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1.
Z Gastroenterol ; 57(11): 1291-1297, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739374

RESUMO

Recently, research in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has become increasingly focused on fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) due to increasing evidence of its possible benefits. Still, there are doubts about this method, because there is contradicting evidence regarding its effectiveness and the possible side effects are not well known. Furthermore, the majority of patients are not open to this procedure. We performed a questionnaire-based survey amongst 302 patients with an inflammatory bowel disease that received treatment in our specialized outpatient clinic to determine the factors relevant for acceptance or rejection of fecal microbiota transfer as a possible treatment for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Our data supports the hypothesis that a lack of information about FMT is a key factor for hypothetical acceptance of this method (68 % of pre-informed participants vs. 30 % of not pre-informed participants would accept FMT as treatment, p < 0.001), and, therefore, it highlights patient education as a possible intervention to improve acceptance. The main concern regarding FMT was possible transmission of infections (ranked first by 98 participants). The most accepted method to perform FMT was application via oral capsule (44 % of participants).


Assuntos
Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/efeitos adversos , Fezes , Humanos , Microbiota , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3200, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe the level of uncertainty in illness in family caregivers of palliative care patients and detect associations between the profile of the caregiver and the levels of uncertainty. METHOD: descriptive correlational study conducted with 300 family caregivers of hospitalized patients. The sociodemographic characterization of caregiver and patient was used to assess the caregiver profile, as well as the Uncertainty in Illness scale for family caregivers. Spearman's Rho correlation test was applied to detect associations. RESULTS: the average score of illness uncertainty was 91.7 points. The analysis showed significant correlations between the level of uncertainty and patient dependence (r=0.18, p=0.001), symptom assessment (r=0.312, p<0.001), length of service as a caregiver (r=0.131, p=0.023), perception of support from health professionals (r=-0.16, p=0.048), family (r=-0.145, p=0.012) and religious support (r=-0.131, p=0.050). CONCLUSIONS: there were high levels of uncertainty in caregivers about their patient's illness. These levels are associated with the health condition and symptoms of the patient who is cared for, the length of service as a caregiver and the perceived support from health professionals, family and religion.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Incerteza , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espiritualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1747-1751, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622259

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Previous research shows that the role of perceived social support, defined as individuals' confidence of the availability of adequate support when needed, is considered as a protective external resource to promote better adaptation in psychiatric patients. The aim of our study was to reveal the features of patients with endogenous mental disorders regarding their ability to perceive social support. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A total of 168 patients with schizophrenia (F.20) and 75 patients with affective disorders (F30.F.33) were involved into this study under informed consent conditions. Control group included 55 mentally healthy respondents. Perceived social support was measured using Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) by Zimet (1998). RESULTS: Results: Family, friends and significant others become main donors of social support for patients with endogenous mental disorders. Meanwhile, perceived social support in patients with schizophrenia is mostly coming from family. In patients with affective disorders, indicators of perceived social support from friends and significant others are significantly higher compared to patients with schizophrenia (P <0.001). Revealed features can be used while developing appropriate psychoeducational programs for patients with endogenous mental disorders. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: On the basis of revealed data, the key features of ability to perceive social support in patients with endogenous mental disorders, depending on the duration of the disease, were determined. It has been revealed that ability to perceive social support in patients with endogenous mental disorders decreases with prolongation of duration of the disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Apoio Social , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Percepção , Esquizofrenia
4.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(4): 485-492, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582120

