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2.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 148(11): 1914-1924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021151

RESUMO

Forgiveness helps to repair relationships and thus helps maintain cooperation. Might forgiveness also convey to others that the forgiver is a valuable cooperation partner? We propose that if victims' forgiveness displays have evolved as important social cues that help uphold cooperation, then even young children might respond positively to forgiveness displays. In a preregistered study, 4- and 5-year-olds (n = 20 per age group) watched videos of transgressions in which the victim either forgave or did not forgive the transgressor. As predicted, 5-year-olds robustly preferred the forgiver, expected the transgressor to like the forgiver more, and thought the nonforgiver would be more likely to transgress in the future. Four-year-olds did not show these effects as consistently. Both age groups distributed more resources to the forgiving victim. Thus, from an early age, forgiveness displays convey key information to others about the forgiver and may therefore help to repair relationships and promote cooperation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Comportamento Cooperativo , Perdão , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Gravação de Videoteipe
3.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E15, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981284

RESUMO

This study investigated how adults respond to a moral transgression committed by a child offender, by examining the role of the child's sex, emotions, and crying behavior when caught committing a moral transgression on adults' forgiveness, trust, and disciplinary behaviors. An experimental survey manipulated the children's sex, crying, and their emotional expressions (fear, sadness, shame, and crying). Participants (N = 847) reported how they would feel, their willingness to forgive (immediately and a week after the event) and to trust the child, estimated recidivism, and the use of disciplinary behaviors. Results showed that participants in the crying conditions reported significantly higher levels of intention to trust and forgive the child a week after the event, and a lower estimation of the child committing a similar act in the future than participants in the non-crying conditions (ps < .05). Compared to men, women anticipated higher intentions to forgive (ps < .05), and more inductive behaviors, less overreactivity and warmth removal towards the child (ps < .001). Overall, the results suggest the functional value of crying in children-adults relations and the importance of the gender of both child and adults in a context of a moral transgression committed by a child.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Choro , Perdão , Relações Interpessoais , Princípios Morais , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
4.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E19, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023389

RESUMO

Interpersonal transgressions often threaten the stability of the relationship. Within the scope of romantic relationships, physical violence and sexual infidelity have been considered the most difficult transgressions to forgive. Similarly, two variables considered relevant for forgiveness within the context of the couple are partner-specific dependency and the guilt experienced by the offended person. In that way, this research aims to approach the understanding of the forgiveness process of such transgressions. To this end, an experimental study was designed (N = 173 university women; Mage = 21.36, SD = 2.83), by which three indicators of forgiveness corresponding to the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale-18-Item Form (TRIM-18; "Revenge", "Avoidance" and "Benevolence"), partner-specific dependency and sense of guilt of the offended person were examined in the face of the transgressions of physical violence and sexual infidelity. Results revealed that violence (vs. infidelity) is less forgiven (higher "Revenge", p = .017, ηp2 = .034). In addition, the results showed that high partner-specific dependency leads to further guilt which, in turn, leads to greater forgiveness towards the partner (less "Avoidance", CIE = -.094, SE = .042, 95% CI [-.201, -.029]; and higher "Benevolence", CIE = .080, SE = .037, 95% CI [.024, .173]) in light of violence (vs. infidelity). Last but not least, the previous findings and their possible implications for romantic relationships are discussed.


Assuntos
Perdão , Culpa , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Espanha , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39: 1-17, jan.-mar.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1023851

