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1.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 113-118, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004848

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La calidad de vida se define como un estado de bienestar físico, social, emocional, espiritual, intelectual y ocupacional que le permite al individuo satisfacer apropiadamente sus necesidades; un grado de adaptación a su propia condición y a su medio, en función de su estado de salud, sus carencias y del soporte que recibe para suplirlas. Objetivo: Describir la calidad de vida desde el ámbito social en el que se desarrollan los adultos mayores en el Estado de Guerrero, México. Materiales y métodos: Investigación cuantitativa de corte transversal y analítico, la muestra fue probabilística, se incluyeron 75 adultos mayores de 65 años y más, residentes de asilo, casa de día y localidad rural; el criterio de selección aplicado fue la firma previa del consentimiento informado. Se utilizó el Cuestionario sociodemográfico y Cuestionario de Salud SF-36 versión 2 española Health Survey, constituido por preguntas agrupadas con sus respectivos ítems. Resultados: El 80% de los adultos mayores encuestados manifestó mala calidad de vida. Conclusiones: Los adultos mayores guerrerenses presentan porcentajes altos de problemas físicos, emocionales, y sociales, que dan origen a una mala perspectiva de su salud y vida.


Abstract Introduction: Quality of life is defined as a state of social, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and occupational wellbeing. Quality of life allows individuals to properly satisfy their needs and reach a level of adaptation to their own conditions and environments according to their health status, limitations and the support they receive to supplement them. Objective: To describe the quality of life of elderly adults in the State of Guerrero-Mexico, taking into account the social context where they live. Materials and methods: Quantitative research using a cross-sectional and analytical approach. The sample was probabilistic, with 75 adults older than or equal to 65 years of age, who were residents of asylums, day houses or rural areas. The applied selection criterion was their signature of the informed consent form. We used the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Spanish version 2 of the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire that contains questions grouped within their respective items. Results: 80% of the older adults manifested a poor quality of life. Conclusions: Elderly adults from Guerrero displayed high percentages of physical, emotional and social problems, which ultimately lead to poor health and life perspectives.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Percepção
2.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 193-197, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465190

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to explore elder's feeding process mind construction in different stages of life. Study selection, source and data extraction: Through a qualitative study with a phenomenological focus and using semi-structured interviews and discussion groups, it has been deepened into the perception of the childhood, adulthood and current experience towards the feeding process. As data sources, 28 elders that accomplished with the selection criterions of the investigation participated in it. Their answers were coded through the program NVivo 10 and for the conclusions it was used the content analysis through research triangulation. Data synthesis: For childhood, the feeding process is understood as healthy, associated to the availability of natural products and limited access to manufactured products. Adulthood was not considered as important in their feeding attention, situation that is opposed in their current life cycle, because it is perceived the necessity of a healthy feeding, though related to their health care. Conclusions: It is presented the meaning construction in elder people related to their feeding in key stages of their life, like in the childhood, adulthood and current experience as elder. Childhood and elderly stages are perceived as positive for a healthy feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Chile , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e139, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408002

RESUMO

We argue that the roles of attacker and defender in asymmetric intergroup conflict are structurally ambiguous and their perception is likely to be subjectively biased. Although this allows for endogenous selection into each role, we argue that claiming the role of the defender likely is more advantageous for conflict participants.


Assuntos
Conflito (Psicologia) , Percepção
4.
J Nurs Adm ; 49(7-8): 366-371, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the experience of being a Millennial nurse manager with a goal to better understand the influence of organizational factors on role expectations, satisfaction, support, development, and intent to stay. BACKGROUND: Research on Millennial nurse leaders is scarce. Understanding the perception of these young managers is needed to create succession and retention planning that meets the needs of this generation of leaders. METHOD: A national sample of 25 Millennial nurse managers participated in a qualitative interpretative phenomenological study. Audio-recorded telephone interviews were conducted and analyzed. RESULTS: Millennial leaders have a unique perspective on role expectations and support variables. Seven themes of experience emerged: coming into the role, learning as I go, having the support of my director, making an impact, helping staff succeed, and managing change. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities to develop and retain Millennial leaders are shaped by understanding the support variables that are important to them.


