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1.
Nat Rev Neurosci ; 21(6): 322-334, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376899

RESUMO

The recognition of spoken language has typically been studied by focusing on either words or their constituent elements (for example, low-level features or phonemes). More recently, the 'temporal mesoscale' of speech has been explored, specifically regularities in the envelope of the acoustic signal that correlate with syllabic information and that play a central role in production and perception processes. The temporal structure of speech at this scale is remarkably stable across languages, with a preferred range of rhythmicity of 2- 8 Hz. Importantly, this rhythmicity is required by the processes underlying the construction of intelligible speech. A lot of current work focuses on audio-motor interactions in speech, highlighting behavioural and neural evidence that demonstrates how properties of perceptual and motor systems, and their relation, can underlie the mesoscale speech rhythms. The data invite the hypothesis that the speech motor cortex is best modelled as a neural oscillator, a conjecture that aligns well with current proposals highlighting the fundamental role of neural oscillations in perception and cognition. The findings also show motor theories (of speech) in a different light, placing new mechanistic constraints on accounts of the action-perception interface.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324825

RESUMO

High-speed trains are operated in increasingly complex railway networks and continual improvement of driver assistance systems is necessary to maintain safety. Speech offers the opportunity to provide information to the driver without disrupting visual attention. However, it is not known whether the transient pressure changes inside trains passing through tunnels interfere with speech intelligibility. Our primary goal was to test whether the most severe pressure variations occurring in high-speed trains (25 hPa in 2 s) affect speech intelligibility in individuals with normal hearing ability and secondly whether a potential effect would depend on the direction of the pressure change. A cross-over design was used to compare speech intelligibility, measured with the monosyllable word test by Wallenberg and Kollmeier, in steady ambient pressure versus subsequent to pressure events, both realised in a pressure chamber. Since data for a power calculation did not exist, we conducted a pilot study with 20 participants to estimate variance of intra-individual differences. The upper 80% confidence limit guided sample size of the main campaign, which was performed with 72 participants to identify a 10% difference while limiting alpha (5%) and beta error (10%). On average, a participant understood 0.7 fewer words following a pressure change event compared to listening in steady ambient pressure. However, this intra-individual differences varied strongly between participants, standard deviation (SD) ± 4.5 words, resulting in a negligible effect size of 0.1 and the Wilcoxon signed rank test (Z = -1.26; p = 0.21) did not distinguish it from chance. When comparing decreasing and increasing pressure events an average of 0.2 fewer words were understood (± 3.9 SD). The most severe pressure changes expected to occur in high-speed trains passing through tunnels do not interfere with speech intelligibility and are in itself not a risk factor for loss of verbal information transmission.


Assuntos
Orelha Média/fisiologia , Inteligibilidade da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Atmosférica , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Ruído , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferrovias , Tamanho da Amostra , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348318

RESUMO

How well L2 English is understood and how L2 English speakers perceive one another within varying communication contexts has been studied relatively rarely, even though most speakers of English in the world are L2 speakers. In this matched-guise experiment (N = 1699) the effects of L1 and L2 English accents and communication context were tested on speech understandability (intelligibility, comprehensibility, interpretability) and speaker evaluations (status, affect, dynamism). German (N = 617), Spanish (N = 540), and Singaporean listeners (N = 542) were asked to evaluate three accents (Dutch-accented English, standard British English, standard American English) in three communication contexts (Lecture, Audio Tour, Job Pitch). The main finding is that the Dutch-accented English accent was understood as well as the two L1 English accents. Furthermore, Dutch-accented English evoked equally positive evaluations to the two L1 English accents in German listeners, and more positive evaluations than the two L1 English accents in Spanish and Singaporean listeners. These results suggest that accent training aimed at achieving an L1 English accent may not always be necessary for (Dutch) English language learners, especially when they are expected to mostly interact with other L2 speakers of English. More generally, our results indicate that L2 English speakers' understanding and their evaluation of L1 and L2 Englishes would not seem to reflect traditional language norms. Instead, they seem to reflect the socio-cultural embedding of a language norm in a Lingua Franca English speech community that does not view accent varieties as a hindrance to successful communication.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Singapura , Espanha , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229486, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150573

