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1.
Gene ; 802: 145869, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352298

RESUMO

Skeletal myoblasts are activated satellite cells capable of proliferation and differentiation. Studies on mammalian myoblast differentiation and myogenesis could be carried out in vitro thanks to the availability of mouse myoblast cell line C2C12. Lacking of muscle cell line hinders the studies of teleost fish myogenesis. Here, we established a continuous skeletal muscle cell line from juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) muscle using explant method and subcultured more than 50 passages for over 150 days. Stable expression of myoblast-specific marker, MyoD (myoblast determination protein) and the potential of differentiation into multi-nucleated skeletal myotubes upon induction suggested the cell line were predominately composed of myoblasts. Transcriptome analysis revealed a total of 4375 genes differentially expressed at four time points after the switch to differentiation medium, which were mainly involved in proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. KIF22 (kinesin family member 22) and POLA1 (DNA polymerase alpha 1) were identified as the key genes involved in fish myoblast proliferation whereas MYL3 (myosin light chain 3) and TNNT2 (troponin T2) were determined as the crucial genes responsible for differentiation. In all, the continuous myoblasts cultured in this study provided a cell platform for future studies on marine fish myoblast differentiation and myogenesis. The molecular process of myoblast differentiation revealed in this study will open a window into the understanding of indeterminate muscle growth of large teleost.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Mioblastos Esqueléticos/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Criopreservação , Transcriptoma
2.
Zootaxa ; 4980(1): 99112, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186988

RESUMO

A new species of eelpout genus Pachycara Zugmayer, 1911 is described based on five specimens caught at a depth of 24193275 m along the Central and Southeast Indian Ridges in the Indian Ocean. The specimens were collected during the INDEX cruises in 2016, 2018 and 2019, respectively. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: scales and pelvic fins absent; lateral line configuration mediolateral; dorsal fin origin associated with vertebrae 79 with no free predorsal pterygiophores; vertebrae 2728 + 5759 = 8587; dorsal-fin rays 7880, anal-fin rays 5862; pectoral fin rays 1315. DNA sequences of a mitochondrial COI gene fragment showed low intra-specific variation ranging from 00.3 % sequence divergence and do not reflect different vent sites. This is the 29th species of Pachycara, which is the fifth to be described from specimens collected only from chemosynthetic environments and the sixth known from the Indian Ocean.


Assuntos
Fontes Hidrotermais , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Animais , Genes Mitocondriais , Oceano Índico
3.
Zootaxa ; 4980(1): 4563, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186992

RESUMO

A new gobiid species, Benthophilus persicus sp. nov., is described from the southern Caspian Sea, Iran. The new species is diagnosed by the following character states: dermal fold on cheek well-developed, large, rectangular; chin barbel 1/32/3 of eye diameter; maximum body width 15.122.9% of standard length; mouth width, 36.355.8% of head length; second dorsal fin I+78; origin of anal fin in front of vertical through origin of second dorsal fin; dermal tubercles present on body, clearly larger than granules, with two posterior rows of spinules forming an acute angle, always less than right angle; dorsal row of tubercles complete, 2229; ventral row of tubercles 2225; ventrolateral row of tubercles absent; tubercles not present on temporal and occipital head regions; granules not present on flanks; transversal suborbital row 6i below posterior end of row b; anterior interorbital transversal row pa with one or two papillae and anterior interorbital transversal papilla row pp with two or three papillae; body with 2022 transversal ltm rows starting anteriorly behind pectoral axilla and alternating anteriorly with three longitudinal llm rows.


