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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(7): 2709-2719, 2022 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of onset asynchrony on dichotic vowel segregation and identification in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners was examined. We hypothesized that fusion would decrease and identification performance would improve with increasing onset asynchrony. Additionally, we hypothesized that HI listeners would gain more benefit from onset asynchrony. METHOD: A total of 18 adult subjects (nine NH, nine HI) participated. Testing included dichotic presentation of synthetic vowels, /i/, /u/, /a/, and /ae/. Vowel pairs were presented with the same or different fundamental frequency (f o; f o = 106.9, 151.2, or 201.8 Hz) across the two ears and one onset asynchrony of 0, 1, 2, 4, 10, or 20 ms throughout a block (one block = 80 runs). Subjects identified the one or two vowels that they perceived on a touchscreen. Subjects were not informed that two vowels were always presented or that there was onset asynchrony. RESULTS: The effect of onset asynchrony on fusion and vowel identification was greatest in both groups when Δf o = 0 Hz. Mean fusion scores across increasing onset asynchronies differed significantly between the two groups with HI listeners exhibiting less fusion across pooled Δf o. There was no significant difference with identification performance. CONCLUSIONS: As onset asynchrony increased, dichotic vowel fusion decreased and identification performance improved. Onset asynchrony exerted a greater effect on fusion and identification of vowels when Δf o = 0, especially in HI listeners. Therefore, the temporal cue promotes segregation in both groups of listeners, especially in HI listeners when the f o cue was unavailable.


Assuntos
Sinais (Psicologia) , Perda Auditiva , Audição , Percepção da Fala , Adulto , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia
2.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 65(6): 2343-2363, 2022 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35623338

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Growing evidence suggests that fatigue associated with listening difficulties is particularly problematic for children with hearing loss (CHL). However, sensitive, reliable, and valid measures of listening-related fatigue do not exist. To address this gap, this article describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and preliminary validation of a suite of scales designed to assess listening-related fatigue in CHL: the pediatric versions of the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale (VFS-Peds). METHOD: Test development employed best practices, including operationalizing the construct of listening-related fatigue from the perspective of target respondents (i.e., children, their parents, and teachers). Test items were developed based on input from these groups. Dimensionality was evaluated using exploratory factor analyses (EFAs). Item response theory (IRT) and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses were used to identify high-quality items, which were further evaluated and refined to create the final versions of the VFS-Peds. RESULTS: The VFS-Peds is appropriate for use with children aged 6-17 years and consists of child self-report (VFS-C), parent proxy-report (VFS-P), and teacher proxy-report (VFS-T) scales. EFA of child self-report and teacher proxy data suggested that listening-related fatigue was unidimensional in nature. In contrast, parent data suggested a multidimensional construct, composed of mental (cognitive, social, and emotional) and physical domains. IRT analyses suggested that items were of good quality, with high information and good discriminability. DIF analyses revealed the scales provided a comparable measure of fatigue regardless of the child's gender, age, or hearing status. Test information was acceptable over a wide range of fatigue severities and all scales yielded acceptable reliability and validity. CONCLUSIONS: This article describes the development, psychometric evaluation, and validation of the VFS-Peds. Results suggest that the VFS-Peds provide a sensitive, reliable, and valid measure of listening-related fatigue in children that may be appropriate for clinical use. Such scales could be used to identify those children most affected by listening-related fatigue, and given their apparent sensitivity, the scales may also be useful for examining the effectiveness of potential interventions targeting listening-related fatigue in children. SUPPLEMENTAL MATERIAL: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.19836154.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Perda Auditiva , Fadiga Mental , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Criança , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fadiga Mental/diagnóstico , Pais , Procurador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Professores Escolares
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3083, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35197556

