Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.685
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Neurosci ; 87: 97-102, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863544

RESUMO

Long-term unilateral hearing loss could reorganize the functional network association between the bilateral auditory cortices, while alterations of other functional networks need to be further explored. We attempted to investigate the pattern of the reorganization of functional network associations between the auditory and visual cortex caused by long-term postlingual unilateral hearing loss (UHI) and its relationship with clinical characteristics. Therefore, 48 patients with hearing loss caused by unilateral acoustic tumors and 52 matched healthy controls were enrolled, and their high-resolution structural MRI and resting-state functional MRI data were also collected to depict the brain network. Degree centrality (DC) was employed to evaluate the functional network association of the auditory-visual network interaction. Group comparisons were performed to investigate the network reorganization, and its correlations with clinical data were calculated. Compared with the healthy control group, patients with UHI showed significantly increased DC between the auditory network (superior temporal gyrus and the medial geniculate body) and the visual network. Meanwhile, this difference was positively correlated with the extent of hearing impairment, and the correlation was more significant with the ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus in cases of acoustic neuroma. These results suggest that long-term unilateral hearing impairment may lead to enhancement of the visual-auditory network interactions and that the degree of reorganization is positively correlated with the pure tone average (PTA) and is more significant for the ipsilateral superior temporal gyrus, which provides clinical evidence regarding cross-modal plasticity in the UHI and its lateralization.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroma Acústico/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Neuroma Acústico/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia
2.
Laryngoscope ; 131(6): E2038-E2043, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to characterize the effects of wearing face coverings on: 1) acoustic speech cues, and 2) speech recognition of patients with hearing loss who listen with a cochlear implant. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed in a tertiary referral center between July and September 2020. A female talker recorded sentences in three conditions: no face covering, N95 mask, and N95 mask plus a face shield. Spectral differences were analyzed between speech produced in each condition. The speech recognition in each condition for twenty-three adult patients with at least 6 months of cochlear implant use was assessed. RESULTS: Spectral analysis demonstrated preferential attenuation of high-frequency speech information with the N95 mask plus face shield condition compared to the other conditions. Speech recognition did not differ significantly between the uncovered (median 90% [IQR 89%-94%]) and N95 mask conditions (91% [IQR 86%-94%]; P = .253); however, speech recognition was significantly worse in the N95 mask plus face shield condition (64% [IQR 48%-75%]) compared to the uncovered (P < .001) or N95 mask (P < .001) conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The type and combination of protective face coverings used have differential effects on attenuation of speech information, influencing speech recognition of patients with hearing loss. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is a need to protect patients and clinicians from spread of disease while maximizing patient speech recognition. The disruptive effect of wearing a face shield in conjunction with a mask may prompt clinicians to consider alternative eye protection, such as goggles, in appropriate clinical situations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 131:E2038-E2043, 2021.


Assuntos
Implantes Cocleares , Respiradores N95 , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espectrografia do Som , Acústica da Fala , Testes de Discriminação da Fala , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(1): e1008499, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481777

