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1.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 214-226, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: autoimmune patients can be more susceptible to infection. Proper knowledge, perception, and practices towards COVID-19 are essential for these patients during pandemic. This study aimed to know their knowledge, perception, and practices regarding COVID-19. METHODS: cross sectional study using online survey was conducted from April to May 2020. Patients with autoimmune disease were asked about demographic characteristics, diagnosis, history of treatment, knowledge, perception, and practice regarding COVID-19. RESULTS: there were 685 respondents. Most of them were female and had systemic lupus erythematosus with median age of 37 years old. Almost all respondents had good knowledge regarding transmission of COVID-19 and did proper prevention practices. Adequacy of information and steroid or mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid (MMF/MPA) use were related to perception of the effect of pandemic to their own health. Visiting private clinic and receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or sulfasalazine were related to perception that autoimmune conditions would make them more prone to COVID-19. Work from home was related to perception that when contracting COVID-19, the symptoms would be more severe. Living in Sumatra region and getting hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate or MMF/MPA were related to perception that autoimmune medications could reduce risk of getting COVID-19. Adequate information, university education, private clinic visit, and hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine sulfate use were related to perception that COVID-19 pandemic would cause difficulties in getting medications. CONCLUSION: almost all respondents had good knowledge and practices regarding COVID-19. Adequacy of information, autoimmune treatment, work from home, educational background, area of living, and health care facilities contributed to perception regarding COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5004, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020473

RESUMO

Adaptive brain function requires that sensory impressions of the social and natural milieu are dynamically incorporated into intrinsic brain activity. While dynamic switches between brain states have been well characterised in resting state acquisitions, the remodelling of these state transitions by engagement in naturalistic stimuli remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of brain states, as measured in fMRI, are reshaped from predominantly bistable transitions between two relatively indistinct states at rest, toward a sequence of well-defined functional states during movie viewing whose transitions are temporally aligned to specific features of the movie. The expression of these brain states covaries with different physiological states and reflects subjectively rated engagement in the movie. In sum, a data-driven decoding of brain states reveals the distinct reshaping of functional network expression and reliable state transitions that accompany the switch from resting state to perceptual immersion in an ecologically valid sensory experience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Filmes Cinematográficos , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos/classificação , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e172, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028455

RESUMO

AIMS: To test the impact of using different idioms in epidemiological interviews on the prevalence and correlates of poor mental health and mental health service use. METHODS: We conducted a randomised methodological experiment in a nationally representative sample of the US adult population, comparing a lay idiom, which asked about 'problems with your emotions or nerves' with a more medical idiom, which asked about 'problems with your mental health'. Differences across study arms in the associations of endorsement of problems with the Kessler-6 (a validated assessment of psychological distress), demographic characteristics, self-rated health and mental health service use were examined. RESULTS: Respondents were about half as likely to endorse a problem when asked with the more medical idiom (18.1%) than when asked with the lay idiom (35.1%). The medical idiom had a significantly larger area under the ROC curve when compared against a validated measure of psychological distress than the lay idiom (0.91 v. 0.87, p = 0.012). The proportion of the population who endorsed a problem but did not receive treatment in the past year was less than half as large for the medical idiom (7.90%) than for the lay idiom (20.94%). Endorsement of problems differed in its associations with age, sex, race/ethnicity and self-rated health depending on the question idiom. For instance, the odds of endorsing problems were threefold higher in the youngest than the oldest age group when the medical idiom was used (OR = 3.07; 95% CI 1.47-6.41) but did not differ across age groups when the lay idiom was used (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.43-1.36). CONCLUSION: Choice of idiom in epidemiological questionnaires can affect the apparent correlates of poor mental health and service use. Cultural change within populations over time may require changes in instrument wording to maintain consistency in epidemiological measurement of psychiatric conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/provisão & distribução , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 348-360, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192072