RESUMO

Neste estudo foram realizadas revisões sistemáticas sobre as atitudes para receber o perdão e para perdoar a si mesmo. Considerando a escassez de estudos e relevância dos temas, o objetivo foi conhecer a forma como essas atitudes foram investigadas nas publicações recentes. O levantamento dos artigos foi realizado no portal Periódicos Capes, sendo selecionados estudos publicados entre 2006 e 2016. Na revisão sobre receber o perdão foram utilizados os descritores: "receber o perdão" e "buscar o perdão", em português e inglês. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram selecionados 12 artigos. Destacou-se a predominância do interesse na investigação da motivação para receber o perdão, sendo este um dos objetivos da maioria dos estudos revisados. Estes estudos contribuíram para o conhecimento da atitude para receber o perdão ao estabelecer os fatores, condições ou variáveis que favorecem a motivação para o pedido de desculpas ou para buscar receber o perdão. No que se refere ao autoperdão, foi utilizado o descritor "autoperdão", em português e inglês. Foram selecionados 54 artigos após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Parte considerável dos estudos buscou delimitar e diferenciar os processos de autoperdão genuíno e de pseudo-autoperdão. Estes estudos procuraram estabelecer como é possível se perdoar genuinamente e exploraram as variáveis que tem um papel significativo nesse processo. Considera-se que as revisões realizadas poderão auxiliar estudos e atuações que busquem incentivar as atitudes para receber o perdão e para perdoar a si mesmo, possibilitando conhecimentos para que as atuações sejam mais efetivas....(AU)


This study carried out systematic reviews on the attitudes to receiving forgiveness and self-forgiveness. Considering the lack of studies and the relevance of the themes, the aim was to understand how these attitudes have been investigated in recent publications. The articles were collected through the Periódicos Capes portal, and studies published between 2006 and 2016 were selected. In the receiving forgiveness' review, the following descriptors were used: "receiving forgiveness" and "seeking forgiveness", in Portuguese and English. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 12 articles were selected. It was highlighted the predominance of interest in the investigation of the motivation to receiving forgiveness, being this one of the objectives of most of the studies reviewed. These studies contributed to the knowledge of the attitude to receive forgiveness by establishing the factors, conditions or variables that favor the motivation to apologize or to seek forgiveness. Regarding self-forgiveness, the descriptor "self-forgiveness", in Portuguese and English, was used. We selected 54 articles after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A considerable part of the studies sought to delimit and differentiate the processes of genuine self-forgiveness and pseudo self-forgiveness. These studies sought to establish how it is possible to genuinely self-forgive and explore the variables that play a significant role in this process. It is considered that the revisions made may help studies and actions that seek to encourage attitudes to receive forgiveness and self-forgiveness, allowing knowledge to make the actions more effective....(AU)


En este estudio se realizaron revisiones sistemáticas sobre las actitudes para recibir el perdón y para perdonar a sí mismo. Considerando la escasez de estudios y la relevancia de los temas, el objetivo fue conocer la forma en que estas actitudes fueron investigadas en las publicaciones recientes. El levantamiento de los artículos fue realizado a través del portal Periódicos Capes, siendo seleccionados estudios publicados entre 2006 y 2016. En la revisión sobre recibir el perdón se utilizaron los descriptores: "recibir el perdón", y "buscar el perdón", en portugués e inglés. Después de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión se seleccionaron 12 artículos. Se destacó el predominio del interés en la investigación de la motivación para recibir el perdón, siendo éste uno de los objetivos de la mayoría de los estudios revisados. Estos estudios contribuyeron al conocimiento de la actitud para recibir el perdón al establecer los factores, condiciones o variables que favorecen la motivación para la disculpa o para buscar recibir el perdón. Con respecto al auto-perdón, se utiliza el descriptor de "autoperdón" en portugués y en inglés. Se seleccionaron 54 artículos después de la aplicación de los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Una parte considerable de los estudios trató de delimitar y diferenciar los procesos de auto-perdón genuino y pseudo-auto-perdón. Estos estudios buscaron establecer cómo es posible auto-perdonar genuinamente y explotaron las variables que tienen un papel significativo en ese proceso. Se considera que las revisiones realizadas podrán auxiliar estudios y actuaciones que busquen incentivar las actitudes para recibir el perdón y para perdonar a sí mismo, posibilitando conocimientos para que las actuaciones sean más efectivas. Parte considerable de los estudios buscó delimitar y diferenciar los procesos de auto-perdón genuino y de pseudo-auto-perdón....(AU)


Assuntos
Empatia , Perdão , Culpa , Relações Interpessoais
7.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39: 1-17, jan.-mar.2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1021837

