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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44289, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1104374

RESUMO

Objetivo: discutir as vivências dos motoristas de ônibus através de suas percepções acerca do trânsito e os impactos à saúde sofridos por eles. Método: estudo qualitativo fenomenológico realizado em uma garagem de ônibus situada no Rio de Janeiro. As entrevistas fenomenológicas foram realizadas com 24 motoristas que responderam perguntas semiestruturadas e foram gravadas em dispositivo mp3, posteriormente, transcritas para obtenção das unidades de significado, a coleta de dados ocorreu entre 2017 e 2018. O projeto foi aprovado por Comitê de Ética e Pesquisa. Resultados: da análise fenomenológica das unidades de significados dos depoimentos emergiram duas categorias: o trânsito é instável e estressante e a falta de educação das pessoas afeta os aspectos psíquicos. O ambiente de trabalho determina, expressivamente, o bem-estar dos trabalhadores que nele atuam. Conclusão: diante de tantos limites impostos pela sociedade contemporânea e pelo sofrimento no trabalho, necessário é motiva-los, e também dar-lhes condições de realizar seu trabalho de forma plena.


Objective: to discuss the experience of bus drivers through their perceptions regarding traffic and the health impacts they suffer. Method: in this qualitative phenomenological study conducted at a bus garage in Rio de Janeiro, data were collected in 2017 and 2018 by way of phenomenological interviews of 24 drivers, who answered semi-structured questions. The resulting mp3 recordings were later transcribed to obtain the units of meaning. The project was approved by the research ethics committee. Results: from phenomenological analysis of the units of meaning in the responses, two categories emerged: traffic is unstable and stressful, and people's lack of education has adverse psychological effects. The work environment substantially determines the well-being of those working in it. Conclusion: given all the many constraints imposed by contemporary society and by their suffering at work, it is necessary to motivate them and also assure them the conditions necessary to carry out their work fully.


Objetivo: discutir la experiencia de los conductores de autobuses a través de sus percepciones sobre el tráfico y los impactos en la salud que sufren. Método: en este estudio fenomenológico cualitativo realizado en un garaje de autobuses en Río de Janeiro, se recopilaron datos en 2017 y 2018 a través de entrevistas fenomenológicas a 24 conductores, que respondieron preguntas semiestructuradas. Las grabaciones mp3 resultantes se transcribieron posteriormente para obtener las unidades de significado. El proyecto fue aprobado por el comité de ética de investigación. Resultados: del análisis fenomenológico de las unidades de significado en las respuestas, surgieron dos categorías: el tráfico es inestable y estresante, y la falta de educación de las personas tiene efectos psicológicos adversos. El ambiente de trabajo determina sustancialmente el bienestar de quienes trabajan en él. Conclusión: dadas las muchas restricciones impuestas por la sociedad contemporánea y por su sufrimiento en el trabajo, es necesario motivarlos y también asegurarles las condiciones necesarias para llevar a cabo su trabajo plenamente.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução de Veículo , Condições de Trabalho , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Percepção Social , População Urbana , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(2): 0-0, jul.-oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193595

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: describir conocimientos y percepciones de profesionales de Atención Primaria sobre el acceso al Sistema Nacional de Salud (SNS) y la atención sanitaria de la población inmigrante, así como analizar diferencias entre categorías profesionales. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo transversal mediante una encuesta a 352 profesionales sanitarios y no sanitarios en centros de salud de la Comunidad de Madrid, y residentes de Medicina y Enfermería de la Unidad Docente Multiprofesional de Atención Familiar y Comunitaria Sur de Madrid (UDMAFyC Sur) entre febrero y marzo de 2019. RESULTADOS: respondieron 179 profesionales (50,9%). El 50,3% opinó que los inmigrantes tienen frecuentes dificultades de acceso y el 65,9% que el estatus migratorio condiciona su salud, señalando el idioma como barrera relevante el 80,4%. El 72,7% de los sanitarios afirmó que no consumen más recursos. Expresaron nulo/escaso conocimiento del Real Decreto-Ley (RDL) 16/2012 el 72%, y del RDL 7/2018, un 66,7%. Un 30,7% consideró que el RDL 16/2012 tuvo efectos negativos en salud, y el 28,5%, que el RDL 7/2018 recuperó la universalidad. Un 54,9% de sanitarios apoyó la universalidad del SNS, contrastando con el 19,1% de personal no sanitario. CONCLUSIONES: la mitad de profesionales percibe frecuentes dificultades de la población inmigrante en su acceso al SNS, aunque el conocimiento de las normativas es limitado. Una ajustada mayoría respalda la universalidad, existiendo posicionamientos restrictivos con relativa frecuencia, especialmente entre el personal no sanitario. Se reproducen ciertos mitos sobre la atención a población inmigrante, no así acerca del consumo de recursos sanitarios