Assuntos
Liderança , Enfermeiras Administradoras/organização & administração , Percepção , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Enfermeiras Administradoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277175

RESUMO

Driving is an essential activity for community engagement in patients with brain injury. However, brain injury patients have cognitive-perceptual deficits and low independence in daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the driving errors of brain injury patients and determine their relevance to cognitive-perception function and daily activity level. This study was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-one brain injury patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a driving-scene-based simulator evaluation in the rehabilitation clinic. Driving errors were checked using automatic software. Perceptual ability was measured using Motor-free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT) and Cognitive-perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD). A linear relationship was found between the driving aptitude score, steering wheel and judgment, simultaneous operation items, total score of road course test, and cognitive-perceptual functions and daily activity levels of the participants (P <.05). The general factors that affected driving errors included driving experience, age, part of the hemispheric affected, and presence of vascular injury (P <.05). In addition, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score and the CPAD score correlated with driving errors (P <.05). The total error score of the participants correlated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score (P <.05).These findings suggest that driving experience and age have more influence on driving error than perceptual level due to brain damage. In addition, it was found that the basic level of daily living influences overall operating errors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
6.
J Water Health ; 17(4): 587-596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313996

RESUMO

We described sociodemographic differences in perceptions of drinking water safety and examined associations between perceptions and plain water intake. We used the 2015 Estilos survey of 1,000 US Hispanic adults conducted in both Spanish and English. Outcome was water intake. Exposures were the level of agreement about water perceptions (My tap water is safe to drink; Community tap water is safe to drink; Bottled water is safer; I would buy less bottled water if my tap water was safe). Covariates were sociodemographics, region, Hispanic heritage, and acculturation. We used chi-square tests and multinomial logistic regression to examine associations of water perceptions and intake. Overall, 24% of Hispanic adults consumed water ≤1 time/day. Although 34% disagreed their home tap water was safe to drink, and 41% disagreed their community tap water was safe to drink, 65% agreed bottled water is safer than tap water, and 69% agreed they would buy less bottled water if they knew their tap water was safe. Perceptions differed by some covariates but were not significantly associated with plain water intake. In conclusion, negative perceptions of tap water were common among US Hispanic adults, which can inform efforts to increase awareness about safe public water systems.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Adulto , Ingestão de Líquidos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16352, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-stress level affects students' health and many of them experiencing high levels of stress are at risk of burnout. School administrators are often concerned about the experiences and negative effects of burnout among students and staff. Burnout is described as a psychological reaction to chronic stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a group-focused intervention (rational emotive behavior coaching, REBC) on academic burnout among undergraduate students attending public universities in Southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A group randomized controlled trial design was adopted for this study. A total of 52 convenient samples of undergraduate students (with a high degree of burnout symptoms) took part in the research. We used a group REBT program manual for the management of burnout which was complemented with REBC techniques. Data were gathered with the aid of the perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and Oldenburg Burnout inventory-student (OLBI-S). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and paired t test at .05 probability level. RESULTS: Results showed that the group-focused REBC program significantly alleviated burnout symptoms among students in the treatment group compared to students in the control group as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 41.789, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.634, SE = 1.00), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 196.036, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.869, SE = 0.69). The students who benefitted from the group-focused REBC program maintained reduced symptoms of burnout after three months when the researchers conducted a follow-up as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 34.012, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.467, SE = 1.21), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 108.941, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.765, SE = 0.85). CONCLUSION: This research indicates that group-focused REBC can be applied to reduce burnout symptoms among undergraduate students. The group-focused REBC intervention may be adapted to overcome employee burnout and school administrators' burnout. Researchers may need to investigate the possibility of storing and harnessing data from studies on REBC and burnout and delivering computer-based/internet REBC program following evidence-based computing strategies and principles.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
8.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In academia, harassment may often occur and remain unrevealed in Japan, which discourages young researchers from pursuing their career. It is necessary to estimate and improve the perception of "academic harassment" among university faculties. Therefore, in this study, we aim to develop a scale of perception of academic harassment. METHODS: Prior to a quantitative survey, a task team consisting of medical doctors, researchers, nurses, hospital workers, and managers in general affairs division identified 36 items related to academic harassment. In February 2016, we sent a self-administered questionnaire to 1,126 academic faculty members who worked in a medical university located in Tokyo, Japan. We instructed them to score the extent to which they consider each item as related to academic harassment based on a Likert scale. We carried out maximum likelihood factor analyses with promax rotation and computed Cronbach's alpha to develop a scale and investigate the reliability of the scale. RESULTS: In total, 377 returned the questionnaires (response rate, 33.5%; male, 73.8%). In factor analyses, we removed 17 items owing to low factor loadings, and four factors were eventually extracted. The first factor was termed "Harassment in organization (7 items)" because it included conditions of forcing a particular person to work on chores or lectures for students that may prevent one's academic research outputs. The second factor was termed "Violence and denying personal character (4 items)". The third factor was termed "Research misconduct (5 items)" including conditions of excluding a particular person from the coauthor list of research outputs or pressuring a person to fabricate, falsify, or plagiarize research outputs. The fourth factor was termed "Research interference (3 items)" including a condition of interference with conference attendance. Cronbach's alpha values of these four factors ranged from 0.83 to 0.91, suggesting that the scale had high reliability. The means of these factors did not differ according to gender but were higher in participants aged 50 or older than in younger participants. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the scale of perception on academic harassment consisting of four factors with 19 items is valid and reliable to some extent.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina/psicologia , Assédio não Sexual , Percepção , Faculdades de Medicina , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Assédio não Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15950, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169719