Assuntos
Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Animais , Mar Cáspio , Larva
4.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1133-1147, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059979

RESUMO

Hypoxia has gradually become common in aquatic ecosystems and imposes a significant challenge for fish farming. The loss of equilibrium (LOE), 50% lethal time (LT50), plasma cortisol, glucose, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), gill histological alteration, and related parameters (lamellar length [SLL] and width [SLW], interlamellar distance [ID], basal epithelial thickness [BET], lamellar surface area [LA], and gill surface area [GSA]); respiratory rate; the proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange (PAGE); and hypoxia-inducible factor (hif-1α, hif-2α) mRNA expression were determined during progressive hypoxia and reoxygenation (R-0, R-12, R-24 h) to illustrate the underlying physiological response mechanisms in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Results showed that the DO concentration significantly decreased during progressive hypoxia, while DO at LOE and LT50 were 2.42 ± 0.10 mg L-1 and 1.67 ± 0.38 mg L-1, respectively. Cortisol and glucose were significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest levels observed at LT50, and then gradually recovered to normal within reoxygenation 24 h. RBC number and Hb results were like those of glucose. Hypoxia stress resulted in lamellar clubbing, hypertrophy, and hyperplasia. Respiratory frequency significantly increased at LOE and decreased at LT50. Lamellar perimeters, SLL, ID, LA, GSA, and PAGE, significantly increased at LOE and LT50, with the highest values observed at LT50. However, SLW and BET significantly decreased at LOE, LT50, and R-0. These parameters recovered to nearly normal levels at R-24 h. hif-1α mRNAs in gill and liver were significantly upregulated at LOE and LT50, and recovery to normal after reoxygenation 24 h. hif-2α mRNAs in gill was similar to that of hif-1α, whereas hepatic hif-2α mRNAs remained unchanged during hypoxia-reoxygenation. These results indicated that progressive hypoxia stress elevated RBC number, Hb, cortisol, and glucose levels, induced the alteration of gill morphology, increased LA and GSA, stimulated respiratory frequency and PAGE, and upregulated the transcription of hif-1α and hif-2α in gill and liver. Reoxygenation treatment for 24 h alleviated the stress mentioned above effects. These findings expand current knowledge on hypoxia tolerance in black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii.


Assuntos
Brânquias/patologia , Oxigênio , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Glicemia/análise , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Oxigênio/análise , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/sangue , Perciformes/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
5.
J Anat ; 239(3): 747-754, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928628

RESUMO

Locomotor force production imposes strong demands on organismal form. Thus, the evolution of novel locomotor modes is often associated with morphological adaptations that help to meet those demands. In the goby lineage of fishes, most species are marine and use their fused pelvic fins to facilitate station holding in wave-swept environments. However, several groups of gobies have evolved an amphidromous lifecycle, in which larvae develop in the ocean but juveniles migrate to freshwater for their adult phase. In many of these species, the pelvic fins have been co-opted to aid in climbing waterfalls during upstream migrations to adult habitats. During horizontal swimming, forces are produced by axial musculature pulling on the vertebral column. However, during vertical climbing, gravity also exerts forces along the length of the vertebral column. In this study, we searched for novel aspects of vertebral column form that might be associated with the distinctive locomotor strategies of climbing gobies. We predicted that stiffness would vary along the length of the vertebral column due to competing demands for stability of the suction disk anteriorly and flexibility for axial thrust production posteriorly. We also predicted that derived, climbing goby species would require stiffer backbones to aid in vertical thrust production compared to non-climbing species. To test these predictions, we used microcomputed tomography scans to compare vertebral anatomy (centrum length, centrum width, and intervertebral space) along the vertebral column for five gobioid species that differ in climbing ability. Our results support our second prediction, that gobies are more flexible in the posterior portion of the body. However, the main variation in vertebral column form associated with climbing ability was the presence of larger intervertebral spaces in Sicyopterus stimpsoni, a species that uses a distinctive inching behavior to climb. These results build on past kinematic studies of goby climbing performance and lend insights into how the underlying vertebral structure of these fishes may enable their novel locomotion.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Locomoção/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiologia
6.
Am Nat ; 197(5): E156-E172, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908823