RESUMO

Hidden hearing loss (HHL) is an auditory neuropathy characterized by normal hearing thresholds but reduced amplitudes of the sound-evoked auditory nerve compound action potential (CAP). In animal models, HHL can be caused by moderate noise exposure or aging, which induces loss of inner hair cell (IHC) synapses. In contrast, recent evidence has shown that transient loss of cochlear Schwann cells also causes permanent auditory deficits in mice with similarities to HHL. Histological analysis of the cochlea after auditory nerve remyelination showed a permanent disruption of the myelination patterns at the heminode of type I spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) peripheral terminals, suggesting that this defect could be contributing to HHL. To shed light on the mechanisms of different HHL scenarios observed in animals and to test their impact on type I SGN activity, we constructed a reduced biophysical model for a population of SGN peripheral axons whose activity is driven by a well-accepted model of cochlear sound processing. We found that the amplitudes of simulated sound-evoked SGN CAPs are lower and have greater latencies when heminodes are disorganized, i.e. they occur at different distances from the hair cell rather than at the same distance as in the normal cochlea. These results confirm that disruption of heminode positions causes desynchronization of SGN spikes leading to a loss of temporal resolution and reduction of the sound-evoked SGN CAP. Another mechanism resulting in HHL is loss of IHC synapses, i.e., synaptopathy. For comparison, we simulated synaptopathy by removing high threshold IHC-SGN synapses and found that the amplitude of simulated sound-evoked SGN CAPs decreases while latencies remain unchanged, as has been observed in noise exposed animals. Thus, model results illuminate diverse disruptions caused by synaptopathy and demyelination on neural activity in auditory processing that contribute to HHL as observed in animal models and that can contribute to perceptual deficits induced by nerve damage in humans.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Bainha de Mielina , Sinapses , Animais , Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Nervo Coclear/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/patologia , Células Ciliadas Auditivas Internas/fisiologia , Camundongos , Modelos Neurológicos , Bainha de Mielina/patologia , Bainha de Mielina/fisiologia , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/citologia , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/patologia , Sinapses/fisiologia
4.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): e35-e41, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33410539

RESUMO

The phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class S protein (PIGS) gene has recently been implicated in a novel congenital disorder of glycosylation resulting in autosomal recessive inherited glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein (GPI-AP) deficiency. Previous studies described seven patients with biallelic variants in the PIGS gene, of whom two presented with fetal akinesia and five with global developmental delay and epileptic developmental encephalopathy. We present the molecular and clinical characteristics of six additional individuals from five families with unreported variants in PIGS. All individuals presented with hypotonia, severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, intractable early infantile epilepsy, and structural brain abnormalities. Additional findings include vision impairment, hearing loss, renal malformation, and hypotonic facial appearances with minor dysmorphic features but without a distinctive facial gestalt. Four individuals died due to neurologic complications. GPI anchoring studies performed on one individual revealed a significant decrease in GPI-APs. We confirm that biallelic variants in PIGS cause vitamin pyridoxine-responsive epilepsy due to inherited GPI deficiency and expand the genotype and phenotype of PIGS-related disorder. Further delineation of the molecular spectrum of PIGS-related disorders would improve management, help develop treatments, and encourage the expansion of diagnostic genetic testing to include this gene as a potential cause of neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/deficiência , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Facies , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Rim/anormalidades , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Microcefalia/fisiopatologia , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/fisiopatologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Espasmos Infantis/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/genética , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia
5.
Epilepsia ; 62(2): e42-e47, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465245

RESUMO

A reliable identification of a high-risk state for upcoming seizures may allow for preemptive treatment and improve the quality of patients' lives. We evaluated the ability of prodromal symptoms to predict preictal states using a machine learning (ML) approach. Twenty-four patients with drug-resistant epilepsy were admitted for continuous video-electroencephalographic monitoring and filled out a daily four-point questionnaire on prodromal symptoms. Data were then classified into (1) a preictal group for questionnaires completed in a 24-h period prior to at least one seizure (n1  = 58) and (2) an interictal group for questionnaires completed in a 24-h period without seizures (n2  = 190). Our prediction model was based on a support vector machine classifier and compared to a Fisher's linear classifier. The combination of all the prodromal symptoms yielded a good prediction performance (area under the curve [AUC] = .72, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .61-.81). This performance was significantly enhanced by selecting a subset of the most relevant symptoms (AUC = .80, 95% CI = .69-.88). In comparison, the linear classifier systematically failed (AUCs < .6). Our findings indicate that the ML analysis of prodromal symptoms is a promising approach to identifying preictal states prior to seizures. This could pave the way for development of clinical strategies in seizure prevention and even a noninvasive alarm system.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Convulsões/fisiopatologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Área Sob a Curva , Atenção/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/terapia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , Fotofobia/fisiopatologia , Leitura , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Fala/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135427, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069812