RESUMO

Although significant progress has been made in understanding outcomes following cochlear implantation, predicting performance remains a challenge. Duration of hearing loss, age at implantation, and electrode positioning within the cochlea together explain ~ 25% of the variability in speech-perception scores in quiet using the cochlear implant (CI). Electrocochleography (ECochG) responses, prior to implantation, account for 47% of the variance in the same speech-perception measures. No study to date has explored CI performance in noise, a more realistic measure of natural listening. This study aimed to (1) validate ECochG total response (ECochG-TR) as a predictor of performance in quiet and (2) evaluate whether ECochG-TR explained variability in noise performance. Thirty-five adult CI recipients were enrolled with outcomes assessed at 3-months post-implantation. The results confirm previous studies showing a strong correlation of ECochG-TR with speech-perception in quiet (r = 0.77). ECochG-TR independently explained 34% of the variability in noise performance. Multivariate modeling using ECochG-TR and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores explained 60% of the variability in speech-perception in noise. Thus, ECochG-TR, a measure of the cochlear substrate prior to implantation, is necessary but not sufficient for explaining performance in noise. Rather, a cognitive measure is also needed to improve prediction of noise performance.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Cognição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Perda Auditiva/cirurgia , Ruído , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Audiometria , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263516, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35134072

RESUMO

The ability to determine a sound's location is critical in everyday life. However, sound source localization is severely compromised for patients with hearing loss who receive bilateral cochlear implants (BiCIs). Several patient factors relate to poorer performance in listeners with BiCIs, associated with auditory deprivation, experience, and age. Critically, characteristic errors are made by patients with BiCIs (e.g., medial responses at lateral target locations), and the relationship between patient factors and the type of errors made by patients has seldom been investigated across individuals. In the present study, several different types of analysis were used to understand localization errors and their relationship with patient-dependent factors (selected based on their robustness of prediction). Binaural hearing experience is required for developing accurate localization skills, auditory deprivation is associated with degradation of the auditory periphery, and aging leads to poorer temporal resolution. Therefore, it was hypothesized that earlier onsets of deafness would be associated with poorer localization acuity and longer periods without BiCI stimulation or older age would lead to greater amounts of variability in localization responses. A novel machine learning approach was introduced to characterize the types of errors made by listeners with BiCIs, making them simple to interpret and generalizable to everyday experience. Sound localization performance was measured in 48 listeners with BiCIs using pink noise trains presented in free-field. Our results suggest that older age at testing and earlier onset of deafness are associated with greater average error, particularly for sound sources near the center of the head, consistent with previous research. The machine learning analysis revealed that variability of localization responses tended to be greater for individuals with earlier compared to later onsets of deafness. These results suggest that early bilateral hearing is essential for best sound source localization outcomes in listeners with BiCIs.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Bilateral/fisiopatologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares/efeitos adversos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Som
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 772: 136493, 2022 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35114332

RESUMO

Autophagy plays a pathogenic role in neurodegenerative disease. However, the involvement of autophagy in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) remains obscure. Naturally aged C57BL/6J mice were used to identify the role of autophagy in ARHL, and rapamycin, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, was administered for 34 weeks to explore the potential therapeutic effect of rapamycin in ARHL. We found that the number of autophagosomes and the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B (LC3B) decreased as the mice aged. The expression of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins, including Beclin1 and Atg5, and the ratio of LC3-II/I was reduced in aged mice, while mTOR activity in aged mice gradually increased. Rapamycin improved the auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold (at 8, 12, and 24 kHz). Further exploration demonstrated that spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) density was enhanced in response to administration of rapamycin. The rate of apoptosis in the basal turn SGNs was decreased, whereas autophagy activity was increased in the experimental group. Meanwhile, mTOR activity in the experimental group was decreased. Our findings indicate that age-related deficiency in autophagy may lead to increased apoptosis of aged SGNs. Rapamycin enhances autophagy of SGNs by inhibiting mTOR activation, resulting in amelioration of ARHL. Therapeutic strategy targeting autophagy may provide a potential approach for treating ARHL.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/patologia , Autofagia , Perda Auditiva/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteína Beclina-1/metabolismo , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/metabolismo , Gânglio Espiral da Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 402, 2022 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013422

