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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105344, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704641

RESUMO

Pedestrians must use a variety of visual and auditory cues when determining safe crossing opportunities. Although vision has received a bulk of the attention in research on pedestrian safety, the examination of both vision and audition are important to consider. Environmental, intrapersonal, and cognitive qualities of a pedestrian context may limit the use of one or both perceptual modalities. Across two experiments, we examined the impact of perceptual constraints on pedestrian safety by measuring the accuracy of vehicle time-to-arrival estimates in a virtual environment when vehicles were only visible, only audible, or both visible and audible. In both experiments, participants estimated the time-to-arrival of vehicles moving at one of two speeds (8-kph, 40-kph). In the second experiment, we introduced ambient traffic noises to examine the impact of environmentally relevant traffic noises on pedestrian perception. Results suggest seeing a vehicle is more advantageous than hearing a vehicle when interacting with traffic, especially in the presence of ambient sound. Both experiments resulted in more accurate time-to-arrival estimates in the visual and mixed conditions than in the auditory-only condition. Implications for pedestrian safety and future research are discussed.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Pedestres/psicologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Adulto , Ambiente Construído , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Dev Sci ; 23(1): e12857, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090993

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate whether phonological deficits in dyslexics should be attributed to (a) less specified representations of speech sounds, like suggested by studies in young children with a familial risk for dyslexia, or (b) to an impaired access to these phonemic representations, as suggested by studies in adults with dyslexia. These conflicting findings are rooted in between study differences in sample characteristics and/or testing techniques. The current study uses the same multivariate functional MRI (fMRI) approach as previously used in adults with dyslexia to investigate phonemic representations in 30 beginning readers with a familial risk and 24 beginning readers without a familial risk of dyslexia, of whom 20 were later retrospectively classified as dyslexic. Based on fMRI response patterns evoked by listening to different utterances of /bA/ and /dA/ sounds, multivoxel analyses indicate that the underlying activation patterns of the two phonemes were distinct in children with a low family risk but not in children with high family risk. However, no group differences were observed between children that were later classified as typical versus dyslexic readers, regardless of their family risk status, indicating that poor phonemic representations constitute a risk for dyslexia but are not sufficient to result in reading problems. We hypothesize that poor phonemic representations are trait (family risk) and not state (dyslexia) dependent, and that representational deficits only lead to reading difficulties when they are present in conjunction with other neuroanatomical or-functional deficits.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Dislexia/fisiopatologia , Fonética , Leitura , Transtorno Fonológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5684, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831751

RESUMO

We experience the world through multiple senses simultaneously. To better understand mechanisms of multisensory processing we ask whether inputs from two senses (auditory and visual) can interact and drive plasticity in neural-circuits of the primary visual cortex (V1). Using genetically-encoded voltage and calcium indicators, we find coincident audio-visual experience modifies both the supra and subthreshold response properties of neurons in L2/3 of mouse V1. Specifically, we find that after audio-visual pairing, a subset of multimodal neurons develops enhanced auditory responses to the paired auditory stimulus. This cross-modal plasticity persists over days and is reflected in the strengthening of small functional networks of L2/3 neurons. We find V1 processes coincident auditory and visual events by strengthening functional associations between feature specific assemblies of multimodal neurons during bouts of sensory driven co-activity, leaving a trace of multisensory experience in the cortical network.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Privação Sensorial/fisiologia
4.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(4): 204-2010, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833742

