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1.
J Psychosom Res ; 150: 110634, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe hypoglycemia complicates insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) being a major risk factor. We explored associations between the personality traits, alexithymia and perfectionism, and cognitive barriers to hypoglycemia avoidance described in IAH, and evaluated their prevalence in people with and without IAH. METHODS: Cross-sectional exploratory study. Ninety adults with type 1 diabetes, 54 hypoglycemia aware and 36 with IAH, completed validated questionnaires exploring alexithymia (Total Alexithymia Scale [TAS-20]) and perfectionism (Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale [FMPS]); and cognitive barriers related to hypoglycemia avoidance (Attitudes to Awareness Questionnaire [A2A]. RESULTS: Alexithymia and perfectionism scores correlated positively with cognitive barriers associated with IAH. Specifically, alexthymia scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.265; p = .02, n = 77) and the 'Asymptomatic Hypoglycemia Normalised' factor (r = 0.252-0.255; p = .03, n = 77). Perfectionism scores correlated with the 'Hyperglycaemia Avoidance Prioritised' factor (r = 0.525; p < .001, n = 66). Overall, IAH participants were significantly more likely to score at the high end for alexithymia (17.6% vs. 1.9%, p = .008, n = 87) and at the extreme ends (high and low) for perfectionism (69.0% vs. 40.0%, χ2 (1) = 6.24, p = .01, n = 77). CONCLUSION: These novel data showing associations between alexithymia and perfectionism scores and maladaptive health beliefs in IAH suggest the intriguing possibility that personality traits may contribute to the risk of IAH, perhaps through their influence on incentives to avoid hypoglycemia. If confirmed, measuring such traits may help tailor early adjunctive psychological intervention to reduce hypoglycemia burden for people with IAH.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Hipoglicemia , Perfeccionismo , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Humanos
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639472

RESUMO

Perfectionism is a transdiagnostic process which may be implicated in the onset and maintenance of non-suicidal self-injury. No study has evaluated whether reported differences in perfectionism between individuals with and without a history of self-injury represent genuine group differences or measurement artefacts. The present study reports an investigation of the measurement invariance of two common scales of perfectionism, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale-Brief (FMPS-Brief) and the Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ), among university students (Mage = 20.48, SDage = 2.22, 75.3% female, 22.8% male) with and without a history of self-injury (total n = 711). Results revealed full residual error invariance for the two-factor model of FMPS-Brief, while the bifactor model of the FMPS-Brief and the two-factor model of the CPQ demonstrated partial metric invariance. Accounting for partial metric invariance, the bifactor model of the FMPS-Brief also demonstrated partial residual error invariance. The current findings suggest that observed differences using the FMPS-Brief reflect genuine differences in perfectionism between individuals with and without a history of self-injury. Further, while researchers using the bi-factor model can have confidence that the general factor can adequately assess group differences, differential item functioning should be considered if using the strivings and concerns factors. Finally, in the current data, the CPQ did not perform as expected in baseline model fit and future research should replicate assessments of measurement invariance in this measure.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(Suppl 4): 778-785, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a contribution to the dimensional classification of mental disorders, which in the next edition of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) could dominate over the categorical, and in general, due to the impact of anger on the behavior of individuals in our society, it seems important to examine and analyze dimensions that represent risk factors for occurrence and development of anger disorders. Aim, to examine gender differences in the expression of the adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and anger (state and trait, as well as the anger expression and control) and to examine whether the dimensions of perfectionism are statistically significant predictors of anger. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study included a total of 600 primary and secondary school students (305 girls and 295 boys), 12 to 18 years old. Data were collected using a Socio-demographic Features Questionnaire for general information onto the Adaptive/ Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS), Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS), and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 Child and Adolescent (STAXI-2 C/A). RESULTS: Statistically significant gender differences were found in the expression of the adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism and anger. For aspects of anger, girls have been found to control their anger more often than boys. Multiple regression analysis indicates the important contribution of the dimensions of perfectionism in the explanation of anger in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Given the results obtained, our research represents a contribution to the definition of a dimensional diagnostic system to prevent comorbidity of mental disorders and provide more clinically relevant information about each individual. The instrument which is used to measure anger in this study (STAXI-2 C/A; Brunner & Spielberger 2009) was for the first time applied in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results of this research are a contribution to its validation.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682544

