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1.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(5): 1403-1408, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091623

RESUMO

Objective: To explore students' perceptions regarding self-directed learning, their experience of it, and how it may play a role in life-long learning. METHODS: The exploratory study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine in Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in January and February 2018, and comprised male undergraduate medical students from academic years 2-6. Data was collected through focus group discussions regarding the students' perception of self-directed learning. The sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Validation was done by member-checking and external audit. RESULTS: There were 29 male students with a mean age of 22.4±1.9 years. A total of 4 focus group discussion sessions were conducted; 2(50%) with students of preclinical years 2 and 3, and 2(50%) with students of clinical years 4-6. Five major themes generated were: understanding of self-directed learning; views about self-directed learning as a strategy; process of the strategy; effects of self-directed learning; self-directed learning and life-long learning. Subthemes which led to developing major themes included self-study, personal efforts, and objectives and goals formed theme1; good strategy, boredom with lectures, and need guidance theme2; time management, outline of planning, and internet browsing theme3; deep learning and curiosity theme4; life-long learning and future progress theme 5. CONCLUSIONS: The students were found to have mixed perceptions regarding self-directed learning. Most students perceived that SDL could affect their learning and future progress positively. However, they needed support to effectively use this strategy. The faculty role was found to be crucial in this regard.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 522, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is recognized worldwide as a major cause of increased years lived with disability. In addition to known generic prognostic factors, illness perceptions (IPs) may have predictive value for poor recovery in MSP. We were interested in the added predictive value of baseline IPs, over and above the known generic prognostic factors, on clinical recovery from MSP. Also, it is hypothesized there may be overlap between IPs and domains covered by the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), measuring distress, depression, anxiety and somatization. The aim of this study is twofold; 1) to assess the added predictive value of IPs for poor recovery and 2) to assess differences in predictive value for poor recovery between the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire - Dutch Language Version (Brief IPQ-DLV) and the 4DSQ. METHODS: An eligible sample of 251 patients with musculoskeletal pain attending outpatient physical therapy were included in a multi-center longitudinal cohort study. Pain intensity, physical functioning and Global Perceived Effect were the primary outcomes. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to assess the added value of baseline IPs for predicting poor recovery. To investigate the performance of the models, the levels of calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshov test) and discrimination (Area under the Curve (AUC)) were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline 'Treatment Control' added little predictive value for poor recovery in pain intensity [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.80 (Confidence Interval (CI) 0.66-0.97), increase in AUC 2%] and global perceived effect [OR 0.78 (CI 0.65-0.93), increase in AUC 3%]. Baseline 'Timeline' added little predictive value for poor recovery in physical functioning [OR 1.16 (CI 1.03-1.30), increase in AUC 2%]. There was a non-significant difference between AUCs in predictive value for poor recovery between the Brief IPQ-DLV and the 4DSQ. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this explorative study, assessing baseline IPs, over and above the known generic prognostic factors, does not result in a substantial improvement in the prediction of poor recovery. Also, no recommendations can be given for preferring either the 4DSQ or the Brief IPQ-DLV to assess psychological factors.


Assuntos
Dor Musculoesquelética , Ansiedade , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Musculoesquelética/diagnóstico , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Prog Orthod ; 22(1): 17, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has impacted the care of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. We aimed to provide an overall view of patients' perspectives, concerns, and expectations towards their treatment throughout the clinic lockdown during the pandemic; and to assess patients' levels of mental distress and its association with their confidence in resuming care. METHODS: An anonymous, validated, in-person paper questionnaire was distributed to adult orthodontic patients' post-lockdown at an academic institution. The survey focused on the clinical aspects and patients' perspectives regarding orthodontic treatment during the pandemic. The Kessler Mental Distress Scale (K10) was used to evaluate their psychological status. Survey responses were descriptively summarized and confidence in resuming care was compared between normal patients and patients with mental distress using Mann-Whitney tests. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-four patients were surveyed from July to October 2020. Mean age of the participants was 29.30 (SD = 12.01) years and 62% were females. Emergencies during the closure (21%, 32/154) involved primarily irritation with protruding wires. Patients were neutral regarding tele-dentistry and preferred their current fixed appliances over clear aligners. Upon resuming care, 80.51% were extremely pleased with the restrictive protocols and with high level of confidence in resuming treatment. The average level of anxiety was low, and a modest association was found between mental distress and reduced confidence in resuming treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Few numbers of minor emergencies occurred during the clinic closure. Despite the rising interest in tele-dentistry, patients were neutral on considering this option to monitor treatment and were content with fixed appliances. Patients had high confidence levels to resume their care based on the protocols established upon reopening. The association of mental distress and confidence in resuming care is suggestive and needs further investigation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 589317, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113595

