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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205624

RESUMO

Studies have reported that cholesterol, a molecule found mainly in animals, is also present in some plants and algae. This study aimed to determine whether cholesterol exists in three dehydrated algae species, namely, Pyropia tenera, Saccharina japonica, and Undaria pinnatifida, and in one plant species, namely, Perilla frutescens (four perilla seed oil samples were analyzed). These species were chosen for investigation because they are common ingredients in East Asian cuisine. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis found that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.6 mg/100 g) and in all four perilla seed oil samples (0.3-0.5 mg/100 g). High-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) also demonstrated that cholesterol was present in P. tenera (14.2 mg/100 g) and allowed the separation of cholesterol from its isomer lathosterol. However, cholesterol could not be detected by HPLC-ELSD in the perilla seed oil samples, most likely because it is only present in trace amounts. Moreover, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) confirmed the presence of cholesterol in both P. tenera and perilla seed oil. MRM results further suggested that lathosterol (a precursor of cholesterol) was present in P. tenera.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(6): 855-859, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078762

RESUMO

The leaf of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton var. frutescens (egoma) is a rich source of polyphenolic compounds, including rosmarinic acid. However, there is still a lack of detailed information concerning the content of phenolic compounds in these leaves. Since some flavonoids were found as a conjugated form, leaves were used untreated or hydrolyzed using ß-glucuronidase for analysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis method successfully identified some polyphenols, which have not been reported before. Scutellarin, a flavone glucuronide with a molecular mass similar to that of luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, was present in egoma leaves. Scutellarin was the second most abundant polyphenolic compound, after rosmarinic acid. Egoma leaves at the top of the plant contained a higher amount of rosmarinic acid and scutellarin compared to that in the leaves below. The difference in plant growth stage also influenced the rosmarinic acid and scutellarin contents, while the time of harvesting during the day did rosmarinic acid contents only. This is the first time that scutellarin, a traditional Chinese medicine, widely used for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease, was quantitatively determined in egoma leaves. The present study may help adding value to egoma leaves, developing dietary supplements, functional foods, and cosmetics.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Apigenina/análise , Apigenina/isolamento & purificação , Apigenina/metabolismo , Cinamatos/análise , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/análise , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Glucuronatos/análise , Glucuronatos/isolamento & purificação , Glucuronatos/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(49): 14684-14697, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237758

RESUMO

Perillae Folium (PF), which is extensively used as a dietary vegetable and medicinal herb, contains two varietal forms corresponding to purple perilla leaf (Perilla frutescens var. crispa) and green perilla leaf (Perilla frutescens var. frutescens). However, the components and efficacy of different PF varieties remain underexplored so far. In the present work, a nontargeted rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q/TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was developed to investigate the difference in the chemical compositions between green PF and purple PF. A total of 71 compounds were identified or tentatively identified, among which 7 phenolic acids, 10 flavonoids, and 9 anthocyanins were characterized as differential metabolites. In addition, heatmap visualization and ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS)-based quantitative analysis revealed that flavonoids and anthocyanins especially had higher contents in purple PF. Furthermore, the anti-oxidative activities of two varietal PFs were evaluated in vivo zebrafish and in vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that the purple PF had more pronounced anti-oxidative activities than did the green PF, which may be due to the presence of anthocyanins and a higher concentration of flavonoids in its phytochemical profile. The outcome of the present study is expected to provide useful insight on the comprehensive utilization of a PF resource.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Perilla frutescens/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16207, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004940

RESUMO

Perilla frutescens (L.) is an important medicinal and edible plant in China with nutritional and medical uses. The extract from leaves of Perilla frutescens contains flavonoids and volatile oils, which are mainly used in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, we analyzed the transcriptomic and metabolomic data of the leaves of two Perilla frutescens varieties: JIZI 1 and JIZI 2. A total of 9277 differentially expressed genes and 223 flavonoid metabolites were identified in these varieties. Chrysoeriol, apigenin, malvidin, cyanidin, kaempferol, and their derivatives were abundant in the leaves of Perilla frutescens, which were more than 70% of total flavonoid contents. A total of 77 unigenes encoding 15 enzymes were identified as candidate genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis in the leaves of Perilla frutescens. High expression of the CHS gene enhances the accumulation of flavonoids in the leaves of Perilla frutescens. Our results provide valuable information on the flavonoid metabolites and candidate genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathways in the leaves of Perilla frutescens.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metaboloma , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Biologia Computacional , Flavonoides/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Perilla frutescens/genética , Perilla frutescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
5.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066640

