Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.870
Filtrar
1.
Clin EEG Neurosci ; 52(1): 29-37, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579028

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents. Suicidal behavior is associated with impairments in attention. Attention can be directed toward relevant events in the environment either actively, under voluntary control, or passively, by external salient events. The extent to which the risk for suicidal behavior affects active and passive attention is largely unknown. METHODS: Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 14 adolescents with acute suicidal behavior and 14 healthy controls performed an auditory 3-stimulus oddball task. The task consisted of standard (80%), target (10%), and novel (10%) stimuli. The participants were instructed to press a button upon presentation of the target. The novel stimuli were unexpected and irrelevant to the target detection task. RESULTS: Accuracy of target detection was slightly but significantly reduced in the suicidal group. There were no significant differences in the amplitude of the target-N2 or -P3b between groups. There was a slight, but nonsignificant, increase in the amplitude of the novel-N2 and -P3 in the suicidal group. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to explore both passive and controlled aspects of attention using ERPs in adolescents with acute suicidal behavior. Although there were no significant ERP group differences, this is an important step in identifying objective markers of suicide risk among adolescents.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ideação Suicida
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0234668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206657

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence suggests that rhythmic temporal structures in the environment influence memory formation. For example, stimuli that appear in synchrony with the beat of background, environmental rhythms are better remembered than stimuli that appear out-of-synchrony with the beat. This rhythmic modulation of memory has been linked to entrained neural oscillations which are proposed to act as a mechanism of selective attention that prioritize processing of events that coincide with the beat. However, it is currently unclear whether rhythm influences memory formation by influencing early (sensory) or late (post-perceptual) processing of stimuli. The current study used stimulus-locked event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the locus of stimulus processing at which rhythm temporal cues operate in the service of memory formation. Participants viewed a series of visual objects that either appeared in-synchrony or out-of-synchrony with the beat of background music and made a semantic classification (living/non-living) for each object. Participants' memory for the objects was then tested (in silence). The timing of stimulus presentation during encoding (in-synchrony or out-of-synchrony with the background beat) influenced later ERPs associated with post-perceptual selection and orienting attention in time rather than earlier ERPs associated with sensory processing. The magnitude of post-perceptual ERPs also differed according to whether or not participants demonstrated a mnemonic benefit for in-synchrony compared to out-of-synchrony stimuli, and was related to the magnitude of the rhythmic modulation of memory performance across participants. These results support two prominent theories in the field, the Dynamic Attending Theory and the Oscillation Selection Hypothesis, which propose that neural responses to rhythm act as a core mechanism of selective attention that optimize processing at specific moments in time. Furthermore, they reveal that in addition to acting as a mechanism of early attentional selection, rhythm influences later, post-perceptual cognitive processes as events are transformed into memory.


Assuntos
Ritmo alfa , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ritmo beta , Potenciais Evocados , Memória/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000831, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170833

RESUMO

Echolocating bats rely upon spectral interference patterns in echoes to reconstruct fine details of a reflecting object's shape. However, the acoustic modulations required to do this are extremely brief, raising questions about how their auditory cortex encodes and processes such rapid and fine spectrotemporal details. Here, we tested the hypothesis that biosonar target shape representation in the primary auditory cortex (A1) is more reliably encoded by changes in spike timing (latency) than spike rates and that latency is sufficiently precise to support a synchronization-based ensemble representation of this critical auditory object feature space. To test this, we measured how the spatiotemporal activation patterns of A1 changed when naturalistic spectral notches were inserted into echo mimic stimuli. Neurons tuned to notch frequencies were predicted to exhibit longer latencies and lower mean firing rates due to lower signal amplitudes at their preferred frequencies, and both were found to occur. Comparative analyses confirmed that significantly more information was recoverable from changes in spike times relative to concurrent changes in spike rates. With this data, we reconstructed spatiotemporal activation maps of A1 and estimated the level of emerging neuronal spike synchrony between cortical neurons tuned to different frequencies. The results support existing computational models, indicating that spectral interference patterns may be efficiently encoded by a cascading tonotopic sequence of neural synchronization patterns within an ensemble of network activity that relates to the physical features of the reflecting object surface.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147602

