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1.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102934, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707077

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that stimuli with subjective salience could affect duration estimation. Although self-referential stimuli possess high biological and social importance, no prior study has examined whether and how self-referential information affects duration perception. Experiment 1 used the temporal bisection task to investigate participants' duration estimation of the presentation of their own name versus familiar and unfamiliar names. The results showed that participants overestimated the duration of their own name and became more sensitive to duration perception in such trials when compared with stranger's names. Given the specificity of personal name, Experiment 2 used two types of personality-trait words in self-referential and friend-referential manner as the targets of duration perception. The duration of self-referential negative trait words was perceived to be longer relative to friend-referential negative trait words. The mechanism underlying the subjective time dilation effect of self-referential information possibly involves the engagement of increased attentional resources, which could allow the individual to preserve a certain level of stability and positivity of self-knowledge.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Autoimagem , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nomes , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(10): e1007371, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671096

RESUMO

Dancing and playing music require people to coordinate actions with auditory rhythms. In laboratory perception-action coordination tasks, people are asked to synchronize taps with a metronome. When synchronizing with a metronome, people tend to anticipate stimulus onsets, tapping slightly before the stimulus. The anticipation tendency increases with longer stimulus periods of up to 3500ms, but is less pronounced in trained individuals like musicians compared to non-musicians. Furthermore, external factors influence the timing of tapping. These factors include the presence of auditory feedback from one's own taps, the presence of a partner performing coordinated joint tapping, and transmission latencies (TLs) between coordinating partners. Phenomena like the anticipation tendency can be explained by delay-coupled systems, which may be inherent to the sensorimotor system during perception-action coordination. Here we tested whether a dynamical systems model based on this hypothesis reproduces observed patterns of human synchronization. We simulated behavior with a model consisting of an oscillator receiving its own delayed activity as input. Three simulation experiments were conducted using previously-published behavioral data from 1) simple tapping, 2) two-person alternating beat-tapping, and 3) two-person alternating rhythm-clapping in the presence of a range of constant auditory TLs. In Experiment 1, our model replicated the larger anticipation observed for longer stimulus intervals and adjusting the amplitude of the delayed feedback reproduced the difference between musicians and non-musicians. In Experiment 2, by connecting two models we replicated the smaller anticipation observed in human joint tapping with bi-directional auditory feedback compared to joint tapping without feedback. In Experiment 3, we varied TLs between two models alternately receiving signals from one another. Results showed reciprocal lags at points of alternation, consistent with behavioral patterns. Overall, our model explains various anticipatory behaviors, and has potential to inform theories of adaptive human synchronization.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Ciclos de Atividade , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Simulação por Computador , Retroalimentação , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Humanos , Música , Periodicidade , Desempenho Psicomotor
3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 201: 102952, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733436

RESUMO

Interval timing, the ability to discern the duration of an event, is integral to appropriately navigating the world, from crossing the road to catching a ball. Several features of an event can affect its perceived duration, for example it has previously been shown that a large stimulus is perceived to last longer than a small stimulus. In the current article, participants performed either a Go/No-Go or variable foreperiod task prior to performing a temporal bisection task. In both the Go/No-Go and variable foreperiod tasks, participants learned an association between a particular response and a particular stimulus. Subsequently, the perceived duration of these stimuli was tested in a temporal bisection task. Our findings indicated that associating a stimulus with response inhibition (i.e. a No-Go stimulus) decreased perceived duration compared to a stimulus associated with a response (a Go stimulus). Associating a stimulus with either a short or long foreperiod, on the other hand, did not affect perceived duration. We relate this finding back to the coding efficiency theory and the processing principle. A No-Go stimulus requires more cognitive processing than a Go stimulus and would thus be predicted to increase, rather than decrease, perceived duration in both these time perception theories. Finally, we suggest how our findings might be used in future investigations of interval timing.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1871-1882, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591558