RESUMO

Perfectionism or a tendency to aim for an unrealistic standard can impair happiness. However, the potential mechanisms of perfectionism to explain the association between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness are still understudied. This study explores the mediating role of perfectionism in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness among young adults. A cross-sectional sample of 259 young adults aged between 18 to 35 years old was recruited. All analyses were conducted using SPSS and AMOS Structural Equation Modeling. High trait EI was linked to low perfectionism and high happiness levels. Furthermore, perfectionism mediated the relationship between trait EI and happiness. Although high trait EI lowered maladaptive perfectionism, the negative impact of maladaptive perfectionism remained and subsequently led to decreasing happiness levels of young adults. This study offers an enhanced understanding of the role of perfectionism in explaining the happiness state of young adults. Moreover, it provides practical implications for using trait EI and managing perfectionism tendency to manage the happiness and wellbeing of the young adult population.


Assuntos
Felicidade , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Front Public Health ; 9: 688811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513782

RESUMO

Background: Perfectionism in adolescence has received increased attention, but few studies have examined this in non-clinical samples. This study investigated perfectionism among adolescents from the general population in relation to demographic factors. Methods: The present study is cross-sectional and draws on the epidemiological youth@hordaland study. The sample consisted of 10.217 adolescents aged 16-19 years (52.9% girls). Self-reported perfectionism was assessed by the EDI-P scale from the Eating Disorder Inventory with two dimensions of perfectionism, namely self-oriented (SOP) and socially prescribed (SPP) perfectionism, and a total score. Perfectionism was analyzed in relation to age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES) by perceived economic well-being and parental education level. Chi-squared tests, t-tests, and regression analyses were performed. Results: There were few gender differences on the mean scores on perfectionism, with similar levels on the total score of EDI-P and SOP, while girls scored slightly higher on SPP (p < 0.001). The latter gender difference represented a small effect size (Cohen's d = 0.053). Chi-square analyses with perfectionism split at the 90th percentile across gender showed that there were significantly more girls than boys among the high scorers both for EDI-P, EDI-SOP, and EDI-SPP. There were no significant differences between levels of perfectionism between the three age groups. The logistic regression analyses adjusted by age and gender showed that adolescents with a better perceived economic well-being had increased odds of high perfectionism. This was evident for overall EDI-P (OR = 1.760, 95% CI = 1.493-2.076), SOP (OR = 1.543, 95% CI = 1.292-1.843), and SPP (OR = 1.836, 95% CI = 1.559-2.163). Parental education was not significantly associated with perfectionism scores among the adolescents. Conclusions: The levels of perfectionism were relatively similar between the genders in the present study, besides slightly higher SPP among girls than boys. There were also significantly more girls than boys among the high scorers on overall perfectionism, SOP, and SPP, respectively. High perfectionism was related to SES for perceived economic well-being, but not for parental education level. Implications for further research and clinical interventions were suggested.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social
6.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 524-533, 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564064

RESUMO

Background and aims: Perfectionism, a focused self-concept, and erroneous beliefs have been implicated in the development and maintenance of various disordered behaviors. However, researchers have yet to examine how these factors combine to explain different disordered behaviors. Herein, we addressed this gap and hypothesized a moderated-mediation model whereby perfectionism fosters the development of disordered behaviors through a focused self-concept. Critically, the effect of a focused self-concept on disordered behaviors is specific to people with erroneous beliefs about their disordered behaviors. The model was tested in the contexts of disordered gambling and disordered eating, particularly dietary restraint. Method: In Study 1, participants were community members who gamble (N = 259). In Study 2, participants were university women (N = 219). In both studies, participants completed self-report measures of all constructs that are both reliable and valid. Results: In Study 1, as expected, there was a positive association between perfectionism and disordered gambling, which was mediated by financially focused self-concept. This mediation was only observed among participants who scored high on illusion of control and belief in luck. Likewise, in Study 2, there was a positive association between perfectionism and dietary restraint, which was mediated by appearance focused self-concept. The mediation effect was only observed among participants who believed that maladaptive dietary restraint behaviors were safe and efficacious. Discussion and Conclusions: The findings support the transdiagnostic utility of our model, which may help explain an array of disordered behaviors, including other addictive behaviors as well as behaviors that involve rigid adherence to rules and control.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Jogo de Azar , Perfeccionismo , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Autoimagem
7.
J Relig Health ; 60(5): 3640-3657, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432199