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to empirically test the hypothesis that the organizational psychological safety climate and the perception of organizational politics predict the extent to which employees feel engaged in their work. Using hierarchical linear modeling and data collected from 1,244 employees in 64 organizations, organizational level psychological safety climate and employee-level perception of organizational politics predicted employee work engagement. There was also significant cross-level interaction, so that the negative effect of the perception of organizational politics was amplified in organizations with a positive psychological safety climate. In other words, organizational psychological safety benefits the work engagement of individuals more when they perceive the existence of low organizational politics. The results offer insight into the mechanisms by which the perceived organizational context may influence employees' work engagement and highlight the importance for the perceived organizational consistency in the promotion of work engagement within their organization. Human Resource professionals and managers should promote frequent meetings with the workers and apply other practices that can boost a safe climate for the employees


El propósito de esta investigación fue probar empíricamente la hipótesis de que el clima de seguridad psicológica de la organización y la percepción de las políticas de la organización predicen hasta qué punto los empleados se sienten comprometidos con su trabajo. El uso de modelos jerárquicos lineales y los datos recopilados de 1,244 empleados en 64 organizaciones mostraron que el clima de seguridad psicológica a nivel organizativo y la percepción de la política organizacional a nivel de los empleados predijo el compromiso con el trabajo de los empleados. También hubo una inesperada interacción significativa entre los niveles, de modo que el efecto negativo de la percepción de las políticas organizacionales se amplificó en organizaciones con un clima de seguridad psicológica positivo. En otras palabras, la seguridad psicológica organizacional beneficia más el compromiso de los individuos cuando ellos perciben la existencia de políticas organizacionales bajas. Los resultados ofrecen información sobre los mecanismos por los cuales el contexto organizativo percibido puede influir en el compromiso laboral de los empleados y resaltar la importancia de la coherencia organizativa percibida en la promoción del compromiso laboral dentro de su organización


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Percepção , Política Organizacional , Engajamento no Trabalho , Gestão da Segurança , Análise Multinível , Emprego/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 712, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Japan's National Immunization Program does not cover rotavirus vaccine and no government subsidies are available. This study aimed to measure the uptake of and determinants that influenced self-paid rotavirus vaccination, including socioeconomic status and relative poverty. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at health check-ups for all children aged 18 months in Kanazawa, Japan, between December 2017 and July 2018. Community nurses collected information on self-paid vaccination history, parents' perceptions of and recommendations for rotavirus vaccine, and socioeconomic status in interviews using a unified questionnaire. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess vaccine uptake and possible determinants. RESULTS: In total, 1282 participants were enrolled. The estimated rotavirus vaccine coverage was 72.9%. Perceptions that rotavirus gastroenteritis was serious and that the rotavirus vaccine was effective, pediatricians' recommendations, information from the city office, magazine and Internet articles, and higher parental education level were associated with higher rotavirus vaccine uptake. Lower household income was associated with decreased rotavirus vaccine uptake. Vaccine expense, fear of adverse reactions to the vaccine, number of household members and siblings, and children's characteristics were not correlated with rotavirus vaccination. Poverty was associated with decreased rotavirus vaccine uptake, even after adjustment for other determinants (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.90). CONCLUSION: Parents' perceptions, socioeconomic status, relative poverty, and pediatricians' recommendations are determinants of vaccination. This study suggests that appropriate information about rotavirus vaccine, subsidies for those of lower socioeconomic status, and national recommendations are necessary to achieve higher coverage.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Percepção , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/economia , Rotavirus/imunologia , Classe Social , Vacinação/economia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Renda , Lactente , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Pobreza , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 719, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) face considerable mental and physical stress caring for patients with Covid-19. They are at higher risk of acquiring and transmitting this virus. This study aims to assess perception and attitude of HCWs in Saudi Arabia with regard to Covid-19, and to identify potential associated predictors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, HCWs at three tertiary hospitals in Saudi Arabia were surveyed via email with an anonymous link, by a concern scale about Covid-19 pandemic during 15-30 April, 2020. Concerns of disease severity, governmental efforts to contain it and disease outcomes were assessed using 32 concern statements in five distinct domains. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of high concern scores. RESULTS: A total of 844 HCW responded to the survey. Their average age was 40.4 ± 9.5 years, 40.3% were nurses, 58.2% had direct patient contact, and 77.3% were living with others. The majority of participants (72.1%) had overall concern scores of 55 or less out of a maximum score of 96 points, with an overall mean score of 48.5 ± 12.8 reflecting moderate level of concern. Three-fourth of respondents felt at risk of contracting Covid-19 infection at work, 69.1% felt threatened if a colleague contracted Covid-19, 69.9% felt obliged to care for patients infected with Covid-19 while 27.7% did not feel safe at work using the standard precautions available. Nearly all HCWs believed that the government should isolate patients with Covid-19 in specialized hospitals (92.9%), agreed with travel restriction to and/or from areas affected by Covid-19 (94.7%) and felt safe the government implemented curfew and movement restriction periods (93.6%). Predictors of high concern scores were; HCWs of Saudi nationality (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.003), undergraduate education (p = 0.044), living with others (p = 0.003) working in the western region (p = 0.003) and direct contact with patients (p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the high concern among HCWs about Covid-19 and identifies the predictors of those with highest concern levels. To minimize the potential negative impact of those concerns on the performance of HCWs during pandemics, measures are necessary to enhance their protection and to minimize the psychological effect of the perceived risk of infection.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Centros de Atenção Terciária
7.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 108(2): 421-429, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890525

