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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502877

RESUMO

With the prevalence of virtual avatars and the recent emergence of metaverse technology, there has been an increase in users who express their identity through an avatar. The research community focused on improving the realistic expressions and non-verbal communication channels of virtual characters to create a more customized experience. However, there is a lack in the understanding of how avatars can embody a user's signature expressions (i.e., user's habitual facial expressions and facial appearance) that would provide an individualized experience. Our study focused on identifying elements that may affect the user's social perception (similarity, familiarity, attraction, liking, and involvement) of customized virtual avatars engineered considering the user's facial characteristics. We evaluated the participant's subjective appraisal of avatars that embodied the participant's habitual facial expressions or facial appearance. Results indicated that participants felt that the avatar that embodied their habitual expressions was more similar to them than the avatar that did not. Furthermore, participants felt that the avatar that embodied their appearance was more familiar than the avatar that did not. Designers should be mindful about how people perceive individuated virtual avatars in order to accurately represent the user's identity and help users relate to their avatar.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Interface Usuário-Computador , Emoções , Humanos , Percepção Social
2.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 951-961, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424012

RESUMO

This study examined how children's and adolescents' beliefs about the distribution of wealth in society and the fairness of economic systems informed their behavior, judgments, and reasoning about access to opportunities among peers. The sample included 136 8- to 14-year-olds (47% girls, 60% White, majority middle- to higher-socioeconomic status [SES]) in the United States. Relative to older children, early adolescents viewed economic systems as less fair and wealth as less equally distributed, but still underestimated the true magnitude of existing economic disparities. Importantly, the stronger their system justification beliefs the fewer opportunities participants directed to poor peers over rich peers in an allocation scenario, but the more equally participants believed that wealth should be distributed in society the more opportunities they directed to poor peers. Moreover, participants were more supportive of allocating opportunities to poor peers when they had direct evidence that poor peers had been excluded in the past, and 40% reasoned explicitly about the implications of economic inequality when making their decision. Finally, exploratory associations of family SES and beliefs about distributive justice suggested that experiencing greater economic security may have enabled some participants to more readily critique societal inequality. Together, these findings provide correlational, experimental, and cross-sectional developmental evidence that older children's and early adolescents' beliefs about distributive justice in society inform their decisions about how to address disparities within their sphere of influence. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
3.
J Affect Disord ; 294: 805-812, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Burgeoning evidence suggests that loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic is tied to high levels of depression and anxiety. The current study is unique, though, in examining which facets of social behavior and perceived social quality are most tied to internalizing symptoms using longitudinal data, including a pre-pandemic baseline, collected from a community sample of adults with pre-existing mental health concerns (analyzed n = 144). METHODS: Participants completed measures of depressive and anxious symptoms pre-pandemic, followed by three weekly surveys during the pandemic. We distinguished four social variables: in-person social engagement, remote social engagement, social disruption, and social distress. OLS and mixed-effects regression models examined 1) pre-pandemic baseline symptoms as predictors of social functioning during the pandemic and 2) time-lagged associations between symptoms and social functioning during the pandemic. RESULTS: Social behavior and social perceptions were dissociable. Baseline depressive, but not anxious, symptoms predicted greater social distress during the pandemic. Both anxious and depressive symptoms were predicted by social variables, but the specific associations differed: depressive symptoms were related to perceived social quality, whereas anxious symptoms were more tied to reported social behavior. LIMITATIONS: We relied on self-report indices, and causality should not be inferred directly from these correlational data. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results indicate that it is possible to follow social guidelines and even to spend relatively few hours socializing with close others, while still feeling connected and rewarded; however, people who struggle with depression and anhedonia were particularly vulnerable to distressing feelings of social disconnection amid the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social
4.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine how prisoners' early release affects other citizens' perceived insecurity and their attitudes towards those released prisoners, and how citizens' political orientation influences these variables. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A total of 383 Portuguese participants were presented with a recommendation from the United Nations for the release of prisoners because of COVID-19 and then asked to fill in a questionnaire measuring their political orientation, support for the early release of prisoners, perceived insecurity regarding such measure and their attitudes towards the released prisoners. FINDINGS: Results showed that support for the release of prisoners during COVID-19 is associated with perceived insecurity and both, in turn, predicts inclusive attitudes regarding these prisoners, while only perceived insecurity is associated with an agreement with an intensification of social control measures. Right-wing participants were found to express the negative side. The more participants felt insecure, the more they believed released prisoners should not have the same rights as common citizens and the more they should be left out of the community. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: The major limitation of this study concerns the sample: the authors collected answers from Portuguese participants exclusively, most of which held a university degree. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: At least two major implications can be drawn from this study's results. These implications deal with prisoners' entrance in what can be considered a cycle of exclusion and the promotion of their social reintegration once they are released from prison. SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: The findings point out the necessity to firstly put an effort in deconstructing the insecurity perception that results from the prospective of having prisoners back into society - that is to understand why it happens and how it can be reduced - promoting efficacy in the inclusion of these prisoners and preventing the emergence of controlling or protective approaches directed to these individuals in their return to society by enhancing people's awareness that the social reintegration of ex-prisoners will benefit the whole community. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The authors present a different perspective of the impact that managing COVID-19 in prisons has on society.