RESUMO

The STAT1 knock-out (KO) mouse is a frequently used transgenic immunodeficient strain to model human viral and bacterial diseases. The Lassa fever model was established in the STAT1 KO mice mimicking phenotypes seen in human patients including deafness in survivors. This model develops hearing loss at high prevalence and is a valuable tool to investigate viral infection-induced hearing loss. However, Lassa virus is a highly contagious and regulated agent requiring the unique logistics of the biosafety level 4 posing limitations for experimental work. Therefore, we did a detailed auditory analysis of the STAT1 KO mice to assess baseline auditory function in preparation for further auditory behavioral studies. Auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission tests were performed on males and females of the STAT1 KO mice and was compared to 129S6/SvEv wild type (WT) mice. The male WT mice had the best auditory performance and the female WT mice had the worst hearing performance. The male and female STAT1 KO mice had similar auditory performance to each other, which was intermediate between WT males and females. We conclude that both male and female STAT1 KO mice are suitable for studying viral infection-induced hearing loss.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Febre Lassa/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT1/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Febre Lassa/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Emissões Otoacústicas Espontâneas , Caracteres Sexuais
7.
Brain ; 144(2): 391-401, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351095

RESUMO

The association between hearing impairment and dementia has emerged as a major public health challenge, with significant opportunities for earlier diagnosis, treatment and prevention. However, the nature of this association has not been defined. We hear with our brains, particularly within the complex soundscapes of everyday life: neurodegenerative pathologies target the auditory brain, and are therefore predicted to damage hearing function early and profoundly. Here we present evidence for this proposition, based on structural and functional features of auditory brain organization that confer vulnerability to neurodegeneration, the extensive, reciprocal interplay between 'peripheral' and 'central' hearing dysfunction, and recently characterized auditory signatures of canonical neurodegenerative dementias (Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease and frontotemporal dementia). Moving beyond any simple dichotomy of ear and brain, we argue for a reappraisal of the role of auditory cognitive dysfunction and the critical coupling of brain to peripheral organs of hearing in the dementias. We call for a clinical assessment of real-world hearing in these diseases that moves beyond pure tone perception to the development of novel auditory 'cognitive stress tests' and proximity markers for the early diagnosis of dementia and management strategies that harness retained auditory plasticity.


Assuntos
Demência/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Comorbidade , Demência/complicações , Demência Frontotemporal/complicações , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Elife ; 92020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382037