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Telemedicine was rapidly implemented for initial consultations and radiation treatment planning in the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, we explore utilization of and physician perspectives on this approach in an attempt to identify patient populations that may benefit most from virtual care. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a mixed-methods study with a convergent design. Approximately 6 to 8 weeks after implementation of telemedicine, all radiation oncologists in a single academic radiation oncology department were invited to participate in either semistructured interviews with embedded survey questions or a concurrently administered survey only. Rapid qualitative analysis was used to identify common themes, and quantitative data was assessed using descriptive statistics and univariable analyses. RESULTS: At the apex of the pandemic, 92% of radiation oncology visits were conducted via telemedicine. In total, 51 of 61 radiation oncologists participated in the study (response rate 84%). Most (71%) reported no difference in ability to treat cancer appropriately via telemedicine, which was more common among specialized physicians (P = .01) but not those with higher visit volume or years of experience. Over half (55%) perceived no difference or even improvement in overall visit quality with telemedicine. Virtual visits were deemed acceptable for a median of 70% to 96% of patients, which varied by disease site. Need for physical examination, and availability of an acceptable proxy, factored into telemedicine acceptability. Most (88%) found telemedicine better than expected, but opinions were split on how telemedicine would affect physician burnout. Almost all (96%) foresaw a role for telemedicine beyond the pandemic and would opt for a median of 50% (interquartile range 20%-66%) of visits conducted via telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Among radiation oncologists in an academic setting, telemedicine was perceived to be highly appropriate and acceptable for most patients. Future studies should focus on identifying the 5% to 30% of patients whose care may be optimized with in-person visits, and if there is alignment with patient preferences.


Assuntos
Percepção , Radio-Oncologistas/psicologia , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telemedicina , Atitude Frente aos Computadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 817-822, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903223

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social distancing is principally intended to reduce infectious disease transmission by decreasing interactions among people in a broader community. Keeping social distancing is an essential public health measure to resist the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: a cross sectional study was conducted among 1,036 Egyptians using an online questionnaire between 5 and 10 May 2020. RESULTS: There was significant association between the practice of social distancing and some sociodemographic factors as sex, age, education, working status, and place of residence at p value < 0.001 and with community of residence at p value 0.021. CONCLUSIONS: Egyptians had good perception for social distancing to prevent transmission of COVID 19, but they were not strictly practicing it.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Distância Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
11.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3)2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921735