RESUMO

We examined the relationship between cognitive-linguistic mechanisms and auditory closure ability in children. Sixty-seven school-age children recognized isolated words and keywords in sentences that were interrupted at a rate of 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz. In essence, children were given only 50% of speech information and asked to repeat the complete word or sentence. Children's working memory capacity (WMC), attention, lexical knowledge, and retrieval from long-term memory (LTM) abilities were also measured to model their role in auditory closure ability. Overall, recognition of monosyllabic words and lexically easy multisyllabic words was significantly better at 2.5 Hz interruption rate than 5 Hz. Recognition of lexically hard multisyllabic words and keywords in sentences was better at 5 Hz relative to 2.5 Hz. Based on the best fit generalized "logistic" linear mixed effects models, there was a significant interaction between WMC and lexical difficulty of words. WMC was positively related only to recognition of lexically easy words. Lexical knowledge was found to be crucial for recognition of words and sentences, regardless of interruption rate. In addition, LTM retrieval ability was significantly associated with sentence recognition. These results suggest that lexical knowledge and the ability to retrieve information from LTM is crucial for children's speech recognition in adverse listening situations. Study findings make a compelling case for the assessment and intervention of lexical knowledge and retrieval abilities in children with listening difficulties.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Idioma , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Vocabulário
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5940, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230182

RESUMO

Sensory substitution is a promising therapeutic approach for replacing a missing or diseased sensory organ by translating inaccessible information into another sensory modality. However, many substitution systems are not well accepted by subjects. To explore the effect of sensory substitution on voluntary action repertoires and their associated affective valence, we study deaf songbirds to which we provide visual feedback as a substitute of auditory feedback. Surprisingly, deaf birds respond appetitively to song-contingent binary visual stimuli. They skillfully adapt their songs to increase the rate of visual stimuli, showing that auditory feedback is not required for making targeted changes to vocal repertoires. We find that visually instructed song learning is basal-ganglia dependent. Because hearing birds respond aversively to the same visual stimuli, sensory substitution reveals a preference for actions that elicit sensory feedback over actions that do not, suggesting that substitution systems should be designed to exploit the drive to manipulate.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Gânglios da Base/fisiologia , Tentilhões , Masculino , Motivação , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Reforço Psicológico , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241196, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206664

RESUMO

Research in music and emotion has long acknowledged the importance of extra-musical cues, yet has been unable to measure their effect on emotion communication in music. The aim of this research was to understand how extra-musical cues affect emotion responses to music in two distinguishable cultures. Australian and Cuban participants (N = 276) were instructed to name an emotion in response to written lyric excerpts from eight distinct music genres, using genre labels as cues. Lyrics were presented primed with genre labels (original priming and a false, lured genre label) or unprimed. For some genres, emotion responses to the same lyrics changed based on the primed genre label. We explain these results as emotion expectations induced by extra-musical cues. This suggests that prior knowledge elicited by lyrics and music genre labels are able to affect the musical emotion responses that music can communicate, independent of the emotion contribution made by psychoacoustic features. For example, the results show a lyric excerpt that is believed to belong to the Heavy Metal genre triggers high valence/high arousal emotions compared to the same excerpt primed as Japanese Gagaku, without the need of playing any music. The present study provides novel empirical evidence of extra-musical effects on emotion and music, and supports this interpretation from a multi-genre, cross-cultural perspective. Further findings were noted in relation to fandom that also supported the emotion expectation account. Participants with high levels of fandom for a genre reported a wider range of emotions in response to the lyrics labelled as being a song from that same specific genre, compared to lower levels of fandom. Both within and across culture differences were observed, and the importance of a culture effect discussed.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Música/psicologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Austrália , Comunicação , Comparação Transcultural , Sinais (Psicologia) , Drama , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoacústica , Adulto Jovem
7.
Exp Psychol ; 67(4): 246-254, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111655

RESUMO

Visual input of a face appears to influence the ability to selectively attend to one voice over another simultaneous voice. We examined this crossmodal effect, specifically the role face gender may have on selective attention to male and female gendered simultaneous voices. Using a within-subjects design, participants were presented with a dynamic male face, female face, or fixation cross, with each condition being paired with a dichotomous audio stream of male and female voices reciting different lists of concrete nouns. In Experiment 1a, the female voice was played in the right ear and the male voice in the left ear. In Experiment 1b, both voices were played in both ears with differences in volume mimicking the interaural intensity difference between disparately localized voices in naturalistic situations. Free recall of words spoken by the two voices immediately following stimulus presentation served as a proxy measure of attention. In both sections of the experiment, crossmodal congruity of face gender enhanced same-gender word recall. This effect indicates that crossmodal interaction between voices and faces guides auditory attention. The results contribute to our understanding of how humans navigate the crossmodal relationship between voices and faces to direct attention in social interactions such as those in the cocktail party scenario.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16157, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999327