RESUMO

Background: Hospital staff are at the frontline for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Understanding their perception of exposure risk is, therefore, important during the early phase of this pandemic. In this study, we evaluated the perception regarding risk of exposure to COVID-19 among Vietnamese hospital staff in Vietnam. Method: A cross-sectional online study was carried out to collect demographic data and risk exposure perception during the second week of the national lockdown in April 2020 in Vietnam. Seven hundred and forty two hospital staff were recruited using the snowball sampling to answer 5-point Likert scale questions regarding their risk exposure perception. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to examine the construct validity of the questionnaire. Pearson coefficient analysis and multivariable regression models were applied to identify factors associated with the perceived COVID-19 exposure risk. Results: Participants perceived a high risk of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 (score = 3.4, SD = 0.8). They also perceived the workplace response to COVID-19 as inadequate (score = 2.0, SD = 0.5). In particular, participants who worked in the emergency or intensive care departments were more likely to perceive an exposure risk, compared to those in infectious disease control departments (Coef. = -0.38, 95%CI: -0.74; -0.02). Participants from central regions perceived a lower risk of exposure to COVID-19 than those from northern regions (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.28-0.96). Nurses were less likely than doctors to report being at risk of exposure to COVID-19 (OR = 0.56, 95%CI: 0.33-0.95). Conclusions: We identified a high level of perceived risk regarding COVID-19 exposure among hospital staff during the unprecedented lockdown period in Vietnam. A comprehensive approach, incorporating improved risk communications, safety training and psychological support programs, for all hospital staff, including nurses and those residing in high population density areas, might further strengthen the national effort to control the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Vietnã/epidemiologia
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 660229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34095064

RESUMO

Aim: Adolescence is a time of transition from childhood to adulthood, when young people go through a number of vital physical and psychological developments. It is surprising yet unfortunate that the number of teenage suicide deaths and teenage infections of gonorrhea have increased over the years, becoming serious public health concerns in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an education course on teenagers' understanding of adolescence and their attitudes toward life, sex, gender equality, and mental health. Material and Methods: Participants were comprised of Taiwanese students in Grades 5 to 9 who completed a Life-Sex-Emotions course, titled "Sailing through Adolescence." The effect of the course was measured using pre- and post-test scores on the Perception Index of Life-Sex-Emotions Education (PILSEE) instrument. Qualitative data included subjective responses to questions before and after the course. Data were collected between September 2017 and June 2020. Results: A total of 10,506 completed questionnaires were collected. The mean PILSEE pretest scores for each subscale ranged from 8.71 to 13.37 (SD = 1.499-1.99); posttest subscale scores ranged from 9.30 to 13.95 (SD range = 1.490-2.288). The mean overall pretest score was 86.86 (SD = 10.83); the mean posttest score was 92.62 (SD = 10.30). The paired t-test demonstrated that post-test scores were significantly higher than pretest scores (t = 55.46; p < 0.01). Qualitative feedback indicated that the course improved students' self-esteem, their understanding adolescence, and awareness of influences of the media. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that an educational course about life, sex, and emotions during adolescence can be an effective intervention to help teenagers understand the impact of adolescence on attitudes toward life, sex, mental health, and gender equality.