RESUMO

Although the association between perceived stress and psychological distress has been demonstrated, the mechanism behind the association is not well understood in physicians. The purpose of this study was to examine how coping styles (positive and negative) mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress among Chinese physicians.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Liaoning Province, China, between October and December 2017. Self-administered questionnaires, including the General Health Questionnaire to assess psychological distress, the Stress Reaction Questionnaire to assess perceived stress, and the Trait Coping Style Questionnaire to assess coping style, as well as surveys of demographic and occupational characteristics, were distributed to 1120 physicians employed in large general hospitals. The final sample consisted of 1051 participants. Asymptotic and resampling strategies were used to examine how coping style mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress.Perceived stress was significantly and positively associated with psychological distress among physicians. Both positive and negative coping significantly mediated the association between perceived stress and psychological distress. For psychological distress and its 3 dimensions (depression, anxiety, and reduced self-affirmation), the proportions of mediating roles of coping styles were 26.1%, 29.9%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively.Perceived stress had positive effects on psychological distress, and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese physicians. In addition to reducing stress in clinical practice, appropriate coping styles should be adopted in psychological distress prevention and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
10.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(2): 124-130, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216169

RESUMO

Introduction: Worldwide there is an increase in the number of assisted reproduction treatments. The developments in culture media and drugs, associated with the occurrence of rapid freezing or vitrification techniques has improved the procedures encouraging transfers of a single embryo per cycle. This generates a greater number of viable surplus embryos. An embryo disposition decision making is a complex phenomenon. Method: Method: This descriptive exploratory study investigates the perceptions and opinions of a sample of 60 participants who have started an assisted reproduction treatment in a specialized Fertility Center of the City of Buenos Aires. Results: The absence of children in the majority of the sample (70.6% still have no children) makes the prevailing option to "continue cryopreservation" (36.67%). The majority, 38.4% (23 people), considers that the option that best represents the embryo is "a child". Although there are relatively few people who have decided to donate their embryos (5 participants), several study participants report having reflected on it (35%). The vast majority (86.6%) of respondents would not be willing to face the costs of maintaining a long-term cryopreservation. Conclusion: After more than three decades of assisted reproduction, Argentinean patients still face a high degree of uncertainty regarding what to do with the surplus embryos. Gaining more in-depth knowledge regarding the decision-making process can help to improve the communication strategies. The normative absences generate that the ARTs users are "disengaged" from their embryos; this hinders the decision making, increasing the risk of accumulating more "abandoned" embryos