RESUMO

Sensorimotor control during overt movements is characterized in terms of three building blocks: a controller, a simulator and a state estimator. We asked whether the same framework could explain the control of internal states in the absence of movements. Recently, it was shown that the brain controls the timing of future movements by adjusting an internal speed command. We trained monkeys in a novel task in which the speed command had to be dynamically controlled based on the timing of a sequence of flashes. Recordings from the frontal cortex provided evidence that the brain updates the internal speed command after each flash based on the error between the timing of the flash and the anticipated timing of the flash derived from a simulated motor plan. These findings suggest that cognitive control of internal states may be understood in terms of the same computational principles as motor control.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Animais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
5.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103941, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550668

RESUMO

Specific mechanisms underlying how the brain keeps track of time are largely unknown. Several existing computational models of timing reproduce behavioral results obtained with experimental psychophysical tasks, but only a few tackle the underlying biological mechanisms, such as the synchronized neural activity that occurs throughout brain areas. In this paper, we introduce a model for the peak-interval task based on neuronal network properties. We consider that Local Field Potential (LFP) oscillation cycles specify a sequence of states, represented as neuronal ensembles. Repeated presentation of time intervals during training reinforces the connections of specific ensembles to downstream networks - sets of neurons connected to the sequence of states. Later, during the peak-interval procedure, these downstream networks are reactivated by previously experienced neuronal ensembles, triggering behavioral responses at the learned time intervals. The model reproduces experimental response patterns from individual rats in the peak-interval procedure, satisfying relevant properties such as the Weber law. Finally, we provide a biological interpretation of the parameters of the model.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Ratos
6.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102921, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445425

RESUMO

The effects of moving task-irrelevant objects on time-to-contact (TTC) judgments are examined in six experiments. In particular, we investigated the effects of the symbolic meaning of speed on TTC by presenting images of objects recalling the symbolic meaning of high speed (motorbike, rocket, formula one, rabbit, cheetah and flying Superman) and low speed (bicycle, hot-air balloon, tank, turtle, elephant and static Superman). In all experiments, participants judged the TTC of these moving objects with a black line, indicating the end of the occlusion. Experiment 7 was conducted to disambiguate whether the effects on TTC, found in the previous experiments, were either a by-product of a speed illusion or they were rather elicited by the implicit timing task. In a two-interval forced choice task, participants were instructed to judge if "high-speed objects" moved actually faster than "slow-speed objects". The results revealed no consistent speed illusion. Taken together the results showed shorter TTC estimated with stimuli recalling the meaning of high compared to low speed, but only with the long occlusion duration (3.14 s). At shorter occlusion durations, the pattern was reversed (participant tend to have shorter TTC with stimuli recalling the meaning of low speed). We suggest that the symbolic meaning of speed works mainly at low speed and long TTC, because the semantic elaboration of the stimulus needs a deeper cognitive elaboration. On the other hand, at higher speeds, a small erroneous perceptual judgment affects the TTC, perhaps due to a speed expectancy violation of the expected "slow object".


Assuntos
Ilusões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Ilusões/psicologia , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Coelhos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(10): 2705-2713, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420687

RESUMO

People commonly move along with auditory rhythms in the environment. Although the processes underlying such sensorimotor synchronisation have been extensively investigated in the previous research, the properties of auditory rhythms that facilitate the synchronisation remain largely unclear. This study explored the possible benefits of a continuity matching between auditory pacers and the movement produced as well as of a spatial pattern matching that has been previously demonstrated with visual pacers. Participants synchronised either finger tapping or forearm oscillations with either discrete or continuous pacers. The pacers had either a spatial pattern (left-right panning) that matched the movement pattern produced or no spatial pattern. The accuracy and variability of synchronisation were assessed by the mean and standard deviation of the asynchronies, respectively, between participant's movement and the pacers. Results indicated that synchronisation was more accurate and less variable for discrete pacers and continuous movement (i.e., forearm oscillations). The interaction between those two factors involved a more complex relationship than a simple continuity match benefit. Although synchronisation variability increased with continuous pacers for both types of movement, this increase was smaller for continuous movement than discrete movement, suggesting that continuous movement is more beneficial only for continuous pacers. Moreover, the results revealed limited benefits of spatial pattern matching on auditory-motor synchronisation variability, which might be due to lower spatial resolution of the auditory sensory modality. Together, these findings confirm that sensorimotor synchronisation is modulated by complex relations between pacer and movement properties.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Dedos/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Periodicidade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn ; 45(4): 446-463, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368765