RESUMO

This article introduces a new self-report measure of perfectionism: the Spiritual/Religious Perfectionism Scale (SRPS). Following preliminary psychometric evidence for a 20-item SRPS (Besharat, 2017),  the present investigation examined the structure of the SRPS using exploratory factor analysis in study 1 (368 students: 181 men, 187 women) and confirmatory factor analysis in study 2 (384 community adults: 189 men, 195 women) in Iran. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 14 items. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the SRPS-14's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. The SRPS-14's internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity including criterion, convergent, incremental, and discriminant were examined. The results provided preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SRPS-14 as a measure of spiritual/religious perfectionism. It should be noted that the English-language translation of the items presented in this paper has not yet been validated in an English-speaking sample, but should be validated in future research.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 119, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perfectionism is a risk factor for depression and anxiety and is increasing in young people. It is important to understand the information that youth are exposed to about perfectionism on the internet and what may be required to make this more helpful in terms of accessing empirically supported descriptions and advice. METHODS: This research used novel methodology to investigate content about perfectionism on websites by conducting a realist synthesis of the definitions of perfectionism, and the degree to which websites contain empirically supported strategies and recognise the advantages and disadvantages of perfectionism. The results were presented to people aged 18 to 24 (N = 18) with a lived experience of anxiety/depression for feedback. RESULTS: The search yielded 992 websites, 266 of which were included in the synthesis; only one met the criteria for excellent quality with most (56%) judged as moderate. The feelings, thoughts, and behaviours that accompany perfectionism were commonly described, and strategies included identifying cognitions and developing alternatives, moving from self-criticism to self-compassion, normalising mistakes, adjusting goals, receiving practical support, and strategies for procrastination. The young people wanted further emphasis on depression and anxiety as consequences of perfectionism that contributed to a vicious cycle. They identified interventions were difficult, with greater levels of support needed. CONCLUSIONS: While most websites contained empirically supported information, the quality needs to improve, and further information needs to be provided on the links with anxiety and depression. Interventions for perfectionism need to have more focus on helping young people develop support networks.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão , Empatia , Humanos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360418

RESUMO

Perfectionism is considered to be a significant personality factor within the sport and exercise field. However, very little is known about the reasons why individuals with different perfectionistic tendencies engage or not in physical activity. This study aims, from a person-oriented approach, to analyze if participation motives and barriers may differ among four perfectionistic profiles: Non-Perfectionists (low perfectionistic strivings, PS, and perfectionistic concerns, PC), Adaptive Perfectionists (high PS and low PC), Maladaptive Perfectionists (high PS and PC), and Moderate Perfectionists (moderate PS and PC). A sample composed of 597 (Mage = 22.08, SD = 3.33) undergraduates enrolled in a sport science degree from Ecuador participated in this study. Non-Perfectionists reported lower levels of motives, whereas Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionists reported higher scores on all participation motives. Significant and positive correlations were found between PS and both autonomous and controlled motives, whereas PC was positively correlated with controlled reasons and only significantly correlated with some autonomous reasons by the effect of PS. In terms of barriers, Maladaptive Perfectionists reported significantly higher scores on all barriers analyzed in comparison with the other three profiles, with moderate and large effect sizes. The results of the bivariate and partial correlations suggest that these inter-profile differences were explained by PC. Considering the results, it is advised to develop strategies to identify Maladaptive Perfectionists in order to increase their intrinsic reasons for practicing physical exercise, and to minimize their perceived barriers.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Esportes , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Motivação , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perfectionism is consistently identified as a predisposing and perpetuating factor for a wide range of mental health conditions and disorders. Given the unique cognitive, emotional, and physiological characteristics associated with perfectionism, perfection could have serious implications for a critical health behavior-our sleep. The current study examines the links between perfectionism and sleep health with the goal of identifying potential sleep-related beliefs as underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Participants were 417 undergraduate students at a large, public university in the mid-Atlantic United States. Participants completed a one-time online survey with the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised, the Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Scale, Perceived Competence Scale about their sleep, and the RU SATED sleep health scale. RESULTS: A two-step structural equation modeling strategy was used. Greater perfectionism discrepancies predicted greater dysfunctional beliefs about sleep (ß = 0.45) and worse perceived sleep competence (ß = -0.33). Moreover, greater dysfunctional beliefs and worse perceived sleep competence predicted worse sleep health (ß = -0.23 and 0.59, respectively). Dysfunctional beliefs and perceived sleep competence significantly mediated the effect of maladaptive perfectionism on sleep health (ß = -0.302). DISCUSSION: Dysfunctional beliefs and sleep competence emerged as mechanisms through which maladaptive perfectionism may function as a barrier to healthy sleep. Although prior research positions perfectionism as a primary correlate of poor sleep, the current study identifies the role of beliefs about sleep as the pathway from perfectionism to poorer sleep health. The results highlight the importance of addressing both maladaptive beliefs about sleep as well as beliefs about one's own sleep competency with undergraduate students with higher maladaptive perfectionism.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Humanos , Motivação , Sono , Estudantes
12.
J Cogn Psychother ; 35(3): 195-211, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362859