RESUMO

AbstractIt is well accepted that the complexity of functional systems may mitigate performance trade-offs. However, data supporting this theory are hard to find because they need to be based on a functional system with different complexity levels in closely related species. The Pomacentridae (damselfishes) provide an excellent opportunity to test this hypothesis because most of the species have two mouth-closing systems: the first using the adductor mandibulae, as in all teleost fishes, and the second relying on the ceratomandibular (cmd) ligament, a synapomorphic trait of the family. Interestingly, some pomacentrids have secondarily lost the cmd ligament during evolution and therefore have a less complex mouth-closing system. Using dissection, kinematic analysis, and mathematical modeling, we demonstrated that the possession of two mouth-closing systems enabled grazing damselfishes to have a forceful and extremely fast bite. This combination challenges a major functional trade-off in fish jaw dynamics, as systems better suited for force transmission are usually less suited for speed transmission, and vice versa. The combination of grazing behavior, small and robust lower jaws (conferring high biting force), and an ultrafast bite is unusual within actinopterygians. These attributes and their associated performance seem to be required conditions to colonize the ecological niche of farming, that is, the maintenance of small filamentous algae crops serving as both food and storage.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Herbivoria , Perciformes , Animais , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Modelos Biológicos , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/metabolismo
7.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(8): 3383-3396, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871625

RESUMO

Resolving the genomic basis underlying phenotypic variations is a question of great importance in evolutionary biology. However, understanding how genotypes determine the phenotypes is still challenging. Centuries of artificial selective breeding for beauty and aggression resulted in a plethora of colors, long-fin varieties, and hyper-aggressive behavior in the air-breathing Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens), supplying an excellent system for studying the genomic basis of phenotypic variations. Combining whole-genome sequencing, quantitative trait loci mapping, genome-wide association studies, and genome editing, we investigated the genomic basis of huge morphological variation in fins and striking differences in coloration in the fighting fish. Results revealed that the double tail, elephant ear, albino, and fin spot mutants each were determined by single major-effect loci. The elephant ear phenotype was likely related to differential expression of a potassium ion channel gene, kcnh8. The albinotic phenotype was likely linked to a cis-regulatory element acting on the mitfa gene and the double-tail mutant was suggested to be caused by a deletion in a zic1/zic4 coenhancer. Our data highlight that major loci and cis-regulatory elements play important roles in bringing about phenotypic innovations and establish Bettas as new powerful model to study the genomic basis of evolved changes.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Domesticação , Perciformes/genética , Fenótipo , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma , Masculino , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4964(1): zootaxa.4964.1.8, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903533

RESUMO

A new species of jawfish, Opistognathus ocellicaudatus, is described based on a single specimen collected at 67 m depth in Sagami Bay (near the mouth of Tokyo Bay), Honshu Island, Japan. The new species can be separated from all other Indo-West Pacific jawfish species in having 3 longitudinal dark brown stripes on the body, a large dark whitish-rimmed ocellus on the caudal fin, a small black blotch on the opercular flap, the dorsal fin with 11 spines and 11 soft rays, the anal fin with 2 spines and 11 soft rays, 21 pectoral-fin soft rays, 26 vertebrae, 42 oblique scale rows, and 2 supraneurals. The holotype is a female containing mature eggs, suggesting summer spawning. The type locality was close to the northern distributional limit of Opistognathidae in the Indo-West Pacific. [http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:00DCADDA-BE92-4C33-B7EB-1DA8348BA02A].


Assuntos
Perciformes , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Japão , Oceano Pacífico , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Pigmentação , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Zootaxa ; 4951(2): zootaxa.4951.2.9, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903408