RESUMO

When questioning the veracity of an utterance, we perceive certain non-linguistic behaviours to indicate that a speaker is being deceptive. Recent work has highlighted that listeners' associations between speech disfluency and dishonesty are detectable at the earliest stages of reference comprehension, suggesting that the manner of spoken delivery influences pragmatic judgements concurrently with the processing of lexical information. Here, we investigate the integration of a speaker's gestures into judgements of deception, and ask if and when associations between nonverbal cues and deception emerge. Participants saw and heard a video of a potentially dishonest speaker describe treasure hidden behind an object, while also viewing images of both the named object and a distractor object. Their task was to click on the object behind which they believed the treasure to actually be hidden. Eye and mouse movements were recorded. Experiment 1 investigated listeners' associations between visual cues and deception, using a variety of static and dynamic cues. Experiment 2 focused on adaptor gestures. We show that a speaker's nonverbal behaviour can have a rapid and direct influence on listeners' pragmatic judgements, supporting the idea that communication is fundamentally multimodal.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Decepção , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Gestos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Atenção , Compreensão , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160213

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether early-English education benefits the perception of English phonetic contrasts that are known to be perceptually confusable for Dutch native speakers, comparing Dutch pupils who were enrolled in an early-English programme at school from the age of four with pupils in a mainstream programme with English instruction from the age of 11, and English-Dutch early bilingual children. Children were 4-5-year-olds (start of primary school), 8-9-year-olds, or 11-12-year-olds (end of primary school). Children were tested on four contrasts that varied in difficulty: /b/-/s/ (easy), /k/-/É¡/ (intermediate), /f/-/θ/ (difficult), /ɛ/-/æ/ (very difficult). Bilingual children outperformed the two other groups on all contrasts except /b/-/s/. Early-English pupils did not outperform mainstream pupils on any of the contrasts. This shows that early-English education as it is currently implemented is not beneficial for pupils' perception of non-native contrasts.


Assuntos
Idioma , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fonética , Acústica da Fala
6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203524

RESUMO

Much of the literature surrounding bilingual spoken word recognition is based on bilinguals of non-tonal languages. In the Mandarin spoken word recognition literature, lexical tones are often considered as equally important as segments in lexical processing. It is unclear whether and how lexical tones contribute to bilingual language processing. One recent study demonstrates that tonal bilinguals require the availability of both tonal and segmental information to induce cross-language lexical competition during bilingual lexical access, even without phonological overlap between the target and non-target language. The current study investigates whether overt phonological overlap between the target and non-target language would equally require both tonal and segmental information available to induce cross-language lexical competition. We employed two auditory lexical decision experiments with both Mandarin-English bilinguals and English monolinguals to test whether inter-lingual homophones (IH) would induce lexical competition from the non-target language, L1 Mandarin. Our results show that cross-language lexical competition was only observed with the presence of lexical tones, in addition to segmental overlap.


Assuntos
Idioma , Multilinguismo , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , China , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Fonética , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(3): e3000207, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119667

RESUMO

Speech perception is mediated by both left and right auditory cortices but with differential sensitivity to specific acoustic information contained in the speech signal. A detailed description of this functional asymmetry is missing, and the underlying models are widely debated. We analyzed cortical responses from 96 epilepsy patients with electrode implantation in left or right primary, secondary, and/or association auditory cortex (AAC). We presented short acoustic transients to noninvasively estimate the dynamical properties of multiple functional regions along the auditory cortical hierarchy. We show remarkably similar bimodal spectral response profiles in left and right primary and secondary regions, with evoked activity composed of dynamics in the theta (around 4-8 Hz) and beta-gamma (around 15-40 Hz) ranges. Beyond these first cortical levels of auditory processing, a hemispheric asymmetry emerged, with delta and beta band (3/15 Hz) responsivity prevailing in the right hemisphere and theta and gamma band (6/40 Hz) activity prevailing in the left. This asymmetry is also present during syllables presentation, but the evoked responses in AAC are more heterogeneous, with the co-occurrence of alpha (around 10 Hz) and gamma (>25 Hz) activity bilaterally. These intracranial data provide a more fine-grained and nuanced characterization of cortical auditory processing in the 2 hemispheres, shedding light on the neural dynamics that potentially shape auditory and speech processing at different levels of the cortical hierarchy.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Eletrodos Implantados , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6255-6263, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123070