RESUMO

In order to achieve premium quality with crop production, techniques involving the adjustment of nutrient supply and/or supplemental lighting with specific light quality have been applied. To examine the effects of low mineral supply and supplemental lighting, we performed non-targeted metabolite profiling of leaves and stems of the medicinal herb Perilla frutescens, grown under a lower (0.75×) and lowest (0.1×) supply of different minerals (N, K, or Mg) and under supplemental light-emitting diode (LED) lighting (red, blue, or red-blue combination). The lowest N supply increased flavonoids, and the lowest K or Mg slightly increased rosmarinic acid and some flavonoids in the leaves and stems. Supplemental LED lighting conditions (red, blue, or red-blue combination) significantly increased the contents of chlorophyll, most cinnamic acid derivatives, and rosmarinic acid in the leaves. LED lighting with either blue or the red-blue combination increased antioxidant activity compared with the control group without LED supplementation. The present study demonstrates that the cultivation of P. frutescens under low mineral supply and supplemental LED lighting conditions affected metabolic compositions, and we carefully suggest that an adjustment of minerals and light sources could be applied to enhance the levels of targeted metabolites in perilla.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Iluminação , Magnésio/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Minerais/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/química , Potássio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726342

RESUMO

High salt accumulation, resulting from the rampant use of chemical fertilizers in greenhouse cultivation, has deleterious effects on plant growth and crop yield. Herein, we delineated the effects of magnesium (Mg) oversupply on Perilla frutescens leaves, a traditional edible and medicinal herb used in East-Asian countries. Mg oversupply resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll content coupled with lower antioxidant activities and growth, suggesting a direct effect on subtle metabolomes. The relative abundance of bioactive phytochemicals, such as triterpenoids, flavonoids, and cinnamic acids, was lower in the Mg-oversupplied plants than in the control. Correlation analysis between plant phenotypes (plant height, total fresh weight of the shoot, leaf chlorophyll content, and leaf antioxidant content) and the altered metabolomes in P. frutescens leaves suggested an acclimatization mechanism to Mg oversupply. In conclusion, P. frutescens preferentially accumulated compatible solutes, i.e., carbohydrates and amino acids, to cope with higher environmental Mg levels, instead of employing secondary and antioxidative metabolism.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnésio/farmacologia , Metabolômica , Perilla frutescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perilla frutescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perilla frutescens/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110805, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540618

RESUMO

Screening new accumulators of heavy metal and identifying their tolerance, enrichment capacity of heavy metals are currently hot issues in phytoremediation research. A series of hydroponic experiments were conducted to analyze the effects of glutathione and phytochelatins in roots, stems, and leaves of Perilla frutescens under cadmium stress. The results showed that the non-protein thiols in roots and stems mainly existed in the form of GSH, PC2, PC3, and PC4 under Cd stress condition, while in leaves they existed in the form of GSH, PC2, and PC3. Furthermore, the contents of GSH and PCs positively correlated with Cd, but negatively correlated with root vigor and chlorophyll content under Cd stress conditions. After 21 days of treatments, the contents of Cd in different parts of the plant were 1465.2-3092.9 mg· kg-1 in the roots, 199.6-478.4 mg·kg-1 in the stems and 61.3-96.9 mg· kg-1 in the leaves at 2, 5, 10 mg·L-1 Cd levels respectively, and the amount of Cd uptakes were up to 3547.7-5701.7 µg·plant-1. Therefore, P. frutescens performed high capacity in Cd accumulation, and PCs played a key role in Cd tolerance. The application prospect of the plant in phytoremediation Cd polluted soil was also discussed.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Glutationa/biossíntese , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Fitoquelatinas/biossíntese , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 120, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935415

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) are abundant in vegetable oils and are important for human health. In the body, LA and ALA are respectively converted to the omega-6 fatty acid γ-linolenic acid (GLA) and the omega-3 fatty acid stearidonic acid (SDA) by Δ6 desaturase (D6DES). Currently, dietary GLA and SDA are mainly obtained from marine organisms, but given their benefits to human health, many studies have aimed to enhance their accumulation in transgenic crops. Perilla frutescens (perilla) accumulates more ALA in its seed oil compared to other oilseed crops, making it a good candidate for the production of fatty acids via the fatty acid desaturase D6DES. RESULTS: In this study, we cloned the D6DES gene from Phytophthora citrophthora and confirmed its function in budding yeast. We then transformed the functional D6DES gene under the control of the seed-specific vicilin promoter into the perilla cultivar Yeobsil. The resulting transgenic perilla seeds accumulated significant levels of GLA and SDA, as well as putative C18:2Δ6,9 at minor levels. Developing seeds and leaves also accumulated GLA and SDA, although PcD6DES expression and GLA and SDA levels were much lower in leaves compared to developing seeds. GLA and SDA accumulated in both polar lipids and neutral lipids in mature perilla seeds expressing PcD6DES, especially in neutral lipids. Although the seed weight in PcD6DES perilla was 87-96% that of wild type, the total oil content per seed weight was similar between lines. The PcD6DES perilla plants contained very high content (over 45%) of both GLA and SDA in seed oil. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, PcD6DES perilla plants may represent a feasible alternative to traditional marine sources for the production of omega-3 oil capsules and to evening primrose seed oil for GLA as health food. In addition, these plants can be used to create other transgenic lines harboring additional genes to produce other desirable fish-oil like oils.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Linolênico/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
9.
Food Chem ; 275: 730-738, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724256