RESUMO

Sensory processing deficits and altered long-range connectivity putatively underlie Multisensory Integration (MSI) deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The present study set out to investigate non-social MSI stimuli and their electrophysiological correlates in young neurotypical adolescents and adolescents with ASD. We report robust MSI effects at behavioural and electrophysiological levels. Both groups demonstrated normal behavioural MSI. However, at the neurophysiological level, the ASD group showed less MSI-related reduction of the visual P100 latency, greater MSI-related slowing of the auditory P200 and an overall temporally delayed and spatially constrained onset of MSI. Given the task design and patient sample, and the age of our participants, we argue that electro-cortical indices of MSI deficits in ASD: (a) can be detected in early-adolescent ASD, (b) occur at early stages of perceptual processing, (c) can possibly be compensated by later attentional processes, (d) thus leading to normal MSI at the behavioural level.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1936): 20202002, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023412

RESUMO

Foragers rely on various cues to assess predation risk. Information theory predicts that high certainty cues should be valued more than low certainty cues. We measured the latency of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to resume feeding during winter in response to cues that conferred different degrees of certainty about current predation risk: a high certainty visual cue (predator mount) and a lower certainty acoustic cue (conspecific mobbing calls), presented either alone or in combination. As predicted, chickadees took longer to resume feeding after the visual than the acoustic cue, and this effect was greatest under conditions of high starvation risk (i.e. low temperatures). Presenting both cues together produced the same foraging delay as the visual cue alone under low starvation risk, but surprisingly, resulted in lower responses under high starvation risk compared to the visual cue alone. We suggest that this may be due to prey using a form of information updating, whereby differences in the timing of perception of acoustic versus visual cues interacts with energetic constraint to shape perceived risk. Although the sequential perception of cues is likely in a range of decision-making contexts, studies manipulating the order in which cues are perceived are needed to test existing models of multimodal cue integration.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Predatório , Estações do Ano , Espectrografia do Som
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5440, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116148

RESUMO

Despite recent progress in understanding multisensory decision-making, a conclusive mechanistic account of how the brain translates the relevant evidence into a decision is lacking. Specifically, it remains unclear whether perceptual improvements during rapid multisensory decisions are best explained by sensory (i.e., 'Early') processing benefits or post-sensory (i.e., 'Late') changes in decision dynamics. Here, we employ a well-established visual object categorisation task in which early sensory and post-sensory decision evidence can be dissociated using multivariate pattern analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG). We capitalize on these distinct neural components to identify when and how complementary auditory information influences the encoding of decision-relevant visual evidence in a multisensory context. We show that it is primarily the post-sensory, rather than the early sensory, EEG component amplitudes that are being amplified during rapid audiovisual decision-making. Using a neurally informed drift diffusion model we demonstrate that a multisensory behavioral improvement in accuracy arises from an enhanced quality of the relevant decision evidence, as captured by the post-sensory EEG component, consistent with the emergence of multisensory evidence in higher-order brain areas.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Análise Multivariada , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5029, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024101

RESUMO

How are brain circuits constructed to achieve complex goals? The brains of young songbirds develop motor circuits that achieve the goal of imitating a specific tutor song to which they are exposed. Here, we set out to examine how song-generating circuits may be influenced early in song learning by a cortical region (NIf) at the interface between auditory and motor systems. Single-unit recordings reveal that, during juvenile babbling, NIf neurons burst at syllable onsets, with some neurons exhibiting selectivity for particular emerging syllable types. When juvenile birds listen to their tutor, NIf neurons are also activated at tutor syllable onsets, and are often selective for particular syllable types. We examine a simple computational model in which tutor exposure imprints the correct number of syllable patterns as ensembles in an interconnected NIf network. These ensembles are then reactivated during singing to train a set of syllable sequences in the motor network.


Assuntos
Tentilhões/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241035, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119633

