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1.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 121-129, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661663

RESUMO

A common barrier to exercise is "lack of time". Accordingly, interest in low-volume, high-intensity training has grown exponentially since this activity is considered time-efficient. However, the high-intensity nature of this exercise may frequently result in feelings of displeasure creating another barrier for many people. The purpose of this study was to compare affective (pleasure-displeasure) responses to three low-volume, high-intensity exercise conditions, including a novel shortened-sprint protocol. Using a within-subjects, randomised crossover experiment, healthy participants (N = 36) undertook a single bout of: 1) traditional reduced-exertion, high-intensity interval training (TREHIT), 2) a novel, shortened-sprint REHIT (SSREHIT) protocol, and 3) sprint continuous training (SCT). Affect and perceived efforts were recorded throughout exercise using the Feeling Scale (FS) and the 15-point Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale, respectively. Enjoyment was recorded 5 min post-exercise using the Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). Differences were found for FS (condition by time interaction: P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.26), RPE (P = 0.01GG, η2 = 0.23), and enjoyment (P < 0.01) with all outcomes favouring SSREHIT. Shortened-sprint protocols may diminish feelings of displeasure and might be a time-efficient yet tolerable exercise choice to help motivate some people to increase their physical activity and fitness.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/psicologia , Prazer , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Sports Sci ; 38(2): 140-149, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680636

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the influence of a half-time (HT) re-warm up (RWU) strategy on measures of performance and the physical and perceptual response to soccer-specific activity. Ten male soccer players completed a control (CON) and RWU trial, in which participants completed 60 min (4 x 15-min periods with a 15-min HT interspersing the third and fourth periods) of a soccer-specific exercise protocol. The CON trial comprised a passive 15-min HT, whilst the RWU trial comprised a passive 12-min period, followed by a 3-min RWU. The RWU elicited an improvement in 20 m sprint times (d= 0.6; CON: 3.42 ± 0.20 s; RWU: 3.32 ± 0.12 s), and both squat (d= 0.6; CON: 26.96 ± 5.00 cm; RWU: 30.17 ± 5.13 cm) and countermovement jump height (d= 0.7; CON: 28.15 ± 4.72 cm; RWU: 31.53 ± 5.43 cm) following the RWU and during the initial stages of the second half. No significant changes were identified for 5 m or 10 m sprint performance, perceived muscle soreness, or PlayerLoadTM. Ratings of perceived exertion were however higher (~2 a.u) following the RWU. These data support the use of a HT RWU intervention to elicit acute changes in performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Exercício de Aquecimento/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mialgia/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Exercício Pliométrico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(1): 1-5, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575324

RESUMO

Previous research has shown enhanced performance and altered pacing behaviour in the presence of a virtual opponent during middle-distance cycling time trials with a duration of 2 min and longer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these effects are also present in cycling time trials of shorter duration. Twelve physically active men completed three 1-km time trials. After a familiarisation trial (FAM), participants performed two experimental conditions: one without opponent (NO) and one with a virtual opponent (OP). Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to assess differences in pacing and performance using power output and duration (p<0.05). No differences in mean finishing times (FAM: 91.5 ± 7.7 s; NO: 91.6 ± 6.4 s; OP: 90.9 ± 4.9 s; p=0.907) or power output (FAM: 382 ± 111 W; NO: 363 ± 80 W; OP: 367 ± 67; p=0.564) were found between experimental conditions. Furthermore, no differences in pacing profiles between experimental conditions were found (p=0.199). Similarly, rate of perceived exertion did not differ between experimental conditions at any moment (p=0.831). In conclusion, unlike events of a more prolonged duration (>2 min), the presence of an opponent did not affect participants' pacing behaviour in short duration 1-km time trials.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(14): 886-896, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648353

RESUMO

Exercise physiological responses can be markedly affected by acute hypoxia. We investigated cardiac autonomic and physiological responses to different hypoxic training protocols. Thirteen men performed three exercise sessions (5×5-min; 1-min passive recovery): normoxic exercise at 80% of the power output (PO) at the first ventilatory threshold (N), hypoxic exercise (FiO2=14.2%) with the same PO as N (HPO) and hypoxic exercise at the same heart rate (HR) as N (HHR). PO was lower in HHR (21.1±9.3%) compared to N and HPO. Mean HR was higher in HPO (154±11 bpm, p<0.01) than N and HHR (139±10 vs. 138±9 bpm; p=0.80). SpO2 was reduced (p<0.01) to a similar extent (p>0.05) in HPO and HHR compared to N. HR recovery (HRR) and HR variability indices were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) but reduced in HPO (p<0.05), mirroring a delayed parasympathetic reactivation. Blood lactate and ventilation were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) and increased in HPO (p<0.001). During recovery oxygen consumption and ventilation were similar in N and HHR (p>0.05) and increased in HPO (p<0.01). Moderate HR-matched hypoxic exercise triggers similar cardiac autonomic and physiological responses to normoxic exercise with a reduced mechanical load. On the contrary, the same absolute intensity exercise in hypoxia is associated with increased exercise-induced metabolic stress and delayed cardiac autonomic recovery.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Coração/inervação , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória , Adulto Jovem
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(14): 879-885, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574544

RESUMO

The potential anti-fatigue and performance benefits of hydrogen rich water (HRW) have resulted in increased research interest over the past 5 years. The aim of this study was to assess physiological and perceptual responses to an incremental exercise protocol after administration of 600 ml HRW within 30 min before exercise. This randomized, double blinded placebo-controlled cross over study included twelve healthy males aged 27.1±4.9 years. The exercise protocol consisted of a 10 min warm-up at 1.0 W.kg-1, followed by 8 min at 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Cardio-respiratory variables, lactate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed in the last minute of each step. A significantly lower blood lactate was found with HRW (4.0±1.6 and 8.9±2.2 mmol.l-1) compared to Placebo (5.1±1.9 and 10.6±3.0 mmol.l-1) at 3.0, and 4.0 W.kg-1, respectively. Ventilatory equivalent for oxygen and RPE exhibited significantly lower values with HRW (32.3±7.2, and 17.8±1.2 points, respectively) compared to Placebo (35.0±8.4, and 18.5±0.8 points, respectively) at 4 W.kg-1. To conclude, acute pre-exercise supplementation with HRW reduced blood lactate at higher exercise intensities, improved exercise-induced perception of effort, and ventilatory efficiency.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Líquidos , Exercício/fisiologia , Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Respiração , Água/química , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Exercício/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2691-2701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526108

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' "readiness to perform". Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on consecutive days (D1, D2) separated by normal sleep or total sleep deprivation. Finishing time, perceived exertion (RPE), mood, psychomotor vigilance (PVT), and HR responses were assessed. Time on D2 of SD was 10% slower than D2 of NS (64 ± 7 vs 59 ± 4 min, P < 0.01), and 11% slower than D1 of SD (58 ± 5 min, P < 0.01). Subjective to objective (RPE:mean HR) intensity ratio was higher on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD (P < 0.01). Mood disturbance and PVT mean response time increased on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD. Anaerobic threshold and change in TT time were correlated (R = -0.73, P < 0.01). Sleep helps to optimise endurance performance. Subjective to objective intensity ratios appear sensitive to effects of sleep on athletes' readiness. Research examining more subtle sleep manipulation is required.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
7.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 850-855, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499564

RESUMO

The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of different training loads on ratings of perceived exertion and discomfort and feelings of pleasure/displeasure in resistance-trained men. Twelve resistance-trained men (26.7±3.5 years, 85.1±17.5 kg, and 174. 9±9.9 cm) performed 3 sets of the bench press, squat on a hack machine, and lat pulldown, until volitional concentric failure in two separate conditions: a moderate load (MOD) consisting of a relative load of 8-12 repetitions maximum (RM), and a light load (LIT) consisting of a relative load of 25-30RM. The session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), session rating of perceived discomfort (sRPD), and session pleasure/displeasure feelings (sPDF) were assessed after 15 min after the ending of each session. A randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study was performed with 48 h recovery afforded between sessions. Differences between conditions were observed for sRPE and sRPD, in which scores for LIT were greater than MOD (sRPE: MOD=5.5±1.0 vs. LIT=6.4±0.7; sRPD: MOD=6.7±1.7 vs. LIT=8.7±1.0). For sPDF, MOD reported feelings of pleasure (1.2), whereas the LIT presented a feeling of displeasure (-2.3). Results suggest that resistance training performed with a light load until failure induces higher degrees of effort, discomfort and displeasure compared to a moderate load.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico , Prazer/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Levantamento de Peso/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Laterality ; 24(6): 707-739, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399020

RESUMO

Several non-verbal perceptual and attentional processes have been linked with specialization of the right cerebral hemisphere. Given that most people have a left hemispheric specialization for language, it is tempting to assume that functions of these two classes of dominance are related. Unfortunately, such models of complementarity are notoriously hard to test. Here we suggest a method which compares frequency of a particular perceptual asymmetry with known frequencies of left hemispheric language dominance in right-handed and non-right handed groups. We illustrate this idea using the greyscales and colourscales tasks, chimeric faces, emotional dichotic listening, and a consonant-vowel dichotic listening task. Results show a substantial "breadth" of leftward bias on the right hemispheric tasks and rightward bias on verbal dichotic listening. Right handers and non-right handers did not differ in terms of proportions of people who were left biased for greyscales/colourscales. Support for reduced typical biases in non-right handers was found for chimeric faces and for CV dichotic listening. Results are discussed in terms of complementary theories of cerebral asymmetries, and how this type of method could be used to create a taxonomy of lateralized functions, each categorized as related to speech and language dominance, or not.


Assuntos
Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Testes com Listas de Dissílabos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3581, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395862

RESUMO

The bimodal requisite for a genetic program and external stimuli is a key feature of sensory circuit formation. However, the contribution of cell-intrinsic codes to directing sensory-specific circuits remains unknown. Here, we identify the earliest molecular program that preselects projection neuron types in the sensory neocortex. Mechanistically, Foxg1 binds to an H3K4me1-enriched enhancer site to repress COUP-TFI, where ectopic acquisition of Foxg1 in layer 4 cells transforms local projection neurons to callosal projection neurons with pyramidal morphologies. Removal of Foxg1 in long-range projection neurons, in turn, derepresses COUP-TFI and activates a layer 4 neuron-specific program. The earliest segregation of projection subtypes is achieved through repression of Foxg1 in layer 4 precursors by early growth response genes, the major targets of the transforming growth factor-ß signaling pathway. These findings describe the earliest cortex-intrinsic program that restricts neuronal connectivity in sensory circuits, a fundamental step towards the acquisition of mammalian perceptual behavior.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Percepção/fisiologia , Animais , Fator I de Transcrição COUP/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neocórtex/citologia , Rede Nervosa/citologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
10.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2676-2684, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418323

RESUMO

The velocity and magnitude in which the eccentric phase of an exercise is completed directly affects performance during the concentric phase. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of eccentric phase duration on concentric outcomes at 60% and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the squat and bench press. Sixteen college-aged, resistance-trained males completed 1RM testing, established normative eccentric durations, and performed fast (0.75 times normative) and slow (2.0 times normative) metronome-controlled eccentric duration repetitions. Outcome measures assessed during the concentric phase were: average concentric velocity (ACV), peak concentric velocity (PCV), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), range of motion (ROM), and barbell path. Eccentric duration was significantly and inversely correlated with ACV at 60% (r = -0.408, p = 0.004) and 80% (r = -0.477, p = 0.001) of 1RM squat. At 60% of 1RM squat, both fast and slow eccentric conditions produced greater (p < 0.001) PCV than normative duration with fast also producing greater PCV than slow (p = 0.044). Eccentric duration had no impact on RPE, ROM, or barbell path. Our results report for the first time that resistance-trained males performing a deliberately faster eccentric phase may enhance their own squat and bench press performance.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Sports Sci ; 37(21): 2506-2512, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362579

RESUMO

The study assesses the test-retest reliability of movement and physiological measures during a simulated rugby match that employed activities performed in a stochastic order. Twenty male rugby players (21.4 ± 2.1 y) completed two trials of a 2 × 23 min rugby movement simulation protocol during which the order of events was performed in a stochastic order, with 7-10 days between trials. Movement characteristics, heart rate (HR), RPE, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA%) of the quadriceps, Stroop test and subjective task load rating (NASA-TLX) were measured. The most reliable measures of external load was relative distance (typical error [TE] and CV% = 1.5-1.6 m min-1 and 1.4-1.5%, respectively), with all other movement characteristics possessing a CV% <5%. The most reliable measure of internal load, neuromuscular function and perceptual measures were for %HRmax (TE and CV% = 1.4-1.7% and 1.4-2.1%, respectively), MVC before (TE and CV% = 10.8-14.8 N·m and 3.8-4.6%, respectively), and average RPE (TE and CV% = 0.5-0.8 AU and 3.6-5.5%, respectively). The Stroop test, NASA-TLX and blood lactate produced the least reliable measures (CV% >5%). Future studies can confidently examine changes in several perceptual, neuromuscular, physiological and movement measures related to rugby activity using stochastic movements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Teste de Stroop , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102896, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376724

RESUMO

We investigated somatically perceived inclination of a floor on which an observer was. In the first three experiments, using blindfolded observers, we determined the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL) for horizontal floor. Orientation of the lying body relative to the axis around which the floor was rotated, distance of the lying body from the rotation axis, posture (standing, sitting, and lying), and age were varied. In the fourth experiment, effects of seeing the floor were examined. The mean PSEs were accurate within ±0.25° in all experiments. The mean DLs varied with condition: 1) The largest DLs were obtained for the blindfolded observers lying orthogonally or obliquely to the rotation axis, 2) the second largest DLs for the blindfolded observers lying parallel to the rotation axis, 3) medium DLs for the blindfolded observers sitting or standing, and 4) the smallest DLs for the standing observers with visual exposure to surroundings. In the last experiment, we determined a scale for inclination from verbally estimating apparent inclination with or without a blindfold. We concluded that the ratio of shear force to normal force was used for estimation of inclination. We discussed synergy of somatic inputs and visual inputs.


Assuntos
Orientação/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Postura/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rotação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16315, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277175

RESUMO

Driving is an essential activity for community engagement in patients with brain injury. However, brain injury patients have cognitive-perceptual deficits and low independence in daily activities. The aims of this study were to identify the driving errors of brain injury patients and determine their relevance to cognitive-perception function and daily activity level. This study was conducted at a single rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-one brain injury patients were included in the study. The patients underwent a driving-scene-based simulator evaluation in the rehabilitation clinic. Driving errors were checked using automatic software. Perceptual ability was measured using Motor-free Visual Perceptual Test (MVPT) and Cognitive-perceptual Assessment for Driving (CPAD). A linear relationship was found between the driving aptitude score, steering wheel and judgment, simultaneous operation items, total score of road course test, and cognitive-perceptual functions and daily activity levels of the participants (P <.05). The general factors that affected driving errors included driving experience, age, part of the hemispheric affected, and presence of vascular injury (P <.05). In addition, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score and the CPAD score correlated with driving errors (P <.05). The total error score of the participants correlated with the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score (P <.05).These findings suggest that driving experience and age have more influence on driving error than perceptual level due to brain damage. In addition, it was found that the basic level of daily living influences overall operating errors.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Lesões Encefálicas/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
14.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100676, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299480

RESUMO

How and when a concept of the 'self' emerges has been the topic of much interest in developmental psychology. Self-awareness has been proposed to emerge at around 18 months, when toddlers start to show evidence of physical self-recognition. However, to what extent physical self-recognition is a valid indicator of being able to think about oneself, is debated. Research in adult cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a common network of brain regions called Default Mode Network (DMN), including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is recruited when we are reflecting on the self. We hypothesized that if mirror self-recognition involves self-awareness, toddlers who exhibit mirror self-recognition might show increased functional connectivity between frontal and temporoparietal regions of the brain, relative to those toddlers who do not yet show mirror self-recognition. Using fNIRS, we collected resting-state data from 18 Recognizers and 22 Non-Recognizers at 18 months of age. We found significantly stronger fronto-temporoparietal connectivity in Recognizers compared to Non-Recognizers, a finding which might support the hypothesized relationship between mirror-self recognition and self-awareness in infancy.


Assuntos
Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Rede Nervosa/metabolismo , Lobo Parietal/metabolismo , Percepção/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
15.
J Sports Sci ; 37(19): 2169-2174, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159643

RESUMO

To examine responses to an International netball tournament, female athletes (n= 11) played three matches over consecutive days. External (accelerometry) and internal (heart rate; HR, session; sRPE, and differential; dRPE, rating of perceived exertion) load measures quantified match intensity. On match-day mornings, and three days after match 3, well-being (brief assessment of mood; BAM+), biochemical (creatine kinase concentration; CK), neuromuscular (jump height; JH, peak power output; PPO) and endocrine function (salivary cortisol; C, testosterone; T, concentrations) were assessed. External load was similar between matches whereas dRPE and sRPE were greatest for match 3. Following match 1, CK increased, whereas BAM+, JH, C and T decreased. Following two matches, BAM+, PPO, and T decreased with CK increasing versus baseline. Following consecutive matches, CK (likely moderate; 27.9% ± 19.5%) and C (possibly moderate; 43.3% ± 46.8%) increased, whilst BAM+ (possibly moderate; -20.6% ± 24.4%) decreased. Three days post-tournament BAM+, T, PPO, and JH decreased. Mid-court elicited higher mean HR (possibly moderate; 3.7% ± 3.8%), internal and external intensities (possibly very large; 85.7% ± 49.6%) compared with goal-based positions. Consecutive matches revealed a dose-response relationship for well-being and physiological function; a response evident three days post-tournament.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Esportes/psicologia , Acelerometria , Adulto , Afeto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Saliva/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(11)2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146344

RESUMO

Physiological arousal has been increasingly applied to monitor exploration (or navigation) of a virtual environment (VE), especially when the VE is designed to evoke an anxiety-related response. The present work aims to evaluate human physiological reactions to safe and unsafe VEs. We compared the effect of the presence of handrails in the VE in two different samples, young and older adults, through self-reports and physiological data: Electrodermal activation (EDA) and electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors. After navigation, self-report questionnaires were administered. We found that the VEs evoked a clearly differentiated perception of safety and unsafety demonstrated through self-reports, with older adults being more discriminative in their responses and reporting a higher sense of presence. In terms of physiological data, the effect of handrails did not provoke significant differences in arousal. Safety was better operationalized by discriminating neutral/non-neutral spaces, where the reaction of older adults was more pronounced than young adults. Results serve as a basis for orienting future experiments in the line of VE and applied physiology usage in the architectural spaces design process. This specific work also provided a basis for the development of applications that integrate virtual reality and applied biofeedback, tapping into mobility and ageing.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Percepção/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Idoso , Medo , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Locomoção , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(6): 636-645, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190022

RESUMO

Effective decision-making requires integrating evidence over time. For simple perceptual decisions, previous work suggests that humans and animals can integrate evidence over time, but not optimally. This suboptimality could arise from sources including neuronal noise, weighting evidence unequally over time (that is, the 'integration kernel'), previous trial effects and an overall bias. Here, using an auditory evidence accumulation task in humans, we report that people exhibit all four suboptimalities, some of which covary across the population. Pupillometry shows that only noise and the integration kernel are related to the change in pupil response. Moreover, these two different suboptimalities were related to different aspects of the pupil signal, with the individual differences in pupil response associated with individual differences in the integration kernel, while trial-by-trial fluctuations in pupil response were associated with trial-by-trial fluctuations in noise. These results suggest that different suboptimalities relate to distinct pupil-linked processes, possibly related to tonic and phasic norepinephrine activity.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Individualidade , Percepção/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Behav Neurol ; 2019: 3405696, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182979

RESUMO

Objectives: The objectives of this pilot study were to analyze the functional differences and the differences regarding the perception of health-related quality of life between people affected by ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively, and between these and their normative groups. Methods: A pre-post design study was conducted with 30 patients aged 65 ± 15 during eight weeks. It assessed disability, mobility, and health-related quality of life. Exact nonparametric tests were used to compare both types of stroke, and t-tests and effect size estimates were employed to compare the stroke group and the normative group. Results: At baseline, there were differences in disability ("getting along" domain), where a poorer result was obtained by the hemorrhagic stroke group, and in the "vitality" and "mental health" domains of the health-related quality of life test, where the ischemic group obtained poorer results. Both groups made significant progress in their health assessments and functionality after eight weeks, and no significant differences were found between them at that time. The scores obtained in both groups differed statistically from the normative values, both at baseline and at posttest. Conclusions: Regardless of the stroke type, divergent results were only found in two domains, "vitality" and "mental health." There was an improvement over time, but the scores obtained were still lower than those observed in the normative group, which indicated that the participants' health was highly compromised. This study provides more information for faster rehabilitation after stroke; even so, more studies are needed.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Behav Processes ; 164: 133-142, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051219

RESUMO

Starting in late 1980's, Bill Timberlake and associates conducted a series of experiments on anticipatory contrast which showed that rats' feeding decisions were regulated by the nutritive value of currently ingested and anticipated food. The effects of nutrient sensing on feeding regulation have been studied intensively in rodents, and recently, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we developed a new behavioral test to study rapid feeding decisions of tethered flies within 6-8 s of ingestion. Using a two-phase experimental design, we presented individual flies one of four serial combinations of a non-nutritive sugar, arabinose, or a nutritive sugar, sucrose. Feeding decisions of wildtype (Canton-S) flies are altered both by immediate effects of nutrient sensing and 1-hour delayed effects of nutrient-feeding, and the two effects act additively to yield a signature pattern of behavioral contrast based on nutritive contrast. Feeding phenotype of flies that carry a mutation of the dSLC5A11 (cupcake) gene varied with the mutant allele and genetic background. Fasted dSLC5A11 mutants showed an overeating phenotype and a defect in short-term feeding regulation irrespective of the nutritive value of sugar. Flies that carried the dSLC5A111 allele showed differential feeding for arabinose and sucrose. However, dSLC5A112 allele yielded a conspicuous deficit in delayed effects of nutrient ingestion, but only when it was expressed on a Canton-S background. Our results suggest that dSLC5A11 might function to integrate external stimulus properties and internal state for feeding regulation and action selection.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Sódio-Glucose/fisiologia , Alelos , Animais , Arabinose , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Mutação , Valor Nutritivo , Percepção/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Ratos , Sacarose , Fatores de Tempo
20.
PLoS Biol ; 17(4): e3000233, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039146

RESUMO

Perception likely results from the interplay between sensory information and top-down signals. In this electroencephalography (EEG) study, we utilised the hierarchical frequency tagging (HFT) method to examine how such integration is modulated by expectation and attention. Using intermodulation (IM) components as a measure of nonlinear signal integration, we show in three different experiments that both expectation and attention enhance integration between top-down and bottom-up signals. Based on a multispectral phase coherence (MSPC) measure, we present two direct physiological measures to demonstrate the distinct yet related mechanisms of expectation and attention, which would not have been possible using other amplitude-based measures. Our results link expectation to the modulation of descending signals and to the integration of top-down and bottom-up information at lower levels of the visual hierarchy. Meanwhile, the results link attention to the modulation of ascending signals and to the integration of information at higher levels of the visual hierarchy. These results are consistent with the predictive coding account of perception.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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