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the volatile compounds of the leaves of ten perilla accessions as well as to determine total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity. Essential oil (EOs) content ranged from 0.33 to 1.75 mL/100 g d.w. in PS3 and J1 respectively. In this study sixty-five compounds were identified by GC-MS and characterized with the predominance of perillaldehyde, perilla ketone, ß-dehydro-elsholtzia ketone, limonene, shisofuran, farnesene (Z, E, α), ß-caryophyllene, trans-shisool. The biogenesis and composition of EOs are probably attributed to several factors. JTD3 had a significantly higher polyphenol content as well as showed the highest antioxidant capacity, whereas a strong positive linear correlation was observed between them. PS1 and NP 606 produced the maximum biomass correspondingly, while a large glandular trichome density was recorded for J1. The results support that perilla is rich in natural compounds that could be developed as nutraceuticals and/or phytomedicine.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Perilla frutescens/química , Polifenóis/análise , Limoneno/análise , Modelos Lineares , Monoterpenos/análise , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
10.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 213, 2018 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29562889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perilla frutescens is well known for its high α-linolenic acid (ALA) accumulation in seeds and medicinal values as well as a source of edible and general-purpose oils. However, the regulatory mechanisms of the biosynthesis of fatty acid in its seeds remain poorly understood due to the lacking of sequenced genome. For better understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism and further increase its oil content or modify oil composition, time-course transcriptome and lipid composition analyses were performed. RESULTS: Analysis of fatty acid content and composition showed that the α-linolenic acid and oleic acid accumulated rapidly from 5 DAF to 15 DAF and then kept relatively stable. However, the amount of palmitic acid and linoleic acid decreased quickly from 5 DAF to 15DAF. No significant variation of stearic acid content was observed from 5 DAF to 25DAF. Our transcriptome data analyses revealed that 110,176 unigenes were generated from six seed libraries at 5, 10, 20 DAF. Of these, 53 (31 up, 22 down) and 653 (259 up, 394 down) genes showed temporal and differentially expression during the seed development in 5 DAF vs 10 DAF, 20 vs 10 DAF, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were annotated and found to be involved in distinct functional categories and metabolic pathways. Deep mining of transcriptome data led to the identification of key genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthesis and metabolism. Thirty seven members of transcription factor family AP2, B3 and NFYB putatively involved in oil synthesis and deposition were differentially expressed during seed development. The results of qRT-PCR for selected genes showed a strong positive correlation with the expression abundance measured in RNA-seq analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides valuable genomic resources for characterizing Perilla seed gene expression at the transcriptional level and will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events of oil biosynthesis and accumulation in oilseed crops.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Perilla frutescens/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Perilla frutescens/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
Acta Biol Hung ; 68(4): 453-465, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29262704

RESUMO

An open field experiment was carried out with five purple Perilla frutescens accessions (588P, GB, J3, JTD3, PS3) in 2014 and 2015. Morphological traits, production, total phenolic content (TPC), essential oil content (EOC) and composition as well as the antioxidant capacity (AOC) were investigated. Highest biomass was produced by JTD3 in both years. The antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content in the stems was lower than in the leaves in all accessions. Leaves of accession GB produced the highest AOC values (215.594 ± 1.437 in 2014 and 86.609 ± 3.602 mg AAE g-1 in 2015, respectively) while the strain 588P showed the lowest values (139.544 ± 1.934 in 2014 and 38.966 ± 4.569 mg AAE g-1 in 2015, respectively). The highest TPC values were measured by PS3 in 2014 (204.320 ± 1.822 mg GAE g-1) and GB in 2015 (136.450 ± mg GAE g-1). The 588P produced the highest essential oil content (1.432 ml 100 g-1 DM) while J3 had the lowest (0.144 ml 100 g-1 DM) in both years. Strong positive correlation was found between the density of glandular hairs and the essential oil content. Three accessions (588P, J3, JTD3) belong to the perillaldehyde chemotype while GB and PS3 to the dehydro elsholtzia ketone chemotype. All studied accessions can be cultivated in Hungary. For the biomass production the JTD3, while for the essential oil production the 588P can be recommended.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Perilla frutescens/química , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Food Drug Anal ; 25(4): 776-788, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28987353