RESUMO

Defective primary cilia cause a range of diseases known as ciliopathies, including hearing loss. The etiology of hearing loss in ciliopathies, however, remains unclear. We analyzed cochleae from three ciliopathy mouse models exhibiting different ciliogenesis defects: Intraflagellar transport 88 (Ift88), Tbc1d32 (a.k.a. bromi), and Cilk1 (a.k.a. Ick) mutants. These mutants showed multiple developmental defects including shortened cochlear duct and abnormal apical patterning of the organ of Corti. Although ciliogenic defects in cochlear hair cells such as misalignment of the kinocilium are often associated with the planar cell polarity pathway, our results showed that inner ear defects in these mutants are primarily due to loss of sonic hedgehog signaling. Furthermore, an inner ear-specific deletion of Cilk1 elicits low-frequency hearing loss attributable to cellular changes in apical cochlear identity that is dedicated to low-frequency sound detection. This type of hearing loss may account for hearing deficits in some patients with ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Polaridade Celular/fisiologia , Ciliopatias/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Animais , Cílios/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia
9.
Ear Hear ; 42(1): 20-28, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The impact of social distancing on communication and psychosocial variables among individuals with hearing impairment during COVID-19 pandemic. It was our concern that patients who already found themselves socially isolated (Wie et al. 2010) as a result of their hearing loss would be perhaps more susceptible to changes in their communication habits resulting in further social isolation, anxiety, and depression. We wanted to better understand how forced social isolation (as part of COVID-19 mitigation) effected a group of individuals with hearing impairment from an auditory ecology and psychosocial perspective. We hypothesized that the listening environments would be different as a result of social isolation when comparing subject's responses regarding activities and participation before COVID-19 and during the COVID-19 pandemic. This change would lead to an increase in experienced and perceived social isolation, anxiety, and depression. DESIGN: A total of 48 adults with at least 12 months of cochlear implant (CI) experience reported their listening contexts and experiences pre-COVID and during-COVID using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA; methodology collecting a respondent's self-reports in their natural environments) through a smartphone-based app, and six paper and pencil questionnaires. The Smartphone app and paper-pencil questionnaires address topics related to their listening environment, social isolation, depression, anxiety, lifestyle and demand, loneliness, and satisfaction with amplification. Data from these two-time points were compared to better understand the effects of social distancing on the CI recipients' communication abilities. RESULTS: EMA demonstrated that during-COVID CI recipients were more likely to stay home or be outdoors. CI recipients reported that they were less likely to stay indoors outside of their home relative to the pre-COVID condition. Social distancing also had a significant effect on the overall signal-to-noise ratio of the environments indicating that the listening environments had better signal-to-noise ratios. CI recipients also reported better speech understanding, less listening effort, less activity limitation due to hearing loss, less social isolation due to hearing loss, and less anxiety due to hearing loss. Retrospective questionnaires indicated that social distancing had a significant effect on the social network size, participant's personal image of themselves, and overall loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, EMA provided us with a glimpse of the effect that forced social isolation has had on the listening environments and psychosocial perspectives of a select number of CI listeners. CI participants in this study reported that they were spending more time at home in a quieter environments during-COVID. Contrary to our hypothesis, CI recipients overall felt less socially isolated and reported less anxiety resulting from their hearing difficulties during-COVID in comparison to pre-COVID. This, perhaps, implies that having a more controlled environment with fewer speakers provided a more relaxing listening experience.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Implante Coclear , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Razão Sinal-Ruído , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/psicologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Depressão/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Bilateral/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/psicologia , Perda Auditiva Unilateral/reabilitação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído , SARS-CoV-2 , Isolamento Social/psicologia
10.
Rev. chil. fonoaudiol. (En línea) ; 19: 1-9, nov. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1148476

RESUMO

El Discurso Narrativo (DN) es una unidad lingüística compleja utilizada en ciertos contextos y que refleja la organización del pensamiento. La evidencia científica muestra que la población sorda, usuaria de ayudas auditivas, presenta dificultades en los diferentes niveles del lenguaje, tanto expresivos como comprensivos, incluida la habilidad para narrar. Además, existe evidencia de que la intervención terapéutica ayudaría a mejorar su rendimiento. Sin embargo, los datos disponibles sobre las características y abordaje del DN en esta población son escasos. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar un programa piloto para trabajar habilidades narrativas en niños chilenos usuarios de ayudas auditivas. Se estudiaron 22 niños con un promedio de edad de 6,5 años, adaptados con audífonos y/o implante coclear. Se aplicó a este grupo de niños una evaluación inicial del DN utilizando el instrumento Evaluación del Discurso Narrativo (EDNA), obteniéndose la Etapa y Desempeño narrativo de cada niño. Luego, se creó y aplicó individualmente un programa de estimulación del discurso narrativo de 12 sesiones una vez por semana. Finalmente, se repitió la evaluación al final del programa. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos previo y posterior a la implementación del programa de estimulación. En relación con la Etapa del DN, antes de la intervención el 45,5% de los niños no estructuraba, lo cual se redujo a un 9.1% en la evaluación final. En cuanto al Desempeño, previo a la intervención el 72,7% de los niños presentaba un "déficit narrativo", lo cual se redujo a un 18,2% posterior a la aplicación del programa.