RESUMO

Anthropogenic noise is an often-overlooked byproduct of urbanization and affects the soundscape in which birds communicate. Previous studies assessing the impact of traffic noise have focused on bird song, with many studies demonstrating the ability of birds to raise song frequency in the presence of low-frequency traffic noise to avoid masking. Less is known about the impact of traffic noise on avian alarm calls, which is surprising given the degree to which predator information within alarm calls may impact fitness. The objective of this study was to assess the impacts of traffic noise on the Black-capped Chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), a small non-migratory songbird with a well-studied and information-rich alarm call. We studied birds at eight locations in Stark County, Ohio, from 15 January to 7 March 2016, and used a taxidermic mount of an Eastern Screech-Owl to elicit alarm calls. In half of the trials, a pre-recorded traffic noise track was also broadcasted at 50 decibels. In noise trials, chickadee calls contained more introductory notes (P < 0.001), more total notes (P < 0.001), were of longer duration (P < 0.001), and had lower introductory and D-note peak frequencies (P = 0.032 and P = 0.041, respectively). No differences were noted in the number of D-notes per call between noise and control trials. Modifying alarm call duration and frequency, without changing the number of D-notes, may be a strategy that chickadees use to convey predator information and to coordinate a threat-appropriate mobbing response when it is not possible to change call type. Our results add to the small, but growing, literature documenting the effects of anthropogenic noise on avian alarm calls, demonstrate the flexibility and complexity of chickadee calls given in response to predators, and may partially explain why chickadees adapt well to urban areas.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ruído dos Transportes/efeitos adversos , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28442-28451, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097665

RESUMO

Sounds are processed by the ear and central auditory pathway. These processing steps are biologically complex, and many aspects of the transformation from sound waveforms to cortical response remain unclear. To understand this transformation, we combined models of the auditory periphery with various encoding models to predict auditory cortical responses to natural sounds. The cochlear models ranged from detailed biophysical simulations of the cochlea and auditory nerve to simple spectrogram-like approximations of the information processing in these structures. For three different stimulus sets, we tested the capacity of these models to predict the time course of single-unit neural responses recorded in ferret primary auditory cortex. We found that simple models based on a log-spaced spectrogram with approximately logarithmic compression perform similarly to the best-performing biophysically detailed models of the auditory periphery, and more consistently well over diverse natural and synthetic sounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that including approximations of the three categories of auditory nerve fiber in these simple models can substantially improve prediction, particularly when combined with a network encoding model. Our findings imply that the properties of the auditory periphery and central pathway may together result in a simpler than expected functional transformation from ear to cortex. Thus, much of the detailed biological complexity seen in the auditory periphery does not appear to be important for understanding the cortical representation of sound.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Som , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cóclea , Nervo Coclear/fisiologia , Furões , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Fala
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16113, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999309

RESUMO

Music listening is one of the most pleasurable activities in our life. As a rewarding stimulus, pleasant music could induce long-term memory improvements for the items encoded in close temporal proximity. In the present study, we behaviourally investigated (1) whether musical pleasure and musical hedonia enhance verbal episodic memory, and (2) whether such enhancement takes place even when the pleasant stimulus is not present during the encoding. Participants (N = 100) were asked to encode words presented in different auditory contexts (highly and lowly pleasant classical music, and control white noise), played before and during (N = 49), or only before (N = 51) the encoding. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire was used to measure participants' sensitivity to musical reward. 24 h later, participants' verbal episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed that participants with a high musical reward sensitivity present an increased recollection performance, especially for words encoded in a highly pleasant musical context. Furthermore, this effect persists even when the auditory stimulus is not concurrently present during the encoding of target items. Taken together, these findings suggest that musical pleasure might constitute a helpful encoding context able to drive memory improvements via reward mechanisms.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Prazer/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Música , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16390, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009439

RESUMO

The way the visual system processes different scales of spatial information has been widely studied, highlighting the dominant role of global over local processing. Recent studies addressing how the auditory system deals with local-global temporal information suggest a comparable processing scheme, but little is known about how this organization is modulated by long-term musical training, in particular regarding musical sequences. Here, we investigate how non-musicians and expert musicians detect local and global pitch changes in short hierarchical tone sequences structured across temporally-segregated triplets made of musical intervals (local scale) forming a melodic contour (global scale) varying either in one direction (monotonic) or both (non-monotonic). Our data reveal a clearly distinct organization between both groups. Non-musicians show global advantage (enhanced performance to detect global over local modifications) and global-to-local interference effects (interference of global over local processing) only for monotonic sequences, while musicians exhibit the reversed pattern for non-monotonic sequences. These results suggest that the local-global processing scheme depends on the complexity of the melodic contour, and that long-term musical training induces a prominent perceptual reorganization that reshapes its initial global dominance to favour local information processing. This latter result supports the theory of "analytic" processing acquisition in musicians.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 17(11): 1193-1206, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090055