RESUMO

There is a lack of studies assessing how hearing impairment relates to reproductive outcomes. We examined whether childhood hearing impairment (HI) affects reproductive patterns based on longitudinal Norwegian population level data for birth cohorts 1940-1980. We used Poisson regression to estimate the association between the number of children ever born and HI. The association with childlessness is estimated by a logit model. As a robustness check, we also estimated family fixed effects Poisson and logit models. Hearing was assessed at ages 7, 10 and 13, and reproduction was observed at adult ages until 2014. Air conduction hearing threshold levels were obtained by pure-tone audiometry at eight frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz. Fertility data were collected from Norwegian administrative registers. The combined dataset size was N = 50,022. Our analyses reveal that HI in childhood is associated with lower fertility in adulthood, especially for men. The proportion of childless individuals among those with childhood HI was almost twice as large as that of individuals with normal childhood hearing (20.8% vs. 10.7%). The negative association is robust to the inclusion of family fixed effects in the model that allow to control for the unobserved heterogeneity that are shared between siblings, including factors related to the upbringing and parent characteristics. Less family support in later life could add to the health challenges faced by those with HI. More attention should be given to how fertility relates to HI.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Audição , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva , Reprodução , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Limiar Auditivo , Criança , Características da Família , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 301, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997062

RESUMO

Hearing loss is a heterogeneous disorder. Identification of causative mutations is demanding due to genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we investigated the genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss in patients with severe/profound deafness. After the exclusion of GJB2-GJB6 mutations, we performed whole exome sequencing in 32 unrelated Argentinean families. Mutations were detected in 16 known deafness genes in 20 patients: ACTG1, ADGRV1 (GPR98), CDH23, COL4A3, COL4A5, DFNA5 (GSDDE), EYA4, LARS2, LOXHD1, MITF, MYO6, MYO7A, TECTA, TMPRSS3, USH2A and WSF1. Notably, 11 variants affecting 9 different non-GJB2 genes resulted novel: c.12829C > T, p.(Arg4277*) in ADGRV1; c.337del, p.(Asp109*) and c.3352del, p.(Gly1118Alafs*7) in CDH23; c.3500G > A, p.(Gly1167Glu) in COL4A3; c.1183C > T, p.(Pro395Ser) and c.1759C > T, p.(Pro587Ser) in COL4A5; c.580 + 2 T > C in EYA4; c.1481dup, p.(Leu495Profs*31) in LARS2; c.1939 T > C, p.(Phe647Leu), in MYO6; c.733C > T, p.(Gln245*) in MYO7A and c.242C > G, p.(Ser81*) in TMPRSS3 genes. To predict the effect of these variants, novel protein modeling and protein stability analysis were employed. These results highlight the value of whole exome sequencing to identify candidate variants, as well as bioinformatic strategies to infer their pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Audição/genética , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/metabolismo , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
8.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 166(1): 171-178, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34032520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use an automated speech-processing technology to identify patterns in sound environments and language output for deaf or hard-of-hearing infants and toddlers. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study based on a convenience sample. SETTING: Home observation conducted by tertiary children's hospital. METHODS: The system analyzed 115 naturalistic recordings of 28 children <3.5 years old. Hearing ability was stratified into groups by access to sound. Outcomes were compared across hearing groups, and multivariable linear regression was used to test associations. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in age-adjusted child vocalizations (P = .042), conversational turns (P = .022), and language development scores (P = .05) between hearing groups but no significant difference in adult words (P = .11). Conversational turns were positively associated with each language development measure, while adult words were not. For each hour of electronic media, there were significant reductions in child vocalizations (ß = -0.47; 95% CI, -0.71 to -0.19), conversational turns (ß = -0.45; 95% CI, -0.65 to -0.22), and language development (ß = -0.37; 95% CI, -0.61 to -0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Conversational turn scores differ among hearing groups and are positively associated with language development outcomes. Electronic media is associated with reduced discernible adult speech, child vocalizations, conversational turns, and language development scores. This effect was larger in children who are deaf or hard of hearing as compared with other reports in typically hearing populations. These findings underscore the need to optimize early language environments and limit electronic noise exposure in children who are deaf or hard of hearing.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Comportamento Verbal/fisiologia , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Medida da Produção da Fala , Televisão
9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 43(2): 633-646, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609038