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is any influence on the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypersons, with regard to different vertical positions of the maxillary central incisors. METHODS: Frontal smile photographs digitally altered at full-face view and close-up view of 2 adult men aged between 20 and 30 years were used. Six vertical positions of the central incisors were created, with changes of 0.5 mm. The images were randomly assembled in an album that was presented to 53 orthodontists and 53 laypersons, who evaluated the attractiveness of the images by using visual analog scales. Comparison among the images was performed using 1-way analysis of variance, with Tukey post-hoc test. To compare the distribution of the mean scores between the full-face and close-up smile views, and between orthodontists and laypersons, the Student t test was used. The level of significance was established at 5%. RESULTS: The best evaluations presented the following: (a) the gingival margins of the central incisors corresponded to, or were up to, 1 mm below the line of the canine gingival margins, and (b) the incisal step between the central and lateral incisors was from 1.0 to 2.0 mm. The smiles considered least attractive showed (a) the central incisor gingival margins were 1.0 mm above or 1.5 mm below the canine gingival margins, and (b) no step, or a step of 2.5 mm, between the central and lateral incisors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggested that, in men, slightly extruded central incisors were esthetically more attractive than intruded incisors.


Assuntos
Estética Dentária/psicologia , Gengiva/anatomia & histologia , Incisivo/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Ortodontistas/psicologia , Sorriso/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Fotografação , Escala Visual Analógica
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574848

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that mental health is associated with multiple factors such as physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical function in older adults. The present study used latent profile analysis to identify classes of older adults based on their health profile among a representative sample of Korean older adults with hypertension. Differences in mental health between these classes were also examined.Seven hundred and sixty seven participants (mean age = 70.23, SD = 6.08; men 45.6%) were included in the analysis.There were 3 latent classes (class 1: a physically inactive lifestyle with low physical function and body perception; class 2: a physically moderate lifestyle with moderate physical function and low body perception; class 3: a physically active lifestyle with high physical function and body perception). According to class comparisons, older adults in class 3 had significantly lower anxiety/depression levels than classes 1 and 2. Older adults in class 3 had significantly lower stress levels than class 1.It is possible that among older adults, having a positive attitude of one's body shape may also be important for improving anxiety/depression along with having a physically active lifestyle and maintaining physical function.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Força da Mão , Hipertensão/psicologia , Postura Sentada , Caminhada , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Análise de Classes Latentes , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Percepção , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1849-1857, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656467

RESUMO

Background: Emergency nurses' understanding and interpretation of intimate partner violence influence the care they provide to women exposed to intimate partner violence. Objectives: The aim of this study was to uncover discourses that may help understand emergency nurses' responses towards women exposed to intimate partner violence. Materials and methods: This study used a qualitative design to explore emergency nurses' discourses. Purposive sampling was used to select 15 participants working at an emergency unit in a public hospital in South Africa. Data were collected through three focus group discussions comprised of five emergency nurses each. Foucauldian discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. Results: Four themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) strong women subject themselves to societal expectations and endure intimate partner violence, (2) women are vulnerable and powerless against intimate partner violence, (3) intimate partner violence is a private and secret phenomenon, and (4) emergency nurses have limited scope to intervene when they encounter women exposed to intimate partner violence. Conclusion: Emergency nurses are in a position to intervene in intimate partner violence through portraying a non-judgmental approach that lay the foundation for disclosure, supporting women to change their intimate partner violence (IPV) situations, documentation, referral and safety planning.


Assuntos
Enfermagem em Emergência , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/psicologia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul
7.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(3): 211-229, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645063

RESUMO

Emergency Department (ED) waiting times are a relevant concern both to health care professionals and consumers, because ED crowding may affect the quality of and access to health care. This has prompted a large amount of studies in the scientific literature, addressing the problem of waiting times as an "international crisis". The causes of long waiting times are complex and multifaceted and feasible solutions must consider this and other aspects such as limitation of resources and unpredicted surges in demand. In the present article, we address the issue of modeling ED flow of patients with a low score at the triage evaluation. This study aimed to develop a model to predict expected waiting times for patients with a "green" or "white" code at triage, by analyzing the patient flow in a regional referral hospital in an Italian district. The simulation model was developed through flow analysis; moreover, input analysis was performed by using registration data collected in the ED during daily activities. The simulation results were compared to data collected through direct observation at the hospital ED and to data extracted from the existing hospital information system, which represents an online transaction system tailored for routine care and patient services in the ED as well as in other hospital departments. The applied model was shown to be able to emulate patient flow in the ED and to find key critical points of the health care process, for patients who received a low category score at the triage. To face the problem of ED waiting times, adoption of patient flow analysis and improvement strategies are recommended, together with improvement of triage evaluation procedures. Simulation models can help to manage this complex issue.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Listas de Espera , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Humanos , Itália , Percepção , Fatores de Tempo , Triagem
8.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(5): 264-270, sept.-oct. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184150