OBJECTIVES: To report the knowledge and perceptions of Primary Care professionals regarding access to the Spanish National Healthcare System and healthcare assistance provided to the immigrant population, as well as to analyse differences by professional categories. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by sending a questionnaire to 352 professionals: healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) from primary health care centres in the southern region of the Community of Madrid and resident doctors and nurses assigned to this primary healthcare area, from February to March 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 179 professionals (50.9%) replied. Of these, 50.3% thought that migrants face frequent difficulties in access, whereas 65.9% considered that migrants' health is conditioned by their migratory status. Moreover, 80.4% identified language as a relevant barrier and 72.7% of HCWs believed that migrants do not consume more resources. Regarding the Spanish Royal Decree-laws (RDL), 72% admitted having no or little knowledge of Spanish RDL 16/2012, and 66.7% of Spanish RDL 7/2018. However, 30.7% considered that Spanish RDL 16/2012 had negative effects on health, 28.5% agreed that Spanish RDL 7/2018 recovered universal healthcare coverage (UHC). Overall, 54.9% of HCWs support UHC in comparison to 19.1% of non-HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Half the professionals perceive that immigrants encounter frequent difficulties when accessing the Spanish Healthcare System, although their knowledge of legislation is limited. A slight majority supports UHC and finds a large number of restrictive stances, especially among non-HCWs. Certain misconceptions regarding care provided to immigrants persist, but not those related to health resources consumption


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Sistemas Nacionais de Saúde , Percepção Social , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
South Med J ; 113(9): 462-465, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885267

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically changed resident training in the United States. Here, we explore the early perceived effects of COVID-19 on dermatology residents through an electronic sample survey and identify possible areas for targeted improvement in lieu of a possible second wave of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: On April 3, 2020, a survey of link with 25 questions was sent to dermatology program coordinators to be disseminated among dermatology residents in the United States. The survey was closed on April 13, 2020. All of the questions were optional and no personal identifiers were collected. RESULTS: A total of 140 dermatology residents from 50 different residency programs across 26 states responded to the survey. The majority of respondents (85%) reported negative effects of COVID-19 on their overall wellness. Despite the majority of residents (92%) speculating that COVID-19 will have negative long-term effects on the US economy, only 33% agreed or strongly agreed that it will affect their job prospects. Teledermatology was widely implemented following the declaration of a national emergency (96% of represented residencies compared with only 30% before the pandemic), with heavy resident involvement. The majority of residents (99%) reported having virtual didactics and that they found them to be beneficial. Most residents were uncomfortable with the prospect of being reassigned to a nondermatology specialty during the pandemic. In addition, 22% of residents believed that their leadership were not transparent and prompt in addressing changes relating to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatology residents were affected negatively by COVID-19 in regard to their well-being, clinical training, and education. Several areas of improvement were identified that could improve our preparedness for a second wave of the virus.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Dermatologia , Pandemias , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral , Dermatopatias/terapia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dermatologia/educação , Dermatologia/métodos , Educação/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Inovação Organizacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/métodos , Telemedicina/tendências , Estados Unidos
5.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 843-849, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893867