RESUMO

Auditory speech perception enables listeners to access phonological categories from speech sounds. During speech production and speech motor learning, speakers' experience matched auditory and somatosensory input. Accordingly, access to phonetic units might also be provided by somatosensory information. The present study assessed whether humans can identify vowels using somatosensory feedback, without auditory feedback. A tongue-positioning task was used in which participants were required to achieve different tongue postures within the /e, ε, a/ articulatory range, in a procedure that was totally nonspeech like, involving distorted visual feedback of tongue shape. Tongue postures were measured using electromagnetic articulography. At the end of each tongue-positioning trial, subjects were required to whisper the corresponding vocal tract configuration with masked auditory feedback and to identify the vowel associated with the reached tongue posture. Masked auditory feedback ensured that vowel categorization was based on somatosensory feedback rather than auditory feedback. A separate group of subjects was required to auditorily classify the whispered sounds. In addition, we modeled the link between vowel categories and tongue postures in normal speech production with a Bayesian classifier based on the tongue postures recorded from the same speakers for several repetitions of the /e, ε, a/ vowels during a separate speech production task. Overall, our results indicate that vowel categorization is possible with somatosensory feedback alone, with an accuracy that is similar to the accuracy of the auditory perception of whispered sounds, and in congruence with normal speech articulation, as accounted for by the Bayesian classifier.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fonética , Sensação/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Língua/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palato/fisiologia , Medida da Produção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
9.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 926-932, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Default frequency filters of cochlear implant (CI) devices assign frequency information irrespective of intracochlear position, resulting in varying degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch. Substantial mismatch negatively influences speech recognition in postlingually deafened CI recipients, and acclimatization may be particularly challenging for older adults due to effects of aging on the auditory pathway. The present report investigated the influence of mismatch and age at implantation on speech recognition within the initial 6 months of CI use. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty-eight postlingually deafened adult CI recipients of lateral wall electrode arrays underwent postoperative computed tomography to determine angular insertion depth of each electrode contact. Frequency-to-place mismatch was determined by comparing spiral ganglion place frequencies to default frequency filters. Consonant-nucleus-consonant (CNC) scores in the CI-alone condition at 1, 3, and 6 months postactivation were compared to the degree of mismatch at 1500 Hz and age at implantation. RESULTS: Younger adult CI recipients experienced more rapid growth in speech recognition during the initial 6 months postactivation. Greater degrees of frequency-to-place mismatch were associated with poorer performance, yet older listeners were not particularly susceptible to this effect. CONCLUSIONS: While older adults are not necessarily more sensitive to detrimental effects of frequency-to-place mismatch, other factors appear to limit early benefit with a CI in this population. These results suggest that minimizing mismatch could optimize outcomes in adult CI recipients across the life span, which may be particularly beneficial in the elderly considering auditory processing deficits associated with advanced age.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Surdez/reabilitação , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Surdez/diagnóstico , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 162(6): 933-941, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cochlear implant (CI) use on subjective benefits in quality of life in cases of asymmetric hearing loss (AHL). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial. SETTING: Tertiary academic center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Subjects included CI recipients with AHL (n = 20), defined as moderate-to-profound hearing loss in the affected ear and mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the contralateral ear. Quality of life was assessed with the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing Scale (SSQ) pragmatic subscales, which assess binaural benefits. Subjective benefit on the pragmatic subscales was compared to word recognition in quiet and spatial hearing abilities (ie, masked sentence recognition and localization). RESULTS: Subjects demonstrated an early, significant improvement (P < .01) in abilities with the CI as compared to preoperative abilities on the SSQ pragmatic subscales by the 1-month interval. Perceived abilities were either maintained or continued to improve over the study period. There were no significant correlations between results on the Speech in Quiet subscale and word recognition in quiet, the Speech in Speech Contexts subscale and masked sentence recognition, or the Localization subscale and sound field localization. CONCLUSIONS: CI recipients with AHL report a significant improvement in quality of life as measured by the SSQ pragmatic subscales over preoperative abilities. Reported improvements are observed as early as 1 month postactivation, which likely reflect the binaural benefits of listening with bimodal stimulation (CI and contralateral hearing aid). The SSQ pragmatic subscales may provide a more in-depth insight into CI recipient experience as compared to behavioral sound field measures alone.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear/métodos , Perda Auditiva Súbita/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Perda Auditiva Súbita/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130244