RESUMO

Objetivo: Explorar la percepción de los estudiantes de cuarto curso del Grado en Enfermería sobre el entorno asistencial donde tiene lugar su proceso formativo en prácticas clínicas. Método: Estudio cualitativo fenomenológico basado en la filosofía hermenéutica de Gádamer que contó con el desarrollo de grupos focales y entrevistas semiestructuradas en estudiantes de cuarto curso del Grado de Enfermería de la Universidad de Almería. El periodo de recogida fue en febrero de 2016. La información obtenida se transcribió y analizó mediante estrategias inductivas en busca de categorías emergentes. Resultados: El análisis reveló dos categorías principales: (1) influencia del entorno clínico en el desempeño asistencial y docente de las enfermeras y en el aprendizaje de los estudiantes y (2) formación y perspectivas laborales para los futuros profesionales. Cada una de ellas mostró dos subcategorías con sus correspondientes códigos. La información recogida reflejó las experiencias y percepciones de los estudiantes de Enfermería sobre el entorno asistencial donde tiene lugar su proceso formativo en prácticas clínicas. Conclusiones: Este estudio permitió conocer la percepción de los estudiantes de cuarto curso del Grado de Enfermería sobre el entorno donde tiene lugar su proceso formativo en prácticas clínicas. Conocer dicho fenómeno ayuda a identificar déficits en el aprendizaje clínico de los estudiantes y a adaptar los planes de estudios de las universidades a sus necesidades formativas a fin de garantizar su éxito como profesionales ante las futuras demandas del contexto clínico-laboral


Aim: To explore the perception of fourth-year nursing students of the healthcare environment where their training process in clinical practices takes place. Methods: Phenomenological qualitative study based on the hermeneutical philosophy of Gádamer that included the development of focus groups and semi-structured interviews in a sample of fourth-year nursing students from the University of Almería. The collection period was in February 2016. The information obtained was transcribed and analyzed by inductive strategies in search of emerging categories. Results: The analysis revealed two main categories: (1) influence of the clinical environment on the healthcare and teaching performance of nurses and on student learning and (2) training and job prospects for the future professionals. Each of them showed two subcategories with their corresponding codes. The information collected showed the experiences and perceptions of Nursing students regarding the healthcare environment where their training process in clinical practices takes place. Conclusions: This study enabled us to discover the perception of fourth-year nursing students of the environment where their training process in clinical practices takes place. Knowledge of this phenomenon helps to identify deficits in students' clinical learning and to adapt university curricula to their training needs in order to guarantee their success as professionals facing future clinical-labour demands


Assuntos
Humanos , Percepção , Estudantes de Enfermagem/psicologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Estágio Clínico/métodos , Estágio Clínico/normas , Enfermagem Prática , Análise Qualitativa , Educação em Enfermagem , Aprendizagem
10.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1142-1147, out.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1021943

RESUMO

Objetivo: Compreender como a equipe de enfermagem percebe a assistência da saúde no Sistema Prisional. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, referenciada pela análise de conteúdo proposto por Laurence Bardin e foram entrevistados 03 enfermeiras e 08 técnicos de enfermagem, sendo 03 do sexo masculino, atuantes no Sistema Prisional da região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte/MG. Resultados: Demonstrou-se pela fala da equipe de enfermagem que o pensamento centrado no modelo médico-curativista ainda é presente, e que, existem fragilidades nos processos de organização administrativa. Conclusão: O estudo esclareceu que é importante que haja um processo de organização administrativa básica, para melhorar os recursos organizacionais, capacitar os profissionais, logo trazer condições de saúde dignas ao indivíduo privado de liberdade