Assuntos
Atitude , Política , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Inclusão Social , Percepção Social
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208539

RESUMO

First impressions make up an integral part of our interactions with other humans by providing an instantaneous judgment of the trustworthiness, dominance and attractiveness of an individual prior to engaging in any other form of interaction. Unfortunately, this can lead to unintentional bias in situations that have serious consequences, whether it be in judicial proceedings, career advancement, or politics. The ability to automatically recognize social traits presents a number of highly useful applications: from minimizing bias in social interactions to providing insight into how our own facial attributes are interpreted by others. However, while first impressions are well-studied in the field of psychology, automated methods for predicting social traits are largely non-existent. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of two automated approaches-multi-label classification (MLC) and multi-output regression (MOR)-for first impression recognition from faces. We demonstrate that both approaches are able to predict social traits with better than chance accuracy, but there is still significant room for improvement. We evaluate ethical concerns and detail application areas for future work in this direction.


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Percepção Social , Humanos , Julgamento , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Fatores Sociológicos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299956

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that surface acting-displaying an emotion that is dissonant with inner feelings-negatively impacts employees' well-being. However, most studies have neglected the meaning that employees develop around emotional demands requiring surface acting. This study examined how employees' responsibility attributions of client behavior demanding surface acting influence employees' emotional exhaustion, and the mediational role of distributive justice in this relationship. Relying on Fairness Theory, it was expected that employees' responsibility attributions of client behavior demanding emotion regulation would be related to their perceptions of distributive injustice during the service encounter, which in turn would mediate the effects of responsibility attribution on emotional exhaustion. In addition, drawing on the conservation of resources model, we contended that leader support would moderate the impact of distributive injustice on emotional exhaustion. Two scenario-based experiments were conducted. Study 1 (N = 187) manipulated the attribution of responsibility for emotional demands. The findings showed that distributive injustice and emotional exhaustion were higher when responsibility for the surface acting demands was attributed to the client. A bootstrapping mediational analysis confirmed employees' attributions have an indirect effect on emotional exhaustion through distributive justice. Study 2 (N = 227) manipulated responsibility attribution and leader support. The leader support moderation effect was confirmed.