RESUMO

Music and language have long been considered two distinct cognitive faculties governed by domain-specific cognitive and neural mechanisms. Recent work into the domain-specificity of pitch processing in both domains appears to suggest pitch processing to be governed by shared neural mechanisms. The current study aimed to explore the domain-specificity of pitch processing by simultaneously presenting pitch contours in speech and music to speakers of a tonal language, and measuring behavioral response and event-related potentials (ERPs). Native speakers of Mandarin were exposed to concurrent pitch contours in melody and speech. Contours in melody emulated those in speech were either congruent or incongruent with the pitch contour of the lexical tone (i.e., rising or falling). Component magnitudes of the N2b and N400 were used as indices of lexical processing. We found that the N2b was modulated by melodic pitch; incongruent item evoked significantly stronger amplitude. There was a trend of N400 to be modulated in the same way. Interestingly, these effects were present only on rising tones. Amplitude and time-course of the N2b and N400 may suggest an interference of melodic pitch contours with both early and late stages of phonological and semantic processing.


Assuntos
Idioma , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: It is widely believed that 'creaky voice' ('creak', 'vocal fry', 'glottal fry') is increasingly prevalent among some English speakers, particularly among young American women. Motivated by the widespread and cross-disciplinary interest in the phenomenon, this paper offers a systematic review of peer-reviewed research (up to January 2019) on the prevalence of creaky voice in varieties of English. The review aimed to understand whose and what speech has been studied, how creaky voice prevalence has been measured, and what the findings collectively reveal. METHOD: Literature was located by searching four electronic databases (ProQuest, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science) and the proceedings of two recurrent conferences ('ICPhS' and 'SST'). Studies were included if they reported the prevalence of creaky voice in naturalistic samples of English spoken by vocally-healthy speakers. Reference lists of included studies were cross-checked. RESULTS: Only ten studies meeting inclusion criteria were identified. All studies sampled a small number of speakers and/or short durations of speech. Nine were recent studies of American-English speakers, and many of these sampled young, female, college students. Across the ten studies, creaky voice was detected using three types of methods, and prevalence was calculated using five different formulae. The findings show that prevalence varies across groups, individuals, and contexts. However, the precise nature of this variability remains unclear due to the scarcity and methodological heterogeneity of the research. CONCLUSIONS: This paper illustrated the application of systematic literature review methods in sociophonetic research-a field in which such methods are not common. The review found that creaky voice prevalence in English is not well understood, and that widespread claims of its recent increase among young American women have not been empirically confirmed. A number of specific limitations in the existing research are highlighted, which may serve as a guide for future research design.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Idioma , Fonação/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Fatores de Tempo , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168357

RESUMO

In this event-related potential (ERP) study we reevaluate syntax-first approaches to sentence processing by implementing a novel paradigm in French that includes correct sentences, pure syntactic category violations, lexical-semantic anomalies, and combined anomalies. Our balanced design systematically controlled for target word (noun vs. verb) and the context immediately preceding it. Group results from 36 native speakers of Quebec French revealed that, up to 300 ms, ERPs elicited by syntactic category violations were comparable with ERP responses to correct sentences, showing that there is no early activation reflecting syntactic category identification. Instead, in response to all anomalous conditions, we observed an N400 followed by a P600. Combined anomalies yielded additive effects of syntactic category and lexical-semantic anomalies on the N400, and a large P600 effect similar to the one observed in the pure syntactic condition. These results provide strong evidence against the hypothesis that (i) syntactic categories are processed first, and (ii) that syntactic category errors "block" lexical-semantic processing. Further, the N400 effect in response to pure syntactic category violations reflects a mismatch detection between a predicted word-stem and the actual target. This mechanism takes place simultaneously (and potentially in parallel) with lexical-semantic processing. In contrast, an interaction of syntax and semantics for the P600 reveals that the same neurocognitive resources are recruited for syntactic and semantic integration, both promoted by the implementation of an acceptability judgement task in our design. Additional analyses of individual data complemented these observations: during sentence processing, participants did not rely on one single cognitive mechanism reflected by either the N400 or the P600 effect but on both, suggesting that the biphasic N400-P600 ERP wave can indeed be considered to be an index of phrase-structure violations in most individuals, at least if they are realized on content words.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Idioma , Semântica , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Quebeque , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196513