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Tomada de Decisões , Destinação do Embrião/psicologia , Percepção , Adulto , Argentina , Criopreservação/estatística & dados numéricos , Destinação do Embrião/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Accid Anal Prev ; 129: 309-333, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor hazard perception, or the ability to anticipate potentially dangerous road and traffic situations, has been linked to an increased crash risk. Novice and younger road users are typically poorer at hazard perception than experienced and older road users. Road traffic authorities have recognised the importance of hazard perception skills, with the inclusion of a hazard perception test in most Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) systems. OBJECTIVES: This review synthesises studies of hazard perception tests in order to determine best practice methodologies that discriminate between novice/younger and experienced/older road users. DATA SOURCES: Published studies available on PsychInfo, Scopus and Medline as at April 2018 were included in the review. Studies included a hazard perception test methodology and compared non-clinical populations of road users (car drivers, motorcyclists, bicyclists and pedestrians), based on age and experience, or compared methodologies. RESULTS: 49 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was a high degree of heterogeneity in the studies. However all methodologies - video, static image, simulator and real-world test-drive were able to discriminate road user groups categorised by age and/or experience, on at least one measure of hazard perception. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst there was a high level of heterogeneity of studies, video methodology utilising temporal responses (e.g. press a button when detecting the potential hazard) are a consistent measure of hazard perception across road user groups, whereas spatial measures (e.g. locate potential hazard in the scenario) were inconsistent. Staged footage was found to discriminate as well as unstaged footage, with static images also adding valuable information on hazard perception. There were considerable inconsistencies in the categorising of participants based on age and experience, limited application of theoretical frameworks, and a considerable lack of detail regarding post hoc amendments of hazardous scenarios. This research can guide further developments in hazard perception testing that may improve driver licensing and outcomes for road users.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Percepção , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Conscientização , Ambiente Construído , Humanos , Licenciamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Licenciamento/normas , Pedestres , Gravação em Vídeo
12.
Clin Ter ; 170(3): e184-e191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Climate Change (CC) is a worldwide concern with important consequences for Public Health. A more sustainable and responsible way of living is necessary in order to reduce CC consequences, and adequation to this is directly related to risk perception and knowledge about the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to validate a questionnaire to measure the knowledge of Italians on CC and its consequences. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire was administered online to high school students, their parents and teachers that were participating to a meeting at Sapienza University. The questionnaire contained a sociodemographic section and 19 questions on causes and consequences of CC and ways to fight it. The statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. RESULTS: Sixty-four individuals answered the online questionnaire. The analysis of internal consistency was performed by 12 dichotomous variables that measured the knowledge level on CC. The analysis showed a standardized Cronbach's alpha equal to 0.39, corresponding to a low reliability. When females were excluded, the alpha value rose to 0.497, and ascended to the reliable value of 0.639 when refining the selection of the included questions. CONCLUSIONS: The Cronbach's alpha value found showed a low reliability but achieves acceptable levels when considering only males and excluding some of the initial questions. Future studies should be performed in order to highlight the reliability of this tool to assess the knowledge about CC among the population.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Percepção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 701, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental support is an important element in overweight prevention programs for children. The purpose of this study was to examine everyday life situations in which mothers encounter difficulties encouraging healthy energy balance-related behavior in their school-age children. METHODS: We formed four focus groups containing 6-9 participants each. The participants were mothers of Dutch, Turkish, or Moroccan descent with a child 8-13 years of age. All focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Content was analyzed conventionally using ATLAS.ti 6. RESULTS: Twenty-seven difficult everyday life situations were identified in 14 settings. The five most frequently reported situations were a daily struggle regarding eating vegetables, eating breakfast on time before going to school, eating candy and snacks between meals, and spending excessive time watching television and using the computer. A perceived loss of parental control, the inability to establish rules and the failure to consistently enforce those rules were the most commonly cited reasons for why the mothers experience these situations as being difficult. CONCLUSIONS: We identified five difficult everyday life situations related to healthy energy balance-related behavior. These five difficult situations were used as the input for developing a web-based parenting program designed to prevent children from becoming overweight. We reasoned that if we use these situations and the underlying reasons, many parents would recognize these situations and are willing to learn how to deal with them and complete the e-learning.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/psicologia , Marrocos/etnologia , Países Baixos/etnologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Percepção , Turquia/etnologia
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 703, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to complement the current chemotherapy based schistosomiasis control interventions in Shinyanga district, community knowledge, perceptions and water contact practices were qualitatively assessed using focus group discussions and semi structured interviews involving 271 participants in one S. haematobium prevalent community of Ikingwamanoti village, Shinyanga district, Northwestern, Tanzania. METHODS: In October, 2016 we conducted 29 parent semi structured interviews and 16 focus group discussions with a total of 168 parent informants. Adult participants were conveniently selected from three sub-villages of Butini, Miyu, and Bomani of Ikingwamanoti village, Shinyanga district. In March, 2017, a total of 103 children informants participated in 10 focus group discussions and 20 semi structured interviews, administered to children from standard four, five, six and seven attending Ikingwamanoti Primary School. Note taking and digital recorders were used to collect narrative data for thematic analysis of emergent themes. RESULTS: Among participants, 75% parents and 50% children considered urinary schistosomiasis as a low priority health problem. Of the informants, 70% children and 48.3% parents had misconceptions about the cause, modes of transmission and control of schistosomiasis demonstrating gaps in their biomedical knowledge of the disease. Assessment of treatment seeking behavior for urinary schistosomiasis revealed a combination of traditional and modern health care sectors. However, modern medicines were considered effective in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Lack of alternative sources of water for domestic and recreational activities and unhygienic water use habits exposed community members to high risk of acquiring urinary schistosomiasis. CONCLUSION: Use of Schistosoma haematobium contaminated water sources for daily domestic and recreational use facilitated contraction of urinary schistosomiasis among community members in Shinyanga district. People's perceptions of urinary schistosomiasis as a less priority health problem promoted persistence of the disease. Future efforts to control urinary schistosomiasis should take into account integrated approaches combining water, sanitation and hygiene, health education, alternative sources of clean and safe water to facilitate behavior change.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saneamento , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/transmissão , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Água