RESUMO

Clinical perfectionism is the rigid pursuit of high standards, interfering with functioning. Little research has explored neural patterns in clinical perfectionism. The present study explores neural correlates of clinical perfectionism, before and after receiving ten 50-minute, weekly sessions of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), as compared to low-perfectionist controls, in specific cortical structures: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Participants in the perfectionist condition (n = 43) were from a randomized controlled trial evaluating ACT for clinical perfectionism and low-perfectionist controls were undergraduate students (n = 12). Participants completed three tasks (editing a passage, mirror image tracing, circle tracing) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure neural activation. Results indicate that hin the DLPFC and MPFC of the perfectionists whereas activation in the other tasks were relatively similar. There were no differences were observed in the right DLPFC, MPFC, and right IPL between the posttreatment perfectionist and nonperfectionist control groups. Our findings suggest an unclear relationship between neural activation and perfectionism.


Assuntos
Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Perfeccionismo , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estudantes
13.
J Relig Health ; 60(5): 3606-3619, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318398

RESUMO

Religious perfectionism is a construct that may help to either improve mental health or cause mental health difficulties. The Religious Perfectionism Scale (RPS; Wang in J Relig Health 59: 318-333, 2020) is a useful tool for assessing religious perfectionism around the world, but its psychometric properties have yet to be tested in Iran. The sample in the present study consisted of 300 Iranian undergraduate students (180 females) from Azad University who completed the RPS, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-2, and the Moral Perfectionism Scale. The impact score was used to determine face validity, and the values of the impact score for all translated items were greater than 1.5, meaning that the items had satisfactory face validity. The Content Validity Index (CVI) values were above the acceptable cutoff score of 0.7, indicating the acceptable content validity of items. The Content Validity Ratio (CVR) scores were greater than the cutoff score of the Lawshe table (.78), indicating the satisfactory essentiality of the items. To measure construct validity, the results of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using AMOS software confirmed the scale with two subscales (zealous religious dedication and religious self-criticism). No item was removed from the scale as all factor loading values were greater than 0.49. The findings support the psychometric properties of the scale for measuring religious perfectionism among undergraduate students in Iran.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudantes
14.
Child Dev ; 92(5): 1855-1871, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231882

RESUMO

Personality and identity formation are intricately linked in adolescent development. The personality disposition of perfectionism has been associated with identity processes, but their longitudinal interplay in adolescence has not yet been investigated. This four-wave study, with 5- to 6-month intervals between each wave (N = 744 Caucasian adolescents, Mage  = 15.2 years, 55% girls), examined associations between perfectionism (self-oriented and socially prescribed) and identity processes in the domain of future plans. Self-oriented perfectionism predicted increases in commitment making, identification with commitment, and exploration in depth. Socially prescribed perfectionism showed bidirectional positive relations with ruminative exploration. Exploration in depth predicted increases in socially prescribed perfectionism. Findings suggest that perfectionism is an important personality disposition in adolescent identity formation unfolding over time.


