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2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207523

RESUMO

Pregnancy can alter a woman's weight gain trajectory across the life course and contribute to the development of obesity through retention of weight gained during pregnancy. This study aimed to identify modifiable determinants associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR; calculated by the difference in pre-pregnancy and 6 month postpartum weight) in 667 women with obesity from the UPBEAT study. We examined the relationship between PPWR and reported glycaemic load, energy intake, and smoking status in pregnancy, excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), mode of delivery, self-reported postpartum physical activity (low, moderate, and high), and mode of infant feeding (breast, formula, and mixed). At the 6 month visit, 48% (n = 320) of women were at or above pre-pregnancy weight. Overall, PPWR was negative (-0.06 kg (-42.0, 40.4)). Breastfeeding for ≥4 months, moderate or high levels of physical activity, and GWG ≤9 kg were associated with negative PPWR. These three determinants were combined to provide a modifiable factor score (range 0-3); for each added variable, a further reduction in PPWR of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval 3.76, 2.25) occurred compared to women with no modifiable factors. This study identified three additive determinants of PPWR loss. These provide modifiable targets during pregnancy and the postnatal period to enable women with obesity to return to their pre-pregnancy weight.


Assuntos
Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Aleitamento Materno , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Energia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Carga Glicêmica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Fumar
3.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209600

RESUMO

The relation between changes in respiratory quotient (RQ) following dietary interventions and clinical parameters and body fat pools remains unknown. In this randomized controlled trial, participants with moderate abdominal obesity or/and dyslipidemia (n = 159) were randomly assigned to a Mediterranean/low carbohydrate (MED/LC, n = 80) or a low fat (LF, n = 79) isocaloric weight loss diet and completed a metabolic assessment. Changes in RQ (measured by indirect calorimeter), adipose-tissue pools (MRI), and clinical measurements were assessed at baseline and after 6 months of intervention. An elevated RQ at baseline was significantly associated with increased visceral adipose tissue, hepatic fat, higher levels of insulin and homeostatic insulin resistance. After 6 months, body weight had decreased similarly between the diet groups (-6 ± 6 kg). However, the MED/LC diet, which greatly improved metabolic health, decreased RQ significantly more than the LF diet (-0.022 ± 0.007 vs. -0.002 ± 0.008, p = 0.005). Total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure were independently associated with RQ changes (p = 0.045). RQ was positively associated with increased superficial subcutaneous-adipose-tissue but decreased renal sinus, pancreatic, and intramuscular fats after adjusting for confounders. Fasting RQ may reflect differences in metabolic characteristics between subjects affecting their potential individual response to the diet.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/fisiopatologia , Dieta Redutora/métodos , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Calorimetria Indireta , Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am Fam Physician ; 104(1): 34-40, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264616

RESUMO

Unintentional weight loss in people older than 65 years is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Nonmalignant diseases are more common causes of unintentional weight loss in this population than malignant causes. However, malignancy accounts for up to one-third of cases of unintentional weight loss. Medication use and polypharmacy can interfere with the sense of taste or induce nausea and should not be overlooked as causative factors. Social factors such as isolation and financial constraints may contribute to unintentional weight loss. A readily identifiable cause is not found for 6% to 28% of cases. Recommended tests include age-appropriate cancer screenings, complete blood count, basic metabolic panel, liver function tests, thyroid function tests, C-reactive protein level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lactate dehydrogenase measurement, ferritin, protein electrophoresis, and urinalysis. Chest radiography and fecal occult blood testing should be performed. Further imaging and invasive testing may be considered based on initial evaluation. When the initial evaluation is unremarkable, a three- to six-month observation period is recommended with follow-up based on clinician and patient preferences. Treatment should focus on the underlying cause if known. Dietary modifications that consider patient preferences and chewing or swallowing disabilities should be considered. Appetite stimulants and high-calorie supplements are not recommended. Treatment should focus on feeding assistance, addressing contributing medications, providing appealing foods, and social support.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Humanos , Morbidade/tendências
5.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202475