Assuntos
Emoções , Justiça Social , Humanos , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social
8.
Sci Prog ; 104(3): 368504211029812, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260295

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the lives of all including university students. With the preventive measures to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, all face-to-face teaching and learning are converted to e-learning. The COVID-19 pandemic and the implementation of e-learning may influence these students' mental conditions. This study aimed to determine the association of factors with mental health status (depression, anxiety and stress) among university students in Malaysia. Study participants were tertiary education students from both the private and public universities in Malaysia. Participants were recruited via university emails and social media. The survey was administered via the online REDCap platform, from April to June 2020, during the movement control order period in the country. The questionnaire captured data on socio-demographic characteristics, academic information, implementation of e-learning, perception towards e-learning and COVID-19; as well as DASS 21 to screen for depression, anxiety and stress. The levels of stress, anxiety and depression were 56.5% (95% CI: 50.7%, 62.1%), 51.3% (95% CI: 45.6%, 57.0%) and 29.4% (95% CI: 24.3%, 34.8%) respectively. Most participants had good perception towards e-learning but negative perception on COVID-19. From the multivariate analysis, participants with positive perception on COVID-19 were protective towards stress (aOR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.99), anxiety (aOR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and depression (aOR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Older students were 14% (aOR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94) and 11% (aOR: 0.89: 95% CI: 0.80, 0.99) less likely for anxiety and depression, respectively. Students originated from the Malay ethnicity had higher odds (aOR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.56) for depression. These findings demonstrated that the mental status of university students was greatly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Timely and credible information should be disseminated to alleviate their negative perception towards COVID-19.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Instrução por Computador/métodos , Depressão/psicologia , Educação à Distância/organização & administração , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Multivariada , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
9.
Aggress Behav ; 47(5): 544-556, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114206

RESUMO

The research examined whether, and if so how, young adults' trust beliefs in others were associated with interpersonal hostility. The participants in Study 1 were 139 young adults from the UK (76 women; Mage = 20.8). In Study 2, 88 young adult women from the UK (Mage = 21.5) served as participants. The participants completed a standardized measure of trust beliefs in others (total with reliability, honesty, and emotional subscales). In Study 1, participants imagined they were victims of peer provocation. They were required to judge the intention for the provocation and their retaliation to it. In Study 2, the participants were engaged in a lab-based acquaintanceship interaction that involved the exchange of disclosures. They completed an adjective checklist that assessed anger and evaluated the quality of the conversation. Trust beliefs were linearly and negatively associated with the attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship. As expected though, quadratic relations were found. Young adults with very low and those with very high trust beliefs (primarily emotionally based) showed greater attribution of hostile intentions, retaliation, anger toward others, and critical evaluation of a developing peer relationship than did young adults with the middle range of trust beliefs. The linear relations supported the hypothesis that trust promotes psychosocial adjustment. The quadratic relations supported the deviation from the normative trust (centralist) approach primarily for emotional trust beliefs in others.


Assuntos
Hostilidade , Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 218: 103350, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116450

RESUMO

An extensive literature has revealed the benefits of self-relevance during stimulus processing. Compared to material associated with other persons (e.g., friend, mother), self-relevant information elicits faster and more accurate responses (i.e., the self-prioritization effect). Probing the boundary conditions of this effect, recent research has sought to identify whether the advantages of self-relevance can be attenuated (or even eliminated) under certain circumstances. Continuing in this tradition, here we explored the extent to which basic aspects of the task design modulate self-prioritization. The results of two experiments demonstrated just such an effect. During both simultaneous (i.e., Expt. 1) and sequential (i.e., Expt. 2) versions of a standard shape-label matching task, self-prioritization was reduced when stimulus presentation was blocked (i.e., self- or friend-relevant items) compared to intermixed (i.e., self- and friend-relevant items). These findings highlight both the persistence of self-prioritization and its sensitivity to task-related variation.


Assuntos
Percepção Social , Humanos
11.
Neuron ; 109(14): 2353-2361.e11, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171289

RESUMO

To navigate social environments, people must simultaneously hold representations about their own and others' abilities. During self-other mergence, people estimate others' abilities not only on the basis of the others' past performance, but the estimates are also influenced by their own performance. For example, if we perform well, we overestimate the abilities of those with whom we are co-operating and underestimate competitors. Self-other mergence is associated with specific activity patterns in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Using a combination of non-invasive brain stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and computational modeling, we show that dmPFC neurostimulation silences these neural signatures of self-other mergence in relation to estimation of others' abilities. In consequence, self-other mergence behavior increases, and our assessments of our own performance are projected increasingly onto other people. This suggests an inherent tendency to form interdependent social representations and a causal role of the dmPFC in separating self and other representations.