Assuntos
Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Autoimagem
15.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 73: 101675, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cognitive-behavioural models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) suggest that maladaptive beliefs about perfectionism play a key role in the development and maintenance of OCD. Cognitive-bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) is an experimental procedure that can test this proposed causal relation. METHODS: As such, the current study investigated whether multiple CBM-I sessions administered in different contexts can modify perfectionism biases. Undergraduate students high in OCD-related perfectionism beliefs were randomly allocated to either an experimental (n = 44) or control (n = 44) training condition and completed self-report and behavioural measures of perfectionism and OCD symptoms. RESULTS: As predicted, relative to the control condition, participants in the experimental condition exhibited a significant decrease in perfectionism beliefs, from baseline to after one CBM-I training session, which was maintained at one-week follow-up. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant differences between conditions on measures of OCD symptoms and perfectionistic behaviour. LIMITATIONS: Issues with the current study's behavioural measures may have precluded any differences between conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Results underscore the need to further refine cognitive-behavioural models of OCD to understand the precise causal relation between beliefs and symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Perfeccionismo , Viés , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Autorrelato , Estudantes
16.
Physiol Behav ; 239: 113501, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Feeling fat reflects difficulties in processing emotions and is an important aspect of body image and eating disorders. The current study aimed to develop a novel social comparison manipulation to induce feeling fat and to explore personality traits that may increase an individual's vulnerability. METHODS: At time 1, 254 healthy females (24.14 years, BMI = 23.77) completed the feeling fat subscale of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire, as well as self-report measures of alexithymia, interoceptive sensibility, physical appearance comparison and perfectionism online. At time 2, a subset of 107 participants (22.39 years, BMI = 23.85) were randomly assigned to a condition: negative social comparison, positive social comparison, negative general, or neutral (as a control). RESULTS: At time 1, greater tendency to feel fat was significantly associated with difficulty identifying and describing feelings (alexithymia), poorer interoceptive sensibility, higher socially-prescribed perfectionism, and greater engagement in physical appearance comparisons. At time 2, participants in the negative social comparison condition reported significantly greater increases in feeling fat compared to the control condition, but only when they were also high in alexithymia or socially-prescribed perfectionism. DISCUSSION: Current findings provide new insights into the potential mechanisms underpinning feeling fat and highlight how a novel social comparison manipulation can be used to induce the sensation of feeling fat.


Assuntos
Interocepção , Perfeccionismo , Sintomas Afetivos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Sensação
17.
Eat Behav ; 41: 101514, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964708

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Eating disorders are associated with perfectionism in adults, but evidence is lacking in adolescent competitive athletes. This study examined eating disorder symptoms and perfectionism in a sample of 13-15 years old, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts. METHODS: Eighty-nine female rhythmic gymnasts (41 international and 48 recreational level gymnasts), completed the Eating Attitudes Tests 26 (EAT-26), the Sport Perfectionism Questionnaire (SPQ), the Social Desirability Scale (SDS) and provided information on their training. RESULTS: It was found that 41.46% of the international and 14.58% of the recreational level gymnasts scored ≥20 in EAT-26. International level gymnasts also scored higher than recreational in EAT-26 (p = 0.002), and its subscales Dieting (p = 0.012) and Oral Control (p Ë‚ 0.001) and in the Sport Perfectionism Questionnaire (p = 0.005) and the subscales Striving for Perfectionism (p Ë‚ 0.001) and Personal Standards (p Ë‚ 0.001). No differences were found between groups in the subscales Concerns over Mistakes (p = 0.429), and Negative Reactions to Imperfection (p = 0.096). Multiple regression analysis in international level gymnasts, showed that Negative Reactions to Imperfection, body mass index and training experience accounted for 33.2% of the variance in EAT-26 (adjusted R2 = 0.332, F = 6.786, p Ë‚ 0.001). A negative association was observed between training experience and eating disorder symptoms in international level athletes. No association was found between the subscales of perfectionism and EAT-26 in recreational gymnasts (p Ëƒ 0.316). CONCLUSIONS: International level, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts show more eating pathology than recreational. Negative Reactions to Imperfection and BMI seem relevant for gymnasts' dieting behaviour while training experience may help adolescent athletes to cope with disturbed eating behaviours.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Perfeccionismo , Esportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Ginástica , Humanos
18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(8): 1463-1476, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949717