RESUMO

Three experiments with rats assessed the effects of introducing predictive ambiguity by reversing a Pavlovianly trained discrimination on subsequent context and temporal conditioning. The experience of discrimination reversal did not facilitate context conditioning when the food was presented on a variable time schedule (Experiment 1a). However, in Experiment 1b, discrimination reversal enhanced subsequent learning of a fixed temporal interval associated with unsignaled food presentation in comparison with consistent training. In Experiment 2, temporal discrimination after reversal and consistent training was compared with a naïve control. The experience of discrimination facilitated subsequent temporal conditioning with respect to the naïve control, and discrimination reversal enhanced temporal conditioning even further. In Experiment 3, reversal enhanced learning of the fixed temporal interval, regardless of whether it was relatively short or long (i.e., 30 s or 60 s). Results are discussed in terms of current associative theories of human and nonhuman conditioning and attention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Feminino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287829

RESUMO

Judgment of agency involves the comparison of motor intention and proprioceptive/visual feedback, in addition to a range of cognitive factors. However, few studies have experimentally examined the differences or correlations between delay detection ability and judgment of agency. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between delay detection ability and agency judgment using the delay detection task and the agency attribution task. Fifty-eight participants performed the delay detection and agency attribution tasks, and the time windows of each measure were analyzed using logistic curve fitting. The results revealed that the time window of judgment of agency was significantly longer than that of delay detection, and there was a slight correlation between the time windows in each task. The results supported a two-step model of agency, suggesting that judgment of agency involved not only comparison of multisensory information but also several cognitive factors. The study firstly revealed the model in psychophysical experiments.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Destreza Motora , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Vis ; 19(7): 5, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287859

RESUMO

The visual system must organize dynamic input into useful percepts across time, balancing between stability and sensitivity to change. The temporal integration window (TIW) has been hypothesized to underlie this balance: If two or more stimuli fall within the same TIW, they are integrated into a single percept; those that fall in different windows are segmented (Arnett & Di Lollo, 1979; Wutz, Muschter, van Koningsbruggen, Weisz, & Melcher, 2016). Visual TIWs have been studied in adults, showing average windows of 65 ms (Wutz et al., 2016); however, it is unclear how windows develop through early childhood. Here we measured TIWs in 5- to 7-year-old children and adults, using a variant of the missing dot task (Di Lollo, 1980; Wutz et al. 2016), in which integration and segmentation thresholds were measured within the same participant, using the same stimuli. Participants saw a sequence of two displays separated by an interstimulus interval (ISI) that determined the visibility of a visual search target. Longer ISIs increased the likelihood of detecting a segmentation target (but decreased detection for the integration target) although shorter ISIs increased the likelihood of detecting the integration target (but decreased detection of the segmentation target). We could then estimate the TIW by measuring the point at which these two functions intersect. Children's TIWs (M = 68 ms) were comparable to adults' (M = 73 ms) with no appreciable age trend within our sample, indicating that TIWs reach adult levels by approximately 5 years of age.


Assuntos
Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326744

RESUMO

Sensorimotor timing behaviors typically exhibit an elusive phenomenon known as the negative asynchrony. When synchronizing movements (e.g. finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g. a metronome), people's taps precede event onsets by a few tens of milliseconds. We recently reported that asynchrony is less negative in participants with lower asynchrony variability. This indicates an association between negative asynchrony and variability of timing. Here, in 24 metronome-synchronization data sets, we modeled asynchrony series using a sensorimotor synchronization model that accounts for serial dependence of asynchronies. The results showed that the modeling well captured the negative correlation between the mean and SD of asynchrony. The finding suggests that serial dependence in asynchronies is an essential mechanism of timing variability underlying the association between the mean and SD of asynchrony.