RESUMO

Sir, Italy has been recently involved in the outbreak of severe interstitial pneumonia associated with the previously unknown Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (1,2). Even before the notification of the first autochthonous cases, the SARS-CoV-2 associated syndrome (COVID-19) had raised an intense attention in the public opinion (3), with a counterproductive over-abundance of mixed quality information. As even Italian healthcare workers (HCWs) were not spared by subsequent misunderstandings and knowledge gaps during the previous influenza pandemic of 2009 (4), we performed a web-based survey (Google® Modules), specifically aimed to characterize knowledge status and risk perceptions in a sample from participating to 6 Facebook discussion groups (181,684 total unique members at the time of the study). The questionnaire was made available between February 1st and 7th, 2020, i.e. around 2 weeks before the first COVID-19 was officially diagnosed in Italian residents.   Overall, the sampled population included 2106 respondents (Table 1), and 39.3% were HCWs. Even though HCWs were more likely to exhibit a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 related issues (aOR 2.195, 95%CI 1.809 to 2.664), they were not exempt for misunderstandings, particularly on actual incidence and lethality of COVID-19. Interestingly, most of respondents were aware of the main clinical features of COVID-19, with HCWs more frequently acknowledging that the COVID-19 may run pauci- or even asymptomatic (86.3% vs. 79.1%), resembling an Influenza-Like Illness (i.e. fever, cough, headache, etc.), with a potential latency up to 14 days (85·9% vs· 80·3%), eventually spreading by droplets (98.5% vs. 92.7%) rather through running water (92.3% vs· 79.8%), or blood/body fluids (88.0% vs. 70.4%).   Retrospectively, the assessment of preventive measures and risk perception appears somewhat worrisome. For instance, while HCWs were more likely to acknowledge as an appropriate preventive measure wearing a filtering mask (i.e. N95/FFP2/3 mask; aOR 2.296, 95%CI 1.507 to 3.946), around » of HCWs failed to recognize the importance of such personal protective equipment, while 7.4% felt as appropriate the wearing of a surgical mask. Moreover, not only COVID-19 was appropriately acknowledged as a severe disease by only 62.0% of respondents, with no differences between HCWs and non-HCWs, but an even smaller share (i.e. 8.0%) reported any concern for being infected by SARS-CoV-2 in Italy. In fact, at the time of the survey SARS-CoV-2 was more properly associated with international travelers (26.7%).   Our results are therefore of certain interests for several reasons. First at all, early epidemiological reports on the Italian cases of COVID-19 hint towards some failures in the initial management of incident cases (5-6). In fact, in our survey a large share of respondents substantially overlooked the risk to interact with SARS-CoV-2 positive subjects, that was otherwise perceived as a not-so-severe disease (i.e. "nothing more than a seasonal flu", as often described in some social media) (7). Moreover, around a 1/3 of HCWs participating to the study presumptively did not use proper personal protective equipment for the airways interacting with possible COVID-19 cases, either underestimating the infection risk or being unable to recognize early symptoms. Actually, the base of evidence shared by participants at the time of the study substantially ignored that COVID-19 may be characterized by dermatologic and gastro-intestinal symptoms (8-9). As most of infections may be actually pauci- or asymptomatic, such early exposure in the healthcare settings may have contributed to the quick spreading of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Northern Italy.   Therefore, despite the intrinsic limits of a convenience sampling, web-based survey (10), our study stresses the importance to improve the overall quality of information on COVID-19 conveyed not only in HCWs, but also in the general population. Moreover, our data may contribute to clarify the early stages of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare experiences associated with perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among patients are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Identify domains of patient dissatisfaction associated with perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among patients with pain. DESIGN: Semi-structured telephone surveys completed in 2013-2015. PARTICIPANTS: White, African American, and Latino participants who reported receiving pain management from 25 Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers. MAIN MEASURES: Surveys included open-ended questions about healthcare satisfaction/dissatisfaction and a measure of perceived racial/ethnic-based discrimination while seeking VA healthcare. Binary indicators for ten qualitative domains of dissatisfaction were derived from open-ended questions. We used multilevel models to identify dissatisfaction domains associated with perceived discrimination, adjusting for patient characteristics and site. Within domains associated with discrimination, we identified the most frequent codes and examined whether patients primarily referenced clinical or non-clinical staff in their experiences. KEY RESULTS: Overall, 622 participants (30.4% White, 37.8% African American, 31.8% Latino; 57.4% female; mean age = 53.4) reported a median discrimination score of 1.0 (IQR: 1.0-1.3) on a scale of 1 to 5; 233 (37.5%) perceived any racial/ethnic discrimination in healthcare. Individually, 7 of 10 qualitative domains were significantly associated with perceived discrimination: dissatisfaction with care quality, facilities, continuity of care, interactions with staff, staff demeanor, unresolved pain, and pharmacy services (ps<0.005). In combined models stratified by racial/ethnic group, 3 domains remained statistically significant: poor interactions for Latinos (adjOR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.28-12.06), negative demeanor for African Americans (adjOR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.45-5.50), and unresolved pain for Whites (adjOR = 6.23, 95% CI = 2.39-16.28). Clinical staff were referenced more often than non-clinical staff for all domains (interactions: 51% vs. 30%; demeanor: 46% vs. 15%; unresolved pain: 18% vs. 1%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Negative interpersonal experiences and unresolved pain are strong correlates of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination among patients with pain. Future studies should test whether interventions targeting these domains reduce patient perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in healthcare.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Dor/psicologia , Percepção , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Veteranos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Adulto Jovem
14.
Univ. salud ; 22(2): 120-126, mayo-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1115961