RESUMO

Recently, intermittent fasting, also known as time-restricted eating (TRE), has become a popular diet trend. Compared to animal studies, there have been few studies and inconclusive findings investigating the effects of TRE in humans. In this study, we examined the effects of 8 h TRE on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults who were mainly active at night. A total of 33 young adults completed the 8 h TRE for 4 weeks. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and every 2 weeks, and blood samples were collected at baseline and week 4. Daily dietary records were logged throughout the intervention period. Participants experienced significant changes in body weight (-1.0 ± 1.4 kg), body mass index (-0.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2), and body fat (-0.4 ± 1.9%) after 4 weeks of TRE. When participants were divided into weight loss/gain groups based on their weight change in week 4, fat mass reduction was significantly higher in the weight loss group than in the weight gain group. Regarding cardiometabolic risk factors, levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance improved in the weight loss group after intervention, but not in the weight gain group. All subjects showed late-shifted sleeping patterns, but no significant differences in sleep duration, sleep quality, or psychological measures between the two groups. When meal frequency and energy proportion were evaluated, the average meal frequency was 2.8 ± 0.5 and energy proportions of breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks were 4.5, 39.2, 37.6, and 18.5%, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups. However, the saturated fat intake at dinner was lower in the weight loss group (3.1 ± 3.2%, 6.0 ± 2.5% respectively). In conclusion, 8 h TRE can be applied as a lifestyle strategy to manage body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among young adults with late chronotypes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Jejum/fisiologia , Refeições/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Registros de Dieta , Impedância Elétrica , Ingestão de Energia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206176

RESUMO

Energy restriction is a first therapy in the treatment of obesity, but the underlying biological mechanisms have not been completely clarified. We analyzed the effects of restriction of high-fat diet (HFD) on weight loss, circulating gut hormone levels and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides. Ten-week-old male Wistar rats (n = 40) were randomly distributed into four groups: two fed ad libitum a normal diet (ND) (N group) or a HFD (H group) and two subjected to a 25% caloric restriction of ND (NR group) or HFD (HR group) for 9 weeks. A 25% restriction of HFD over 9 weeks leads to a 36% weight loss with regard to the group fed HFD ad libitum accompanied by normal values in adiposity index and food efficiency ratio (FER). This restriction also carried the normalization of NPY, AgRP and POMC hypothalamic mRNA expression, without changes in CART. Caloric restriction did not succeed in improving glucose homeostasis but reduced HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia. In conclusion, 25% restriction of HFD reduced adiposity and improved metabolism in experimental obesity, without changes in glycemia. Restriction of the HFD triggered the normalization of hypothalamic NPY, AgRP and POMC expression, as well as ghrelin and leptin levels.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica/métodos , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Proteína Relacionada com Agouti/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
7.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206431

RESUMO

We examined the relationships between intergenerational obesity, weight and size at birth, and obesity from infancy to adolescence with weight loss in response to a dietary intervention. We studied 4264 participants (3369 women; mean age 41.5 ± 12.9 years) of the ONTIME study. Participants followed a weight-loss treatment based on a Mediterranean diet. Associations between grandparental and parental obesity grade, birth weight and size, and obesity grade in infancy, childhood and adolescence with total weight loss in response to treatment were assessed, using multivariate linear regression models. A lower weight loss (kg) in response to treatment was found among participants who were obese during infancy (beta coefficient -2.13 kg; 95% CI, -3.96, -0.30; p = 0.023). Furthermore, obesity during infancy and also during childhood was associated with a slower weekly rate of weight loss during treatment (p < 0.05). In conclusion, obesity in infancy and in childhood impairs the weight-loss response to dietary treatments in adulthood. Tackling obesity throughout early life may improve the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in adulthood.


Assuntos
Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Manejo da Obesidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/terapia , Obesidade Pediátrica/classificação , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso ao Nascer , Dieta Mediterrânea , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Manejo da Obesidade/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Vet J ; 273: 105691, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148606