RESUMO

O florescimento no trabalho tem despertado interesse crescente dos estudiosos, no contexto do modelo de Demandas e Recursos do Trabalho. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações de um recurso pessoal (perdão disposicional) e de um recurso do trabalho (suporte social emocional) com o florescimento no trabalho de enfermeiros, bem como avaliar o papel mediador do suporte social emocional nessas relações. A amostra foi composta por 515 trabalhadores de enfermagem. Os resultados da modelagem de equações estruturais apontaram que o perdão disposicional e o suporte social emocional relacionaram-se positivamente ao florescimento no trabalho. Ademais, o suporte social emocional mediou parcialmente a relação entre o perdão disposicional e o florescimento no trabalho. A escolaridade também exerceu impacto sobre o florescimento no trabalho. O modelo de mediação parcial apresentou índices de ajuste adequados. Os resultados demonstraram a relevância do suporte social emocional para o florescimento no trabalho, assim como sua relação com o perdão disposicional. O estudo avançou, portanto, na explicação de alguns dos fatores responsáveis pelo florescimento no trabalho de enfermeiros, categoria profissional de grande importância para a sociedade em geral....(AU)


The flourishing at work has attracted growing interest from scholars, in the context of the Job Demands and Resources model. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of a personal resource (dispositional forgiveness) and a job resource (emotional social support) with the flourishing at work of nurses, as well as to evaluate the mediating role of emotional social support on those relationships. The sample consisted of 515 nurses. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that dispositional forgiveness and emotional social support were positively related to flourishing at work. In addition, emotional social support mediated partially the relationship between dispositional forgiveness and flourishing at work. Schooling had also an impact on flourishing at work. The partial mediation model presented adequate fit indexes. The results demonstrated the relevance of emotional social support for the flourishing state at work, as well as its relation to dispositional forgiveness. The study has advanced on the explanation of some factors responsible for flourishing at work in nurses, an occupational category of great importance for the society....(AU)


El florecimiento en el trabajo ha despertado interés creciente de los estudiosos en el contexto del modelo de Demandas y Recursos del Trabajo. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar las relaciones de un recurso personal (perdón disposicional) y de un recurso de trabajo (soporte social emocional) con el florecimiento en el trabajo de enfermeros, así como evaluar el papel mediador del soporte social emocional en esas relaciones. La muestra fue compuesta por 515 trabajadores de enfermería. Los resultados del modelaje de ecuaciones estructurales señalan que el perdón disposicional y el soporte social emocional se relacionan positivamente al florecimiento en el trabajo. Además, el soporte social emocional medió parcialmente la relación entre el perdón disposicional y el florecimiento en el trabajo. La escolaridad también ha ejercido impacto sobre el florecimiento en el trabajo. El modelo de mediación parcial presentó índices de ajuste adecuados. Los resultados demostraron la relevancia del soporte social emocional para el florecimiento en el trabajo, así como su relación con el perdón disposicional. El estudio avanzó, por lo tanto, en la explicación de algunos de los factores responsables por el florecimiento en el trabajo de enfermeros, categoría de gran importancia hacia la sociedad en general....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Trabalho , Perdão , Enfermeiros , Psicologia
8.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(2): 169-180, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734311

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that experiences of forgiveness vary across cultures. However, culturally sensitive conceptualizations of forgiveness lack empirical support, in part because psychometrically sound instruments designed to capture unique aspects of forgiveness in non-Western cultures are rare. For this reason, we developed the Collectivist-Sensitive Trait Forgivingness Scale (TFS-CS), which is designed to measure trait forgivingness within societies characterized by a blend of individualistic and collectivistic worldviews. In Study 1 (N = 597), exploratory factor analysis revealed a 16-item three-factor structure of third-party forgiveness, collectivistic forgiveness, and interpersonal resentment among South Africans. In Study 2 (N = 897), the three-factor model replicated in an independent South African sample. Findings also offered preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the TFS-CS. Overall, these studies support a conceptualization of trait forgivingness with similarities and differences relative to Western models and highlight the importance of appreciating the influence of culture when measuring forgiveness.