RESUMO

Neuromodulation treatment effect size for bothersome tinnitus may be larger and more predictable by adopting a target selection approach guided by personalized striatal networks or functional connectivity maps. Several corticostriatal mechanisms are likely to play a role in tinnitus, including the dorsal/ventral striatum and the putamen. We examined whether significant tinnitus treatment response by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudate nucleus may be related to striatal network increased functional connectivity with tinnitus networks that involve the auditory cortex or ventral cerebellum. The first study was a cross-sectional 2-by-2 factorial design (tinnitus, no tinnitus; hearing loss, normal hearing, n = 68) to define cohort level abnormal functional connectivity maps using high-field 7.0 T resting-state fMRI. The second study was a pilot case-control series (n = 2) to examine whether tinnitus modulation response to caudate tail subdivision stimulation would be contingent on individual level striatal connectivity map relationships with tinnitus networks. Resting-state fMRI identified five caudate subdivisions with abnormal cohort level functional connectivity maps. Of those, two connectivity maps exhibited increased connectivity with tinnitus networks-dorsal caudate head with Heschl's gyrus and caudate tail with the ventral cerebellum. DBS of the caudate tail in the case-series responder resulted in dramatic reductions in tinnitus severity and loudness, in contrast to the nonresponder who showed no tinnitus modulation. The individual level connectivity map of the responder was in alignment with the cohort expectation connectivity map, where the caudate tail exhibited increased connectivity with tinnitus networks, whereas the nonresponder individual level connectivity map did not.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiopatologia , Núcleo Caudado/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Conectoma , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Núcleo Caudado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 77(1): 10-17, 2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Frequent social contact benefits cognition in later life although evidence is lacking on the potential relevance of the modes chosen by older adults, including those living with hearing loss, for interacting with others in their social network. METHOD: 11,418 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing provided baseline information on hearing status and social contact mode and frequency of use. Multilevel growth curve models compared episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall) at baseline and longitudinally in participants who interacted frequently (offline only or offline and online combined), compared to infrequently, with others in their social network. RESULTS: Frequent offline (B = 0.23; SE = 0.09) and combined offline and online (B = 0.71; SE = 0.09) social interactions predicted better episodic memory after adjustment for multiple confounders. We observed positive, longitudinal associations between combined offline and online interactions and episodic memory in participants without hearing loss (B = 0.50, SE = 0.11) but not with strictly offline interactions (B = 0.01, SE = 0.11). In those with hearing loss, episodic memory was positively related to both modes of engagement (offline only: B = 0.79, SE = 0.20; combined online and offline: B = 1.27, SE = 0.20). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these findings. DISCUSSION: Supplementing conventional social interactions with online communication modes may help older adults, especially those living with hearing loss, sustain, and benefit cognitively from, personal relationships.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Interação Social , Rede Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Sociais Online
11.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103200, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600410

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Managing hearing health in older adults has become a public health imperative, and cochlear implantation is now the standard of care for aural rehabilitation when hearing aids no longer provide sufficient benefit. The aim of our study was to compare speech performance in cochlear implant patients ≥80 years of age (Very Elderly) to a younger elderly cohort between ages 65-79 years (Less Elderly). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from 53 patients ≥80 years of age and 92 patients age 65-79 years who underwent cochlear implantation by the senior author between April 1, 2017 and May 12, 2020. The primary outcome measure compared preoperative AzBio Quiet scores to 6-month post-activation AzBio Quiet results for both cohorts. RESULTS: Very Elderly patients progressed from an average AzBio Quiet score of 22% preoperatively to a score of 45% in the implanted ear at 6-months post-activation (p < 0.001) while the Less Elderly progressed from an average score of 27% preoperatively to 60% at 6-months (p < 0.001). Improvements in speech intelligibility were statistically significant within each of these cohorts (p < 0.001). Comparative statistics using independent samples t-test and evaluation of effect size using the Hedges' g statistic demonstrated a significant difference for average improvement of AzBio in quiet scores between groups with a medium effect size (p = 0.03, g = 0.35). However, when the very oldest patients (90+ years) were removed, the statistical difference between groups disappeared (p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: When assessing CI performance, those over age 65 are typically compared to younger patients; however, this manuscript further stratifies audiometric outcomes for older CI recipients in a single-surgeon, high-volume practice. Our data indicates that for speech intelligibility, patients between age 65-79 perform similarly to CI recipients 80-90 years of age and should not be dismissed as potential cochlear implant candidates.