RESUMO

There is a paucity of information regarding the phenomenon of weight regain after successful weight reduction in cats. This study aimed to estimate post-weight reduction maintenance energy requirements (MER) required to maintain stable weight in a group of pet cats. Nineteen cats that had successfully completed a controlled weight reduction programme were enrolled. For inclusion, at least 2 months of follow-up had to be available for review, and the maximum change in weight during maintenance was ±2%. Post-weight-reduction MER was estimated by determining dietary energy consumption from owner diary records. The Friedman test was used to compare bodyweight and energy intake at different stages of weight management. Simple and multiple linear regression were used to identify factors associated with post-weight-reduction MER. The median (interquartile range) duration of weight maintenance was 179 days (119-408 days) and, during this time, MER was 273 ± 56.7 kJ per kg0.67 ideal bodyweight (IBW) per day. Post-weight-reduction MER was greater than metabolisable energy intake at the end (233 ± 29.5 kJ IBW per kg0.67 per day; P < 0.001) but not the start (255 ± 38.6 kJ per kg0.67 IBW per day; P = 0.148) of the weight reduction period. Using simple and multiple linear regression, the only variable that was associated with post-weight reduction MER was the mean ME intake during weight reduction (r2 = 0.349, P = 0.008). Post-weight-reduction MER at the lower limits of MER recommendations for pet cats might predispose to weight regain during the weight maintenance phase.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Obesidade/veterinária , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
10.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063109

RESUMO

Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is strongly linked with the future development of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Hence, reducing postprandial glycemic excursions is essential in T2D treatment to slow progressive deficiency of ß-cell function and prevent cardiovascular complications. Most of the metabolic processes involved in PPHG, i.e., ß-cell secretory function, GLP-1 secretion, insulin sensitivity, muscular glucose uptake, and hepatic glucose production, are controlled by the circadian clock and display daily oscillation. Consequently, postprandial glycemia displays diurnal variation with a higher glycemic response after meals with the same carbohydrate content, consumed at dusk compared to the morning. T2D and meal timing schedule not synchronized with the circadian clock (i.e., skipping breakfast) are associated with disrupted clock gene expression and is linked to PPHG. In contrast, greater intake in the morning (i.e., high energy breakfast) than in the evening has a resetting effect on clock gene oscillations and beneficial effects on weight loss, appetite, and reduction of PPHG, independently of total energy intake. Therefore, resetting clock gene expression through a diet intervention consisting of meal timing aligned to the circadian clock, i.e., shifting most calories and carbohydrates to the early hours of the day, is a promising therapeutic approach to improve PPHG in T2D. This review will focus on recent studies, showing how a high-energy breakfast diet (Bdiet) has resetting and synchronizing actions on circadian clock genes expression, improving glucose metabolism, postprandial glycemic excursions along with weight loss in T2D.


Assuntos
Desjejum/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização do Ritmo Circadiano/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dieta para Diabéticos/métodos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Glicemia/metabolismo , Relógios Circadianos/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Hiperglicemia , Refeições/fisiologia , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066564

RESUMO

Body contouring surgery after the massive weight loss due to bariatric surgery deals with different kinds of complications. The aim of this review is to analyze the role that some nutrients may play in tissue healing after surgery, thus helping plastic surgeons to improve the aesthetic and health outcomes in massive weight loss patients under a multidisciplinary approach. As a matter of fact, preoperative nutritional deficiencies have been shown for vitamins and minerals in a large percentage of post-bariatric patients. Preoperative deficiencies mainly concern iron, zinc, selenium, and vitamins (both fat-soluble and water-soluble), but also total protein. During the postoperative period, these problems may increase because of the patients' very low intake of vitamins and minerals after bariatric surgery (below 50% of the recommended dietary allowance) and the patients' low compliance with the suggested multivitamin supplementation (approximately 60%). In the postoperative period, more attention should be given to nutritional aspects in regard to the length of absorptive area and the percentage of weight loss.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Desnutrição/terapia , Apoio Nutricional/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Contorno Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/metabolismo , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Pele/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
12.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063868