Assuntos
Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
12.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(2): 152-164, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perceptions of the legitimacy of a society's legal system help explain individual responses to courts and legal actors. Normative considerations such as fair and respectful treatment as well as social identification have demonstrated the ability to enhance perceived legal legitimacy and future cooperation. Veterans treatment courts (VTCs) are a rapidly disseminating and understudied intervention. Their targeting of a socially esteemed group presents an interesting venue to explore normative theories of justice. The present study tested a modified version of Tyler's theory of procedural justice in this setting. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that procedural justice, social bonds, and receipt of gratitude for military service would be positively associated with veteran identity and legal legitimacy. We further hypothesized that participants' identification as veterans would mediate the relationships between the three independent variables and legitimacy. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (N = 191) of participants in two VTCs. Analyses controlled for race, ethnicity, recidivism risk, and combat exposure. RESULTS: Perceptions of procedural justice, social bonds, and receipt of gratitude were positively associated with veteran identity and perceptions of legal legitimacy. Further, veteran identity was found to be a significant mediator between the first three constructs and legal legitimacy. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the importance of procedural justice in explaining perceptions of legal legitimacy in a novel context that is rapidly proliferating and understudied and has unique social identity considerations. The addition of gratitude and veteran identity to Tyler's model raises implications for VTC practice and further inquiry. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Direito Penal/organização & administração , Identificação Social , Serviços de Saúde para Veteranos Militares/organização & administração , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Emoções Manifestas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Mediação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112018

RESUMO

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Asco , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prof Inferm ; 74(1): 31-40, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Media play a key part in shaping nurses' social perception. Newspapers were chosen as the subject of this content analysis, as they are the main resource that Italians use to inform themselves. For this reason, ne wspapers are an appropriate resource to analyse the image of the nurse that, as found in literature, is seen as a dynamic phenomenon that changes according to different scenarios. Given the media focus on nurses during COVID- 19 it seems reasonable to analyse what nurse image was emerged. METHOD: A Content Analysis with an inductive process was conducted. The analysis' objective was to evaluate the image of the nurse in national and local newspapers, published between the 30th of January and the 18th of May 2020. A triangulation methodology was used between the two researchers to ensure data quality. R ESULTS: Five themes were identified. The risks for the nurse's psycho-physic wellbeing. Taking responsibility and human relations despite barriers. The acknowledgment of professional attributes. Uncertainty on the continuity of the nurses' social role emerged from the media. Nurses only wish to be appreciated for what they do. The agreement between the researchers on the themes has a Krippendor ff 's alpha between =0.713 and =0.985. CONCLUSIONS: The media's interest highlighted the nurses' competence in assisting patients with COVID-19. However, there isn't in-depth analysis, of the contemporar y image of the nurse, specifically in relation to leadership. Positive and negative tropes are recalled. The superficiality and fragility of the mediatic phenomena emerged, as opposed to a real positive strengthening of the nurse's social perception.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Jornais como Assunto , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Opinião Pública , Humanos , Itália , Liderança , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/organização & administração , Percepção Social
15.
Med Arch ; 75(1): 50-55, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012200