Narrative discourse is considered a linguistic unit that is used in a specific communicative context, being an indicator of thinking organization. Previous evidence shows how hearing aid users, have difficulties with different language skills, both expressive and comprehensive, including the ability to narrate. Additionally, there is evidence showing how therapeutic intervention would help to improve their narrative performance. However, the information available about the discursive skilland the effect ofstimulation programs on it in hearing impaired children is scarce. Accordingly, the present study aims to explore narrative performance in hearing impaired children users of hearing aids/cochlear implants, before and after a narrative speech stimulation program. Twenty-two children diagnosed with bilateral hearing loss users of hearing aids/cochlear implants with a mean age of 6.5 years were included. An initial assessment of the narrative skills was performed using Narrative Discourse Assessment (EDNA), which provided a narrative Stage and a Total score. A twelve-session stimulation program was developed and individually administered to children once a week. Finally, an assessment was performed after the program ended. In the initial assessment, 45.5% of children did not have a structured narrative speech, a percentage that was reduced to a 9.1% in the final evaluation. Statistically significant differences were observed on the EDNA scores when comparing initial and final assessments. The results obtained in the present investigation show how children who use hearing aids/cochlear implants improved significantly their narrative abilities after participating in a pilot narrative speech stimulation program.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Implante Coclear , Narração , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Aptidão , Projetos Piloto , Auxiliares de Audição
11.
Maturitas ; 141: 53-58, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036703

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We used longitudinal cohort data to explore the association between self-reported hearing difficulty (SHD) and cognitive as well as physical functioning, and whether the association is mediated by social isolation. STUDY DESIGN: 16,786 observations from participants aged 65 and older in two waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, a community-based cohort study, were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were used as indicators of physical functioning. RESULTS: Generalized structural equation modelling (GSEM) analysis showed that SHD increased the risk cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 2.93, 95 % confidence intervals [CI] 2.61-3.30), ADL disability (OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.86-2.38), and IADL disability (OR = 2.39, 95 % CI 2.12-2.68). Social isolation mediated the association of SHD with cognitive functioning, but not with physical functioning. SHD was positively associated with social isolation (OR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.42), and social isolation was significantly associated with cognitive impairment (OR = 2.09, 95 % CI 1.74-2.50). Indirect effects of SHD explained 12.3 % of the variance in cognitive impairment via social isolation. CONCLUSIONS: SHD was associated with adverse cognitive and physical functioning in older adults. Cognitive but not physical functioning was indirectly influenced by SHD via social isolation.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Longevidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Razão de Chances , Autorrelato
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0230651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886662

RESUMO

The births of domestic dogs with pigment deletion and associated congenital hearing and/or vision impairments are increasing, as a result of mutations of certain genes expressing popular coat colour patterns (Merle, piebald, Irish spotting). The future of these dogs is often pessimistic (early euthanasia or placement in rescues/fosters, lack of interactions and activities for adults). These pessimistic scenarios result from popular assumptions predicting that dogs with congenital hearing/vision impairments exhibit severe Merle-related health troubles (cardiac, skeletal, neurological), impairment-related behavioural troubles (aggressiveness, anxiety), and poor capacities to communicate, to be trained, and to be engaged in leisure or work activities. However, there is no direct scientific testing, and hence no evidence or refutation, of these assumptions. We therefore addressed an online questionnaire to owners of 223 congenitally sensory impaired (23 vision impaired, 63 hearing impaired, 137 hearing and vision impaired) and 217 sensory normal dogs from various countries. The sensory normal cohort was matched in age, lifetime with owner, breed and sex with the sensory impaired cohort, and was used as a baseline. The questionnaire assessed demographics, morphology, sensory impairments, health and behavioural troubles, activities, and dog-owner communication. Most hearing and/or vision impaired dogs exhibited abnormal pigment deletion in their coat and irises. Vision impaired dogs additionally exhibited ophthalmic abnormalities typically related to Merle. The results are opposed to all above-listed assumptions, except for neurological troubles, which were more frequently reported in sensory impaired dogs. However, we suggest that this finding could be partially accounted for by a lack of diagnosis of breed-related drug sensitivity and impairment-related compulsive behaviours. Results about communication and activities are particularly optimistic. The need for future studies of numerous dogs from various breeds tested for Merle, piebald and medical-drug-resistance genes, and the beneficial effects that present and future research may have on the future of sensory impaired dogs, are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cegueira/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/anormalidades , Animais , Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Cruzamento , Comunicação , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Cães , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/congênito , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Pigmentação/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238125, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822439