RESUMO

Despite early warnings and calls for action, COVID-19 infection rates continue to climb in many areas of the United States. The current study examined participants' reported likelihood of engaging in eight behaviors designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as critical for the prevention of COVID-19 at the outset of the epidemic. Self-efficacy, perceived threat, and internal and external health locus of control were explored as potential predictors of those behaviors. In addition, demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not participants were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for analysis. Overall, participants reported high engagement with the prevention behaviors. Higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity of the illness, and external locus of control in regard to medical professionals were all positively associated with plans to take the recommended precautions. Based on the results, it appears that messaging regarding COVID-19 prevention may be particularly effective when it focuses on the high risk of the illness, the ease with which the prevention behaviors can be taken, and a reassurance that the medical establishment has individuals' best health in mind when it makes its specific recommendations. While numerous countries have succeeded in reducing the spread of COVID-19, the number of new cases in the United States remains high, even relative to other populations also heavily impacted by the disease [1]. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint a single cause or explanation for the epidemic's course in the USA, at the heart of its spread, like the spread of all infectious diseases, is noncompliance with preventative measures. The current research served as a preliminary exploration of the prevalence and predictors of eight COVID-19 prevention behaviors. A brief survey was sent out at the end of March 2020 to 350 U.S. residents in order to assess the likelihood of their engaging in various prevention behaviors recommended at that time and several related psychosocial factors. The psychological factors assessed included health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, self-efficacy, and perceived threat. In addition, a handful of demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not they were working outside the home or were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for examination.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoeficácia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicologia , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4728, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963237

RESUMO

Social trust is linked to a host of positive societal outcomes, including improved economic performance, lower crime rates and more inclusive institutions. Yet, the origins of trust remain elusive, partly because social trust is difficult to document in time. Building on recent advances in social cognition, we design an algorithm to automatically generate trustworthiness evaluations for the facial action units (smile, eye brows, etc.) of European portraits in large historical databases. Our results show that trustworthiness in portraits increased over the period 1500-2000 paralleling the decline of interpersonal violence and the rise of democratic values observed in Western Europe. Further analyses suggest that this rise of trustworthiness displays is associated with increased living standards.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Face/anatomia & histologia , Expressão Facial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pinturas , Percepção Social , Confiança
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1472, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urban-rural disparity in mortality at older ages is well documented in China. However, surprisingly few studies have systemically investigated factors that contribute to such disparity. This study examined the extent to which individual-level socioeconomic conditions, family/social support, health behaviors, and baseline health status contributed to the urban-rural difference in mortality among older adults in China. METHODS: This research used the five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014, a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 65 years or older in China (n = 28,235). A series of hazard regression models by gender and age group examined the association between urban-rural residence and mortality and how this association was modified by a wide range of individual-level factors. RESULTS: Older adults in urban areas had 11% (relative hazard ratio (HR) = 0.89, p < 0.01) lower risks of mortality than their rural counterparts when only demographic factors were taken into account. Further adjustments for family/social support, health behaviors, and health-related factors individually or jointly had a limited influence on the mortality differential between urban and rural older adults (HRs = 0.89-0.92, p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). However, we found no urban-rural difference in mortality (HR = 0.97, p > 0.10) after adjusting for individual socioeconomic factors. Similar results were found in women and men, and among the young-old and the oldest-old populations. CONCLUSIONS: The urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China was largely attributable to differences in individual socioeconomic resources (i.e., education, income, and access to healthcare) regardless of gender and age group.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Percepção Social , Apoio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(2): 117-122, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780680

RESUMO

The HIV/AIDS pandemic is compounded by the continued stigmatization of the virus/disease and of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Employing structuration theory, this study sought to examine the perceptions of Kenyans toward their government's efforts to curtail HIV/AIDS as well as their attitudes toward PLWHA. Data for this study were collected using an open-ended online survey. In total, 103 participants (25.3%) completed the survey. We used snowball sampling to select prospective participants known to the researcher; they were sent a link to the survey via email or direct message on a social networking site like Facebook or WhatsApp, and were asked to share the survey with people in their social circles. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings revealed that some participants had confidence in the Kenyan government's efforts to address the HIV/AIDS pandemic, while others showed no confidence in government-led initiatives. Consistent with previous research, this study found that stigma towards HIV/ AIDS and PLWHA still exists. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estigma Social , Estereotipagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being afraid of others' positive appraisal of oneself is called fear of positive evaluation. Fear of positive evaluation has been studied intensively in the context of social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not known if individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) fear positive evaluation and which factors are associated with fear of positive evaluation in BPD. METHODS: We applied the fear of positive evaluation scale and further self-report measures (e.g., social phobia inventory, rejection sensitivity questionnaire) to 36 patients with BPD, 29 patients with SAD and 35 healthy controls (HC). RESULTS: A one-way ANOVA revealed that patients with BPD and patients with SAD reported significantly higher fear of positive evaluation than HC. Patients with BPD and SAD did not differ in their fear of positive evaluation. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed an association between rejection sensitivity and fear of positive evaluation in the BPD sample. However, this association disappeared when controlling for social anxiety. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that individuals with BPD fear positive evaluation as much as individuals with SAD do, which has implications for clinical practice. Our results further imply that social anxiety is decisive for high fear of positive evaluation in patients with SAD and patients with BPD.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Medo , Percepção Social , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rejeição em Psicologia , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
13.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(2): 249-252, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750726