Assuntos
Dedos/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Psychol Aging ; 34(5): 738-749, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305089

RESUMO

Retirement is a major life-course transition for which some people plan more than others. Given that planning positively affects retirement adjustment, it is important to investigate the heterogeneity in retirement planning and its antecedents. While financial preparation has been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the activities older workers plan to do in retirement. We hypothesize that older workers' plans for retirement activities can be categorized into 3 domains: bridge employment, self-developmental leisure, and social leisure. Moreover, we expect these plans to be affected by workers' opportunities for continuity, spousal support, and perception of time. We test these hypotheses using data from the first wave of the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute Pension Panel Study (NPPS). The study consists of a sample of almost 6,800 Dutch older workers who were asked about their plans to engage in 10 different activities in retirement. Where relevant, spouses of older workers were also surveyed, providing multiactor data for these couples (N = 4,052). Our results support the classification of retirement activity plans into 3 domains. Moreover, the results of structural equation models confirm that the activities for which older workers plan are related to their opportunity structure (i.e., occupational status, number of preretirement leisure activities, number of social roles), spousal support to engage in these activities, and older workers' perception of time (i.e., future time perspective, perceived life expectancy). Our findings can help identify older workers who might face a more difficult retirement transition, because they have fewer plans to address the various psychosocial aspects of retirement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Cônjuges/psicologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(9): 1206-1217, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219285

RESUMO

We investigated differences in intentional binding in high and low hypnotizable groups to explore two questions relating to (a) trait differences in the availability of motor intentions to metacognitive processes and (b) a proposed cue combination model of binding. An experience of involuntariness is central to hypnotic responding and may arise from strategically being unaware of one's intentions. Trait differences in the ability to respond to hypnotic suggestion may reflect differing levels of access to motor intentions. Intentional binding refers to the subjective compression of the time between an action and its outcome, indicated by a forward shift in the judged time of an action toward its outcome (action binding) and the backward shift of an outcome toward a causal action (outcome binding). Intentional binding is sensitive to intentional action without requiring explicit reflection upon agency. One way of explaining the sensitivity of intentional binding is to see it as a simple case of multisensory cue combination in which awareness of intentions increases knowledge of the timing of actions. Here we present results consistent with such a mechanism. In a contingent presentation of action and outcome events, low hypnotizable had more precise timing judgments of actions and also showed weaker action binding than highs. These results support the theory that trait hypnotizability is related to access to information related to motor intentions, and that intentional binding reflects the Bayesian combination of cross-modal cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Conscientização/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Individualidade , Intenção , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Sugestão , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 45(9): 1218-1235, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219286

RESUMO

The human ability to compare time between sensory modalities implies a supramodal representation of time. This notion is consistent with the pacemaker-counter model (PCM), the core architecture of prominent timing theories. Some theorists, however, have promoted modality-specific timing mechanisms, which might hamper crossmodal temporal comparison. This study tested whether PCM is sufficient to account for intra- as well as crossmodal timing. To account for modality-specific timing differences, we proceeded from the common assumption that the pacemaker runs faster for auditory than for visual stimuli. Participants reproduced short and long standards (800 vs. 2,400 ms) by terminating a comparison stimulus. In Experiment 1, in each trial the sensory modalities (auditory vs. visual) of the standard and the comparison were the same (congruent) or different (incongruent). PCM implies that timing performance depends on modality order. However, there should be virtually no congruency effects on overall performance. Although the results largely matched the predictions of PCM, there were substantial congruency effects on reproduction variability especially in the subsecond range. Three intramodal control experiments, however, showed that similar congruency effects can be observed when the standard and the comparison differ in intramodal characteristics. This suggests that temporal representations are not isolated from nontemporal stimulus characteristics, even when these are subtle and within the same modality. The present results can be interpreted as evidence for sensory timing within the subsecond range. Nevertheless, we used computer simulations to evaluate extensions of PCM that could account for the present result pattern, while retaining PCM's supramodal property. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2732-2744, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254259