Objective: The research's purpose has been to understand how the nursing team perceives health care in the Prison System. Methods: This is a qualitative study, referenced by the content analysis proposed by Laurence Bardin. The investigation includes 03 nurses and 08 nursing technicians, being 03 male, working in the Prison System of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte city, Minas Gerais State. Results: It was demonstrated by the speech of the nursing team that the thought centered on the medico-curativist model is still present and that there are weaknesses in the processes of administrative organization. Conclusions: The study clarified that it is important to exist a basic administrative organization process, to improve organizational resources, to empower professionals, and thus to bring dignified health conditions to the individual deprived of liberty


Objetivo: Comprender cómo el equipo de enfermería percibe la asistencia de la salud en el Sistema Penitenciario. Métodos: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, referenciada por el análisis de contenido propuesto por Laurence Bardin y fueron entrevistados a tres enfermeras y 08 técnicos de enfermería, siendo 03 del sexo masculino, actuantes en el Sistema Prisional de la región Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte / MG. Resultados: Se demostró por el habla del equipo de enfermería que el pensamiento centrado en el modelo medico-curativista todavía está presente, y que, existen fragilidades en los procesos de organización administrativa. Conclusión: El estudio aclaró que es importante que haya un proceso de organización administrativa básica, para mejorar los recursos organizacionales, capacitar a los profesionales, luego traer condiciones de salud dignas al individuo privado de libertad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Percepção/ética , Prisões , Capacitação em Serviço , Equipe de Enfermagem , Brasil , Promoção da Saúde
11.
AIDS Behav ; 23(9): 2514-2521, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520239

RESUMO

To inform the development of interventions to increase uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), we explored perceptions of ART in semi-structured interviews with 52 men and women from UK black African and black Caribbean communities. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using framework analysis. Perceptions of ART could be grouped into two categories: doubts about the personal necessity for ART and concerns about potential adverse effects. Doubts about necessity stemmed from feeling well, doubts about the efficacy of ART, religious beliefs and the belief that treatment was futile because it could not cure HIV. Concerns about adverse effects included the fear that attending HIV services and taking treatment would lead to disclosure of HIV, feeling overwhelmed at the prospect of starting treatment soon after diagnosis, fears about side effects and potential long-term effects, and physical repulsion. The findings will facilitate the development of interventions to increase uptake and adherence to ART.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Medo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Revelação , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Estigma Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e139, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408002

RESUMO

We argue that the roles of attacker and defender in asymmetric intergroup conflict are structurally ambiguous and their perception is likely to be subjectively biased. Although this allows for endogenous selection into each role, we argue that claiming the role of the defender likely is more advantageous for conflict participants.


Assuntos
Percepção
13.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(5): 436-442, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390123