RESUMO

The recent identification of brown adipose tissue in adult humans offers a new strategy to increase energy expenditure to treat obesity and associated metabolic disease. While white adipose tissue (WAT) is primarily for energy storage, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ that increases energy expenditure to generate heat. BAT is activated upon cold exposure and improves insulin sensitivity and lipid clearance, highlighting its beneficial role in metabolic health in humans. This review provides an overview of BAT physiology in conditions of overnutrition (obesity and associated metabolic disease), undernutrition and in conditions of altered fat distribution such as lipodystrophy. We review the impact of exercise, dietary macronutrients and bioactive compounds on BAT activity. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of dietary manipulations or supplementation to increase energy expenditure and BAT thermogenesis. We conclude that chronic nutritional interventions may represent a useful nonpharmacological means to enhance BAT mass and activity to aid weight loss and/or improve metabolic health.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Desnutrição/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Hipernutrição/fisiopatologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Termogênese/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
13.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 52, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare a flexible vs. rigid diet on weight loss and subsequent weight regain in resistance-trained (RT) participants in a randomized, parallel group design. METHODS: Twenty-three males and females (25.6 ± 6.1 yrs; 170 ± 8.1 cm; 75.4 ± 10.3 kg) completed the 20-week intervention (consisting of a 10-week diet phase and a 10-week post-diet phase). Participants were randomized to a flexible diet (FLEX) comprised of non-specific foods or a rigid diet (RIGID) comprised of specific foods. Participants adhered to an ~20%kcal reduction during the first 10-weeks of the intervention and were instructed to eat ad libitum for the final 10-weeks. Body composition and resting metabolic rate were assessed 5 times: (baseline, 5, 10 [end of diet phase], 16, and 20 weeks). RESULTS: During the 10-week diet phase, both groups significantly reduced bodyweight (FLEX: baseline = 76.1 ± 8.4kg, post-diet = 73.5 ± 8.8 kg, ▲2.6 kg; RIGID: baseline = 74.9 ± 12.2 kg, post-diet = 71.9 ± 11.7 kg, ▲3.0 kg, p < 0.001); fat mass (FLEX: baseline = 14.8 ± 5.7 kg, post-diet = 12.5 ± 5.0 kg, ▲2.3 kg; RIGID: baseline = 18.1 ± 6.2 kg, post-diet = 14.9 ± 6.5 kg, ▲3.2 kg p < 0.001) and body fat% (FLEX: baseline = 19.4 ± 8.5%, post-diet = 17.0 ± 7.1%, ▲2.4%; RIGID: baseline = 24.0 ± 6.2%, post-diet = 20.7 ± 7.1%, ▲3.3%; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups for any variable during the diet phase. During the post-diet phase, a significant diet x time interaction (p < 0.001) was observed for FFM with the FLEX group gaining a greater amount of FFM (+1.7 kg) in comparison with the RIGID group (-0.7 kg). CONCLUSIONS: A flexible or rigid diet strategy is equally effective for weight loss during a caloric restriction diet in free-living, RT individuals. While post-diet FFM gains were greater in the FLEX group, there were no significant differences in the amount of time spent in resistance and aerobic exercise modes nor were there any significant differences in protein and total caloric intakes between the two diet groups. In the absence of a clear physiological rationale for increases in FFM, in addition to the lack of a standardized diet during the post-diet phase, we refrain from attributing the increases in FFM in the FLEX group to their diet assignment during the diet phase of the investigation. We recommend future research investigate additional physiological and psychological effects of flexible diets and weight regain in lean individuals.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Treinamento de Força , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071985

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, also influencing bone tissue. Several studies have reported that vitamin D blood levels were significantly lower in people with obesity, probably due to its uptake by the adipose tissue. Clinical studies that investigated the changes of circulating levels of vitamin D following weight loss reported controversial data. A very low-calorie ketogenic diet is acknowledged as a reliable treatment to achieve a rapid weight loss. Therefore, we investigated the effect of weight loss, consequent to a very low-calorie ketogenic diet, on vitamin D blood concentrations. Methods: A cohort of 31 people with obesity underwent a very low-calorie ketogenic diet for 10-12 weeks. The serum concentrations of vitamin D, parathormone, calcium and phosphorous were measured before and after weight loss; they were compared to a control group of 20 non-obese, non-diabetic, age- and gender-matched persons. Results: Patients with obesity had a higher habitual intake of vitamin D than the control group (p < 0.05). However, the vitamin D blood levels of the obese group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p < 0.005) and they increased after weight loss (p < 0.001). At baseline, vitamin D blood concentrations of the persons with obesity were significantly correlated with both fat mass-kg (r = -0.40; p < 0.05) and body mass index (r = -0.47; p < 0.01). Following very low-calorie ketogenic diet, the change in vitamin D serum concentrations was correlated only with the change in fat mass-kg (r = -0.43; p < 0.01). Conclusion: This study confirmed that patients with obesity have lower vitamin D levels that normalize after significant weight loss, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D is stored in the adipose tissue and released following weight loss.