Assuntos
Cultura , Perdão/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Personalidade/fisiologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychol Health ; 34(5): 515-534, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30632797

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We explore meta-analytic associations between health and forgiveness, testing a number of potential theoretical and methodological factors that could alter that association, including the type of forgiveness measure (e.g. state vs. trait), the type of health measure (i.e. physical vs. psychological) and the target of forgiveness (e.g. self- vs. other-forgiveness). DESIGN: Our findings below reflect the meta-analysis of 103 independent samples consisting of 606 correlations with a total sample of 26,043 participants. The final sample included papers from 17 countries. The included samples were diverse including students, older adults, divorced mothers, combat veterans and others. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Various health measures, including physical health outcomes (e.g., blood pressure, cortisol levels, bodily pain) and psychological health outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety, PTSD). RESULTS: We found a reliable overall association between forgiveness and health outcomes. The association was stronger for psychological health than for physical health, though associations with cardiovascular health indicators (i.e. heart-rate and blood pressure) were robust. CONCLUSION: The findings provided considerable support to current theorizing about the health benefits of forgiveness. It is plausible that forgiveness might improve psychological health and reduce cardiovascular stress.


Assuntos
Perdão , Nível de Saúde , Humanos
10.
Psychol Health ; 34(5): 626-643, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669877

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis tested the relation between forgiveness of others and physical health (PH) with age, gender, race, education level, employment status, sample type, research design, type of PH variables, and publication status as the potential moderators. DESIGN: Eligible studies had participants with or without physical or mental health problems and had quantitative data on forgiveness of others and PH. The random-effects model was used to aggregate Fisher's z effect sizes, which were converted back to correlation coefficients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: State forgiveness (forgiving an offense or offender) measures, trait forgiveness (a disposition to forgive) measures and physical health measures were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A hundred and twenty-eight studies (N = 58,531) were retrieved, in which the mean effect sizes showed a significant positive relationship between forgiveness of others and PH (r = 0.14, p < 0.001, 95% CI [0.11, 0.17]). Further, no moderators showed a significant relation between forgiveness of others and PH. CONCLUSIONS: The positive relation between forgiveness of others and PH was not affected by potential moderators. Because the results are correlational, more forgiveness interventions may be needed to examine the causal effect of the relation between forgiveness of others and PH.


Assuntos
Perdão , Nível de Saúde , Relações Interpessoais , Humanos
12.
Recurso educacional aberto em Português | CVSP - Brasil | ID: cfc-369256

RESUMO

O perdão não é um ato. É um processo mental ou espiritual que tem por objetivo cessar o ressentimento tóxico (dentre eles, o principal é a raiva) contra outra pessoa ou contra si mesmo, decorrente de uma ofensa percebida, por diferenças, erros ou fracassos. Trata-se de uma habilidade que precisa de treino. A apresentadora Marcela Morato conversa sobre o tema com Roberto Esporcatte, professor adjunto de cardiologia da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da UERJ e presidente do GEMCA (Grupo de Estudos de Espiritualidade em Medicina Cardiovascular) da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. Participante: Alessandra Galvão, 43 anos.


Assuntos
Perdão , Terapias Complementares , Terapias Complementares
13.
Laterality ; 24(5): 559-581, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30482082

RESUMO

The purpose of the current study was to determine if the relationship between interhemispheric interaction and cognitive flexibility extends to explanations of forgiveness and apology acceptance. A growing body of research indicates that consistency of handedness may be reflective of an individual's degree of interhemispheric interaction and access to processes of the right hemisphere. As such, individual differences in processing that require interhemispheric interaction, such as belief updating, are associated with consistency of handedness. Participants completed the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI) and read descriptions of interpersonal transgressions, then rated their willingness to forgive before and after an apology was offered. There was a main effect such that the presence of apology increased forgiveness. However, inconsistent handedness was associated with greater forgiveness prior to apology compared to consistent handedness. A second study was conducted to determine if the individual differences in forgiveness were mediated by different dimensions of empathy (personal distress, perspective taking, empathic concern and fantasy). Participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, the Forgiveness Scale and the EHI. Results revealed those with inconsistent handedness who scored lower on personal distress reported decreased negative thoughts about transgressors compared to those with consistent handedness.