RESUMO

The majority of psychoacoustic research investigating sound localization has utilized stationary sources, yet most naturally occurring sounds are in motion, either because the sound source itself moves, or the listener does. In normal hearing (NH) listeners, previous research showed the extent to which sound duration and velocity impact the ability of listeners to detect sound movement. By contrast, little is known about how listeners with hearing impairments perceive moving sounds; the only study to date comparing the performance of NH and bilateral cochlear implant (BiCI) listeners has demonstrated significantly poorer performance on motion detection tasks in BiCI listeners. Cochlear implants, auditory protheses offered to profoundly deaf individuals for access to spoken language, retain the signal envelope (ENV), while discarding temporal fine structure (TFS) of the original acoustic input. As a result, BiCI users do not have access to low-frequency TFS cues, which have previously been shown to be crucial for sound localization in NH listeners. Instead, BiCI listeners seem to rely on ENV cues for sound localization, especially level cues. Given that NH and BiCI listeners differentially utilize ENV and TFS information, the present study aimed to investigate the usefulness of these cues for auditory motion perception. We created acoustic chimaera stimuli, which allowed us to test the relative contributions of ENV and TFS to auditory motion perception. Stimuli were either moving or stationary, presented to NH listeners in free field. The task was to track the perceived sound location. We found that removing low-frequency TFS reduces sensitivity to sound motion, and fluctuating speech envelopes strongly biased the judgment of sounds to be stationary. Our findings yield a possible explanation as to why BiCI users struggle to identify sound motion, and provide a first account of cues important to the functional aspect of auditory motion perception.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Limiar Auditivo/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/reabilitação , Implantes Cocleares , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/reabilitação , Psicoacústica , Som , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745118

RESUMO

The population of older adults that have Dual Sensory Loss (DSL) is increasing, yet most research to date has focused on single sensory impairment and is inconclusive as to whether DSL is associated with worse impact on health and well-being over single sensory loss. The primary aim of this study was to characterize the health and functioning of community-dwelling older adults with DSL who were receiving sensory rehabilitation, using an understudied assessment: the interRAI Community Health Assessment (CHA). The secondary aim was to investigate whether older adults with DSL had worse health-related outcomes than their peers with only vision loss (VL) or only hearing loss (HL). We report and compare the interRAI CHA results in a sample of 200 older adults (61+ years of age) who had DSL, VL or HL. Overall, all sensory impairment groups showed high functioning in the areas of cognition, communication, activities of daily living, depression, and psycho-social well-being. DSL was not always associated with worse outcomes compared to a single sensory loss. Rather, the results varied depending on the tasks assessed, as well as which groups were compared. Our findings highlight that despite the negative impact of sensory losses, community-dwelling older adults receiving sensory rehabilitation services tend to have overall good health and a high level of independence. These results also show that DSL is not always associated with worse outcomes compared to a single sensory loss. Further research is needed to better characterize older adults with DSL who have more severe sensory and cognitive difficulties than those in our sample, and among those who are not receiving rehabilitation services.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cegueira/reabilitação , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cegueira/complicações , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Comunicação , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reabilitação Neurológica/métodos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369519