Assuntos
Emoções , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Percepção , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Front Public Health ; 9: 561367, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113594

RESUMO

Introduction: Although water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions are effective in reducing diarrhea, there are methodological issues regarding the research tools used to evaluate their health impact. Moreover, there is limited research on individuals' subjective interpretations of diarrheal illness which may introduce further limitations in relying on self-reported data. Therefore, we conducted a study that aims to understand adolescents' perceptions of diarrheal illness in rural Tamil Nadu, India. Next, we wish to explore the acceptability of the Bristol Stool Form Scale to assess self-reported diarrhea in water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions involving adolescent participants in low-resource settings. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as part of the formative research phase in the cultural adaptation of Project SHINE, a school-based educational water, sanitation, and hygiene intervention in Thirumalaikodi, Tamil Nadu, India. A convergent parallel mixed-methods study design with a purposive sampling strategy was used. Qualitative data included 10 in-depth interviews with student participants aged 13-14. Quantitative data were collected through interviewer-administered face-to-face surveys (n = 14) and one-week stool diaries (n = 14). Each data set was analyzed separately and compiled during the interpretation of the findings. Results: Across all data sets, diarrhea was reported to be perceived as unhealthy and an irregular occurrence among participants. Participants also reported diarrheal-taboos, local methods to cure or control diarrhea, and discussed how diarrheal illness can lead to absenteeism or withdrawal from school and social activities. Moreover, participants were able to understand and answer questions about their stool using the Bristol Stool Form Scale, suggesting that is an acceptable tool. Discussion: Visual tools demonstrate promise in improving self-reported diarrheal illness among adolescents in low-resource settings in India. However, until we address diarrhea-related taboos it will be difficult to address methodological issues in the assessment and reporting of diarrheal illness among adolescents.


Assuntos
Diarreia , Saneamento , Adolescente , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Percepção , Autorrelato
7.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686958, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34123997

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare workers' (HCWs') travel-related anxiety needs to be assessed in light of the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 mutations. Methods: An online, cross-sectional questionnaire among HCWs between December 21, 2020 to January 7, 2021. The outcome variables were HCWs' knowledge and awareness of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage that was recently reported as the UK variant of concern, and its associated travel worry and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) score. Results: A total of 1,058 HCWs completed the survey; 66.5% were female, 59.0% were nurses. 9.0% indicated they had been previously diagnosed with COVID-19. Regarding the B.1.1.7 lineage, almost all (97.3%) were aware of its emergence, 73.8% were aware that it is more infectious, 78.0% thought it causes more severe disease, and only 50.0% knew that current COVID-19 vaccines are effective in preventing it. Despite this, 66.7% of HCWs were not registered to receive the vaccine. HCWs' most common source of information about the new variant was social media platforms (67.0%), and this subgroup was significantly more worried about traveling. Nurses were more worried than physicians (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Most HCWs were aware of the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant and expressed substantial travel worries. Increased worry levels were found among HCWs who used social media as their main source of information, those with lower levels of COVID-19 vaccine uptake, and those with higher GAD-7 scores. The utilization of official social media platforms could improve accurate information dissemination among HCWs regarding the Pandemic's evolving mutations. Targeted vaccine campaigns are warranted to assure HCWs about the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines toward SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Ansiedade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Reino Unido
8.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(3): 182-186, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125707

RESUMO

Following a 240% increase in the number of compounded sterile preparations between 2012 and 2013, three pharmacy technicians at a metropolitan public hospital suffered hand-related, repetitive strain injuries. This study describes the main safety measures implemented to reduce the risk of repetitive strain injuries associated with sterile compounding at the study hospital, and reports pharmacy technicians' perceptions of their effectiveness. The implemented risk reduction strategies were categorized into five domains of 1) equipment and consumables, 2) training and assessment, 3) Lean waste reduction, 4) roster and shift limits, and 5) workload allocation score. Pharmacy technicians' feedback was collected through an anonymous survey in 2020, five years after the implementation of all safety measures. Responders rated their perceived effectiveness of each strategy domain using a five-point Likert Scale, ranging from very ineffective to very effective. All pharmacy technicians who had been undertaking aseptic compounding activities for at least one year between 2015 and 2020 were invited to take the survey. The five domains of 1) equipment and consumables, 2) training and assessment, 3) Lean waste reduction, 4) roster and shift limits, and 5) workload allocation score were rated effective or very effective by 86%, 67%, 86%, 57%, and 71% of pharmacy technicians, respectively (n=7). The overall effectiveness of all interventions combined was rated effective or very effective by 72% of the participants. Pharmacy technicians' feedback indicates the majority perceive the implemented strategies effective in reducing the risk of repetitive strain injuries associated with aseptic compounding.