Assuntos
Empatia , Perdão , Lateralidade Funcional , Individualidade , Distância Social , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Hum Nat ; 30(1): 117-141, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552579

RESUMO

Lethal and nonlethal suicidal behaviors are major global public health problems. Much suicidal behavior (SB) occurs after the suicide victim committed a murder or other serious transgression. The present study tested a novel evolutionary model termed the Costly Apology Model (CAM) against the ethnographic record. The bargaining model (BRM) sees nonlethal suicidal behavior as an evolved costly signal of need in the wake of adversity. Relying on this same theoretical framework, the CAM posits that nonlethal suicidal behavior can sometimes serve as an honest signal of apology in the wake of committing a severe transgression, thereby repairing valuable social relationships. To test this hypothesis, the CAM was operationalized into a set of variables, and two independent coders coded 473 text records on suicidal behavior from 53 cultures from the probability sample of the Human Relations Area Files. The results indicated that in ethnographic accounts of suicidal behavior, transgressions, punishment, and shame were relatively common, supporting the CAM, but explicit motives to apologize and evidence of forgiveness were rare, contrary to the CAM. The theoretical variables of the CAM nevertheless formed a cluster distinct from the BRM, and a subset of cases of suicidal behavior were largely related to transgressions and other CAM variables rather than BRM or other variables. Support for the CAM varied widely across cultures, but there was evidence for it in every major geographical region. Exploratory analyses suggested that the CAM is potentially more likely to occur in response to severe conflicts concerning transgressions committed against nonkin. Furthermore, in text records that involved transgressions, male suicidal behavior was most frequently associated with murder, whereas female suicidal behavior was most frequently associated with sexual transgressions. In conclusion, the results provided mixed support for the hypothesis that some instances of suicidal behavior function to send a costly signal of apology to those harmed by a transgression.


Assuntos
Perdão , Culpa , Motivação , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 63(1): 18-31, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926759

RESUMO

The links between childhood victimization, subsequent emotional dysregulation, and insufficient coping skills have been repeatedly documented in the scientific literature. However, there is a gap in the literature regarding the role of forgiveness as a coping strategy and relationships between offense-specific hurt, chronic anger, and early victimization. The goals of our study were (a) to explore how offenders cope with recent unjust treatment, and test the links between type of injustice, hurt experienced due to injustice, and use of forgiveness; (b) to test the links between childhood victimization, hurt, and chronic anger; and (c) to assess the mediating role of chronic anger in relation to hurt and forgiveness. The results reveal that multiplicity and severity of victimization exposure in the prison sample are positively associated with chronic anger, but not with hurt. The type of injustice affects the level of hurt and forgiveness, while chronic anger mediates the link between hurt and forgiveness. To improve coping and promote forgiving, offenders should be helped to identify everyday sources of stress and learn to express vulnerable feelings beneath anger.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Ira , Perdão , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Eslovênia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Marital Fam Ther ; 45(1): 149-160, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29073326

RESUMO

Among a sample of emerging adult females (N = 152) we empirically examined the role of humility and forgiveness in romantic relationships. We specifically tested a model linking perceived humility to relationship satisfaction with self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness. Participants in a romantic relationship completed measures of self-reported humility, self-forgiveness, partner-forgiveness, and relationship satisfaction. Serial mediation analyses were conducted using path analysis to test the following sequence, humility self-forgiveness partner-forgiveness relationship satisfaction. Findings indicate that humility was related to relationship satisfaction via a serially mediated path of self-forgiveness and partner-forgiveness, which was not reducible to impression management. We consider implications for research and clinical practice.