RESUMO

In spite of its acoustic diversity, the speech signal presents statistical regularities that can be exploited by biological or artificial systems for efficient coding. Independent Component Analysis (ICA) revealed that on small time scales (∼ 10 ms), the overall structure of speech is well captured by a time-frequency representation whose frequency selectivity follows the same power law in the high frequency range 1-8 kHz as cochlear frequency selectivity in mammals. Variations in the power-law exponent, i.e. different time-frequency trade-offs, have been shown to provide additional adaptation to phonetic categories. Here, we adopt a parametric approach to investigate the variations of the exponent at a finer level of speech. The estimation procedure is based on a measure that reflects the sparsity of decompositions in a set of Gabor dictionaries whose atoms are Gaussian-modulated sinusoids. We examine the variations of the exponent associated with the best decomposition, first at the level of phonemes, then at an intra-phonemic level. We show that this analysis offers a rich interpretation of the fine-grained statistical structure of speech, and that the exponent values can be related to key acoustic properties. Two main results are: i) for plosives, the exponent is lowered by the release bursts, concealing higher values during the opening phases; ii) for vowels, the exponent is bound to formant bandwidths and decreases with the degree of acoustic radiation at the lips. This work further suggests that an efficient coding strategy is to reduce frequency selectivity with sound intensity level, congruent with the nonlinear behavior of cochlear filtering.


Assuntos
Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Cóclea/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Humanos , Fonética , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
15.
J Vis ; 20(3): 4, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32181860

RESUMO

This study focused on the potential role of incidental, auditory perceptual learning in among children learning new words. To this end, we examined how irrelevant auditory similarities across words, that provide no cues regarding their visual or conceptual attributes, influence pseudo-word learning in a name/picture matching paradigm. Two types of irrelevant auditory similarities were used: shared sequences of vowels or consonants. Learning word-to-picture associations in these two conditions was compared to a baseline condition in which items did not share either sequence. Kindergarten children readily learned items in all conditions, but auditory similarity interfered with learning (odds ratio, 1.12). Individual differences in reasoning and vocabulary did not account for the interference effect. These findings suggest that the sensory properties of words continue to influence language learning during the preschool years through rapid incidental learning, even if the effect is relatively small. Consistent with previous studies in the visual modality, we now suggest that incidental perceptual learning occurs in the auditory modality. Furthermore, the current findings suggest that this learning can interfere with word learning, highlighting the importance of the perceptual structure of words in real-world-like learning environments.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Vocabulário
16.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 129(8): 833-837, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019320

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Too little is known about hearing loss rehabilitation in patients with Alström syndrome (AS). Benefits of hearing aids (HA) have not been fully documented and only one case treated with a Cochlear Implant (CI) has been described in the proceedings of a conference. Furthermore, comorbidities and risk of complications following surgical intervention may contraindicate Cochlear Implant procedures in these patients.The present case report concerns the first AS patient with CI in the literature. METHODS: After reporting a concise description of the audiological profile of patients with AS described in the literature, the case of a 22-year-old woman with genetically confirmed Alström syndrome who underwent a sequential bilateral CI (Bi-CI) rehabilitation is reported. Audiological results before and after cochlear implantation are described. RESULTS: The patient showed an excellent functional outcome with CIs, which enabled her to achieve communicative, social and academic results comparable with her peers, and no complications occurred. CONCLUSIONS: AS is not necessarily an absolute contraindication to CI. For many AS patients, a good cognitive function and adequate life expectancy represent a clear indication to prompt and adequate hearing rehabilitation with CIs. The description of this type of clinical cases could in the future also generate indications for a tailored audiological treatment of patients with very specific needs, such as patients with Alström Syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Alstrom/complicações , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/cirurgia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Audiometria , Surdez/etiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Science ; 367(6481): 1043-1047, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108113

RESUMO

Does brain asymmetry for speech and music emerge from acoustical cues or from domain-specific neural networks? We selectively filtered temporal or spectral modulations in sung speech stimuli for which verbal and melodic content was crossed and balanced. Perception of speech decreased only with degradation of temporal information, whereas perception of melodies decreased only with spectral degradation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that the neural decoding of speech and melodies depends on activity patterns in left and right auditory regions, respectively. This asymmetry is supported by specific sensitivity to spectrotemporal modulation rates within each region. Finally, the effects of degradation on perception were paralleled by their effects on neural classification. Our results suggest a match between acoustical properties of communicative signals and neural specializations adapted to that purpose.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Música , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049104