RESUMO

The timing and the sensory modality of behaviorally relevant events often vary predictably, so that it is beneficial to adapt the sensory system to their statistical regularities. Indeed, statistical information about target timing and/or sensory modality modulates behavioral responses-called expectation effects. Responses are also facilitated by short-term repetitions of target timing and/or sensory modality-called priming effects. We examined how the expectation and priming effects on target timing (short vs. long cue-to-target interval) and target modality (auditory vs. visual) interacted. Temporal expectation was manipulated across blocks, while modality expectation was manipulated across participants. Responses were faster when targets were presented at the expected timing and/or in the expected modality in an additive manner, suggesting that temporal and modality expectation operate relatively independently. Similarly, responses were faster when the timing and/or modality of targets was repeated across trials in an additive manner, suggesting that temporal and modality priming operate relatively independently. Importantly, the interactions between expectation and priming were domain specific. In the temporal domain, temporal-expectation effects were observed only when temporal-priming effects were absent. In the modality domain, modality-priming effects predominated for auditory targets whereas modality-expectation effects predominated for visual targets. Thus, the interactions between probability-driven expectation and stimulus-driven priming processes appear to be controlled separately for the mechanisms that direct attention to specific temporal intervals and for the mechanisms that direct attention to specific sensory modalities. These results may suggest that the sensory system concurrently optimizes attentional priorities within temporal and sensory-modality domains.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação
16.
Brain Cogn ; 135: 103568, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252307

RESUMO

It is unclear whether altering the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (right DLPFC) affects an individual's timing performance in milliseconds- and seconds range timing. Here we investigated the causal role of right DLPFC in milliseconds- and seconds range timing with a temporal bisection task under the application of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) that altered the neural activities of the right DLPFC. The tDCS conditions consisted of anodal, cathodal, and sham conditions. The electrodes were placed over the F4 position (10-20 system) and on the left supraorbital forehead. In current study, participants completed two blocks of trials involving short ("Short blocks": 200-800 ms) or longer ("Long blocks": 1400-2600 ms) durations. The results showed that no significant differences in the bisection point (BP) were found among anodal condition, sham condition and cathodal condition in "Short blocks". However, in "Long blocks", the BP were found to be shifted toward the left for the anodal condition, sham condition, compared to cathodal condition, suggesting that the stimulus duration was judged to last longer for anodal condition compared to sham condition, whereas shorter for cathodal condition compared to sham condition. The results demonstrated that the right DLPFC played a causal role in seconds range timing (average duration 2000 ms), but not in milliseconds range timing (average duration 500 ms), which is shown it might be involved in the cognitive processing (for example, working memory process) based on dual-timing system and scalar timing theory.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2902-2916, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165452

RESUMO

The perception of quantities has been suggested to rely on shared, magnitude-based representational systems that preserve metric properties. As such, different quantifiable dimensions that can characterize any given stimulus (e.g., size, speed, or numerosity) have been shown to modulate the perceived duration of these stimuli-a finding that has been attributed to cross-modal interaction among the quantity representations. However, these results are typically based on the isolated effects of a single stimulus dimension, leaving their potential combined effects uncharted. In the present study we aimed to investigate the joint effects of numerical magnitude and physical size on perceived time. In four complementary experiments, participants categorized six durations as "short" or "long," which were presented through combinations of Hindu-Arabic numerals in three font sizes, as well as with simple shapes (rectangles) and unfamiliar symbols (Klingon letters), the sizes of which corresponded to the font sizes of the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Our results showed temporal underestimation for the smallest numeral in the set (3), with no effects of font size on perceived duration. The perceived durations were longest for the physically smallest geometric stimuli (i.e., a rectangle), and the font size of symbol-like stimuli (i.e., Klingon letters) was not found to have an effect on perceived time. Finally, presenting only one numeral (6) instead of the rectangle once again eliminated the relationship between physical size and perceived time, suggesting an overshadowing of physical-size-based influences on temporal choice behavior, presumably by perceived symbolism. Our results point at the complex nature of the interaction between different magnitude representations.