Assuntos
Perdão , Relações Interpessoais , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoimagem , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 74(1): 74-81, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742733

RESUMO

Objectives: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. Method: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game. Results: Young and older adults learned to disregard appearances to invest more in trustees providing high relative to low returns. Both groups also updated ratings of trustworthiness from pre- to post-trust game in the direction of behavior that was incongruent with appearance. Notably, young (but not older) adults updated ratings of smiling trustees with a high return rate (i.e., returned money on 8 of 10 investments) to reflect reduced trustworthiness in line with the 2 instances of cheating from those trustees. Discussion: The findings show that there are no age-related differences in the way that obvious cheating in disguise is punished with reduced trustworthiness ratings. However, older adults are less vigilant to more subtle cheating in disguise, or are more forgiving of transgressions perceived as minor.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Decepção , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Perdão/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Confiança , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Exp Psychol Appl ; 25(1): 100-116, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284852

RESUMO

The purpose of this research was to test how, why, and when social power influences victims' revenge seeking, grudge holding, and forgiveness. Based on Keltner, Gruenfeld, and Anderson's (2003) power approach theory and McCullough, Kurzban, and Tabak's (2013) theorizing about revenge and forgiveness systems, we tested (a) the associations between victims' social power and revenge, grudge, and forgiveness; (b) the mediational role of approach/inhibition motivation in explaining why the associations exist; and (c) the moderating role of whether the transgressor apologizes or not in explaining the associations. Five studies (Ns = 279, 181, 154, 131, and 81) that varied in sample (undergraduate, community), research method (nonexperimental, experimental), context (laboratory, online), measures (self-reported, behavioral), and statistical method (regression, ANOVA), supported our predictions and the systematic generalizability of the effects. Applied implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Perdão , Relações Interpessoais , Motivação , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Psychol ; 54(2): 256-263, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884812

RESUMO

Recently, researchers have begun to explore people's motives to forgive those who have offended them. Using a recall method, we examined whether such motives (relationship-, offender- or self-focused) differ between and within cultures that are more collectivistic (Moluccan Islands in Indonesia) or more individualistic (the Netherlands) and whether this depends on people's relationship with the offender. More specifically, we examined the idea that other-focused motives should be more important in cultures that are more collectivistic and that self-focused motives should prevail in more individualistic cultures. We found that Moluccan participants indeed endorsed relationship- and offender-focused motives more than Dutch participants. Moluccan and Dutch participants did not, however, differ in the extent to which they endorsed self-focused motives. Furthermore, Dutch participants were more likely to endorse relationship motives (especially in close relations) than self-focused motives. For Moluccan participants, relationship-, offender- and self-focused motives were equally important and also did not depend on how close they were with the offender. Differences between the samples could not be explained by the extent to which people defined themselves as more independent or interdependent. The implications of these findings for future research on forgiveness motives are discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Perdão/ética , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Couns Psychol ; 65(6): 715-726, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421952

RESUMO

Progress in the scientific study of self-forgiveness reveals a need for (a) integration of the extant self-forgiveness literature with general psychological theory, (b) development of measures that reflect nuanced conceptualizations of self-forgiveness, (c) better understanding of the impact of self-forgiveness on personal and interpersonal functioning, and (d) development of evidence-based clinical applications of self-forgiveness. Accordingly, we conceptualized self-forgiveness within the framework of Social Cognitive Theory and developed the Self-Forgiveness Dual-Process Scale to assess value reorientation (VRO) and esteem restoration (ERS) following perceived interpersonal offense. In Study 1, we identified the hypothesized 2-factor structure in a sample of university students (N = 191). For Study 2, we used an independent sample (N = 100) to replicate the factor structure and provide initial evidence of construct validity by exploring associations of value reorientation and esteem restoration with established measures of self-forgiveness, self-punishment, and self-exoneration. In Study 3, we recruited a third sample (N = 66) to assess contributions of value reorientation and esteem restoration to explain variance in offense-related rumination beyond that explained by an existing measure of state self-forgiveness. Overall, findings supported conceptualization of self-forgiveness according to processes of value reorientation and esteem restoration, distinguished self-forgiveness from other responses to wrongdoing, and revealed the unique impacts of value reorientation and esteem restoration on functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Perdão , Análise de Classes Latentes , Autocuidado/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Perdão/fisiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Autocuidado/métodos , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
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