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The network theory of mental disorders conceptualizes eating disorders (EDs) as networks of interacting symptoms. Network analysis studies in EDs mostly have examined transdiagnostic and/or mixed age samples. The aim of our study was to investigate similarities and differences of networks in adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa (AN) or bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: Participants were 2,535 patients (n = 991 adults with AN, n = 821 adolescents with AN, n = 473 adults with BN, and n = 250 adolescents with BN) who completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Twenty-seven items were selected. Cross-sectional networks were estimated via Joint Graphical Lasso. Core symptoms were identified using strength centrality. Spearman correlations and network comparison tests (NCTs) were used to compare groups. RESULTS: Across diagnoses and ages, feeling ineffective, desire to be thinner, worries that feelings will get out of control, guilt after overeating as well as doing things perfectly emerged as most central symptoms. There were moderate to high correlations between symptom profiles (0.62-0.97, mean: 0.78) as well as high correlations between network structures (0.83-0.93, mean: 0.87) and network strengths (0.73-0.95, mean: 0.85). Global strength significantly differed in two of the six NCTs, and 2.5-10% of edges differed between networks. DISCUSSION: Considerable similarities in network structures and strengths across diagnoses and ages speak in favor of the transdiagnostic approach to EDs. Besides drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, emotion regulation difficulties, and perfectionism might be the most consistent factors in ED networks. These symptoms as well as their symptom connections should be especially focused in treatment regardless of age and diagnosis.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos
19.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(9): 2283-2289, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33867281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored psychological factors associated with body image dissatisfaction in individuals seeking aesthetic surgery on the NHS. In NHS Scotland, The Adult Exceptional Aesthetic Referral Protocol (AEARP) states that individuals are only eligible for consideration for surgery where there is significant psychological distress and physical criteria associated with perceived problem of appearance. The AEARP necessitates that individuals seeking aesthetic surgery on the NHS must have a psychological assessment. It is therefore crucial to identify psychological factors associated with body image dissatisfaction that may highlight contraindications for surgery or are amenable to psychological intervention. METHOD: A total of 311 consecutive patients seeking aesthetic surgery who were referred for psychological assessment under the AEARP completed a series of psychometric measures as part of routine clinical practice. Multiple mediation analyses using bootstrapped method was used to explore the relationship between interpersonal functioning, emotion regulation, perfectionism, and body image dissatisfaction. RESULTS: Multiple mediation analysis indicated that emotion regulation partially mediates the relationship between interpersonal functioning and body image dissatisfaction in this clinical population. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation significantly relate to body image dissatisfaction in this patient group. Psychological assessment of patient suitability for aesthetic surgery should include assessment of interpersonal functioning and emotion regulation which may be amenable to psychological intervention and be of significant benefit to patients either pre- or post-operatively or instead of surgery.


Assuntos
Insatisfação Corporal , Regulação Emocional , Perfeccionismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Estética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Escócia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803367

RESUMO

Adolescents and young adults, particularly females, are highly vulnerable to the development of anxiety disorders, depression, and eating disorders. Comorbid anxiety disorder or depression in eating disorders are associated with greater symptom severity, poorer prognosis, and burden of illness. Nonetheless, studies on what affects the relationship between anxiety, depression, and eating disorders in female at-risk samples are scarce. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the present study examined potential moderators to explain between-person differences in the association between anxiety, depression, and eating disorder-related impairment within 12- to 25-year-old females (N = 320). High impairment in anxiety/depression was associated with more severe eating disorder symptoms. Older age as well as greater impairment in mood dysregulation, self-esteem, and perfectionism were linked to more severe eating disorder symptomatology. Whereas mood dysregulation, self-esteem, and perfectionism had no statistically significant moderating effects, younger age appeared to augment the association of anxiety/depression and eating disorder symptomatology. Preventive care in particular needs to consider age-related effects as eating disorder symptoms are associated more strongly with symptoms of anxiety and depression in early adolescence.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Perfeccionismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
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