15.
Work ; 63(2): 219-229, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several comfort perception models have proposed an objective method to evaluate "effects in the internal body" and "perceived comfort". Postural comfort is one aspect of comfort/discomfort perception, and this current work adds to existing knowledge toward a more objectified posture evaluation for comfort. OBJECTIVE: The authors have used the concept of Range of Rest Posture (RRP), as proposed by Apostolico et al. The study focused on the identification of RRP within the Comfort Range of Motion (CROM) for lower limbs. METHODS: The proposed method is based on extensive experimental work involving 114 healthy individuals (59 males and 55 females) ranging from 20 to 40 years old. The age range was narrowed to avoid an age-clustering of results due to inhomogeneity of the statistical sample. Data were processed using statistical methods for identifying the RRP in the experimental CROM. Several Maximum Level of Comfort (MLC) positions were found within the RRP. RESULTS: RRPs for lower limbs of men and women have been identified and can be used for virtual comfort assessment. CONCLUSIONS: This paper shows a method to evaluate in a more objective way the subjective postural comfort perception and results allow researchers to improve models for the virtual preventive comfort assessment.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Percepção , Postura/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Ergonomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia
16.
Work ; 63(2): 231-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevalence in the workforce is clearly increasing. Simultaneously, manual lifting/lowering loads, referred to as Vertical Handling Tasks (VHT) in this paper, are common in industries and services. Performing VHT exposes workers to physical overload, which can be measured using a psychophysical approach. Various risk factors can increase this overload, including individual factors such as workers' Body Mass Index (BMI). OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effects of workers' BMI and some task conditions on physical overload during VHT. METHODS: Psychophysical data were collected from 51 participants having different body constitutions (including non-obese, overweight and obese). The participants performed 6 VHT (3 different loads ×2 workstation configurations), during which they lifted and lowered a test-box between their knees and shoulders. For each task, they reported their perceived exertion using the Borg Category Ratio-10 (CR-10) scale. RESULTS: The results showed that the CR-10 scale is sensitive to the variation of the task conditions tested. However, the psychophysical data pointed to a tendency to decrease the perception of physical overload as workers' BMI increases. CONCLUSIONS: This may compromise the validity of the application of psychophysical data as an ergonomic approach for Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSD) prevention in obese workers.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto , Ergonomia/instrumentação , Ergonomia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Remoção/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Psicofísica/métodos , Psicofísica/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Trabalho/fisiologia , Trabalho/psicologia
17.
Work ; 63(2): 253-259, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carrying a backpack and pulling a school trolley have been previously related to changes in spatiotemporal gait parameters. OBJECTIVE: Analyze gait asymmetry and rating of perceived exertion carrying a backpack and pulling a trolley with different loads. METHODS: Fifteen students from an elementary school (aged 10.1 ±â€Š1.7 years) participated in this study. The participants walked with no bag, and carrying a backpack or pulling a trolley, both with 10%, 15% and 20% of the participant's body weight (BW). A 3D motion capture system was used to analyze the spatiotemporal gait variables. Then, the ratios, symmetry angles and gait asymmetry of the step length, swing time, and stance time were analyzed. Furthermore, the rating of perceived exertion was recorded. RESULTS: None of the asymmetry parameters were significantly different between those who carried a backpack and those who pulled a trolley. In the backpack condition, the ratings of perceived exertion were higher among participants in the 20% BW (2.07 ±â€Š2.09, p = 0.003) and 10% BW (0.27 ±â€Š0.59, p = 0.004) conditions compared to those in the control condition (0.07 + 0.26). Pulling a trolley did not significantly increase the perceived exertion ratings. CONCLUSIONS: Carrying a backpack and pulling a trolley from 10% - 20% BW did not induce gait asymmetry in children. The use of the school trolley required less subjective effort than carrying a backpack with the same loads.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Remoção , Percepção , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Análise de Variância , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Criança , Feminino , Análise da Marcha , Humanos , Masculino
18.
Work ; 63(2): 283-289, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTSD is associated with high levels of vocational difficulty, and research on relationships between PTSD and vocational adjustment may be relevant to vocational rehabilitation services to achieve optimal outcomes. Veteran perception of ability to cope with stressors in the workplace setting may play a role in rehabilitation outcome. OBJECTIVE: This article outlines preliminary steps in the development of the Vocational Efficacy in Trauma Survivors Scale (VETSS), to measure perceived efficacy in managing PTSD symptoms in the workplace. This has potential to expand future options for research in vocational rehabilitation for veterans with PTSD. METHODS: Veterans in outpatient treatment for PTSD at a large, mid-western Veterans Affairs Health Care System facility responded to items on the proposed instrument and items on other measures of vocational and psychological functioning to assess the potential validity of items for an instrument to measure vocational self-efficacy among veterans managing PTSD. RESULTS: In a sample of 63 working veterans who receive outpatient care for PTSD, exploratory factor analysis identified two viable subscales, one tapping Workplace Coping, and another tapping Self-Disclosure. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings indicate that the measure demonstrated acceptable indications of reliability and validity, suggesting promise for future use in vocational rehabilitation research.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Percepção , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação Vocacional/métodos , Reabilitação Vocacional/psicologia , Reabilitação Vocacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoeficácia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas
19.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 19(1): e32-e37, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198593