Assuntos
Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Audiometria , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5185613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950734

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Oral health is considered as one of the essential components of the overall health of every individual. Maintaining oral health is a gradual process that requires commitment. Children who require special care such as hearing impairment experience difficulty in maintaining oral health primarily due to communication difficulties. This study is aimed at using different interventions to evaluate the improvement of oral hygiene in hearing impaired children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine children were recruited in this study that were allocated randomly into each group with twenty children as follows: group 1: pictorial, group 2: video, and group 3: control. Mean plaque and gingival scores were noted before and after the use of different interventions. Oral hygiene was categorized as "excellent," "good," and "fair." Gingival health was categorized as "healthy," "mild gingivitis," and "moderate gingivitis." RESULTS: Thirty-four children (57.6%) were from 12-13 years of age bracket, and 25 (42.4%) belonged to 14-16 years of age. Regarding gender, there were 37 (62.7%) males and 22 (37.3%) females. About comparison of mean gingival and plaque scores before and after interventions in each group, a significant difference was found in group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.001), as compared to group 3 where the difference in scores was not significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Maintaining oral health requires the compliance of individuals to perform different methods of preventive dentistry, such as tooth brushing and use of dental floss. The use of different oral hygiene educational interventions such as pictorial and video methods have been proven and useful for hearing impaired children in improving oral health.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Saúde Bucal/educação , Higiene Bucal/educação , Adolescente , Criança , Diagnóstico Bucal/educação , Feminino , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Escovação Dentária/métodos
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261433, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972151

RESUMO

Diagnostic tests for hearing impairment not only determines the presence (or absence) of hearing loss, but also evaluates its degree and type, and provides physicians with essential data for future treatment and rehabilitation. Therefore, accurately measuring hearing loss conditions is very important for proper patient understanding and treatment. In current-day practice, to quantify the level of hearing loss, physicians exploit specialized test scores such as the pure-tone audiometry (PTA) thresholds and speech discrimination scores (SDS) as quantitative metrics in examining a patient's auditory function. However, given that these metrics can be easily affected by various human factors, which includes intentional (or accidental) patient intervention, there are needs to cross validate the accuracy of each metric. By understanding a "normal" relationship between the SDS and PTA, physicians can reveal the need for re-testing, additional testing in different dimensions, and also potential malingering cases. For this purpose, in this work, we propose a prediction model for estimating the SDS of a patient by using PTA thresholds via a Random Forest-based machine learning approach to overcome the limitations of the conventional statistical (or even manual) methods. For designing and evaluating the Random Forest-based prediction model, we collected a large-scale dataset from 12,697 subjects, and report a SDS level prediction accuracy of 95.05% and 96.64% for the left and right ears, respectively. We also present comparisons with other widely-used machine learning algorithms (e.g., Support Vector Machine, Multi-layer Perceptron) to show the effectiveness of our proposed Random Forest-based approach. Results obtained from this study provides implications and potential feasibility in providing a practically-applicable screening tool for identifying patient-intended malingering in hearing loss-related tests.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Tons Puros/métodos , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Aprendizado de Máquina , Percepção da Fala , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Limiar Auditivo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Audição , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Teste do Limiar de Recepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 913: 174642, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822791