RESUMO

Introducción: La atención odontológica oportuna e inclusiva tiene un papel importante en las personas con VIH/SIDA, por cuanto permite prevenir y dar tratamiento a las múltiples lesiones orales que acompañan a esta patología, mejorando la calidad de vida de esta población. Objetivo: Determinar la percepción y experiencia de pacientes con VIH/SIDA sobre la consulta odontológica en una Institución Prestadora de Salud (IPS) de Santa Marta, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo cuantitativo donde participaron 64 pacientes con VIH/SIDA de una IPS de la ciudad de Santa Marta, quienes se les aplicó un instrumento de recolección de datos. Resultados: El 65,6% expresó nunca percibir rechazo por parte del odontólogo, el 25% refiere haber experimentado algún rechazo por lo menos una vez y un 9,4% siempre se siente rechazado. Conclusiones: Existe la necesidad de abordar esta enfermedad no sólo desde el aspecto clínico, sino también desde lo social, para educar tanto al profesional de la salud como a la comunidad, sobre avances científicos, el estudio de esta patología y los riesgos reales de contraerla, para desmitificar esta afección y erradicar la discriminación hacia los pacientes.


Introduction: Timely and comprehensive dental care is important for HIV/AIDS patients as it facilitates prevention and treatment of the multiple oral lesions that accompany this pathology, and consequently, improves their quality of life. Objective: To determine the perception and experience of the dental care service provided by a Health Provider Institution (HPI) to HIV/AIDS patients from the city of Santa Marta (Colombia). Materials and methods: A descriptive quantitative study was carried out with 64 HIV/AIDS patients treated in the HPI, to whom a data collection instrument was applied. Results: 65.6% of the HIV/AIDS patients did not perceive any rejection from the dentist, whereas 25% and 9.4% of these patients reported being discriminated at least once and always, respectively. Conclusions: There is a need to approach this disease not only from a clinical standpoint but also from a social perspective in order to educate both health professionals and communities about: scientific advances; how to study this pathology; and the risks of contracting HIV/AIDS. It is also necessary to demystify some misconceptions and eradicate discrimination against these patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Odontológica , HIV , Percepção , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida
15.
Av. enferm ; 38(2): 159-169, May-Aug. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1114686

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: compreender as percepções dos motoristas de ônibus quanto às vivências no trabalho e aos impactos em seu corpo. Métodos: estudo descritivo pautado no pensamento do fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado em uma garagem de ônibus, de julho 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Foram entrevistados 24 motoristas de ônibus, com mais de dois anos de profissão. As perguntas abertas do roteiro de entrevista fenomenológica possibilitaram a livre expressão dos significados do trabalho sobre a saúde. Resultados: as relações interpessoais no trânsito impactam diretamente o estado físico e psicológico, e a relação com o tempo influencia o comportamento dos condutores. Conclusão: melhorias no trabalho e nas relações interpessoais são necessárias a fim de garantir a preservação da saúde do motorista de ônibus, que é parte essencial no processo de deslocamento da população, e atenção à saúde mental dos motoristas é pouco valorizada, mas indispensável para o trabalho com pessoas.