RESUMO

Three snailfish species of Careproctus (Cottoidei: Liparidae), including two new species, are described from the deep Pacific Ocean off northern Honshu Island, Japan. Careproctus cyanogladius sp. nov., collected from the depths of 2,698-3,223 m, can be distinguished from congeneric species by having the following combination of characters: vertebrae 63; dorsal-fin rays 57-58; anal-fin rays 50; principal caudal rays 7; pectoral-fin rays 29-31; pectoral fin without a notch; uppermost pectoral-fin base below a horizontal through posterior margin of maxillary; pelvic disk oval; chin pores well separated; teeth simple; pyloric caeca 6-10; body pale blue or gray when fresh. The other new species, Careproctus orri sp. nov., collected from depths of 640-808 m, can be distinguished from congeneric species by having the following combination of characters: vertebrae 58-60; dorsal-fin rays 52-53; anal-fin rays 47-49; pectoral-fin rays 34-35; pectoral fin with a distinct notch; cephalic pores 2-6-7-2, chin pores single, unpaired; gill slit extending ventrally to 5th or 6th pectoral-fin ray; teeth strongly trilobed; peritoneum dark, stomach white. In addition, one specimen of Careproctus brevipectoralis Chernova, Thiel Eidus, 2020 was newly collected from Japan, and is redescribed here in detail with comments on intraspecific variations.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Brânquias , Oceano Pacífico , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação
10.
Zootaxa ; 4961(1): zootaxa.4961.1.1, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903575

RESUMO

The tridentigerine genus Pseudogobius is widespread, from temperate to tropical areas of the Indo-west Pacific. A morphological review of the genus was carried out, with the initial focus on South-east Asian and Australian species. There are about 21 nominal species in the genus; however, the type specimens for some nominal species are missing. Our work recognises 15 valid species so far, including seven new species, which are described herein: P. aquilonius n. sp., P. cinctus n. sp., P. eos n. sp., P. hoesei n. sp., P. jeffi n. sp., P. rhizophora n. sp. and P. verticalis n. sp. We also conclude that P. poicilosoma (Bleeker, 1849) is the senior synonym of P. javanicus (Bleeker, 1856). Pseudogobius poicilosoma, P. gastrospilos (Bleeker, 1853) and P. javanicus are accepted here as conspecific, although the types are in poor condition (note that all three names were given to specimens collected within close proximity to each other in coastal Java, Indonesia). A key to valid species is presented. The revision benefited from an adaptive feedback loop with companion genetic analyses, with the most comprehensive data available for the Australian region. Broader preliminary genetic data suggest the potential for recognition of additional cryptic species, with the current study providing a platform for future systematic work. Pseudogobius are a prominent part of estuarine biodiversity in the Indo-west Pacific, and this study helps to highlight the need to better understand the taxonomy and conservation requirements of cryptobenthic fishes.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(6): 2413-2427, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533895

RESUMO

Endothermy is a typical convergent phenomenon which has evolved independently at least eight times in vertebrates, and is of significant advantage to organisms in extending their niches. However, how vertebrates other than mammals or birds, especially teleosts, achieve endothermy has not previously been fully understood. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of two billfishes (swordfish and sailfish), members of a representative lineage of endothermic teleosts. Convergent amino acid replacements were observed in proteins related to heat production and the visual system in two endothermic teleost lineages, billfishes and tunas. The billfish-specific genetic innovations were found to be associated with heat exchange, thermoregulation, and the specialized morphology, including elongated bill, enlarged dorsal fin in sailfish and loss of the pelvic fin in swordfish.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Perciformes/genética , Termogênese/genética , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Genoma , Masculino , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Visão Ocular/genética
12.
J Fish Biol ; 98(5): 1349-1362, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410520

RESUMO

We report the effects of food deprivation on the early development of Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru during the first days of development. The point of no return (PNR) was determined using the feeding incidence after a delay in first feeding. The gradual deterioration of the larvae during food deprivation was recorded using morphometric, histological, enzymatic and biochemical analysis. The time to reach the PNR was 120 h after hatching. Morphologically, the total length, muscle height, head length, tail length and pectoral angle showed the biggest reductions and their growth coefficients changed significantly during food deprivation. Histologically, enterocyte height also was reduced significantly. The protein concentration and activities of the digestive enzymes trypsin, cathepsin-like and lipase showed a significant decrease; meanwhile, amylase activity remained constant during food deprivation. The concentration of total essential free amino acids (EFAAs) decreased significantly while that of the nonessential free amino acids (NEFAAs) remain stable during food deprivation. The most abundant EFAAs were lysine, leucine, isoleucine and valine; the most abundant NEFAAs were alanine, glycine and glutamate, suggesting a more prominent role as energy substrates. At the time of the PNR the concentration of almost all the free amino acids showed a significant decrease. Early food deprivation has a significant impact on the morphology and biochemical characteristics of L. peru. These results suggest that initial feeding of L. peru should begin within 3 days of yolk sac depletion to avoid the PNR. Further studies are necessary to confirm and validate the characters identified in this study as biomarkers of starvation under culture conditions and evaluate their possible utility in ichthyoplankton surveys.