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide a descriptive analysis of recent evidence available in the literature in relation to the efficacy of unilateral cochlear implantation in adults, the general findings of these studies, and the populations to which these findings apply. It also aimed to appraise the individual success rate and the magnitude of benefit following implantation. DESIGN: A scoping review was conducted to identify English-language, peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2000 and 2018 assessing the outcomes of cochlear implantation in adults who received their first cochlear implant from 2000 onwards. To be included, studies had to report speech perception or self-reported measures of listening or quality of life at least three months after implantation. Systematic searches were conducted in Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Google Scholar. A two-stage screening approach was used, with seven reviewers independently screening titles and abstracts against inclusion criteria and three from this group further reviewing full-texts. A data charting form was developed and trialled, with 10% of the study data extracted in duplicate to compare results and further refine the form. Data relevant for efficacy analyses were extracted from studies with sample sizes of at least 10 participants. RESULTS: A total of 4182 abstracts were screened against inclusion criteria, and of these, 603 full-texts were further screened. After exclusion of non-eligible articles, 201 articles were included in the first part of this scoping review. The majority of these articles were case series or comparative studies without a concurrent group, and had small sample sizes. Data synthesis conducted with the 102 articles with more than 10 participants highlighted that the average word perception ability improved from 8.2% to 53.9% after implantation. Self-reported benefit improved by 21.5 percentage points. At the individual level, 82.0% of adults with postlingual hearing loss and 53.4% of adults with prelingual hearing loss improved their speech perception ability by 15 percentage points or more. A small proportion had poorer ability after implantation or had stopped using the cochlear implant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite broad inconsistencies in measurement, research design, and reporting across articles, it is evident that cochlear implantation is beneficial to the majority of adults of any age who have limited aided speech perception abilities. While many adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss may also have poor speech perception abilities with hearing aids, the validity of using hearing loss severity as a criterion for cochlear implantation has not been demonstrated. Clinical and research recommendations derived from this review are provided.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Adulto , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Percepção da Fala , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324766

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: From an epidemiological point of view, the increase of pure-tone hearing thresholds as one aspect of biological ageing is moderated by societal factors. Since health policies refer to empirical findings, it is reasonable to replicate population-based hearing surveys and to compare estimates for different birth cohorts from the same regions or, conversely, for the same birth cohorts from different regions. METHODS: We pooled data from two independent cross-sectional German studies conducted between 2008 and 2012 and including 3105 adults. The increase of thresholds, the prevalence and risk of hearing impairment (HI) by age and gender were compared to results reported for European and US-American studies that were carried out at about the same time. Since these studies differed with regard to the age limits, the statistical approaches and, importantly, their definitions of HI, data adjustments were performed to enable the comparison. RESULTS: Overall, 15.5% of the participants in the German studies showed a pure-tone average at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better ear (PTA) greater than 25 dB HL and 8.6% had a PTA of at least 35 dB HL. Based on one-to-one comparisons, the German estimates demonstrated a good agreement to a large Dutch study and with some reservations to a Swedish study, but considerable differences to US-American results. Comprehensive comparisons of the within-study gender differences showed that age-related HI was less and the gender gap was markedly smaller in Europe compared to the US due to the lower HI in males found in the European studies. CONCLUSION: Discrepancies in measurement procedures, conditions, and equipment that complicate the comparison of absolute HI estimates across studies play no or only a marginal role when comparing relative estimates. Hence, the gender gap differences reviewed in this analysis possibly stem from societal conditions that distinguish societies commonly labeled modern industrialized western countries.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Auxiliares de Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6141, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273536

RESUMO

Hearing impairment disrupts processes of selective attention that help listeners attend to one sound source over competing sounds in the environment. Hearing prostheses (hearing aids and cochlear implants, CIs), do not fully remedy these issues. In normal hearing, mechanisms of selective attention arise through the facilitation and suppression of neural activity that represents sound sources. However, it is unclear how hearing impairment affects these neural processes, which is key to understanding why listening difficulty remains. Here, severely-impaired listeners treated with a CI, and age-matched normal-hearing controls, attended to one of two identical but spatially separated talkers while multichannel EEG was recorded. Whereas neural representations of attended and ignored speech were differentiated at early (~ 150 ms) cortical processing stages in controls, differentiation of talker representations only occurred later (~250 ms) in CI users. CI users, but not controls, also showed evidence for spatial suppression of the ignored talker through lateralized alpha (7-14 Hz) oscillations. However, CI users' perceptual performance was only predicted by early-stage talker differentiation. We conclude that multi-talker listening difficulty remains for impaired listeners due to deficits in early-stage separation of cortical speech representations, despite neural evidence that they use spatial information to guide selective attention.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Implantes Cocleares , Eletroencefalografia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4006, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132610