RESUMO

Introduction: The process of auditory closure is defined as the ability to complete distorted or missing parts of the acoustic signal and recognize the message in its entirety, is executed daily and should be intact in adolescents. Objectives: To determine the possible alteration of auditory closure according to central auditory processing tests and the psycholinguistic skills in adolescents and; to analyze the relation between the academic performance with central auditory processing tests and psycholinguistic abilities. Methods: A descriptive and transversal study was carried out. 235 adolescents were assessed with normal hearing and without added pathologies. Central auditory processing (CAP) tests from Neustadt et al. and the Illinois Psycholinguistic Aptitude Test (IPAT) to assess psycholinguistic skills (HP). Results: No association was found (p> 0.05) between the specific tests that evaluate the auditory closure (monosyllables with noise and filtered speech of CAP and auditory integration of HP). Regarding academic performance, a statistically significant association was observed (p> 0.05) with three of four psycholinguistic abilities: auditory association, sequential memory and grammatical integration. In turn, there was a significant association between academic performance and one of the four CAP tests: SSW. Conclusion: This research presents an approach on the interrelation between audiological and linguistic tests to detect early alterations in auditory closure in order to arrive at an integral look that contributes to the therapeutics of the problem in adolescents.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Psicolinguística , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Audiometria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226288, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881550

RESUMO

Temporal-envelope cues are essential for successful speech perception. We asked here whether training on stimuli containing temporal-envelope cues without speech content can improve the perception of spectrally-degraded (vocoded) speech in which the temporal-envelope (but not the temporal fine structure) is mainly preserved. Two groups of listeners were trained on different amplitude-modulation (AM) based tasks, either AM detection or AM-rate discrimination (21 blocks of 60 trials during two days, 1260 trials; frequency range: 4Hz, 8Hz, and 16Hz), while an additional control group did not undertake any training. Consonant identification in vocoded vowel-consonant-vowel stimuli was tested before and after training on the AM tasks (or at an equivalent time interval for the control group). Following training, only the trained groups showed a significant improvement in the perception of vocoded speech, but the improvement did not significantly differ from that observed for controls. Thus, we do not find convincing evidence that this amount of training with temporal-envelope cues without speech content provide significant benefit for vocoded speech intelligibility. Alternative training regimens using vocoded speech along the linguistic hierarchy should be explored.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção do Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007371, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671096

RESUMO

Dancing and playing music require people to coordinate actions with auditory rhythms. In laboratory perception-action coordination tasks, people are asked to synchronize taps with a metronome. When synchronizing with a metronome, people tend to anticipate stimulus onsets, tapping slightly before the stimulus. The anticipation tendency increases with longer stimulus periods of up to 3500ms, but is less pronounced in trained individuals like musicians compared to non-musicians. Furthermore, external factors influence the timing of tapping. These factors include the presence of auditory feedback from one's own taps, the presence of a partner performing coordinated joint tapping, and transmission latencies (TLs) between coordinating partners. Phenomena like the anticipation tendency can be explained by delay-coupled systems, which may be inherent to the sensorimotor system during perception-action coordination. Here we tested whether a dynamical systems model based on this hypothesis reproduces observed patterns of human synchronization. We simulated behavior with a model consisting of an oscillator receiving its own delayed activity as input. Three simulation experiments were conducted using previously-published behavioral data from 1) simple tapping, 2) two-person alternating beat-tapping, and 3) two-person alternating rhythm-clapping in the presence of a range of constant auditory TLs. In Experiment 1, our model replicated the larger anticipation observed for longer stimulus intervals and adjusting the amplitude of the delayed feedback reproduced the difference between musicians and non-musicians. In Experiment 2, by connecting two models we replicated the smaller anticipation observed in human joint tapping with bi-directional auditory feedback compared to joint tapping without feedback. In Experiment 3, we varied TLs between two models alternately receiving signals from one another. Results showed reciprocal lags at points of alternation, consistent with behavioral patterns. Overall, our model explains various anticipatory behaviors, and has potential to inform theories of adaptive human synchronization.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Ciclos de Atividade , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Simulação por Computador , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Humanos , Música , Periodicidade , Desempenho Psicomotor
7.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102949, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675619