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the emission of upper high notes by professional sopranos by means of the auditory-perceptual evaluation of the singers' voices and self-reports. METHODS: Five professional sopranos performed an excerpt from a Bellini opera which involved the emission of an upper high note. The auditory-perceptual evaluation was carried out by three speech-language therapists and three singing teachers, who considered brightness, loudness, metal quality, vibrato, breathiness, and resonance on a visual-analytical scale, based on each singer's emission of high notes. After the recording, the singers were asked to answer a proprioceptive questionnaire on the physical sensations that they had as they emitted upper high notes. An inferential analysis of the data from the auditory-perceptual evaluation was conducted, and the singers' self-reports were summarized and then orthographically transcribed. RESULTS: In the auditory-perceptual analysis, the emission of upper high notes was characterized according to the presence of brightness, loudness, metal quality, vibrato, and anterior resonance, as perceived by speech-language therapists and singing teachers. In the proprioceptive report, all singers reported laryngeal elevation and a need to use respiratory support in order to emit upper high notes. CONCLUSION: Upper high notes are characterized by a bright vocal emission, enhanced loudness, with a metallic quality and vibrato, little or no breathiness, accompanied by a sensation of laryngeal elevation and a need for respiratory support.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Canto/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Laringe/fisiologia , Ocupações , Vibração , Distúrbios da Voz/fisiopatologia , Qualidade da Voz
19.
Codas ; 32(4): e20180275, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049103

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify whether the development of hearing abilities in the first year of life is related to the development of language in preterm neonates with chronological age between 18 and 36 months, verifying if the language performance varies according to the weight/gestational age ratio. METHODS: Retrospective and longitudinal study approved by the Institution's Ethics Committee. The sample consisted of 66 preterm infants of both sexes, aged 18-36 months, divided into two groups: AIG Group 39 neonates with weight appropriate to the gestational age, 26 with normal hearing and 13 with altered hearing; and PIG group 27 neonates small for gestational age, 18 with normal and 9 with altered hearing. Results from the development of auditory skills in the first year of life and evaluation of the reception, expression and total of language (Menezes, 2003) were obtained from neonatal follow-up records. We used the ANOVA and the Equality Test of Two Proportions as statistical procedures. RESULTS: In each group, we observed a significant difference in the Reception and Total language in children with normal and altered auditory development. Children with normal hearing development presented a higher percentage of language adequacy. The language performance did not differ in relation to the weight / gestational age adequacy. CONCLUSION: Changing auditory abilities in the first year of life interfered more in language development than the gestational age / weight ratio.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Neurosci ; 40(5): 1053-1065, 2020 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889007

RESUMO

Lip-reading is crucial for understanding speech in challenging conditions. But how the brain extracts meaning from, silent, visual speech is still under debate. Lip-reading in silence activates the auditory cortices, but it is not known whether such activation reflects immediate synthesis of the corresponding auditory stimulus or imagery of unrelated sounds. To disentangle these possibilities, we used magnetoencephalography to evaluate how cortical activity in 28 healthy adult humans (17 females) entrained to the auditory speech envelope and lip movements (mouth opening) when listening to a spoken story without visual input (audio-only), and when seeing a silent video of a speaker articulating another story (video-only). In video-only, auditory cortical activity entrained to the absent auditory signal at frequencies <1 Hz more than to the seen lip movements. This entrainment process was characterized by an auditory-speech-to-brain delay of ∼70 ms in the left hemisphere, compared with ∼20 ms in audio-only. Entrainment to mouth opening was found in the right angular gyrus at <1 Hz, and in early visual cortices at 1-8 Hz. These findings demonstrate that the brain can use a silent lip-read signal to synthesize a coarse-grained auditory speech representation in early auditory cortices. Our data indicate the following underlying oscillatory mechanism: seeing lip movements first modulates neuronal activity in early visual cortices at frequencies that match articulatory lip movements; the right angular gyrus then extracts slower features of lip movements, mapping them onto the corresponding speech sound features; this information is fed to auditory cortices, most likely facilitating speech parsing.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Lip-reading consists in decoding speech based on visual information derived from observation of a speaker's articulatory facial gestures. Lip-reading is known to improve auditory speech understanding, especially when speech is degraded. Interestingly, lip-reading in silence still activates the auditory cortices, even when participants do not know what the absent auditory signal should be. However, it was uncertain what such activation reflected. Here, using magnetoencephalographic recordings, we demonstrate that it reflects fast synthesis of the auditory stimulus rather than mental imagery of unrelated, speech or non-speech, sounds. Our results also shed light on the oscillatory dynamics underlying lip-reading.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Leitura Labial , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Feminino , Humanos , Magnetoencefalografia , Masculino , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Espectrografia do Som , Adulto Jovem
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