Assuntos
Enterócitos/citologia , Privação de Alimentos , Músculos/citologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Enterócitos/patologia , Músculos/química , Músculos/patologia , Perciformes/metabolismo
13.
J Fish Dis ; 44(6): 665-673, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400822

RESUMO

Extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, can lead to meristic trait variation and skeletal deformities, which may have major impacts on individual fitness. As intertidal ecosystems experience rapid temperature and physicochemical fluctuations, intertidal fish living and reproducing in these environmental conditions may have phenotypes influenced by such variable environments. The impact of intertidal variability on fish development, however, has not been previously investigated. Skeletal deformities and meristic traits were assessed for Bathygobius cocosensis, a common intertidal fish living across the Indo-Pacific region, using a clearing and staining method on 72 individuals. Over 87% of individuals presented meristic variation and over 70% exhibited at least one type of skeletal deformity, mostly recorded in the caudal fin area. The unexpected prevalence of skeletal deformities among this intertidal fish population suggests that such deformities may be suitable markers to evaluate an individual's stress exposure during development and the subsequent fitness effects.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Esqueleto/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/etiologia , Peixes/anormalidades , Aquecimento Global , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Anormalidades Musculoesqueléticas/veterinária , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Perciformes/anormalidades , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo , Esqueleto/anormalidades , Temperatura
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2276, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500452

RESUMO

The relationship between growth and sexual maturation is central to understanding the dynamics of animal populations which exhibit indeterminate growth. In sequential hermaphrodites, which undergo post-maturation sex change, the size and age at which sex change occurs directly affects reproductive output and hence population productivity. However, these traits are often labile, and may be strongly influenced by heterogenous growth and mortality rates. We analysed otolith microstructure of a protandrous (i.e., male-to-female) fish (barramundi Lates calcarifer) to examine growth in relation to individual variation in the timing of sex change. Growth trajectories of individuals with contrasting life histories were examined to elucidate the direction and extent to which growth rate influences the size and age individuals change sex. Then, the relationships between growth rate, maturation schedules and asymptotic maximum size were explored to identify potential trade-offs between age at female maturity and growth potential. Rapid growth was strongly associated with decreased age at sex change, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in size at sex change. Individuals that were caught as large females grew faster than those caught as males, suggesting that fast-growing individuals ultimately obtain higher fitness and therefore make a disproportionate contribution to population fecundity. These results indicate that individual-level variation in maturation schedules is not reflective of trade-offs between growth and reproduction. Rather, we suggest that conditions experienced during the juvenile phase are likely to be a key determinant of post-maturation fitness. These findings highlight the vulnerability of sex-changing species to future environmental change and harvest.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/fisiopatologia , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2490, 2021 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495481

RESUMO

A novel species of the family Alepocephalidae (slickheads), Narcetes shonanmaruae, is described based on four specimens collected at depths greater than 2171 m in Suruga Bay, Japan. Compared to other alepocephalids, this species is colossal (reaching ca. 140 cm in total length and 25 kg in body weight) and possesses a unique combination of morphological characters comprising anal fin entirely behind the dorsal fin, multiserial teeth on jaws, more scale rows than congeners, precaudal vertebrae less than 30, seven branchiostegal rays, two epurals, and head smaller than those of relatives. Mitogenomic analyses also support the novelty of this large deep-sea slickhead. Although most slickheads are benthopelagic or mesopelagic feeders of gelatinous zooplankton, behavioural observations and dietary analyses indicate that the new species is piscivorous. In addition, a stable nitrogen isotope analysis of specific amino acids showed that N. shonanmaruae occupies one of the highest trophic positions reported from marine environments to date. Video footage recorded using a baited camera deployed at a depth of 2572 m in Suruga Bay revealed the active swimming behaviour of this slickhead. The scavenging ability and broad gape of N. shonanmaruae might be correlated with its colossal body size and relatively high trophic position.