RESUMO

Music generates manifold experiences in humans, some perceptual and some hedonic. Are these qualia governed by the same principles in processing? In particular, do the loudness and timbre of melodies combine to produce perception and likeability by the same rules of integration? In Experiment 1, we tested selective attention to loudness and timbre by applying Garner's speeded classification paradigm and found both to be perceptually integral dimensions. In Experiment 2, we tested liking for the same music by applying Norman Anderson's functional measurement model and found loudness and timbre to combine by an adding-type rule. In Experiment 3, we applied functional measurement for perception and found loudness and timbre to interact as in Experiment 1. These results show that people cannot or do not attend selectively or perceive separately any one music component, but that they nonetheless can isolate the components when they enjoy (or disenjoy) listening to music. We conclude that perception of the constituent components of a musical piece and the processing of the same components for liking are governed by different rules.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102935, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715443

RESUMO

Truth tellers provide less detail in delayed than in immediate interviews (likely due to forgetting), whereas liars provide similar amounts of detail in immediate and delayed interviews (displaying a metacognitive stability bias effect). We examined whether liar's flawed metacognition after delays could be exploited by encouraging interviewees to provide more detail via a Model Statement. Truthful and deceptive participants were interviewed immediately (n = 78) or after a three-week delay (n = 78). Half the participants in each condition listened to a Model Statement before questioning. In the Immediate condition, truth tellers provided more details than liars. This pattern was unaffected by the Model Statement. In the Delayed condition, truth tellers and liars provided a similar amount of detail in the Model Statement-absent condition, whereas in the Model Statement-present condition, liars provided more details than truth tellers.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Decepção , Revelação , Relações Interpessoais , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102923, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759191

RESUMO

Selective attention plays a key role in determining what aspects of our environment are encoded into long-term memory. Auditory rhythms with a regular beat provide temporal expectations that entrain attention and facilitate perception of visual stimuli aligned with the beat. The current study investigated whether entrainment to background auditory rhythms also facilitates higher-level cognitive functions such as episodic memory. In a series of experiments, we manipulated temporal attention through the use of rhythmic, instrumental music. In Experiment 1A and 1B, we found that background musical rhythm influenced the encoding of visual targets into memory, evident in enhanced subsequent memory for targets that appeared in-synchrony compared to out-of-synchrony with the background beat. Response times at encoding did not differ for in-synchrony compared to out-of-synchrony stimuli, suggesting that the rhythmic modulation of memory does not simply reflect rhythmic effects on perception and action. Experiment 2 investigated whether rhythmic effects on response times emerge when task procedures more closely match prior studies that have demonstrated significant auditory entrainment effects. Responses were faster for in-synchrony compared to out-of-synchrony stimuli when participants performed a more perceptually-oriented task that did not contain intervening recognition memory tests, suggesting that rhythmic effects on perception and action depend on the nature of the task demands. Together, these results support the hypothesis that rhythmic temporal regularities provided by background music can entrain attention and influence the encoding of visual stimuli into memory.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 978-990, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621358

RESUMO

Although there is some evidence suggesting that audiovisual integration is inefficient in older adults, and that such inefficiency is associated with age-related functions such as mild cognitive impairment, falls, and balance maintenance, these associations have yet to be demonstrated in a population-representative study of ageing. Based on a sample of 3,955 adults aged over 50 years, we investigated the role of age, cognitive status, and sex on susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI) as a measure of audiovisual temporal integration, while controlling for a range of covariates. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian, ordinal-regression model to determine which variables predicted audiovisual integration. Higher susceptibility to the SIFI was predicted by older age, female sex (at larger temporal asynchronies), and a lower score on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Our results confirm, in a population-representative sample, that enhanced audiovisual integration is associated with ageing and extend the association between multisensory integration and mild cognitive impairment to global cognitive status. Importantly, the findings also highlight the role of the sex of the participant as a previously overlooked factor in studying multisensory perception in ageing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Sexo , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007430, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626624