Resumen Objetivo: entender las percepciones de los conductores de autobuses en cuanto a las experiencias en el trabajo y los impactos en sus cuerpos. Métodos: estudio descriptivo basado en el pensamiento de fenomenólogo Maurice Merleau-Ponty, realizado en un garaje de autobuses de julio de 2017 a enero de 2018. Se entrevistaron 24 conductores de autobuses, con más de dos años en la ocupación. Las preguntas abiertas del guion de la entrevista fenomenológica permitieron la libre expresión del significado del trabajo sobre la salud. Resultados: las relaciones interpersonales en el tránsito afectan directamente el estado físico y psicológico, y la relación con el tiempo influye en el comportamiento de los conductores. Conclusión: mejoras en el trabajo y en las relaciones interpersonales son necesarias para garantizar la preservación de la salud del conductor de autobús, que es una parte esencial en el proceso de desplazamiento de la población, y la atención a la salud mental de los conductores es poco valorada, pero indispensable para el trabajo con personas.


Abstract Objective: To understand the perceptions of bus drivers as to the experiences at work and the impacts on their bodies. Methods: Descriptive study based on the phenomenological approach by scholar Maurice Merleau-Ponty, held at a bus garage in the period from July 2017 to January 2018. Twenty-four bus drivers with more than two years of occupation were interviewed. Open-ended questions in the interview script allowed free expression of the phenomenological meanings of work on health. Results: Interpersonal relations directly affect bus drivers' physical and psychological state. Besides, the relationship with time in traffic influences their behavior. Conclusion: Improvements in work and interpersonal relations are necessary in order to ensure the preservation of bus drivers' health, as an essential part for the displacement of the population. Attention to drivers' mental health is little valued, although it becomes essential for a people-related type of work, such as this.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trabalho , Impactos na Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Existencialismo , Enfermagem do Trabalho , Percepção , Comportamento , Ocupações
16.
Neurol Sci ; 41(10): 2671-2674, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734396

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between dyspnea and COVID-19 is unknown. In COVID-19 patients, the higher prevalence of neurological symptoms and the lack of dyspnea may suggest common underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. The aim of this preliminary study is to address whether there is a lack of dyspnea in COVID-19 patients and if there is a relationship between neurological symptoms and the perception of dyspnea. METHODS: A structured interview regarding the occurrence of subjective neurological symptoms was performed and coupled with a questionnaire about the intensity and qualities of dyspnea. Respiratory rate (RR) and an arterial blood gas on room air were concurrently evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients (age 68.4 ± 13.9 years, 13 males and 9 females) were included and divided into two groups according to the Borg dyspnea scale: dyspneic patients BU ≥ 1(DYSP) and non-dyspneic patients BU < 1 (NDYSP). The prevalence of dyspnea overall was 31.8%. The prevalence of neurological symptoms, dyspnea descriptors, RR, pH, PaCO2, PaO2, or lactate was similar between groups. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that the prevalence of dyspnea is low in non-severe COVID-19 patients, but contrary to our hypothesis of a relationship between shortness of breath and neurological symptoms, we have not been able to find any evidence of an impairment in dyspnea perception, either in the DYSP or NDYSP group.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Gasometria/métodos , Gasometria/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
17.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 16: 1745506520953348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856564