Assuntos
Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Humanos , Percepção , Técnicos em Farmácia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1152-1156, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate students' perceptions of problem-based learning tutorial sessions. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the College of Medicine, Jouf University, Al-Jawf Saudi Arabia, from March to May 2019, and comprised medical students in their clinical phase. Data was collected using an electronic questionnaire about students' perceptions of problem-based learning sessions, tutors' session facilitation, and tutors' student evaluation fairness. Data was analysed using SPSS 21. RESULTS: Of the 66 students approached, 51(77.27%) completed the questionnaire; 23(45%) males and 28(55%) females. The agreement mean perception score was 4.73±2.13 regarding various statements characterising problem-based learning sessions. Lesser mean score of agreement 1.33±1.07 was observed regarding tutors' facilitation of the sessions and their students' evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Students perceived problem-based learning sessions as effective and interactive, but did not positively perceive tutors' evaluations.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas , Arábia Saudita , Universidades
10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(5): 372-378, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059174

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a preliminary subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative and to evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The initial items of the scale were determined based on a review of policy documents and consultations with experts. The final items of the scale were confirmed through individual interviews with residents combined with the discretetrend method, critical ratio method, correlation coefficient method, and factor analysis method. Then, the dimensions of the scale were determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The Cronbach's α coefficient, split-half reliability coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to assess the reliability and validity of the scale. Results: A scale containing five dimensions with 22 items was established, including urban lifestyle, governance, basic functions, environmental sanitation, and amenities. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.876, and the split-half reliability coefficient was 0.796. The CFA results indicate that each inspection level was within the standard limit. Conclusion: The preliminarily subjective evaluation scale for assessing the built environments of China's Hygienic City Initiative demonstrates a high level of reliability and validity. Additional empirical studies should be carried out to further verify the value of the scale in terms of practical application.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/psicologia , Política de Saúde , Higiene , Satisfação Pessoal , Saúde da População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3261, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059682