RESUMO

Hearing loss becomes increasingly common with age and affects quality of life. Recently, scientists have published articles about the relationship between metabolic disease and hearing loss. Metabolic disease was previously found to be highly related to an increase in alkaline phosphatase. Thus, there may be an indirect relationship between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hearing loss. In this paper, we will demonstrate the relationship between ALP and hearing loss. We included 3877 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants, who represent the noninstitutionalized civilian population in the United States from age 20 to age 69, and examined the association between ALP and frequency distributions of pure-tone air-condition (PTAC) thresholds. After adjusting for pertinent variables, the subjects who belonged to the higher quartiles of ALP tended to have worse hearing thresholds (pure tone average at high and low frequencies) than the first quartile of ALP (p < 0.001). The results showed a positive correlation between ALP and hearing loss, in both males and females (p < 0.001) and in subjects whose body mass indices (BMI) were less than 30 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, ALP may play a role in detecting hearing loss.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Perda Auditiva , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/sangue , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol ; 133: 109984, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203759

RESUMO

Cochlear implantation is a safe and reliable treatment for children with severe to profound hearing loss. The primary benefit of these medical devices in children is the acquisition of hearing, which promotes development of spoken language. The present paper reviews published literature demonstrating predictive effects of a number of factors on acquisition of hearing development and speech recognition. Of the many variables that contribute to an individual child's development after implantation, age at implantation, the presence of medical comorbidities, social determinants of health, and the provision of bilateral versus unilateral hearing are those that can vary widely and have consistently shown clear impacts. Specifically, age of implantation is crucial to reduce effects of deafness on the developing auditory system and capture the remarkable plasticity of early development. Language development after cochlear implantation requires therapy emphasizing hearing and oral communication, education, and other support which can be influenced by known social determinants of health; specifically, outcomes in children decline with reductions in socioeconomic status and levels of parental education. Medical co-morbidities also slow rates of progress after cochlear implantation. On the other hand, benefits of implantation increase in children who are provided with access to hearing from both ears. In sum, cochlear implants promote development of hearing in children and the best outcomes are achieved by providing early access to sound in both ears. These benefits can be limited by known social determinants of health which restrict access to needed support and medical comorbidities which add further complexity in care and outcome.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fala , Percepção da Fala
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3714, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111954

RESUMO

Current cochlear implants (CIs) are semi-implantable devices with an externally worn sound processor that hosts the microphone and sound processor. A fully implantable device, however, would ultimately be desirable as it would be of great benefit to recipients. While some prototypes have been designed and used in a few select cases, one main stumbling block is the sound input. Specifically, subdermal implantable microphone technology has been poised with physiologic issues such as sound distortion and signal attenuation under the skin. Here we propose an alternative method that utilizes a physiologic response composed of an electrical field generated by the sensory cells of the inner ear to serve as a sound source microphone for fully implantable hearing technology such as CIs. Electrophysiological results obtained from 14 participants (adult and pediatric) document the feasibility of capturing speech properties within the electrocochleography (ECochG) response. Degradation of formant properties of the stimuli /da/ and /ba/ are evaluated across various degrees of hearing loss. Preliminary results suggest proof-of-concept of using the ECochG response as a microphone is feasible to capture vital properties of speech. However, further signal processing refinement is needed in addition to utilization of an intracochlear recording location to likely improve signal fidelity.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Limiar Auditivo , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Som , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...