RESUMO

Background: Consumers' willingness to use health chatbots can eventually determine if the adoption of health chatbots will succeed in delivering healthcare services for combating COVID-19. However, little research to date has empirically explored influential factors of consumer willingness toward using these novel technologies, and the effect of individual differences in predicting this willingness. Objectives: This study aims to explore (a) the influential factors of consumers' willingness to use health chatbots related to COVID-19, (b) the effect of individual differences in predicting willingness, and (c) the likelihood of using health chatbots in the near future as well as the challenges/barriers that could hinder peoples' motivations. Methods: An online survey was conducted which comprised of two sections. Section one measured participants' willingness by evaluating the following six factors: performance efficacy, intrinsic motivation, anthropomorphism, social influence, facilitating conditions, and emotions. Section two included questions on demographics, the likelihood of using health chatbots in the future, and concerns that could impede such motivation. Results: A total of 166 individuals provided complete responses. Although 40% were aware of health chatbots and only 24% had used them before, about 84% wanted to use health chatbots in the future. The strongest predictors of willingness to use health chatbots came from the intrinsic motivation factor whereas the next strongest predictors came from the performance efficacy factor. Nearly 39.5% of participants perceived health chatbots to have human-like features such as consciousness and free will, but no emotions. About 38.4% were uncertain about the ease of using health chatbots. Conclusion: This study contributes toward theoretically understanding factors influencing peoples' willingness to use COVID-19-related health chatbots. The findings also show that the perception of chatbots' benefits outweigh the challenges.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mídias Sociais , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E563-E569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis is legal for recreational and medical use in Canada. Our aim was to explore family experiences using medical cannabis for children with severe conditions in the context of legalization. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using semistructured interviews between April and July 2019. Participants were parents of children attending BC Children's Hospital oncology or palliative care clinics, recruited through posters, emails or referral. Participants were included if they spoke English and their child used any type of cannabis for medical purposes. Interviews included open-ended questions about the child's cannabis use. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis was performed using qualitative description. RESULTS: Ten interviews were completed with 9 mothers and 1 mother-father pair. The age range of the children was 22 months to 16 years. The primary reasons for cannabis use were epilepsy (6 children) or chemotherapy management (4 children). Five major themes were identified. 1) Child and family context, and cannabis as a last resort: children were seen as severely ill; parents sought cannabis out of desperation and responsibility to their child. 2) Varied information sources informed decision-making: parents lacked resources from health care providers and sought support from social media, industry and other families. 3) Cannabis as an ambiguous medicine: cannabis was viewed as both a serious drug that doctors should prescribe and as a natural alternative health product, safe to pursue alone. 4) Perceived effects: parents perceived medical benefits with few concerns about adverse effects. 5) Legal and financial challenges: parents were willing to obtain cannabis despite high costs and uncertain legality. INTERPRETATION: Parents of children with severe conditions pursued medical cannabis despite obstacles and needed unbiased information to access alone. Scientific investigation is needed to develop pediatric medical guidelines to inform decisions.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Cuidados Paliativos , Pais/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Canadá/epidemiologia , Criança , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/economia , Neoplasias/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Psico-Oncologia/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medição de Risco
17.
J Appl Gerontol ; 40(9): 943-952, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of antecedent variables on older adults' intention to get a CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019 vaccine. Older adults are at higher risk of severe illness from the disease and face an increasingly ageist general population who misrepresent the pandemic as an older adult problem. We use the Theory of Planned Behavior framework to examine vaccine behavior intention. METHOD: A convenience sample (n = 583) of adults aged 60 and older in the United States participated in an online survey using vignettes. Hierarchical regression and analysis of covariance were used to test our model. RESULTS: Results suggest that perceived risk of the pandemic, general vaccine beliefs, and political affiliation influence respondents' attitude toward the vaccine. Respondents' attitudes toward the vaccine and their physician's recommendation help shape vaccine intention. CONCLUSION: The results provide partial support to the proposed model in shaping vaccine intention among older adults.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19 , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia , Vacinação , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinação/psicologia
18.