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore and analyse parental perspectives regarding the responsibility for routine weight status assessment of primary school-aged children. METHODS: Using a case study of a regional town, Rockhampton, an online survey was used to explore opinions about assessing children's weight status. Data was collected and analysed guided by Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour Framework. RESULTS: Parents recognised their responsibility for assessing children's weight and height and wanted to know their child's risk of being overweight. The majority of participants reported checking their child's weight and height but many never used Body Mass Index or growth charts. Schools were not seen as a setting where this assessment should be undertaken, due to concerns of bullying and effects on self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Parents must be better supported in identifying and addressing their child's obesity. Health professionals should use contact with families to provide education on the benefits of early identification of overweight and the steps involved in weight status assessment, and to undertake this check, offer advice and refer families to weight management services. Implications for public health: Increased awareness of parental opinions about the responsibility for assessing children's weight status may lead to change in health professionals' practice and improved health services for the identification and means of addressing childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Malar J ; 18(1): 270, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria preventive measures, including long-lasting insecticide-treated bet nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and controlling mosquito breeding sites, are key measures to achieve malaria elimination. Still, compliance with these recommended measures remains a major challenge. By applying a novel and comprehensive model for determinants of malaria prevention behaviour, this study tests how individual perceptions influence the intentions to use malaria preventive measures and explores strategies that stimulate their consistent use. METHODS: The study was carried out in the sectors of Ruhuha and Busoro, Rwanda during October and November 2017, and these were conducted into two phases. Phase one involved a questionnaire survey (N = 742), whereas Phase two employed a qualitative approach that included nine focus group discussions, seven key informant interviews, and three in-depth interviews. RESULTS: The findings of the quantitative study showed that participants very often use LLINs (66.6%), accept IRS (73.9%), and drain stagnant water in case of presence (62%). The intentions to use malaria preventive measures were consistently driven by perceived severity, perceived self-efficacy, perceived response efficacy, and subjective norms, and hindered by perceived barriers. The intentions were also positively associated with the actual use of LLINs, acceptance of IRS, and drainage of stagnant water. There is no evidence that either not having enough LLINs (ownership of at least one bed net in the household, here referred to as availability) or having sufficient LLINs (having one LLIN per two people in the household, here referred to as accessibility) moderated the relationship between behavioural intentions and actual use of LLINs. The qualitative study indicated that participants believed malaria risk to be high and perceived a high mosquito density. They also believed that repetitive malaria episodes are caused by the perceived low effectiveness of anti-malaria medications. Lack of LLINs increased the perceived added value of LLINs, and together with the increased malaria burden increased the perceived response efficacy. Participants highlighted the need to continuously mobilize and engage community members especially those who do not use LLINs when having one, and those who do not accept the spraying activities. CONCLUSION: Malaria prevention interventions should target individual perceptions to enhance consistent use of malaria preventive measures. Three strategies to improve consistent use and acceptance of these measures are highlighted: (1) ensure access to LLINs and regular spraying activities, (2) community mobilization and (3) citizen engagement in malaria prevention activities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malária/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Ruanda
15.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 193-197, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465190

RESUMO

Objective: The study was to explore elder's feeding process mind construction in different stages of life. Study selection, source and data extraction: Through a qualitative study with a phenomenological focus and using semi-structured interviews and discussion groups, it has been deepened into the perception of the childhood, adulthood and current experience towards the feeding process. As data sources, 28 elders that accomplished with the selection criterions of the investigation participated in it. Their answers were coded through the program NVivo 10 and for the conclusions it was used the content analysis through research triangulation. Data synthesis: For childhood, the feeding process is understood as healthy, associated to the availability of natural products and limited access to manufactured products. Adulthood was not considered as important in their feeding attention, situation that is opposed in their current life cycle, because it is perceived the necessity of a healthy feeding, though related to their health care. Conclusions: It is presented the meaning construction in elder people related to their feeding in key stages of their life, like in the childhood, adulthood and current experience as elder. Childhood and elderly stages are perceived as positive for a healthy feeding process.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Idoso , Chile , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Univ. salud ; 21(2): 113-118, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1004848

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: La calidad de vida se define como un estado de bienestar físico, social, emocional, espiritual, intelectual y ocupacional que le permite al individuo satisfacer apropiadamente sus necesidades; un grado de adaptación a su propia condición y a su medio, en función de su estado de salud, sus carencias y del soporte que recibe para suplirlas. Objetivo: Describir la calidad de vida desde el ámbito social en el que se desarrollan los adultos mayores en el Estado de Guerrero, México. Materiales y métodos: Investigación cuantitativa de corte transversal y analítico, la muestra fue probabilística, se incluyeron 75 adultos mayores de 65 años y más, residentes de asilo, casa de día y localidad rural; el criterio de selección aplicado fue la firma previa del consentimiento informado. Se utilizó el Cuestionario sociodemográfico y Cuestionario de Salud SF-36 versión 2 española Health Survey, constituido por preguntas agrupadas con sus respectivos ítems. Resultados: El 80% de los adultos mayores encuestados manifestó mala calidad de vida. Conclusiones: Los adultos mayores guerrerenses presentan porcentajes altos de problemas físicos, emocionales, y sociales, que dan origen a una mala perspectiva de su salud y vida.


