trajectory of sensory decision-making strategies from choice data. We apply PsyTrack to training data from mice, rats, and human subjects learning to perform auditory and visual decision-making tasks. We show that it successfully captures trial-to-trial fluctuations in the weighting of sensory stimuli, bias, and task-irrelevant covariates such as choice and stimulus history. This analysis reveals dramatic differences in learning across mice and rapid adaptation to changes in task statistics. PsyTrack scales easily to large datasets and offers a powerful tool for quantifying time-varying behavior in a wide variety of animals and tasks.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 213: 103219, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321399

RESUMO

Prism adaptation consists of pointing to visual targets while wearing prisms that shift the visual field laterally. The aftereffects are not restricted to sensorimotor level but extend to spatial cognition. There is a link between spatial representation and auditory frequency, with an association of low frequencies on the left side and high frequencies on the right side of space. The present study aimed first at evaluating the representation of auditory frequencies on a wide range of frequencies in musicians and nonmusicians. We used the 'auditory interval bisection judgment' within three auditory intervals. The results showed a pseudoneglect behavior in pretest in musicians and nonmusicians for high frequency intervals, reflecting a perceptual bias of the subjective interval center toward lower frequencies. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the aftereffects of prism adaptation on an expanded auditory spectrum. The results showed aftereffects of adaptation to a leftward optical deviation for high frequency intervals in musicians and nonmusicians. Adaptation to a leftward optical deviation affects the auditory perception on an extended auditory spectrum, by shifting the subjective interval center toward high frequencies. The present study provides innovative data about representation of auditory perception and its modulation by prism adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Música , Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Espacial , Campos Visuais , Percepção Visual
13.
Neural Netw ; 133: 229-239, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232859

RESUMO

Videos are used widely as the media platforms for human beings to touch the physical change of the world. However, we always receive the mixed sound from the multiple sound objects, and cannot distinguish and localize the sounds as the separate entities in videos. In order to solve this problem, a model named the Deep Multi-Modal Attention Network (DMMAN), is established to model the unconstrained video datasets for further finishing the sound source separation and event localization tasks in this paper. Based on the multi-modal separator and multi-modal matching classifier module, our model focuses on the sound separation and modal synchronization problems using two stage fusion of the sound and visual features. To link the multi-modal separator and multi-modal matching classifier modules, the regression and classification losses are employed to build the loss function of the DMMAN. The estimated spectrum masks and attention synchronization scores calculated by the DMMAN can be easily generalized to the sound source and event localization tasks. The quantitative experimental results show the DMMAN not only separates the high quality of the sound sources evaluated by Signal-to-Distortion Ratio and Signal-to-Interference Ratio metrics, but also is suitable for the mixed sound scenes that are never heard jointly. Meanwhile, DMMAN achieves better classification accuracy than other contrast baselines for the event localization tasks.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 18(1): 63-74, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372550

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hearing-assistive devices, such as hearing aids and cochlear implants, transform the lives of hearing-impaired people. However, users often struggle to locate and segregate sounds. This leads to impaired threat detection and an inability to understand speech in noisy environments. Recent evidence suggests that segregation and localization can be improved by providing missing sound-information through haptic stimulation. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the evidence that haptic stimulation can effectively provide sound information. It then discusses the research and development required for this approach to be implemented in a clinically viable device. This includes discussion of what sound information should be provided and how that information can be extracted and delivered. EXPERT OPINION: Although this research area has only recently emerged, it builds on a significant body of work showing that sound information can be effectively transferred through haptic stimulation. Current evidence suggests that haptic stimulation is highly effective at providing missing sound-information to cochlear implant users. However, a great deal of work remains to implement this approach in an effective wearable device. If successful, such a device could offer an inexpensive, noninvasive means of improving educational, work, and social experiences for hearing-impaired individuals, including those without access to hearing-assistive devices.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Audição , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Tato/fisiologia , Humanos , Ruído , Estimulação Física , Desenho de Prótese
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243616, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326433

RESUMO

During most part of Western classical music history, tempo, the speed of music, was not specified, for it was considered obvious from musical context. Only in 1815, Maelzel patented the metronome. Beethoven immediately embraced it, so much as to add tempo marks to his already published eight symphonies. However, these marks are still under dispute, as many musicians consider them too quick to be played and even unmusical, whereas others claim them as Bethoven's supposedly written will. In this work, we develop a methodology to extract and analyze the performed tempi from 36 complete symphonic recordings by different conductors. Our results show that conductor tempo choices reveal a systematic deviation from Beethoven's marks, which highlights the salience of "correct tempo" as a perceptive phenomenon shaped by cultural context. The hasty nature of these marks could be explained by the metronome's ambiguous scale reading point, which Beethoven probably misinterpreted.