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cochlear implants (CIs) are biomedical devices that restore sound perception for people with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Most postlingually deafened CI users are able to achieve excellent speech recognition in quiet environments. However, current CI sound processors remain limited in their ability to deliver fine spectrotemporal information, making it difficult for CI users to perceive complex sounds. Limited access to complex acoustic cues such as music, environmental sounds, lexical tones, and voice emotion may have significant ramifications on quality of life, social development, and community interactions. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review article is to summarize the literature on CIs and music perception, with an emphasis on music training in pediatric CI recipients. The findings have implications on our understanding of noninvasive, accessible methods for improving auditory processing and may help advance our ability to improve sound quality and performance for implantees. EXPERT OPINION: Music training, particularly in the pediatric population, may be able to continue to enhance auditory processing even after performance plateaus. The effects of these training programs appear generalizable to non-trained musical tasks, speech prosody and, emotion perception. Future studies should employ rigorous control groups involving a non-musical acoustic intervention, standardized auditory stimuli, and the provision of feedback.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Música , Criança , Implante Coclear , Humanos , Idioma , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(45): 28475-28484, 2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106427

RESUMO

Coherent perception relies on integrating multiple dimensions of a sensory modality, for example, color and shape in vision. We reveal how different acoustic dimensions, specifically echo intensity and sonar aperture (or width), are important for correct perception by echolocating bats. We flew bats down a corridor blocked by objects with different intensity-aperture combinations. To our surprise, bats crashed straight into large (aperture) walls with weak echo intensity as if they did not exist. The echolocation behavior of the bats indicated that they did detect the wall, suggesting that crashing was not a result of limited sensory sensitivity, but of a perceptual deficit. We systematically manipulated intensity and aperture by changing the materials and width of different reflectors, and we conclude that a coherent echo-based percept is created only when these two acoustic dimensions have certain relations which are typical for objects in nature (e.g., large and intense or small and weak reflectors). Nevertheless, we show that these preferred relations are not innate. We show that young pups are not constrained to these relations and that new intensity-aperture associations can also be learned by adult bats.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecolocação/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Acústica , Animais , Orientação , Som
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4361, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868773

RESUMO

The sensory responses of cortical neuronal populations following training have been extensively studied. However, the spike firing properties of individual cortical neurons following training remain unknown. Here, we have combined two-photon Ca2+ imaging and single-cell electrophysiology in awake behaving mice following auditory associative training. We find a sparse set (~5%) of layer 2/3 neurons in the primary auditory cortex, each of which reliably exhibits high-rate prolonged burst firing responses to the trained sound. Such bursts are largely absent in the auditory cortex of untrained mice. Strikingly, in mice trained with different multitone chords, we discover distinct subsets of neurons that exhibit bursting responses specifically to a chord but neither to any constituent tone nor to the other chord. Thus, our results demonstrate an integrated representation of learned complex sounds in a small subset of cortical neurons.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/citologia , Sinalização do Cálcio , Eletrofisiologia/métodos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Microscopia de Fluorescência por Excitação Multifotônica/métodos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única/métodos
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15973, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994430

RESUMO

The temporal structure of sound such as in music and speech increases the efficiency of auditory processing by providing listeners with a predictable context. Musical meter is a good example of a sound structure that is temporally organized in a hierarchical manner, with recent studies showing that meter optimizes neural processing, particularly for sounds located at a higher metrical position or strong beat. Whereas enhanced cortical auditory processing at times of high metric strength has been studied, there is to date no direct evidence showing metrical modulation of subcortical processing. In this work, we examined the effect of meter on the subcortical encoding of sounds by measuring human auditory frequency-following responses to speech presented at four different metrical positions. Results show that neural encoding of the fundamental frequency of the vowel was enhanced at the strong beat, and also that the neural consistency of the vowel was the highest at the strong beat. When comparing musicians to non-musicians, musicians were found, at the strong beat, to selectively enhance the behaviorally relevant component of the speech sound, namely the formant frequency of the transient part. Our findings indicate that the meter of sound influences subcortical processing, and this metrical modulation differs depending on musical expertise.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Fonética , Som , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuron ; 108(3): 401-412, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871106

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies identify midlife hearing loss as an independent risk factor for dementia, estimated to account for 9% of cases. We evaluate candidate brain bases for this relationship. These bases include a common pathology affecting the ascending auditory pathway and multimodal cortex, depletion of cognitive reserve due to an impoverished listening environment, and the occupation of cognitive resources when listening in difficult conditions. We also put forward an alternate mechanism, drawing on new insights into the role of the medial temporal lobe in auditory cognition. In particular, we consider how aberrant activity in the service of auditory pattern analysis, working memory, and object processing may interact with dementia pathology in people with hearing loss. We highlight how the effect of hearing interventions on dementia depends on the specific mechanism and suggest avenues for work at the molecular, neuronal, and systems levels to pin this down.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Demência/etiologia , Demência/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA