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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1789, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741976

RESUMO

Sensory perception and metabolic homeostasis are known to deteriorate with ageing, impairing the health of aged animals, while mechanisms underlying their deterioration remain poorly understood. The potential interplay between the declining sensory perception and the impaired metabolism during ageing is also barely explored. Here, we report that the intraflagellar transport (IFT) in the cilia of sensory neurons is impaired in the aged nematode Caenorhabditis elegans due to a daf-19/RFX-modulated decrease of IFT components. We find that the reduced IFT in sensory cilia thus impairs sensory perception with ageing. Moreover, we demonstrate that whereas the IFT-dependent decrease of sensory perception in aged worms has a mild impact on the insulin/IGF-1 signalling, it remarkably suppresses AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signalling across tissues. We show that upregulating daf-19/RFX effectively enhances IFT, sensory perception, AMPK activity and autophagy, promoting metabolic homeostasis and longevity. Our study determines an ageing pathway causing IFT decay and sensory perception deterioration, which in turn disrupts metabolism and healthy ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Transporte Biológico , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Longevidade/genética , Percepção/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , Fator Regulador X1/genética , Fator Regulador X1/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Faculdades de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(2): 130-133, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The audiological benefits of a bone conducting hearing implant are well documented; however, there is a paucity of literature comparing pre- and post-operative quality of life benefits. This study assessed the quality of life status before and after the device is implanted. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of all adult bone conducting hearing implants inserted in a teaching hospital between 2012 and 2017. All patients completed the Glasgow Health Status Inventory, a validated quality of life questionnaire, before and three to six months after implantation. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients received a unilateral bone conducting hearing implant. All scores except the social score improved post-operatively. The paired t-test showed that the differences in the means for the Glasgow Health Status Inventory total, general and physical scores were statistically significant at the 5 per cent level (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study, one of the few to assess quality of life pre- and post-implantation, showed a vast improvement in patients' perceived quality of life from the pre- to the post-operative phase.


Assuntos
Condução Óssea/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/psicologia , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante Coclear/métodos , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição/efeitos adversos , Auxiliares de Audição/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção/fisiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(2): 104-109, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of nasal airflow sensation is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the role of nasal mucosal temperature change in the subjective perception of nasal patency and the methods by which it can be quantified. METHOD: Medline and PubMed database searches were performed to retrieve literature relevant to the topic. RESULTS: The primary mechanism producing the sensation of nasal patency is thought to be the activation of transient receptor potential melastatin family member 8 ('TRPM8'), a thermoreceptor that is activated by nasal mucosal cooling. Computational fluid dynamics studies have demonstrated that increased airflow and heat flux are correlated with better patient-reported outcome measure scores. Similarly, physical measurements of the nasal cavity using temperature probes have shown a correlation between lower nasal mucosal temperatures and better patient-reported outcome measure scores. CONCLUSION: Nasal mucosal temperature change may be correlated with the perception of improved nasal patency. Future research should quantify the impact of mucosal cooling on the perception of nasal airway obstruction.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Mucosa Nasal/fisiologia , Obstrução Nasal/psicologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Cavidade Nasal/anatomia & histologia , Cavidade Nasal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cavidade Nasal/fisiologia , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Obstrução Nasal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Nasal/fisiopatologia , Obstrução Nasal/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Temperatura , Termorreceptores/metabolismo
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043577, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397669

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine risk perceptions and behavioural responses of the UK adult population during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in the UK. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Conducted with a nationally representative sample of UK adults within 48 hours of the UK Government advising the public to stop non-essential contact with others and all unnecessary travel. PARTICIPANTS: 2108 adults living in the UK aged 18 years and over. Response rate was 84.3% (2108/2500). Data collected between 17 March and 18 March 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics for all survey questions, including number of respondents and weighted percentages. Robust Poisson regression used to identify sociodemographic variation in: (1) adoption of social distancing measures, (2) ability to work from home, and (3) ability and (4) willingness to self-isolate. RESULTS: Overall, 1992 (94.2%) respondents reported at least one preventive measure: 85.8% washed their hands with soap more frequently; 56.5% avoided crowded areas and 54.5% avoided social events. Adoption of social distancing measures was higher in those aged over 70 years compared with younger adults aged 18-34 years (adjusted relative risk/aRR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5). Those with lowest household income were three times less likely to be able to work from home (aRR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.45) and less likely to be able to self-isolate (aRR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96). Ability to self-isolate was also lower in black and minority ethnic groups (aRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.0). Willingness to self-isolate was high across all respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Ability to adopt and comply with certain non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is lower in the most economically disadvantaged in society. Governments must implement appropriate social and economic policies to mitigate this. By incorporating these differences in NPIs among socioeconomic subpopulations into mathematical models of COVID-19 transmission dynamics, our modelling of epidemic outcomes and response to COVID-19 can be improved.


Assuntos
Comportamento , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Pandemias , Percepção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 38(3): 621-626, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447949

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of the initial ASRM COVID-19 recommendations for infertility treatment held by women's health providers within varying subspecialties, as well as their attitudes toward pregnancy and fertility during this time. METHODS: An electronic survey was sent to all women's healthcare providers, including physicians, mid-level providers and nurses, in all subspecialties of obstetrics and gynaecology (Ob/Gyn) at a large tertiary care university-affiliated hospital. RESULTS: Of the 278 eligible providers, the survey response rate was 45% (n = 127). Participants represented 8 Ob/Gyn subspecialties and all professional levels. Participants age 18-30 years were significantly more likely to feel that women should have access to infertility treatment despite the burden level of COVID-19 in respective community/states (p = 0.0058). Participants within the subspecialties of general Ob/Gyn, maternal foetal medicine and gynecologic oncology were significantly more likely to disagree that all women should refrain from planned conception during the COVID-19 pandemic, in comparison to those in urogynecology and reproductive endocrinology and infertility (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the immediate and unknown long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility care delivery, a better understanding of perceptions regarding infertility management during this time is important. Our study shows overall support for the initial ASRM recommendations, representing a wide spectrum of women's health providers.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Medicina Reprodutiva/métodos , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Feminino , Ginecologia/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obstetrícia , Pandemias , Percepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Neurosci ; 41(4): 757-765, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380471

RESUMO

Our ability to compare sensory stimuli is a fundamental cognitive function, which is known to be affected by two biases: choice bias, which reflects a preference for a given response, and contraction bias, which reflects a tendency to perceive stimuli as similar to previous ones. To test whether both reflect supervised processes, we designed feedback protocols aimed to modify them and tested them in human participants. Choice bias was readily modifiable. However, contraction bias was not. To compare these results to those predicted from an optimal supervised process, we studied a noise-matched optimal linear discriminator (Perceptron). In this model, both biases were substantially modified, indicating that the "resilience" of contraction bias to feedback does not maximize performance. These results suggest that perceptual discrimination is a hierarchical, two-stage process. In the first, stimulus statistics are learned and integrated with representations in an unsupervised process that is impenetrable to external feedback. In the second, a binary judgment, learned in a supervised way, is applied to the combined percept.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The seemingly effortless process of inferring physical reality from the sensory input is highly influenced by previous knowledge, leading to perceptual biases. Two common ones are contraction bias (the tendency to perceive stimuli as similar to previous ones) and choice bias (the tendency to prefer a specific response). Combining human psychophysical experiments with computational modeling we show that they reflect two different learning processes. Contraction bias reflects unsupervised learning of stimuli statistics, whereas choice bias results from supervised or reinforcement learning. This dissociation reveals a hierarchical, two-stage process. The first, where stimuli statistics are learned and integrated with representations, is unsupervised. The second, where a binary judgment is applied to the combined percept, is learned in a supervised way.


Assuntos
Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Neurais de Computação , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5004, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020473

RESUMO

Adaptive brain function requires that sensory impressions of the social and natural milieu are dynamically incorporated into intrinsic brain activity. While dynamic switches between brain states have been well characterised in resting state acquisitions, the remodelling of these state transitions by engagement in naturalistic stimuli remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the temporal dynamics of brain states, as measured in fMRI, are reshaped from predominantly bistable transitions between two relatively indistinct states at rest, toward a sequence of well-defined functional states during movie viewing whose transitions are temporally aligned to specific features of the movie. The expression of these brain states covaries with different physiological states and reflects subjectively rated engagement in the movie. In sum, a data-driven decoding of brain states reveals the distinct reshaping of functional network expression and reliable state transitions that accompany the switch from resting state to perceptual immersion in an ecologically valid sensory experience.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Filmes Cinematográficos , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Filmes Cinematográficos/classificação , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(5): 696-704, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698124

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate within-player effect, between-player effect, and individual response of external training load from player tracking devices on session rating of perceived exertion training load (sRPE-TL) in elite football players. METHODS: The authors collected sRPE-TL from 18 outfield players in 21 training sessions. Total distance, high-speed running distance (>14.4 m/s), very high-speed running distance (>19.8 m/s), PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and high-intensity events (HIE > 1.5, HIE > 2.5, and HIE > 3.5 m/s) were extracted from the tracking devices. The authors modeled within-player and between-player effects of single external load variables on sRPE-TL, and multiple levels of variability, using a linear mixed model. The effect of 2 SDs of external load on sRPE-TL was evaluated with magnitude-based inferences. RESULTS: Total distance, PlayerLoad™, PlayerLoad2D™, and HIE > 1.5 had most likely substantial within-player effects on sRPE-TL (100%-106%, very large effect sizes). Moreover, the authors observed likely substantial between-player effects (12%-19%, small to moderate effect sizes) from the majority of the external load variables and likely to very likely substantial individual responses of PlayerLoad™, high-speed running distance, very high-speed running distance, and HIE > 1.5 (19%-30% coefficient of variation, moderate to large effect sizes). Finally, sRPE-TL showed large to very large between-session variability with all external load variables. CONCLUSIONS: External load variables with low intensity-thresholds had the strongest relationship with sRPE-TL. Furthermore, the between-player effect of external load and the individual response to external load advocate for monitoring sRPE-TL in addition to external load. Finally, the large between-session variability in sRPE-TL demonstrates that substantial amounts of sRPE-TL in training sessions are not explained by single external load variables.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Adulto , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Corrida/fisiologia
12.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(7): 992-998, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rest interval between sets can affect the responses to resistance training. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI) on volume, density, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) when adopting a crescent pyramid (CP) system. METHODS: Twenty young women (21.1±2.6 years, 1.59±0.06 m, 58.5±9.3 kg) participated in this study. All participants performed three experimental sessions of the leg press exercise in 5 sets until voluntary muscular failure at 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% of one-repetition maximum (1RM). A randomized and crossover design was used so that in each session one of three RI (RI-1 = 1 min, RI-2 = 2 min, and RI-3 = 3 min) was tested. RESULTS: The participants performed a significantly larger volume in the RI-3 (12820±3134 kg) when compared to RI-1 (10367±3053 kg) condition (P<0.05). The volume did not differ between RI-2 and RI-3 (P>0.05). The density was higher (P<0.05) in RI-1 (43.1±12.7 kg/s) when compared RI-2 (25.6±5.8 kg/s) and RI-3 (17.7±4.3 kg/s). The RI-2 presented higher density compared to RI-3 condition (P<0.05). The RPE was not different between the three conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The use of 2 minutes of rest between sets allowed the performance of a high volume-load and density of the session in young women. In addition, the three experimental sessions provided a high perception of effort.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Levantamento de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 759-765, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492734

RESUMO

A combination of yoga and blood flow restriction, each of which elicits marked pressor responses, may further increase blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand. To determine the impact of a combination of yoga and blood flow restriction on hemodynamic responses, twenty young healthy participants performed 20 yoga poses with/without blood flow restriction bands placed on both legs. At baseline, there were no significant differences in any of the variables between the blood flow restriction and non-blood flow restriction conditions. Blood pressure and heart rate increased in response to the various yoga poses (p<0.01) but were not different between the blood flow restriction and non-blood flow restriction conditions. Rate-pressure products, an index of myocardial oxygen demand, increased significantly during yoga exercises with no significant differences between the two conditions. Rating of perceived exertion was not different between the conditions. Blood lactate concentration was significantly greater after performing yoga with blood flow restriction bands (p=0.007). Cardio-ankle vascular index, an index of arterial stiffness, decreased similarly after yoga exercise in both conditions while flow-mediated dilation remained unchanged. In conclusion, the use of lower body blood flow restriction bands in combination with yoga did not result in additive or synergistic hemodynamic and pressor responses.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Coxa da Perna/irrigação sanguínea , Ioga , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Rigidez Vascular , Vasodilatação , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 839-845, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590846

RESUMO

The effects of wearing an intra-oral device on several ventilatory and fatigue markers have been reported for a variety of sports. The quality of the figures performed in synchronized swimming is directly affected by fatigue, and can be monitored during training sessions (TS). The aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of wearing customized intra-oral devices on heart rate variability, rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate accumulation, and salivary cortisol production during a competitive training session. Twelve highly trained elite female athletes (age: 21.0±3.6 years) participated in the study. Fatigue markers were assessed at the beginning and at the end of the 3rd and 5th afternoon TS for that week, once with and once without an intra-oral device, in random order. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in relation to the baseline in the intra-oral device condition (P<0.05) but not in athletes without an intra-oral device. No differences between conditions were found in rating of perceived exertion (P=0.465) and blood lactate (P=0.711). No time or condition interactions or main effects were shown for heart rate variability. Thus, there is no evidence that wearing a low-arch intra-oral device is a good recommendation for high-standard athletes performing long and stressful routines.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Protetores Bucais , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Arcada Osseodentária , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Ventilação Pulmonar , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3245, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591523

RESUMO

Neurons in primary sensory cortex encode a variety of stimulus features upon perceptual learning. However, it is unclear whether the acquired stimulus selectivity remains stable when the same input is perceived in a different context. Here, we monitor the activity of individual neurons in the mouse primary somatosensory cortex during reward-based texture discrimination. We track their stimulus selectivity before and after changing reward contingencies, which allows us to identify various classes of neurons. We find neurons that stably represented a texture or the upcoming behavioral choice, but the majority is dynamic. Among those, a subpopulation of neurons regains texture selectivity contingent on the associated reward value. These value-sensitive neurons forecast the onset of learning by displaying a distinct and transient increase in activity, depending on past behavioral experience. Thus, stimulus selectivity of excitatory neurons during perceptual learning is dynamic and largely relies on behavioral contingencies, even in primary sensory cortex.


Assuntos
Percepção/fisiologia , Reversão de Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Córtex Somatossensorial/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Sinalização do Cálcio , Comportamento de Escolha , Discriminação Psicológica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/fisiologia , Recompensa , Sensação , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 790-797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599641

RESUMO

This study compared the effects of two supervised concurrent training interventions in breast cancer survivors with cancer-related fatigue at baseline. Twenty-three female breast cancer survivors (50±8 years) were randomized to a high- (n=13) or a moderate-intensity (n=10) training program. Both interventions lasted 16 weeks and included the same resistance exercises, but the aerobic component was supervised and more intense in the former (i.e., rating of perceived exertion of 7-8 vs. 6 on a 1-10 scale for the high and moderate-intensity intervention, respectively). The primary endpoint was fatigue perception. Endpoints were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks. The p-value for statistical significance was set at 0.004 after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. The high-intensity training program increased lower-limb muscle strength significantly (p=0.002) and tended to improve fatigue perception (p=0.006), waist circumference (p=0.013), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (p=0.028) and some quality of life items (p=0.011). Although the moderate-intensity training program did not provide such benefits in general (i.e., higher p-values for pre vs post-intervention comparisons), no significant differences were found between interventions (all p>0.004). Further research is needed to elucidate if the benefits provided by high-intensity concurrent training are superior to those elicited by moderate-intensity training in breast cancer survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fadiga/terapia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Composição Corporal , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Treinamento de Resistência
17.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(11): 736-743, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485779

RESUMO

Injuries of runners reduce the ability to train and hinder competing. Literature shows that the relation between potential risk factors and injuries are not definitive, limited, and inconsistent. In team sports, workload derivatives were identified as risk factors. However, there is an absence of literature in running on workload derivatives. This study used the workload derivatives acute workload, chronic workload, and acute: chronic workload ratios to investigate the relation between workload and injury risk in running. Twenty-three competitive runners kept a daily training log for 24 months. The runners reported training duration, training intensity and injuries. One-week (acute) and 4-week (chronic) workloads were calculated as the average of training duration multiplied by training intensity. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined dividing the acute and chronic workloads. Results show that a fortnightly low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.10-0.78) led to an increased risk of sustaining an injury (p<0.001). Besides, a low increase of the acute:chronic workload ratio (0.05-0.62) between the second week and third week before an injury showed an association with increased injury risk (p=0.013). These findings demonstrate that the acute:chronic workload ratio relates to injury risk.


Assuntos
Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Corrida/lesões , Traumatismos em Atletas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Educ. med. (Ed. impr.) ; 21(3): 158-167, mayo-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195103

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVOS: El ambiente educacional (AE) ha cobrado relevancia en las últimas décadas debido al impacto que produce en el proceso de aprendizaje, vida social y futuro laboral de los estudiantes. El objetivo de este proyecto es medir la percepción del AE en estudiantes de pregrado de la carrera de Kinesiología de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó metodología mixta. Componente cuantitativo: se aplicó el cuestionario Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure (DREEM) del 1.er al 4.° año. Componente cualitativo: con base en el análisis de preguntas abiertas. Se describen los ítems, dominios y puntaje global del DREEM mediante promedios y desviación estándar. Análisis estadísticos con t de Student para muestras independientes y ANOVA (más de 2 cohortes). Los datos cuantitativos fueron analizados usando el software SPSS y los datos cualitativos (teoría fundada) mediante software Atlas.ti®. Por último, se procedió a la triangulación de la información de ambas fuentes. RESULTADOS: Un total de 295 de un universo de estudiantes de 362 contestaron los cuestionarios (81%). El promedio global del cuestionario DREEM fue de 135,74 ± 19,15, lo que revela un AE «más positivo que negativo». La mayor fortaleza fue la percepción de la calidad de los docentes (73%) y el dominio con más baja percepción fue la atmósfera (63%). Los datos cualitativos permitieron complementar y enriquecer los resultados. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la percepción del AE entre hombres y mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: La medición del AE permitió identificar las principales fortalezas y aspectos por mejorar, lo cual servirá de base para un futuro plan de mejoramiento, autoevaluación y proceso de acreditación


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The educational environment (EE) has become relevant in the past decades, due to the impact it has on the learning process, social life, and future professional work of the students. The aim of this study is to measure the perception of the EE in undergraduate students of the Kinesiology course in the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. METHODS: Mix methodology was used. Quantitative component: the DREEM (Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure) questionnaire was completed by 1st to 4th year students. Qualitative field: based on open question analysis. The items, domains and overall score of the DREEM are described by the mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student-t test for independent samples and ANOVA (more than 2 cohorts). The quantitative data was analysed using SPSS software, and the qualitative data (grounded theory) by Atlas.ti® software. The information from both sources was triangulated. RESULTS: A total of 295 students out of 362 completed the questionnaires (81%). The overall mean of the DREEM questionnaire was 135.74±19.15, revealing a «more positive than negative» EE. The major strength was the perception of the teacher quality (73%), and the domain with the lowest perception was the atmosphere (63%). The qualitative data was used to complement and enrich the results. No significant difference was found in the perception of EE between men and women. CONCLUSIONS: EE measurement was able to identify the main strengths and aspects to improve. This could serve as the basis for a future improvement plan, self-evaluation, and accreditation process


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Cinesiologia Aplicada/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção/fisiologia , Educação de Graduação em Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Avaliação Educacional
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7940, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409634

RESUMO

Electrophysiological recordings during perceptual decision tasks in monkeys suggest that the degree of confidence in a decision is based on a simple neural signal produced by the neural decision process. Attractor neural networks provide an appropriate biophysical modeling framework, and account for the experimental results very well. However, it remains unclear whether attractor neural networks can account for confidence reports in humans. We present the results from an experiment in which participants are asked to perform an orientation discrimination task, followed by a confidence judgment. Here we show that an attractor neural network model quantitatively reproduces, for each participant, the relations between accuracy, response times and confidence. We show that the attractor neural network also accounts for confidence-specific sequential effects observed in the experiment (participants are faster on trials following high confidence trials). Remarkably, this is obtained as an inevitable outcome of the network dynamics, without any feedback specific to the previous decision (that would result in, e.g., a change in the model parameters before the onset of the next trial). Our results thus suggest that a metacognitive process such as confidence in one's decision is linked to the intrinsically nonlinear dynamics of the decision-making neural network.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Dinâmica não Linear , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos
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