RESUMO

A fundamental scientific question concerns the neural basis of perceptual consciousness and perceptual monitoring resulting from the processing of sensory events. Although recent studies identified neurons reflecting stimulus visibility, their functional role remains unknown. Here, we show that perceptual consciousness and monitoring involve evidence accumulation. We recorded single-neuron activity in a participant with a microelectrode in the posterior parietal cortex, while they detected vibrotactile stimuli around detection threshold and provided confidence estimates. We find that detected stimuli elicited neuronal responses resembling evidence accumulation during decision-making, irrespective of motor confounds or task demands. We generalize these findings in healthy volunteers using electroencephalography. Behavioral and neural responses are reproduced with a computational model considering a stimulus as detected if accumulated evidence reaches a bound, and confidence as the distance between maximal evidence and that bound. We conclude that gradual changes in neuronal dynamics during evidence accumulation relates to perceptual consciousness and perceptual monitoring in humans.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Tomada de Decisões , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletrodos Implantados , Eletroencefalografia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Microeletrodos , Lobo Parietal/citologia , Estimulação Física/métodos , Análise de Célula Única , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1085, 2021 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is helpful for collaboration if professionals from the field of health and social welfare and the field of city planning are aware of each other's concepts of what a healthy living environment entails and what its components are. This study examined perceptions about creating a healthy living environment of professionals from these two fields, as well as the differences between them. METHODS: We recruited 95 professionals from Nijmegen, the Netherlands who worked in the fields of health, social welfare and city planning in governmental and non-governmental capacities. We used the concept mapping method to collect and analyse their thoughts on healthy living environments. Participants first submitted statements on this subject in a brainstorming session, using an online mapping tool. Then they sorted these statements and rated them on priorities and opportunities within urban planning processes. RESULTS: During the brainstorm, 43 professionals generated 136 statements. After the elimination of duplicates, 92 statements were individually sorted by 32 professionals. Concept mapping software was used to create an overall map, in which the statements were sorted into ten clusters. Each of these clusters represented one of the main features of a healthy living environments. After 36 participants rated these statements, it emerged that professionals from both fields agreed on priorities and opportunities for the clusters 'Spatial quality' and 'Conducive to exercise'. Professionals also agreed on which three clusters had the fewest priorities and possibilities ('Promotes personal wellbeing', 'Encourages healthy choices', 'Conducive to social connections'). CONCLUSION: We found that professionals in health and social welfare and city planning have similar views concerning the most and least important features of a healthy living environment in urban planning process. This could indicate that the differences between the two fields may be more nuanced and specific than previously thought. This knowledge offers perspectives for professionals to strengthen their collaboration and to come to a joint result in urban planning projects.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades , Seguridade Social , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Países Baixos , Percepção
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1070, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine women's perceptions of factors that influence their food shopping choices, particularly in relation to store layout, and their views on ways that supermarkets could support healthier choices. DESIGN: This qualitative cross-sectional study used semi-structured telephone interviews to ask participants the reasons for their choice of supermarket and factors in-store that prompted their food selections. The actions supermarkets, governments and customers could take to encourage healthier food choices were explored with women. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. SETTING: Six supermarkets across England. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty women customers aged 18-45 years. RESULTS: Participants had a median age of 39.5 years (IQR: 35.1, 42.3), a median weekly grocery spend of £70 (IQR: 50, 88), and 44% had left school aged 16 years. Women reported that achieving value for money, feeling hungry, tired, or stressed, and meeting family members' food preferences influenced their food shopping choices. The physical environment was important, including product quality and variety, plus ease of accessing the store or products in-store. Many participants described how they made unintended food selections as a result of prominent placement of unhealthy products in supermarkets, even if they adopted more conscious approaches to food shopping (i.e. written or mental lists). Participants described healthy eating as a personal responsibility, but some stated that governments and supermarkets could be more supportive. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that in-store environments can undermine intentions to purchase and consume healthy foods. Creating healthier supermarket environments could reduce the burden of personal responsibility for healthy eating, by making healthier choices easier. Future research could explore the interplay of personal, societal and commercial responsibility for food choices and health status.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Supermercados , Adulto , Criança , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Percepção
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e043691, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective policies are an important tool for reducing tobacco use. We examine student perceptions of the existing no-smoking policy in the country's largest national university and identify perceived barriers to its implementation. We explore student support for a 100% tobacco-free campus policy. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered on-line questionnaire. SETTING: This study was conducted at Qatar University (QU), the largest national institution of higher education in Qatar. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 199 students participated out of a stratified random sample of students aged ≥18 years with active registration in the Spring 2020 semester. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We assessed students' knowledge of and attitudes towards QU's current no-smoking policy, the perceived barriers to its implementation, and support for a 100% tobacco-free policy. RESULTS: Only 26% (95% CI 19.97 to 32.03) and 16.6% (95% CI 11.70 to 22.49) of respondents correctly identified the current policy on traditional and electronic cigarettes, respectively. Less than 30% of respondents held positive attitudes towards policy enforcement, and more male respondents reported positive attitudes towards compliance than women. Support for a 100% tobacco-free policy was at 77.2%, but it was significantly lower among tobacco users compared with non-users (35.9% and 91.8%, respectively; p<0.001). Failure to establish clear penalties, opposition from smoking students, and lack of cessation services were perceived as major barriers to implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Clear and comprehensive tobacco-free policies are important tools for creating environments conducive to rejecting smoking and seeking cessation support. The findings underscore the need to increase awareness about the policy, advocate for clear penalties for violations, and promote cessation services on campus. Qualitative research is needed to further understand perceived barriers to successful enforcement of the policy.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Catar , Fumar , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e040829, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences and perceptions of trial participants and healthcare professionals in the UK Frozen Shoulder Trial (UK FROST), a multicentre randomised controlled trial that compared manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA), arthroscopic capsular release (ACR) with a 12-week early structured physiotherapy programme (ESP) in people with unilateral frozen shoulder referred to secondary care. DESIGN: Nested qualitative study with semistructured interviews. We used constant comparison method to develop our themes. SETTING: This qualitative study was nested within the UK FROST. PARTICIPANTS: 44 trial participants (ESP: 14; MUA: 15; ACR: 15), and 8 surgeons and 8 physiotherapists who delivered the treatments in the trial. RESULTS: Trial participants found UK FROST treatments acceptable and satisfactory in terms of content, delivery and treatment benefits. Participants in all arms experienced improvements in pain, shoulder movements, and function. Participants said they would choose the same treatment that they received in the trial.Surgeons and physiotherapists felt that the content and delivery of UK FROST treatments was not significantly different to their routine practice except for the additional number of physiotherapy sessions offered in the trial. They had mixed feelings about the effectiveness of UK FROST treatments. Both stressed the value of including hydrodilatation as a comparator of other treatment options. Physiotherapists raised concerns about the capacity to deliver the number of UK FROST physiotherapy sessions in routine clinical settings.Shared perceptions of trial participants, surgeons and physiotherapists were: (1) Pain relief and return of shoulder movements and function are important outcomes and (2) Adherence to exercises leads to better outcomes. CONCLUSION: In general, our findings indicated that trial participants, and surgeons and physiotherapists who delivered the treatments had positive experiences and perceptions in the UK FROST. Early qualitative investigations to explore the feasibility of delivering treatments in real-world settings are suggested in future trials in the frozen shoulder. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Register, ID: ISRCTN48804508. Registered on 25 July 2014; Results.