Abstract Introduction: Quality of life is defined as a state of social, emotional, spiritual, intellectual and occupational wellbeing. Quality of life allows individuals to properly satisfy their needs and reach a level of adaptation to their own conditions and environments according to their health status, limitations and the support they receive to supplement them. Objective: To describe the quality of life of elderly adults in the State of Guerrero-Mexico, taking into account the social context where they live. Materials and methods: Quantitative research using a cross-sectional and analytical approach. The sample was probabilistic, with 75 adults older than or equal to 65 years of age, who were residents of asylums, day houses or rural areas. The applied selection criterion was their signature of the informed consent form. We used the sociodemographic questionnaire and the Spanish version 2 of the SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire that contains questions grouped within their respective items. Results: 80% of the older adults manifested a poor quality of life. Conclusions: Elderly adults from Guerrero displayed high percentages of physical, emotional and social problems, which ultimately lead to poor health and life perspectives.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Percepção
17.
Rev. Fund. Educ. Méd. (Ed. impr.) ; 22(4): 169-174, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-183077

RESUMO

Introducción: El aprendizaje de anatomía humana se ha realizado a lo largo de la historia, de forma teórica y práctica, a través de la disección cadavérica. Diversas teorías de aprendizaje señalan que el uso de claves de colores resulta esencial para mejorar el reconocimiento de estructuras complejas. Por este motivo, el objetivo de este artículo es presentar esta propuesta y describir algunas percepciones de los estudiantes de medicina de una universidad peruana ante esta estrategia. Sujetos y métodos: La estrategia se basa en el uso de diferentes colores para relacionar músculos con sus respectivas inserciones óseas y los nervios que los inervan. En el mismo sentido se hace uso del color para resaltar la dirección y relaciones de las arterias. En última instancia, se hace una relación de la misma clave de color con la función ejercida por determinado grupo muscular y la patología derivada del daño de dicha estructura. Para evaluar la aceptación del método y las percepciones que generó en los estudiantes, se aplicó una breve encuesta con motivos exploratorios en estudiantes de segundo a sexto año de medicina que hubieran usado estas ilustraciones. Resultados: Un 85,6% respondió que las ilustraciones 'son útiles como resumen gráfico de segmentos corporales', y un 84,9%, que 'pueden reproducirlas con facilidad y constituyen una ayuda nemotécnica en el estudio'. Conclusión: Se presenta un método sobre el uso de los colores como recurso para la relación de estructuras, función y patología en las ilustraciones de anatomía humana, el cual genera percepciones positivas en los estudiantes


Introduction: The learning of human anatomy has been carried out throughout history in a theoretical and practical way, through cadaveric dissection. Several learning theories point out that the use of color keys is essential to improve the recognition of complex structures, for this reason the objective of this article is to present this proposal, and to describe some perceptions of the medical students of a Peruvian university before this strategy. Subjects and methods: The strategy is based on the use of different colors to relate muscles with their respective bony inserts and the nerves that innervate them. In the same sense, color is used to highlight the direction and relationships of the arteries. Ultimately, a relation of the same color key is made with the function exerted by a certain muscle group and the pathology derived from the damage of said structure. To evaluate the acceptance of the method and the perceptions it generated in the students, we applied a brief survey with exploratory reasons in students from the second to the sixth year of medicine who have used these illustrations. Results: A 85.6% answered that 'they are useful as a graphic summary of body segments', and a 84.9%, that 'they can reproduce them easily, being a mnemonic aid in the study'. Conclusion: We present a method on the use of colors as a resource for the relationship of structures, function and pathology in human anatomy illustrations, which generates positive perceptions in students