RESUMO

Perception of vocalizations and other behaviorally relevant sounds requires integrating acoustic information over hundreds of milliseconds. Sound-evoked activity in auditory cortex typically has much shorter latency, but the acoustic context, i.e., sound history, can modulate sound evoked activity over longer periods. Contextual effects are attributed to modulatory phenomena, such as stimulus-specific adaption and contrast gain control. However, an encoding model that links context to natural sound processing has yet to be established. We tested whether a model in which spectrally tuned inputs undergo adaptation mimicking short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) can account for contextual effects during natural sound processing. Single-unit activity was recorded from primary auditory cortex of awake ferrets during presentation of noise with natural temporal dynamics and fully natural sounds. Encoding properties were characterized by a standard linear-nonlinear spectro-temporal receptive field (LN) model and variants that incorporated STP-like adaptation. In the adapting models, STP was applied either globally across all input spectral channels or locally to subsets of channels. For most neurons, models incorporating local STP predicted neural activity as well or better than LN and global STP models. The strength of nonlinear adaptation varied across neurons. Within neurons, adaptation was generally stronger for spectral channels with excitatory than inhibitory gain. Neurons showing improved STP model performance also tended to undergo stimulus-specific adaptation, suggesting a common mechanism for these phenomena. When STP models were compared between passive and active behavior conditions, response gain often changed, but average STP parameters were stable. Thus, spectrally and temporally heterogeneous adaptation, subserved by a mechanism with STP-like dynamics, may support representation of the complex spectro-temporal patterns that comprise natural sounds across wide-ranging sensory contexts.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Furões , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos de Interação Espacial , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Ruído , Som
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 200: 102940, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665621

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of different latencies for processing visual and auditory stimuli in cross-modal non-spatial repetition inhibition. In two experiments, the cue validity of modality and identity between the prime and the target was manipulated in a "prime-neutral cue-target" paradigm. A distinct neutral event was presented after the prime and before the onset of the target. The prime probe was visual in Experiment 1 and auditory in Experiment 2. The results in both experiments showed that RTs for identity-cued trials were significantly slower than RTs for identity-cued trials regardless of whether the modality of the target was visual or auditory. In addition, RTs for visual trials were significantly faster than RTs for auditory trials, indicating different latencies of processing visual and auditory stimuli. This latency difference affects cross-modal non-spatial repetition inhibition in two aspects: 1) creating a new representation (identity uncued) that is delivered via visual modality is easier under audio-visual conditions, and 2) retrieving an inhibited representation (identity cued) that is delivered via auditory modality is more difficult under visual-audio conditions. We propose that cross-modal non-spatial repetition inhibition, which is distinct from unimodal repetition inhibition, can be easily influenced by different latencies of processing visual and auditory stimuli.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1677-1686, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551604

RESUMO

When experts are immersed in a task, do their brains prioritize task-related activity? Most efforts to understand neural activity during well-learned tasks focus on cognitive computations and task-related movements. We wondered whether task-performing animals explore a broader movement landscape and how this impacts neural activity. We characterized movements using video and other sensors and measured neural activity using widefield and two-photon imaging. Cortex-wide activity was dominated by movements, especially uninstructed movements not required for the task. Some uninstructed movements were aligned to trial events. Accounting for them revealed that neurons with similar trial-averaged activity often reflected utterly different combinations of cognitive and movement variables. Other movements occurred idiosyncratically, accounting for trial-by-trial fluctuations that are often considered 'noise'. This held true throughout task-learning and for extracellular Neuropixels recordings that included subcortical areas. Our observations argue that animals execute expert decisions while performing richly varied, uninstructed movements that profoundly shape neural activity.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuroimagem , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
14.
J Vis ; 19(11): 13, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561251