Assuntos
Dieta Cetogênica , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Vitamina D/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue
15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072172

RESUMO

The global burden of obesity and the challenges of prevention prompted researchers to investigate the mechanisms that control food intake. Food ingestion triggers several physiological responses in the digestive system, including the release of gastrointestinal hormones from enteroendocrine cells that are involved in appetite signalling. Disturbed regulation of gut hormone release may affect energy homeostasis and contribute to obesity. In this review, we summarize the changes that occur in the gut hormone balance during the pre- and postprandial state in obesity and the alterations in the diurnal dynamics of their plasma levels. We further discuss how obesity may affect nutrient sensors on enteroendocrine cells that sense the luminal content and provoke alterations in their secretory profile. Gastric bypass surgery elicits one of the most favorable metabolic outcomes in obese patients. We summarize the effect of different strategies to induce weight loss on gut enteroendocrine function. Although the mechanisms underlying obesity are not fully understood, restoring the gut hormone balance in obesity by targeting nutrient sensors or by combination therapy with gut peptide mimetics represents a novel strategy to ameliorate obesity.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Hormônios Gastrointestinais , Obesidade , Derivação Gástrica , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/fisiologia , Humanos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066026

RESUMO

Gut microbiota-mediated inflammation promotes obesity-associated low-grade inflammation, which represents a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. To investigate if lifestyle-induced weight loss (WL) may modulate the gut microbiome composition and its interaction with the host on a functional level, we analyzed the fecal metaproteome of 33 individuals with metabolic syndrome in a longitudinal study before and after lifestyle-induced WL in a well-defined cohort. The 6-month WL intervention resulted in reduced BMI (-13.7%), improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR, -46.1%), and reduced levels of circulating hsCRP (-39.9%), indicating metabolic syndrome reversal. The metaprotein spectra revealed a decrease of human proteins associated with gut inflammation. Taxonomic analysis revealed only minor changes in the bacterial composition with an increase of the families Desulfovibrionaceae, Leptospiraceae, Syntrophomonadaceae, Thermotogaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae. Yet we detected an increased abundance of microbial metaprotein spectra that suggest an enhanced hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates. Hence, lifestyle-induced WL was associated with reduced gut inflammation and functional changes of human and microbial enzymes for carbohydrate hydrolysis while the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome remained almost stable. The metaproteomics workflow has proven to be a suitable method for monitoring inflammatory changes in the fecal metaproteome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Proteoma/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia
17.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 2654-2662, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933731

RESUMO

AIMS: Dicarbonyl compounds contribute to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and the development of insulin resistance and vascular complications. Dicarbonyl stress may already be detrimental in obesity. We evaluated whether diet-induced weight loss can effectively reverse dicarbonyl stress in abdominally obese men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from lean (n = 25) and abdominally obese men (n = 52) in the fasting state, and during a mixed meal test (MMT). Abdominally obese men were randomized to 8 weeks of dietary weight loss or habitual diet, followed by a second MMT. The α-dicarbonyls methylglyoxal (MGO), glyoxal (GO) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and AGEs were measured by UPLC-MS/MS. Skin autofluorescence (SAF) was measured using the AGE reader. T-tests were used for the cross-sectional analysis and ANCOVA to assess the treatment effect. RESULTS: Postprandial glucose, MGO and 3-DG concentrations were higher in obese men as compared to lean men (p < 0.05 for all). Fasting dicarbonyls, AGEs, and SAF were not different between lean and obese men. After the weight loss intervention, fasting MGO levels tended to decrease by 25 nmol/L (95%-CI: -51-0.5; p = 0.054). Postprandial dicarbonyls were decreased after weight loss as compared to the control group: iAUC of MGO decreased by 57% (5280 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 33-10526; p = 0.049), of GO by 66% (11,329 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 495-22162; p = 0.041), and of 3-DG by 45% (20,175 nmol/L∙min; 95%-CI: 5351-35000; p = 0.009). AGEs and SAF did not change significantly after weight loss. CONCLUSION: Abdominal obesity is characterized by increased postprandial dicarbonyl stress, which can be reduced by a weight loss intervention. Registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT01675401.