Assuntos
Música , Algoritmos , Percepção Auditiva , Pessoas Famosas , Humanos
16.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3001019, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347436

RESUMO

The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a key biomarker of automatic deviance detection thought to emerge from 2 cortical sources. First, the auditory cortex (AC) encodes spectral regularities and reports frequency-specific deviances. Then, more abstract representations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) allow to detect contextual changes of potential behavioral relevance. However, the precise location and time asynchronies between neuronal correlates underlying this frontotemporal network remain unclear and elusive. Our study presented auditory oddball paradigms along with "no-repetition" controls to record mismatch responses in neuronal spiking activity and local field potentials at the rat medial PFC. Whereas mismatch responses in the auditory system are mainly induced by stimulus-dependent effects, we found that auditory responsiveness in the PFC was driven by unpredictability, yielding context-dependent, comparatively delayed, more robust and longer-lasting mismatch responses mostly comprised of prediction error signaling activity. This characteristically different composition discarded that mismatch responses in the PFC could be simply inherited or amplified downstream from the auditory system. Conversely, it is more plausible for the PFC to exert top-down influences on the AC, since the PFC exhibited flexible and potent predictive processing, capable of suppressing redundant input more efficiently than the AC. Remarkably, the time course of the mismatch responses we observed in the spiking activity and local field potentials of the AC and the PFC combined coincided with the time course of the large-scale MMN-like signals reported in the rat brain, thereby linking the microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic levels of automatic deviance detection.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Córtex Auditivo/metabolismo , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244308, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370349

RESUMO

Many human behaviors are discussed in terms of discrete categories. Quantizing behavior in this fashion may provide important traction for understanding the complexities of human experience, but it also may bias understanding of phenomena and associated mechanisms. One example of this is absolute pitch (AP), which is often treated as a discrete trait that is either present or absent (i.e., with easily identifiable near-perfect "genuine" AP possessors and at-chance non-AP possessors) despite emerging evidence that pitch-labeling ability is not all-or-nothing. We used a large-scale online assessment to test the discrete model of AP, specifically by measuring how intermediate performers related to the typically defined "non-AP" and "genuine AP" populations. Consistent with prior research, individuals who performed at-chance (non-AP) reported beginning musical instruction much later than the near-perfect AP participants, and the highest performers were more likely to speak a tonal language than were the lowest performers (though this effect was not as statistically robust as one would expect from prior research). Critically, however, these developmental factors did not differentiate the near-perfect AP performers from the intermediate AP performers. Gaussian mixture modeling supported the existence of two performance distributions-the first distribution encompassed both the intermediate and near-perfect AP possessors, whereas the second distribution encompassed only the at-chance participants. Overall, these results provide support for conceptualizing intermediate levels of pitch-labeling ability along the same continuum as genuine AP-level pitch labeling ability-in other words, a continuous distribution of AP skill among all above-chance performers rather than discrete categories of ability. Expanding the inclusion criteria for AP makes it possible to test hypotheses about the mechanisms that underlie this ability and relate this ability to more general cognitive mechanisms involved in other abilities.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(24)2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352997

RESUMO

Although a significant amount of work has been carried out for visual perception in the context of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), not so much has been done regarding auditory perception. The latter can complement the observation of the environment that surrounds a UAV by providing additional information that can be used to detect, classify, and localize audio sources of interest. Motivated by the usefulness of auditory perception for UAVs, we present a literature review that discusses the audio techniques and microphone configurations reported in the literature. A categorization of techniques is proposed based on the role a UAV plays in the auditory perception (is it the one being perceived or is it the perceiver?), as well as a set of objectives that are more popularly aimed to be accomplished in the current literature (detection, classification, and localization). This literature review aims to provide a concise landscape of the most relevant works on auditory perception in the context of UAVs to date and provides insights into future avenues of research as a guide to those who are beginning to work in this field.


Assuntos
Aeronaves , Percepção Auditiva
20.
Elife ; 92020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319749

RESUMO

To form a more reliable percept of the environment, the brain needs to estimate its own sensory uncertainty. Current theories of perceptual inference assume that the brain computes sensory uncertainty instantaneously and independently for each stimulus. We evaluated this assumption in four psychophysical experiments, in which human observers localized auditory signals that were presented synchronously with spatially disparate visual signals. Critically, the visual noise changed dynamically over time continuously or with intermittent jumps. Our results show that observers integrate audiovisual inputs weighted by sensory uncertainty estimates that combine information from past and current signals consistent with an optimal Bayesian learner that can be approximated by exponential discounting. Our results challenge leading models of perceptual inference where sensory uncertainty estimates depend only on the current stimulus. They demonstrate that the brain capitalizes on the temporal dynamics of the external world and estimates sensory uncertainty by combining past experiences with new incoming sensory signals.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Incerteza , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Psicofísica , Adulto Jovem
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