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply rapid online surveying to determine the knowledge and perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with endometriosis in Turkey. METHODS: An online survey was conducted by the Turkish Endometriosis & Adenomyosis Society and administered to patients with endometriosis who agreed to participate in the study. The survey included 25 questions prepared by an expert committee of four professionals (two gynecologists and two endometriosis specialists). RESULTS: Of the 290 questionnaires sent out, 261 (90%) were returned. A total of 213 (83.86%) patients reported that they were afraid of having endometriosis-related problems during the pandemic period. In addition, 133 (53.63%) patients thought the management of their endometriosis was affected because of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Clinical studies clearly indicate that endometriosis is a condition associated with high levels of chronic stress. The COVID-19 pandemic has led the public to experience psychological problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, depression, and anxiety. The majority of patients with endometriosis were afraid of having endometriosis-related problems during the pandemic period. The majority of elective endometriosis surgeries have not been postponed. Patients were highly aware of the pandemic and practiced social distancing and hygiene. Only 4 (1.59%) patients with endometriosis required hospitalization.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Endometriose , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Angústia Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endometriose/psicologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Turquia/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 151(2): 203-208, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799318

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical impact, psychological effects, and knowledge of pregnant women during the COVID-19 outbreak in seven cities in Colombia. Currently, there are uncertainty and concerns about the maternal and fetal consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional web survey was carried out including pregnant women in seven cities in Colombia. Women were evaluated during the mitigation phase of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic between April 13 and May 18, 2020. The questions evaluated demographic, knowledge, psychological symptoms, and attitudes data regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 1021 patients were invited to participate, obtaining 946 valid surveys for analysis. The rate of psychological consequences of the pandemic was much larger than the number of patients clinically affected by the virus, with 50.4% of the entire cohort reporting symptoms of anxiety, 49.1% insomnia, and 25% reporting depressive symptoms. Poorly informed women were more likely to be younger, affiliated to the subsidized regime, and with lower levels of education. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of pregnant women about SARS-CoV-2 infection is far from reality and this seems to be associated with an indirect effect on the concern and psychological stress of pregnant women in Colombia.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Percepção Social , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237771, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804940

RESUMO

It is widely believed that conspiracy theory beliefs are the product of perceived lack of control. However, to date there is mixed evidence, at best, to support this claim. We consider the reasons why conspiracy theory beliefs do not appear to be based in any straightforward way on control beliefs, interrogating existing findings and presenting new data that call the relationship into question. Across six studies conducted online using MTurk samples, we observed no effect of control manipulations on conspiracy theory beliefs, while replicating previously reported correlational evidence of their association. The results suggest that conspiracy beliefs are not suitable for compensating for threats to control. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy between experimental and correlational effects and examine the limitations of the studies.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Cultura , Opinião Pública , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Prev Med ; 59(4): 481-492, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829968