Assuntos
Baías , Perciformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Geografia , Marcação por Isótopo , Japão , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Estômago
16.
J Evol Biol ; 34(4): 639-652, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484022

RESUMO

Habitats can select for specialized phenotypic characteristics in animals. However, the consistency of evolutionary responses to particular environmental conditions remains difficult to predict. One trait of great ecological importance is brain form, which is expected to vary between habitats that differ in their cognitive requirements. Here, we compared divergence in brain form and oral jaw size across a common littoral-pelagic ecological axis in two sunfishes at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels. Brain form differed between habitats at every level of comparison; however, divergence was inconsistent, despite consistent differences in oral jaw size. Pumpkinseed and bluegill species differed in cerebellum, optic tectum and olfactory bulb size. These differences are consistent with a historical ecological divergence because they did not manifest between littoral and pelagic ecotypes within either species, suggesting constraints on changes to these regions over short evolutionary time scales. There were also differences in brain form between conspecific ecotypes, but they were inconsistent between species. Littoral pumpkinseed had larger brains than their pelagic counterpart, and littoral bluegill had smaller telencephalons than their pelagic counterpart. Inconsistent brain form divergence between conspecific ecotypes of pumpkinseed and bluegill sharing a common littoral-pelagic habitat axis suggests that contemporary ecological conditions and historic evolutionary context interact to influence evolutionary changes in brain form in fishes.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Ecossistema , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Perciformes/genética
17.
J Fish Biol ; 98(1): 50-63, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978809

RESUMO

Scorpaeniformes are an important component of commercial and recreational fisheries world-wide. The Neosebastes species, found in the western Pacific and south-east Indian Ocean, have received little attention from a research perspective. Samples of the bighead gurnard perch, Neosebastes pandus, collected from the lower west and south coasts of Western Australia, were used to undertake the first comprehensive investigation of the biological characteristics of a Neosebastes species. Opaque zones in sectioned sagittal otoliths were validated as forming annually. Female N. pandus grow to a significantly larger size, on average, than males and dominate the largest size classes, while males, growing to a smaller size, accumulate in the intermediate size classes. Although males were far less numerous than females in those age classes in which both sexes were found, males and females attain similar maximum ages >25 years. Neosebastes pandus spawns over a brief period between May (austral late autumn) and July (austral mid-autumn) when water temperature and day length are declining. The mean monthly gonadosomatic indices (GSI, IGS ) values of females during the spawning period are 37-50 times higher than those of males, which mature at an earlier age and smaller length compared to females. Histological examination of the ovaries of females indicate that their structure is consistent with "general" teleost ovarian anatomy and thus differs from Scorpaena, Helicolenus and Sebastes species whose ovaries are adapted for specialized reproductive modes. The reproductive strategy of N. pandus of maximizing the reproductive output of females, by this sex attaining a larger size than males and pair spawning (i.e., large disparity in IGS values) demonstrates the close lineage between the Neosebastes and other Scorpaeniformes, such as the Scorpaena, Helicolenus and Sebastes.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Oceano Índico , Masculino , Membrana dos Otólitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Caracteres Sexuais , Austrália Ocidental
18.
J Fish Biol ; 98(2): 548-556, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111352