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that the stria vascularis (SV) in cochlea plays a critical role in the generation of endocochlear potential (EP) and the secretion of the endolymph. 17ß-estradiol (E2) is the most potent and abundant endogenous estrogen during the premenopausal period, thus, considered as the reference estrogen. This study aimd to investigate the protective effect of E2 by promoting the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thus promoting the vascular regeneration of the SV in elderly mice. After being treated with E2 either in vivo or in vitro, the hearing threshold changes of C57BL/6J elder mice continuously reduced, endothelial cell morphology improved, the number of endothelial cells (ECs) tubular nodes increased significantly, the ability of tubular formation enhanced significantly and the expression of VEGF increased. In vitro, cell model in conjunction with in vivo ovariectomized model was established to demonstrate for the first time that E2 promotes angiogenesis by promoting the secretion of VEGF through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway (PI3K/AKT). In conclusion, E2 demonstrated potent angiogenesis properties with significant protection against Age-Related Hearing Loss (ARHL), which provides a new idea for the improvement of ARHL.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Estradiol/farmacologia , Perda Auditiva/prevenção & controle , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estria Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Indutores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Estradiol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estria Vascular/fisiologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/agonistas , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
15.
Genesis ; 59(12): e23453, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664392

RESUMO

The vertebrate Six (Sine oculis homeobox) family of homeodomain transcription factors plays critical roles in the development of several organs. Six1 plays a central role in cranial placode development, including the precursor tissues of the inner ear, as well as other cranial sensory organs and the kidney. In humans, mutations in SIX1 underlie some cases of Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, which is characterized by moderate-to-severe hearing loss. We utilized CRISPR/Cas9 technology to establish a six1 mutant line in Xenopus tropicalis that is available to the research community. We demonstrate that at larval stages, the six1-null animals show severe disruptions in gene expression of putative Six1 target genes in the otic vesicle, cranial ganglia, branchial arch, and neural tube. At tadpole stages, six1-null animals display dysmorphic Meckel's, ceratohyal, and otic capsule cartilage morphology. This mutant line will be of value for the study of the development of several organs as well as congenital syndromes that involve these tissues.


Assuntos
Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Animais , Região Branquial/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Região Branquial/patologia , Síndrome Brânquio-Otorrenal/fisiopatologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Gânglios Parassimpáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gânglios Parassimpáticos/patologia , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Tubo Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tubo Neural/patologia , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crânio/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Xenopus/genética , Xenopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(11): 951-958, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554203

RESUMO

Importance: Several studies have examined the association between hearing loss (HL) and physical function, with inconsistent results. Few used pure-tone thresholds and considered possible confounders in the association. Objective: To examine the association between hearing loss and impaired lower extremity function, frailty syndrome, and disability in older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Seniors-ENRICA-2 is a cohort study that was established in 2015-2017 in Spain. The present study was conducted from December 2015 to June 2017. Data were analyzed from January 2, 2021, to March 10, 2021. This cross-sectional analysis included 1644 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older (range, 66-91 years) of both sexes. Participants had hearing threshold measurements and data on impaired lower extremity function, frailty syndrome, and disability. Exposures: Hearing loss defined as pure-tone average greater than 40 dB HL in the better ear for standard frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz), speech frequency (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz), and high frequency (3, 4, and 8 kHz). Main Outcomes and Measures: Impaired lower extremity function was defined with the Short Physical Performance Battery; the frailty syndrome was defined as having at least 3 of the 5 criteria, including weakness, slow walking speed, low physical activity, exhaustion, and weight loss; and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was evaluated with the Lawton and Brody scale. Results: Of the 1644 participants, 831 were men (50.5%); mean (SD) age was 73.8 (4.3) years. The prevalence of moderate HL was 13.6% at speech frequency. After adjustment for age, sex, lifestyle, comorbidities, impaired cognition, and social isolation, HL in standard frequency was associated with impaired lower extremity function, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.20 (95% CI, 1.25-3.88); the corresponding estimate for the frailty syndrome was 1.85 (95% CI, 0.98-3.49) and for the IADL disability, was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.29-3.94). When considering speech frequency pure-tone average, HL was also associated with impaired function (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.57-4.28), frailty syndrome (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.06-3.22), and IADL disability (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.32-3.60). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis of data from the Seniors-ENRICA-2 cohort study, hearing loss was associated with impaired lower extremity function, frailty syndrome, and IADL disability. It may be useful to examine this association with the mechanisms elucidated in further studies.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Avaliação Geriátrica , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Vida Independente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Síndrome
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 765: 136250, 2021 11 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536511