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study examines COVID-19-associated discrimination regardless of infection status. It evaluates the contribution of various risk factors (e.g., race/ethnicity and wearing a face mask) and the relationship with mental distress among U.S. adults in March and April 2020, when the pandemic escalated across the country. METHODS: Participants consisted of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of U.S. residents aged ≥18 years who completed COVID-19-related surveys online in March and April (n=3,665). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the probability of a person perceiving COVID-19-associated discrimination. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between discrimination and mental distress. Analyses were conducted in May 2020. RESULTS: Perception of COVID-19-associated discrimination increased from March (4%) to April (10%). Non-Hispanic Black (absolute risk from 0.09 to 0.15 across months) and Asians (absolute risk from 0.11 to 0.17) were more likely to perceive discrimination than other racial/ethnic groups (absolute risk from 0.03 to 0.11). Individuals who wore face masks (absolute risk from 0.11 to 0.14) also perceived more discrimination than those who did not (absolute risk from 0.04 to 0.11). Perceiving discrimination was subsequently associated with increased mental distress (from 0.77 to 1.01 points on the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire score). CONCLUSIONS: Perception of COVID-19-associated discrimination was relatively low but increased with time. Perceived discrimination was associated with race/ethnicity and wearing face masks and may contribute to greater mental distress during early stages of the pandemic. The long-term implications of this novel form of discrimination should be monitored.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Infecções por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Discriminação Social , Percepção Social , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Discriminação Social/prevenção & controle , Discriminação Social/psicologia , Discriminação Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 578-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes and legalization of recreational marijuana, messaging from websites and social media is shaping product perceptions and use. Quantitative research on the aesthetic appeal of these advertisements from the adolescent and young adult perspective is lacking. We evaluated (1) how adolescents and young adults perceived tobacco and marijuana messaging online and through social media platforms and (2) interactive behaviors related to these messages. METHODS: We interviewed 24 participants from the Tobacco Perceptions Study, a longitudinal study of adolescents' and young adults' (aged 17-21) tobacco-related perceptions and tobacco use. We collected qualitative data from October 2017 through February 2018, through individual semi-structured interviews, on participants' experiences and interactions with online tobacco and marijuana advertisements and the advertisements' appeal. Two analysts recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews. RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the interviews focused on the direct appeal of online messaging to adolescents and young adults; the value of trusting the source; the role of general attitudes and personal decision-making related to using tobacco and/or marijuana; the appeal of messaging that includes colors, interesting packaging, and appealing flavors; and the preference of messages communicated by young people and influencers rather than by industry. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the need for increased regulation of social media messaging and marketing of tobacco and marijuana, with a particular focus on regulating social media, paid influencers, and marketing that appeals to adolescents and young adults. The findings also suggest the importance of prevention programs addressing the role of social media in influencing the use of tobacco and marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Publicidade , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 19825-19829, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759213

RESUMO

Suppose you are surreptitiously looking at someone, and then when they catch you staring at them, you immediately turn away. This is a social phenomenon that almost everyone experiences occasionally. In such experiences-which we will call gaze deflection-the "deflected" gaze is not directed at anything in particular but simply away from the other person. As such, this is a rare instance where we may turn to look in a direction without intending to look there specifically. Here we show that gaze cues are markedly less effective at orienting an observer's attention when they are seen as deflected in this way-even controlling for low-level visual properties. We conclude that gaze cueing is a sophisticated mental phenomenon: It is not merely driven by perceived eye or head motions but is rather well tuned to extract the "mind" behind the eyes.


Assuntos
Atenção , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Percepção Social , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Orientação Espacial , Visão Ocular
20.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 35(3): 273-290, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621107

RESUMO

This study investigated the differences between Japanese and Korean college students' images of the elderly. Japan is the most aged society worldwide, while South Korea has the highest rate of aging. Japan has a more advanced elderly welfare system than Korea. The datasets included responses from 320 Japanese students (collected in 2009) and 384 Korean students (collected in 2011). A semantic difference scale of 50 pairs of items was adopted. The chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were utilized. The five most prevalent images among Korean students were generally negative, whereas the most common images among Japanese participants were mostly neutral or positive. A greater degree of talking/good memories, activities with older adults, and experience of gerontological education showed positive relationships to favorable images, whereas living with grandparents and visiting facilities for the elderly did not yield the same results. It seems that greater interaction with grandparents and other senior citizens, as well as more extensive gerontology education, improved the images of the elderly in both countries, whereas merely visiting facilities for older adults seemed insufficient. The results also suggest that living with grandparents can lead to rather negative images of older adults.


Assuntos
Ageismo/etnologia , Geriatria/educação , Percepção Social , Estereotipagem , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , República da Coreia , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
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