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to compare changes in medical students' research practices and perceptions of two cohorts of graduates. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted from November 2014 to December 2017 and included the 2015 and 2017 medical graduates of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A validated self-administrated questionnaire, which included questions about participants' age and gender, research activities, and obstacles to and motivators for research involvement was used. Results: A total of 484 graduates were included in this study (response rate: 96.8%). A significant difference was found between the 2015 and 2017 graduates who had not started any research project (48.4% versus 35%; P <0.001) and a 20% increase in the 2017 graduates' confidence in their abilities to start their own projects was observed (P <0.001). Significantly more 2017 graduates were engaged in various research roles, other than 'author', compared to 2015 graduates (71.3% versus 55.4%; P <0.001). Career progression was the main motivator for both the 2015 and 2017 medical graduates to participate in research (79.5%). Reported obstacles to research included a lack of dedicated time for research and methodology training and a shortage of research project opportunities. Conclusion: This study highlights positive changes in attitudes towards and perceptions of research among medical graduates.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/normas , Percepção , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/organização & administração
20.
Value Health ; 22(6): 704-711, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequately preparing patients for medical interventions is an important component of quality healthcare. Nevertheless, few instruments for assessing patients' preparation exist. OBJECTIVES: To develop a psychometrically rigorous instrument to assess patients' perceptions of the quality of preparation. METHODS: An instrument to measure patients' preparation for medical interventions (MiPrep) was developed and tested with patients undergoing medical imaging, radiotherapy, or surgery. Patients were recruited and asked to complete 2 surveys. Survey A assessed patient and intervention characteristics. Survey B (postintervention) contained MiPrep to assess validity (face, content, and construct) and reliability (internal consistency and test-retest). RESULTS: A total of 869 (85%) patients consented to participate and 551 (63%) returned the postintervention survey. Face and content validity were demonstrated. Exploratory factor analysis identified 2 survey modules: receipt and adequacy of information (2 domains) and overall appraisal of patient-centered care (1 domain). Reliability was evidenced by adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α 0.81-0.89) and item-total correlations higher than 0.20. Nevertheless, individual item test-retest reliability requires further confirmation. The final instrument contained 27 items. CONCLUSIONS: The MiPrep instrument has evidence of being a valid and reliable instrument of preparation for medical interventions. Healthcare providers can use the instrument as a quality assurance tool to identify areas for improvement and areas of excellence in patients' preparation. Future studies should verify these findings in other populations and examine the divergent and predictive validity of the instrument.


Assuntos
Pacientes/psicologia , Percepção , Psicometria/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Diagnóstico por Imagem/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autoeficácia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia
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