J Affect Disord ; 290: 40-51, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social functioning impairment has been described in several psychiatric illness, including depressive disorders. It is associated with a deterioration in global functioning and quality of life, thus there is a growing interest in psychosocial functioning remediation interventions. This systematic review aims to review all psychotherapeutic, pharmacological and biological social functioning interventions in depressive disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus from the first articles to 2019 following the PRISMA guidelines. 72 original papers were extracted from an initial number of 1827, based on the selected eligibility criteria. RESULTS: A growing body of research was observed in the last 10 years, with most studies showing a low level of scientific evidence. The main diagnosis found was major depressive disorder and the principal social cognition domains assessed were emotional processing and attributional style. The type of intervention most found was the pharmacological one, followed by psychotherapeutic interventions classified as "non-specific. The efficacy of treatments showed an improvement in depressive symptoms and positive results for emotional processing and attributional style. LIMITATIONS: Because there is a lack of well-controlled designs and really few interventions focusing on its remediation, and low homogeneity on the assessment of social aspects across, a comparison of results and the extraction of general conclusions is quite difficult. CONCLUSIONS: Although a promising body of literature has been developed in recent years on the improvement of psychosocial functioning in patients with depressive disorders, more studies are needed to clarify relevant aspects in this area.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Percepção Social
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 84, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza is a major public health issue, with the primary preventive measure being an annual influenza vaccination. Nevertheless, vaccination coverage among the at-risk population is low. Our understanding of the behaviour of the influenza virus during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus pandemic is limited, meaning influenza vaccination is still recommended for individuals at risk for severe complications due to influenza infection. The aim of the study is to determine the intention to vaccinate against seasonal influenza among the at-risk population in the 2020-21 campaign during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to analyse the factors which influence such intention. METHODS: Cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (aged over 18) with risk factors in central Catalonia where the need for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine (SIV) was recommended. RESULTS: A total of 434 participants responded to the survey, 43.3% of whom intended to be vaccinated against influenza for the 2020-2021 influenza season, 40.8% had no intention to be vaccinated and 15.9% were uncertain or did not express their opinion. The intention to get vaccinated against influenza is associated with having dependents, the individual's perception of the risk of being infected with influenza and the perceived risk of transmission to dependents. It is also associated with age, whether the individual had received influenza vaccine the previous season or any other season before. The best predictors of the intention to vaccinate are the individual's perception of the risk of catching influenza and whether the individual had been vaccinated in the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: Intention to vaccinate can be a good predictor of individual behaviour in relation to vaccination. During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic many individuals are hesitant to influenza vaccination. In order to improve influenza vaccination coverage in people included in risk groups, it is necessary to promote educational actions, especially among those who express doubts.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana , Intenção , Vacinação em Massa , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Vacinação em Massa/métodos , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Vacinação em Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , SARS-CoV-2 , Percepção Social , Espanha/epidemiologia , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Recusa de Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E466-E473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33958382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The province of British Columbia is facing a family physician shortage despite consistent increases in the number of physicians per capita and ongoing reforms to address the shortage. We identify physicians' priorities for structural reform, describe the alignment of those priorities with BC's suite of reforms and compare responses between established physicians and those new to practice; we also assessed rates of burnout. METHODS: All family physicians credentialed within Vancouver Coastal Health in 2018 were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were asked about their practice model and characteristics, demographics, level of burnout and reform priorities. We used χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression to investigate associations between personal and practice characteristics, burnout and reform priorities. RESULTS: Of the 1017 family physicians invited to participate, 525 (51.6%) responded. Of these, 399 (76.0%) indicated a need for fundamental change to how primary care is delivered; 244 (46.4%) would prefer to be a clinic employee rather than a small business owner. Other reform priorities included options to practise in a team (stated as very important by 69.6% of respondents), direct funding for team roles (66.7%), direct clinic funding (59.8%), part-time work options (64.7%), and ability to take planned vacations and parental leave (81.1%). The importance of individual reform priorities varied based on the participants' model of practice, location and years in practice. Of respondents, 108 (21.1%) had experienced a high level of burnout. INTERPRETATION: Almost half of family physicians would prefer to be employees rather than small business owners and over 20% reported a high level of burnout. Practice models offering direct employment model have very limited availability and are not included in the current suite of reforms in BC, potentially pulling physicians away from community-based family medicine and into other models or specialties.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Médicos de Família/provisão & distribuição , Padrões de Prática Médica , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Modelos Organizacionais , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Percepção Social
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