Assuntos
Dieta Redutora , Obesidade Abdominal/dietoterapia , Período Pós-Prandial , Estresse Fisiológico , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Aldeído Redutase/genética , Aldeído Redutase/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lactoilglutationa Liase/genética , Lactoilglutationa Liase/metabolismo , Masculino
18.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 1067-1073, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029443

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate sitting time, the home sedentary environment, and physical activity among weight-loss maintainers in WW (formerly Weight Watchers). METHODS: Participants were 4,305 weight-loss maintainers who had maintained ≥9.1 kg of weight loss (24.7 kg on average) for 3.3 years and had an average current BMI of 27.6 kg/m2 . A control group of weight-stable individuals with obesity (n = 619) had an average BMI of 38.9 kg/m2 . The Multicontext Sitting Time Questionnaire and Paffenbarger physical activity questionnaire were administered. RESULTS: Weight-loss maintainers versus controls spent 3 hours less per day sitting during the week (10.9 vs. 13.9; η p 2 = 0.039; P = 0.0001) and weekends (9.7 vs. 12.6; η p 2 = 0.038). Weight-loss maintainers versus controls spent 1 hour less per day in non-work-related sitting using a computer or video games during the week (1.4 vs. 2.3; η p 2 = 0.03; P = 0.0001) and weekends (1.5 vs. 2.5; η p 2 = 0.03; P = 0.0001). Weight-loss maintainers versus controls had similar numbers of sedentary-promoting devices (15.8 vs. 14.8) and expended significantly more calories per week in physical activity (1,835 vs. 785; η p 2 = 0.036; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Weight-loss maintainers reported less time sitting than weight-stable individuals with obesity. Future research should test the efficacy of targeting sitting time to help promote long-term weight-loss maintenance.


Assuntos
Manutenção do Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Postura Sentada , Meio Social , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0240764, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043632

RESUMO

Obesity is an epidemic internationally. While weight loss interventions are efficacious, they are compounded by heterogeneity with regards to clinically relevant metabolic responses. Thus, we sought to identify metabolic biomarkers that are associated with beneficial metabolic changes to weight loss and which distinguish individuals with obesity who would most benefit from a given type of intervention. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based profiling was used to measure 765 metabolites in baseline plasma from three different weight loss studies: WLM (behavioral intervention, N = 443), STRRIDE-PD (exercise intervention, N = 163), and CBD (surgical cohort, N = 125). The primary outcome was percent change in insulin resistance (as measured by the Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [%ΔHOMA-IR]) over the intervention. Overall, 92 individual metabolites were associated with %ΔHOMA-IR after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Concordantly, the most significant metabolites were triacylglycerols (TAGs; p = 2.3e-5) and diacylglycerols (DAGs; p = 1.6e-4), with higher baseline TAG and DAG levels associated with a greater improvement in insulin resistance with weight loss. In tests of heterogeneity, 50 metabolites changed differently between weight loss interventions; we found amino acids, peptides, and their analogues to be most significant (4.7e-3) in this category. Our results highlight novel metabolic pathways associated with heterogeneity in response to weight loss interventions, and related biomarkers which could be used in future studies of personalized approaches to weight loss interventions.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Metabolômica , Obesidade/sangue , Perda de Peso/fisiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diglicerídeos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Obesidade/terapia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-month healthy lifestyle intervention based on diet plus physical activity on cardiovascular structure and function in children and adolescents with obesity; Methods: In this longitudinal study we assessed changes in anthropometric, biochemical and cardiovascular variables in 55 subjects with obesity (6-16 years) before and after a 12-month behavioral program based on Mediterranean diet plus exercise regimen. Subjects were divided in two groups based on negative change in BMI z-score ≥10% from baseline: weight losers (WL) and non-weight losers (NWL); Results: After 12 months, WL showed a significant improvement of metabolic parameters. Treatment was effective in increasing the mitral peak early diastolic velocity E and the E/A ratio. In subjects with a reduction of the number of NCEP-ATPIII metabolic syndrome criteria, lifestyle intervention reduced left ventricular area and volume. Intervention reduced carotid intima-media thickness in subjects showing a decrease of the systemic blood pressure; Conclusions: In children with obesity, cardiovascular impairment could be partially reversed by a healthy lifestyle intervention. To adopt prompt behavioral programs in childhood obesity is crucial both for prevention and treatment of precocious complications and could have an exponential impact on long-term morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Antropometria , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Criança , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso/fisiologia
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