RESUMO

During self-motion through an environment, our sensory systems are confronted with a constant flow of information from different modalities. To successfully navigate, self-induced sensory signals have to be dissociated from externally induced sensory signals. Previous studies have suggested that the processing of self-induced sensory information is modulated by means of predictive coding mechanisms. However, the neural correlates of processing self-induced sensory information from different modalities during self-motion are largely unknown. Here, we asked if and how the processing of visually simulated self-motion and/or associated auditory stimuli is modulated by self-controlled action. Participants were asked to actively reproduce a previously observed simulated self-displacement (path integration). Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activation during this path integration was compared with BOLD activation during a condition in which we passively replayed the exact sensory stimulus that had been produced by the participants in previous trials. We found supramodal BOLD suppression in parietal and frontal regions. Remarkably, BOLD contrast in sensory areas was enhanced in a modality-specific manner. We conclude that the effect of action on sensory processing is strictly dependent on the respective behavioral task and its relevance.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Sensação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3958, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477711

RESUMO

Despite well-established anatomical differences between primary and non-primary auditory cortex, the associated representational transformations have remained elusive. Here we show that primary and non-primary auditory cortex are differentiated by their invariance to real-world background noise. We measured fMRI responses to natural sounds presented in isolation and in real-world noise, quantifying invariance as the correlation between the two responses for individual voxels. Non-primary areas were substantially more noise-invariant than primary areas. This primary-nonprimary difference occurred both for speech and non-speech sounds and was unaffected by a concurrent demanding visual task, suggesting that the observed invariance is not specific to speech processing and is robust to inattention. The difference was most pronounced for real-world background noise-both primary and non-primary areas were relatively robust to simple types of synthetic noise. Our results suggest a general representational transformation between auditory cortical stages, illustrating a representational consequence of hierarchical organization in the auditory system.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ruído , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Som , Adulto Jovem
16.
Codas ; 31(4): e20180181, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482997

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure listening effort using of a dual-task paradigm of working memory and analyze the clinical significance of the normal-hearing individuals' performance. METHODS: Participants were 10 young adults with similar socio-cultural level, aged 18-30 years, of both genders, classified as normal-hearing individuals based on the quadritonal average (500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz). The participants were submitted to audiological anamnesis, meatoscopy, and pure tone audiometry. Listening effort was measured using a dual-task paradigm comprising the tasks of speech perception and working memory with logatomes, real words, and meaningless sentences. Prior to measurement, the dual-task paradigm was carried out in audiometric booth in order to train the participants to perform the tasks properly. After the training stage, this paradigm was conducted under two different hearing situations with white noise: signal-to-noise ratios of +5 and -5dB. RESULTS: Performance comparison per ear, right or left, for the two signal-to-noise ratios significantly influenced the speech perception tasks with logatomes and meaningless sentences in both ears; however, significant difference was observed only for the right ear in the tasks of listening effort and working memory. CONCLUSION: Listening effort can be measured using the paradigm proposed, and this instrument was proven sensitive for the quantification of this auditory parameter.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Valores de Referência , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 23(3): 256-261, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040019

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction Speech tests such as logoaudiometry measure the ability to perceive and recognize oral sounds. The Speech Recognition Index (SRI) is one of the speech tests adopted in clinical routine; it uses standardized live voice and recorded speeches. The live voice speech method can be influenced by intra and interspeaker variability, as well as by regionalism variability, whereas recorded tests show consistency in their presentation. Objective Analyzing results of the SRI test applied to live voiceand recorded speeches from Paraná State, in different Brazilian counties. Method The sample comprised 125 individuals, 25 fromeach county (Rio de Janeiro, Florianópolis, Porto Alegre, Salvador and Curitiba), from both sexes, in the age group 20 to 70 years; the SRI was applied in both techniques. Results The recorded speech method showed prevalence of hit improvement in Rio de Janeiro (40%), Salvador, Porto Alegre and Florianópolis (28%). Individuals from Salvador and Florianópolis subjected to the recorded speech method showed better results in the left ear. Individuals from Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre showed satisfactory results in both ears, whereas those from Curitiba did not show statistically significant difference between the left and the right ear. Conclusion The recorded CD application method showed prevalence of hit improvement (%) in the SRI responses in comparison to the live voice speech technique in most of the studied counties. According to the hit rate measured in the herein investigated counties, Rio de Janeiro showed the best results in the recorded speech method.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Testes de Discriminação da Fala/métodos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Brasil , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Discurso
18.
Dev Psychol ; 55(10): 2048-2059, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393138