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Ilustração Médica/educação , Anatomia Artística/educação , Aprendizagem , Educação Médica , Materiais de Ensino , Percepção , Anatomia/educação , Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Estudantes de Medicina
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16352, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-stress level affects students' health and many of them experiencing high levels of stress are at risk of burnout. School administrators are often concerned about the experiences and negative effects of burnout among students and staff. Burnout is described as a psychological reaction to chronic stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of a group-focused intervention (rational emotive behavior coaching, REBC) on academic burnout among undergraduate students attending public universities in Southeast Nigeria. METHODS: A group randomized controlled trial design was adopted for this study. A total of 52 convenient samples of undergraduate students (with a high degree of burnout symptoms) took part in the research. We used a group REBT program manual for the management of burnout which was complemented with REBC techniques. Data were gathered with the aid of the perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and Oldenburg Burnout inventory-student (OLBI-S). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and paired t test at .05 probability level. RESULTS: Results showed that the group-focused REBC program significantly alleviated burnout symptoms among students in the treatment group compared to students in the control group as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 41.789, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.634, SE = 1.00), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 196.036, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.869, SE = 0.69). The students who benefitted from the group-focused REBC program maintained reduced symptoms of burnout after three months when the researchers conducted a follow-up as measured by OLBI-S subscales: exhaustion (F(1,51) = 34.012, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.467, SE = 1.21), and disengagement (F(1,51) = 108.941, P = .000, (Equation is included in full-text article.), ΔR = 0.765, SE = 0.85). CONCLUSION: This research indicates that group-focused REBC can be applied to reduce burnout symptoms among undergraduate students. The group-focused REBC intervention may be adapted to overcome employee burnout and school administrators' burnout. Researchers may need to investigate the possibility of storing and harnessing data from studies on REBC and burnout and delivering computer-based/internet REBC program following evidence-based computing strategies and principles.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/terapia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Percepção , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2269-2277, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339566

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the drivers of choice and perceptions of healthiness that specific ingredient or energy content information displayed on the front-of-pack label of cereal bars triggers among different groups of consumers. The participants (18 to 50 years old), classified as exercisers (n = 103, 52 women) or nonexercisers (n = 101, 51 women), completed a questionnaire and then rated their interest using images of cereal bars that varied in four characteristics ("With fruit," "With chocolate," "High protein," and calorie content). Conjoint analysis showed that the most important motives were associated with the convenience, pleasure/indulgence and liking dimensions, which did not differ between groups. These were followed by two other motives introduced in this study: energy/physical activity and satiety, in which the exercisers showed a distinctively higher level of interest than the nonexercisers. Chocolate and a low calorie content were the outstanding drivers of interest, at similar levels for both groups. A high protein content claim increased the interest of all participants, but more so for exercisers and for men. Fruit had a low impact on interest, which was only significant for women. These results indicate that front-of-pack label information influences choice in a distinctive way for some targeted population groups. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study contributes knowledge about the impact that front-of-pack label information about certain ingredients and the energy content has on the motives and drivers for snack choices and perceptions of healthiness. The results contribute interesting results on the behavior of some consumer segments, in particular, exercisers and people involved in fitness activities, who are supposed to have special dietary needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Percepção , Lanches/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento do Consumidor , Grão Comestível/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(8): 529-534, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339742

RESUMO

Studies on narcissism in social media have been numerous. Manifestations of narcissistic behaviors are typically viewed negatively by others online. However, previous study is limited by only examining agentic narcissism. This study investigated perceptions of both agentic and communal narcissism in the context of Facebook. Two hundred and sixty undergraduate students viewed fictitious Facebook profiles with narcissistic or neutral status updates and rated the target on likeability, successfulness, and whether they would want to be friends with the target. Narcissistic statuses were viewed more negatively than neutral statuses across domains. Agentic narcissistic statuses were viewed most harshly. Some gender differences emerged. Female participants rated agentic narcissistic statements from female targets and communal narcissistic statements from male targets more negatively than did male participants. Participants' self-reported communal narcissism was related to their ratings of others, whereas self-reported agentic narcissism was not. Implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Narcisismo , Mídias Sociais , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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