RESUMO

Hearing loss is a common neurodegenerative disease that can start at any stage of life. Misalignment of the auditory neural impairment may impose challenges in processing incoming auditory stimulus that can be measured using electroencephalography (EEG). The electrophysiological behaviour response emanated from EEG auditory evoked potential (AEP) requires highly trained professionals for analysis and interpretation. Reliable automated methods using techniques of machine learning would assist the auditory assessment process for informed treatment and practice. It is thus highly required to develop models that are more efficient and precise by considering the characteristics of brain signals. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of several state-of-the-art techniques of machine learning that adopt EEG evoked response for the auditory assessment within the last 13 years. Out of 161 initially screened articles, 11 were retained for synthesis. The outcome of the review presented that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier outperformed with over 80% accuracy metric and was recognized as the best suited model within the field of auditory research. This paper discussed the comprehensive iterative properties of the proposed computed algorithms and the feasible future direction in hearing impaired rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Humanos
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(40)2021 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583993

RESUMO

Dysregulation of ion and potential homeostasis in the scala media is the most prevalent cause of hearing loss in mammals. However, it is not well understood how the development and function of the stria vascularis regulates this fluid homeostasis in the scala media. From a mouse genetic screen, we characterize a mouse line, named 299, that displays profound hearing impairment. Histology suggests that 299 mutant mice carry a severe, congenital structural defect of the stria vascularis. The in vivo recording of 299 mice using double-barreled electrodes shows that endocochlear potential is abolished and potassium concentration is reduced to ∼20 mM in the scala media, a stark contrast to the +80 mV endocochlear potential and the 150 mM potassium concentration present in healthy control mice. Genomic analysis revealed a roughly 7-kb-long, interspersed nuclear element (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposon insertion on chromosome 11. Strikingly, the deletion of this L1 retrotransposon insertion from chromosome 11 restored the hearing of 299 mutant mice. In summary, we characterize a mouse model that enables the study of stria vascularis development and fluid homeostasis in the scala media.


Assuntos
Surdez/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Estria Vascular/fisiologia , Animais , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Surdez/metabolismo , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/fisiologia , Audição/genética , Perda Auditiva/genética , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Homeostase/genética , Homeostase/fisiologia , Potenciais da Membrana/genética , Potenciais da Membrana/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Potássio/metabolismo , Gravidez
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16189, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376737

RESUMO

To report the prevalence of depression and its association with combined visual (VI) and hearing impairment (HI) in the elderly in residential care in India. Participants aged ≥ 60 years were recruited from 41 homes. Data on personal and sociodemographic information were obtained. Visual acuity was measured using the logMAR chart. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess depression, and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening (HHIE) was administered to assess hearing status. Data of all 867 eligible elderly participants were analysed. The mean age of the participants was 74.2 years (standard deviation: 8.2 years) and included 537 (61.9%) women and 117 (13.5%) participants who had no education. The prevalence of depression was 60.0% (95% CI: 45.2-73.4) in the elderly with combined VI and HI compared to 20.9% (95% CI:14.4-28.8) among those with VI only and 37.8% (95% CI: 26.6-46.5) among those with HI only. On multiple logistic regression analyses, depression was approximately 5 times higher among the participants with DSI after adjusting for other covariates. Six out of ten elderly with combined HI and VI had depression highlighting the need for screening and referral when elderly present with combined vision and hearing loss.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Multimorbidade , Prevalência
20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 671784, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447350

RESUMO

Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is an endocrine disease commonly found in newborns and is related to the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones (THs), which are essential for development since intrauterine life. Children with CH can develop hearing problems as THs are crucial for the auditory pathway's development and maturation. Sensory deprivations, especially in hearing disorders at early ages of development, can impair language skills, literacy, and behavioral, cognitive, social, and psychosocial development. In this review we describe clinical and molecular aspects linking CH and hearing loss.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo Congênito/complicações , Perda Auditiva/etiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Idioma , Criança , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia
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