RESUMO

The current study investigates whether informative, mutually redundant audiovisual cues support better performance in a category learning paradigm. Research suggests that, under some conditions, redundant multisensory cues supports better learning, when compared with unisensory cues. This was examined systematically across two experiments. In Experiment 1, children aged 5, 7, and 10 years were allocated to 1 of the 3 "modality" conditions (audio informative only, visual informative only, and audiovisual informative) and explicitly instructed to learn the category membership of individual exemplars, as determined by a threshold of correct responses. Unisensory or redundant multisensory cues determined category membership, depending on the learning condition. In addition to significant main effects of age group and condition, a significant interaction between age and sensory condition was found, with 5-year-olds performing better when presented with redundant multisensory cues compared to unisensory cues. Ten-year-olds performed better with auditory informative only cues, compared to visual informative only cues, or informative but redundant multisensory cues, with no significant difference between the latter two. In Experiment 2, the multisensory condition was presented to separate groups of 5-, 7-, and 10-year-olds, examining explicit learning outcomes in the audiovisual informative condition. Results showed that children who reached threshold during training were faster, made fewer errors, and performed better during test trials. Learning appeared to be based on the visual informative cues. Findings are discussed in the context of age-related selective attention, suggesting that the value of providing multisensory informative cues to support real-world learning depends on age and instructional context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Atenção , Recursos Audiovisuais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3440, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371713

RESUMO

Prior experience enables the formation of expectations of upcoming sensory events. However, in the auditory modality, it is not known whether prediction-related neural signals carry feature-specific information. Here, using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we examined whether predictions of future auditory stimuli carry tonotopic specific information. Participants passively listened to sound sequences of four carrier frequencies (tones) with a fixed presentation rate, ensuring strong temporal expectations of when the next stimulus would occur. Expectation of which frequency would occur was parametrically modulated across the sequences, and sounds were occasionally omitted. We show that increasing the regularity of the sequence boosts carrier-frequency-specific neural activity patterns during both the anticipatory and omission periods, indicating that prediction-related neural activity is indeed feature-specific. Our results illustrate that even without bottom-up input, auditory predictions can activate tonotopically specific templates.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Projetos de Pesquisa , Som , Voluntários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(10): 2607-2619, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372689

RESUMO

The arrangement of musical notes and their time intervals, also known as musical rhythm is one of the core elements of music. Nevertheless, the cognitive process and neural mechanism of the human brain that underlay the perception of musical rhythm are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that changes in musical rhythmic patterns alter the emotional content expressed by music and the way it is perceived, that assumably causes specific changes in the brain functional connectome. Therefore, 18 male children aged 10-14 years old were recruited and exposed to 12 musical excerpts while their brain's electrical activity was recorded using a 32-channel EEG recorder. The musical rhythmic patterns were changed by manipulating only note values in beats while keeping time signature and other elements in a fixed state. The experienced emotions were assessed using a 2-dimensional self-assessment manikin questionnaire. The behavioral data showed that an increase in the complexity of musical rhythmic patterns significantly enhances perceived valence and arousal levels. In addition, the pattern of brain functional connectivity was also estimated using the weighted phase lag index and their association with behavioral changes was calculated. Interestingly, the behavioral changes were mainly associated with alteration of brain functional connectivity at the alpha band in the fronto-central connections. These results emphasize the important role of the motor cortical site-fronto-central connections, in the perception of musical rhythmic pattern. These findings may improve conception of the underlying brain mechanism involved in the perception of musical rhythm.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Adolescente , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Criança , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção do Tempo
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