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On account of their racial/ethnic minority status, class, and gender, African-American women of low socioeconomic status are among the least privileged, underserved, and most marginalized groups in the United States. Generally, African Americans continue to experience poorer health outcomes, in which disparities have been attributed to socioeconomic inequities and structural racism. This objective of this study was to explore the lived experiences of low-income African-American women in interacting with the healthcare system and healthcare providers. METHODS: Twenty-two in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted with low-income African-American women. The audio-recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim. An inductive content analysis was performed, using an analytical software, Dedoose® to enabled hierarchical coding. Codes were grouped into categories which were further analyzed for similarities that led to the emergence of themes. RESULTS: A key finding was the experience of discriminatory treatment. The three themes that emerged relevant to this category were (1) perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity, (2) perceived discrimination based on socioeconomic status, and (3) stereotypical assumptions such as drug-seeking and having sexually transmitted diseases. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Low-income African-American women experience less than satisfactory patient care, where participants attribute to their experience of being stereotyped and their perception of discrimination in the healthcare system and from providers. Patients' experiences within the healthcare system have implications for their healthcare-seeking behaviors and treatment outcomes. Healthcare personnel and providers need to be more aware of the potential for implicit bias toward this population. Healthcare workforce training on culturally responsive patient care approaches and more community engagement will help providers better understand the context of patients from this population and more effectively meet their healthcare needs.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde Culturalmente Competente , Assistência à Saúde , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Med Educ Online ; 25(1): 1809929, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been placing severe strain on global healthcare systems and medical education programs, leading to growing demands for medical students to assume the role of preliminary healthcare providers. OBJECTIVES: To assess the perception and attitudes of medical students about clinical clerkship training during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey with web-based 3-fields/14-items questionnaire was conducted, from April 7 to 14, 2020, to evaluate their self-assessed perception and attitudes on clerkship training of hospital practice under the COVID-19 outbreak and spread among 161 (78 on pre-clerkship course, 83 on clinical clerkship course) medical students at Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Republic of Korea. RESULTS: Of the 151 medical students who completed the survey, 81 students (53.7%) considered themselves familiar with COVID-19. Although the students were concerned about the spread of the virus during clinical clerkship training, 118 (78.1%) students preferred the clerkship training in a hospital practice. The students in the clinical clerkship program preferred this over those in the pre-clerkship program (85.7% vs. 70.2%, P = 0.03), primarily because a clinical clerkship could not be replaced by an online class during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, their responses indicated, in order of significance, fear of not completing the clerkship course on time, willingness to participate as a preliminary healthcare provider in pandemic, the potential waste of tuition, and belief that a hospital is rather safe. The change in the academic calendar had not a positive impact on the lifestyles of many students. CONCLUSIONS: In circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic, educational strategies to clinical clerkship training for medical students should be developed to provide them with the opportunity to be actively involved in hospital practice under strict safety guidance focused on preventing virus infection and transmission.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Percepção , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 6: 1306-1311, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795195

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The rapid dissemination of information through social media renders a profound lens to evaluate perceptions of emerging topics, especially in the context of a global pandemic. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to elucidate trends on social media in the setting of surgical cancer care affected by the COVID-19 pandemic across the globe. METHODS: A public search of Twitter from April 1 to 30, 2020, was conducted, which yielded 996 posts related to COVID-19 and cancer. Two authors (E.J.K. and H.S.) individually reviewed all posts and recorded the post category, engagement, author category, and geographic location. Data were then analyzed through descriptive analyses. Only English-language posts were included, and any noncancer- or non-COVID-related posts were excluded from the analysis. RESULTS: A total of 734 unique authors from 26 different countries wrote 996 relevant posts that averaged 12.0 likes, 4.7 retweets, and 0.5 hashtags per post. Only 2.3% (23 of 996) of posts included a video. Authors of the included tweets most frequently were friends and families of patients (183; 18.4%), academic institutions or organizations (182; 18.3%), and physicians (138; 13.9%). Topics of importance were cancellations of surgeries (299; 40.1%), COVID-19 education (211; 121.2%), and research studies (93; 9.3%). The United Kingdom and the United States made up 81.5% of the cohort, followed by Canada (6.6%) and India (2.4%). Of posts where a specific type of surgery was identified (196), the most common type mentioned was breast cancer (50; 25.5%), followed by lung cancer (37; 18.9%) and urologic cancer (22; 11.2%). CONCLUSION: This analysis provides insight into the resulting impacts of COVID-19 on the global discussion of surgical cancer care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Família , Humanos , Percepção , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Health Place ; 65: 102399, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736203

RESUMO

This paper responds to the increasing concern regarding the role of non-human life in shaping urban space by exploring the public perception of urban companion animals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China. We argue that the public's perception of urban companion animals during emerging infectious disease outbreaks is related to medical and life science issues and reflects the political, economic, and emotional struggles involved in human-animal multispecies cohabitation. We find that the public has mainly followed and reconstructed medical discourses about the risk of companion animal-to-human transmission and discussed sustainable ethical animal practices in urban public health emergency management during the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerns regarding the risk of companion animal-related infection reflect the increasing prominence of more-than-human families, the pet industry, and multispecies leisure conflicts in public space in Chinese cities. The public's attention to animal ethics has prompted Chinese policy makers to adopt a more morally acceptable model for urban public health emergency management that can be sustained and supported by responsible non-governmental organizations and ethical urban residents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Percepção , Animais de Estimação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
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