Assuntos
Bursite , Humanos , Percepção , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Reino Unido
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e236219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076165

RESUMO

Fungi are important in several aspects of human life. In particular, to agriculture, pathogenic fungi are of great importance, as they are responsible for production losses of the most diverse types. Because of this, knowledge about pathogenic fungus is of extreme importance for farmers and professionals working in agricultural areas. Among farmers who use specific agroecological practices, this knowledge is even more valuable, since by not adopting conventional methods of production, they resort to non-invasive alternatives that are less or not harmful at all to the environment in consideration of production management methods. This study aimed to assess farmer perception in the Cerrado biome in the city of Goiás (GO), Brazil, in order to understand their ethnomycological perceptions to verify historical management practices, their knowledge about phytopathogenic fungi, and how these producers perceive fungi. We used the theoretical reference method "From peasant to peasant" formulated by ANPA - National Association of Small Farmers. Some aspects of farmers' ethnomycological knowledge are discussed. These ease identification the representatives of the Fungi Kingdom is associated with organisms that present easily recognizable characteristics, such as wood-ears or disease-causing fungi. In general, farmers are able to identify representatives of the Fungi Kingdom that are found in their daily lives. The perception of farmers about fungi, a group still much unknown by society, is very relevant for future actions of ethnomycology.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Brasil , Fungos , Humanos , Percepção
17.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(12): 1372-1377, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess small animal general practice veterinarians' use and perceptions of synchronous video-based telemedicine before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SAMPLE: 550 respondent veterinarian members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN). PROCEDURES: An anonymous online survey was used to gather data from VIN-member veterinarians in small animal general practice regarding their perceptions and use of synchronous video-based telemedicine. Two emails to all VIN members were used to distribute the web-based questionnaire. For consistency, only responses from North American veterinarians who reported working in small animal general practice were included in analyses. Responses were collected between September 28, 2020, and October 21, 2020. RESULTS: There were 69,488 recipients and 680 respondents (1.0% response rate), 550 of whom had North American internet protocol addresses and reported working in small animal general practice. Not all respondents answered all questions. Use of video-based telemedicine substantially increased among respondents during the COVID-19 pandemic, and most (86/130 [66.2%]) reported little to no difficulty in adopting videoconferencing. Respondents also reported that telemedicine took less time (61/135 [45.2%]) and resulted in less financial compensation (103/135 [76.3%]) than in-person consultation. Several respondents reported concerns regarding legal issues and potential inferiorities of telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results indicated that a substantial proportion of respondents incorporated synchronous video-based telemedicine into their practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite low perceived difficulty in adopting videoconferencing telemedicine, many planned to discontinue it for some clinical applications once the pandemic is over. Further research is required to elucidate the perceptions and challenges in successful use of veterinary telemedicine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Geral , Telemedicina , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , COVID-19/veterinária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , América do Norte , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064814