Assuntos
Ilusões/fisiologia , Ilusões/psicologia , Conceitos Matemáticos , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Simbolismo , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(8): 1981-1991, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152188

RESUMO

Both movement and neural activity in humans can be entrained by the regularities of an external stimulus, such as the beat of musical rhythms. Neural entrainment to auditory rhythms supports temporal perception, and is enhanced by selective attention and by hierarchical temporal structure imposed on rhythms. However, it is not known how neural entrainment to rhythms is related to the subjective experience of groove (the desire to move along with music or rhythm), the perception of a regular beat, the perception of complexity, and the experience of pleasure. In two experiments, we used musical rhythms (from Steve Reich's Clapping Music) to investigate whether rhythms that are performed by humans (with naturally variable timing) and rhythms that are mechanical (with precise timing), elicit differences in (1) neural entrainment, as measured by inter-trial phase coherence, and (2) subjective ratings of the complexity, preference, groove, and beat strength of rhythms. We also combined results from the two experiments to investigate relationships between neural entrainment and subjective perception of musical rhythms. We found that mechanical rhythms elicited a greater degree of neural entrainment than performed rhythms, likely due to the greater temporal precision in the stimulus, and the two types only elicited different ratings for some individual rhythms. Neural entrainment to performed rhythms, but not to mechanical ones, correlated with subjective desire to move and subjective complexity. These data, therefore, suggest multiple interacting influences on neural entrainment to rhythms, from low-level stimulus properties to high-level cognition and perception.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Música , Periodicidade , Prazer/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música/psicologia
19.
Behav Neurosci ; 133(4): 414-427, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169383

RESUMO

Although the neural markers of interval timing have been widely studied, the events that determine the onset and offset of an interval have only recently started to gain attention. In the present study, I compare the predictions of the perceptual (preonset and start-gun) and decisional bias hypotheses with respect to onset N1P2 amplitude, the point of subjective equality (PSE) and delta/theta activity. The onsets of the comparison intervals (CIs) were manipulated to begin earlier, later, or on-time with regard to a standard interval (SI). Results supported the start-gun account by demonstrating an increase in the N1P2 amplitude and delta power in the "early" and "late" onset conditions due to temporal mismatch. Delayed or premature initiation of timing with respect to the predicted temporal point were associated with rightward and leftward shifts in the PSEs of the "early" and "late" onset conditions, respectively. In addition to the observed increase in temporal prediction-related delta activity in the "early" and "late" onset conditions, higher theta power in the "early" onset suggested an additional neural response for unexpected events that might be linked to response caution. Moreover, the ramping activity during the CIs, namely the contingent negative variation (CNV), showed a decision-related attenuation toward the end of an interval in the "late" onset. The latter finding was supported by the changes in offset N1P2 amplitude. The present study contributes to the interval-timing literature by presenting support in favor of the hypothesis that the onset N1P2 is a neural marker for the initiation of timing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Variação Contingente Negativa/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Atenção , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Delta/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102850, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238176

RESUMO

According to the metaphoric mapping hypothesis, people code time in terms of space. Consistent with this hypothesis, several reaction time studies have demonstrated that participants respond faster with a left (right) response to stimuli that convey temporal information about the past (future) than when this stimulus-response mapping is reversed (past → right, future → left). The present experiment examines whether the side of the response key or of the (visual) action effect elicited by the response is the crucial factor of this space-time congruency effect. In a response-effect (R-E) compatible group, a response to a temporal stimulus produced a visual action effect on the same side as the response location (left response → left action effect, right response → right action effect). In an R-E incompatible group, however, response and action effect occurred on opposite sides (left response → right action effect, right response → left action effect). A typical space-time congruency effect was obtained in the R-E compatible group, but the congruency effect interacted with group and was descriptively reversed in the R-E incompatible group. This result pattern suggests that the typical congruency effect is determined by the location of the action consequences rather than the location of the response key. Based on this result, we suggest that the space-time congruency effect is based on an abstract spatial mental representation that embraces action events in the external space.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Masculino
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