RESUMO

Otolith shape analysis is a powerful method for fish stock identification. We compared the otolith shape of Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus 1758) along with its distribution in four south-western Atlantic regions where it is commercially fished: Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul in southern Brazil, the Argentine-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone (UA) and the Argentinian Exclusive Fishing Zone (AR). Otolith shapes were compared by Elliptical Fourier and Wavelet coefficients among specimens in a size range with similar otoliths, morphometric parameters and ages. Four potential stocks were identified: one in the AR, a second along the UA which included specimens from southern Brazil with well-marked opaque bands in its otoliths (MRS), the third in southern Brazil with faint or absent opaque bands in its otoliths (FRS) and the fourth along Rio de Janeiro. The difference in the otolith shape among regions followed differences reported using other stock identification techniques. The similarity between otoliths from UA and MRS (ANOVA-like, P > 0.01) can be explained by seasonal short-range migrations. Otoliths shape differences between MRS and FRS (ANOVA-like, P < 0.01) suggest that P. pagrus does not form a homogeneous group in southern Brazil.


Assuntos
Membrana dos Otólitos/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Animais , Oceano Atlântico , Brasil , Pesqueiros , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Gene ; 769: 145204, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031890

RESUMO

Germ cells are essential for gonadal development. As precursors of germ cells, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are particularly important for germline formation. However, the research on distribution patterns of PGCs in marine fish is very limited, especially for economic species. The vasa gene has been widely used as marker to identify PGCs origination and migration because of vasa RNA is a component of germ plasm. In this study, we isolated full-length vasa cDNA (Omvas and Pmvas) from marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) and red seabream (Pagrus major), detected vasa transcripts in different tissues by RT-PCR and described vasa expression patterns during embryogenesis and gametogenesis by in situ hybridization. At the same time, we also explored the relationship between early distribution of germ plasm components and species evolution. The results demonstrated that deduced amino acid sequence of Omvas and Pmvas shared several conserved motifs of Vasa homologues and high identity with other teleost, and vasa transcripts were exclusively detected in early germ cells of gonad. During embryogenesis, vasa RNA of both fishes, like medaka (Oryzias latipes), failed to localize at cleavage furrows and distributed uniformly throughout each blastomere. This study firstly discovered that the marine economic fish, red seabream, lost vasa RNA early specific localization at cleavage furrows and distinctive distribution in germ cells. In addition, compared with other teleost, we found that early distribution of germ plasm might not relate to species evolution. This will improve our understanding of vasa localization modes in teleost, and facilitate fish germ cell manipulation.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Oryzias/embriologia , Perciformes/embriologia , Animais , DNA Complementar , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Gametogênese/genética , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , Oryzias/anatomia & histologia , Oryzias/genética , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia , RNA , Distribuição Tecidual , Transcriptoma
20.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 300: 113645, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058908

RESUMO

Reproductive activity is closely related to the development and function of the brain and liver in teleosts, particularly in seasonal breeding teleosts. This study measured the involvement of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in controlling the reproduction of the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus, a seasonal breeding tropical to temperate commercial fish. We cloned and characterized the cDNAs of igfs (igf2 and igf3) and igfrs (igf1ra, igf1rb, and igf2r) and examined their transcript levels in relation to seasonal reproduction. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that two types of IGFs (IGF-1 and IGF-2) and three types of IGFRs (IGF1RA, IGF1RB, and IGF2R) of the silver pomfret were clustered with those of teleosts; however, IGF-3 was a transmembrane protein different with the IGF-3 of other teleosts. The expression of IGF-3 was gonad-specific in the silver pomfret. The transcript levels of igf1 in the female brain were the highest, and the levels of igfrs in both sexes' brains increased during gametogenesis. Meanwhile, igfs and igfrs maintained high transcript levels in both sexes' liver and gonad during vitellogenesis and spermatogonia proliferation. We concluded that the development and activities of brain, liver, and gonad were related to the IGF system (IGFs and IGFRs). And the IGFs were mainly expressed in the liver. Nevertheless, gonadal development, especially vitellogenesis and spermatogonia proliferation, were related with IGFs in this species.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cruzamento , Gônadas/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Perciformes/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Peso Corporal , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/química , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Masculino , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Receptores de Somatomedina/metabolismo , Reprodução , Distribuição Tecidual
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