RESUMO

Our aim was to examine perceived occupational turnover intentions among medical students and the associated factors. A cross-sectional study using a Web-based survey was conducted. A total of 2922 completed responses were received (response rate 55.7%). A total of 58.4% (95% CI 56.6-60.2) reported high turnover intention (score of 7-15). The odds of higher total turnover score among the fifth-year students was nearly four times that of first-year students (OR = 3.88, 95% CI 2.62-5.73). Perception of the medical profession as not being of high social status and reputation significantly influenced high turnover intention scores (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.90-2.68). All three dimensions of the multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) significantly predict turnover intention. Lower scores in the support from Significant Other (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.84), Family (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.18-1.83) and Friend (OR = 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77) subscales were associated with higher turnover intention. Low score in the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) was also associated with higher turnover intention (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.17-1.77). The findings shed light on the importance of changing public attitudes towards respecting the medical profession and improving the implementation of policies to protect the well-being of people in the medical profession.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estudantes de Medicina , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Intenção , Pandemias , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065093

RESUMO

After a decrease in detected cases in the summer, Europe faced the emergence of a second wave of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Few studies have investigated adolescents, who may constitute a target group with possible lower compliance to public health measures, particularly the social distancing measures. A total sample of 492 participants was included in the study, and the ages of the participants ranged from 18-24 years. According to the hypothesis of our study, the sample was divided into two groups: those who experienced COVID-19 symptoms and those who did not experience COVID-19 symptoms. Demographic characteristics, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors related to COVID-19 were investigated with ad hoc items; in addition, mood disorders, self-efficacy, and social connectedness were explored. Our results showed significant differences in the variables of risk perception, self-efficacy, and measures of belongingness among older adolescents who did or did not experience COVID-19 symptoms. In this period, adolescents experienced unprecedented disruptions in their daily lives, leading them to isolation and loneliness. Compliance with restrictive measures is considered both a proactive behavior and a social responsibility, especially if supported by prosocial reasons to prevent others from getting sick; therefore, this must be the focus of raising awareness of anti-COVID-19 compliance among adolescents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067309

RESUMO

The COVID-19 crisis poses challenges to healthcare systems and requires micro- and macro-organizational adaptations. This study examined the organizational atmosphere in Israeli hospitals by evaluating workers' perceptions and concerns about the COVID-19 crisis and its management. At the end of the pandemic's first wave in Israel, 547 healthcare workers responded to an online survey, which inquired about COVID-19 concerns at the individual and family level, perceptions at the national and organizational level, perceptions of the way the crisis was managed, self-assessment of coping with the crisis and burnout, and demographics. Findings showed that healthcare workers expressed deep concerns for family members and apprehension at a national level. Respondents noted that they were coping well with the crisis while expressing negative perceptions of how the crisis was managed. A regression model showed that the low self-assessment of medical staff of coping with the crisis, deep concerns at the organizational level, negative perceptions of crisis management, and providing care for COVID-19 patients were predictors of burnout. The findings emphasize the importance of developing a supportive organizational culture for hospital workers. Awareness of their concerns and perceptions is essential to improve organizational culture and healthcare systems' ability to continue fighting the virus and confront future health crises.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , COVID-19 , Atmosfera , Hospitais , Humanos , Israel , Percepção , SARS-CoV-2
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