RESUMO

The objective of this research was to access the determination of metabolite profiles and antioxidant properties in the leaves of green perilla (Perilla frutescens), where these are considered functional and nutraceutical substances in Korea. A total of 25 compositions were confirmed as six phenolic acids, two triterpenoids, eight flavonoids, seven fatty acids, and two glucosides using an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) technique from the methanol extract of this species. The individual and total compositions exhibited significant differences, especially rosmarinic acid (10), and linolenic acids (22 and 23) were detected as the predominant metabolites. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid (10) was observed to have considerable differences with various concentrations in three samples (Doryong, 6.38 µg/g; Sinseong, 317.60 µg/g; Bongmyeong, 903.53 µg/g) by UPLC analysis at 330 nm. The scavenging properties against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals also showed potent effects with remarkable differences at a concentration of 100 µg/mL, and their abilities were as follows: Sinseong (DPPH, 86%; ABTS, 90%) > Bongmyeong (71% and 84%, respectively) > Doryong (63% and 73%, respectively). Our results suggest that the antioxidant activities of green perilla leaves are correlated with metabolite contents, especially the five major compositions 10 and 22-25. Moreover, this study may be useful in evaluating the relationship between metabolite composition and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Perilla frutescens/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
BMC Genomics ; 17: 474, 2016 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of α-linolenic acid (ALA), a ω-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cDNAs from developing seeds and leaves for understanding the mechanism underlying ALA and seed TAG biosynthesis. RESULTS: Perilla cultivar Dayudeulkkae contains 66.0 and 56.2 % ALA in seeds and leaves, respectively. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000, we have generated a total of 392 megabases of raw sequences from four mRNA samples of seeds at different developmental stages and one mature leaf sample of Dayudeulkkae. De novo assembly of these sequences revealed 54,079 unique transcripts, of which 32,237 belong to previously annotated genes. Among the annotated genes, 66.5 % (21,429 out of 32,237) showed highest sequences homology with the genes from Mimulus guttatus, a species placed under the same Lamiales order as perilla. Using Arabidopsis acyl-lipid genes as queries, we searched the transcriptome and identified 540 unique perilla genes involved in all known pathways of acyl-lipid metabolism. We characterized the expression profiles of 43 genes involved in FA and TAG synthesis using quantitative PCR. Key genes were identified through sequence and gene expression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: This work is the first report on building transcriptomes from perilla seeds. The work also provides the first comprehensive expression profiles for genes involved in seed oil biosynthesis. Bioinformatic analysis indicated that our sequence collection represented a major transcriptomic resource for perilla that added valuable genetic information in order Lamiales. Our results provide critical information not only for studies of the mechanisms involved in ALA synthesis, but also for biotechnological production of ALA in other oilseeds.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Perilla frutescens/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 40(15): 2937-44, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26677690

RESUMO

The volatile oil is the main component in the leaves of Perilla frutescens. According to the main types of monoterpenoids or aromatic compounds, it can be divided into different chemotypes and the main chemotypes of Chinese producing Perilla are PA type (mainly containing Perilla aldehyde and limonene), PK type (mainly containing perillaketone) and PP type (subdivided as PP-a type, with apiole as its main component; PP-m type, with myristicin as its main component; PP-e type, with elemicin as main component; PP-as type, with asarone as main component). Based on the biosynthetic pathways analysis, we also found that the formation of the particular chemotype is usually controlled by a single gene or a few genes, and different types have different pharmacological effects. In this paper, the classification under the species P. frutescens, main chemotypes of the volatile oil, and their biogenesis and regulation, pharmacological effect and influence factors are summarized and reviewed.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/análise , Perilla frutescens/química , Animais , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Perilla frutescens/classificação , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química
15.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0129154, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26070213

RESUMO

Perilla frutescens var. crispa (Labiatae) has two chemo-varietal forms, i.e. red and green forms of perilla, that differ in the production of anthocyanins. To facilitate molecular biological and biochemical studies in perilla-specialized metabolism we used Illumina RNA-sequencing technology in our comprehensive comparison of the transcriptome map of the leaves of red and green forms of perilla. Sequencing generated over 1.2 billion short reads with an average length of 101 nt. De novo transcriptome assembly yielded 47,788 and 47,840 unigenes in the red and green forms of perilla plants, respectively. Comparison of the assembled unigenes and existing perilla cDNA sequences showed highly reliable alignment. All unigenes were annotated with gene ontology (GO) and Enzyme Commission numbers and entered into the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. We identified 68 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in red and green forms of perilla. GO enrichment analysis of the DEGs showed that genes involved in the anthocyanin metabolic process were enriched. Differential expression analysis revealed that the transcript level of anthocyanin biosynthetic unigenes encoding flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase was significantly higher in red perilla, while the transcript level of unigenes encoding limonene synthase was significantly higher in green perilla. Our data serve as a basis for future research on perilla bio-engineering and provide a shortcut for the characterization of new functional genes in P. frutescens.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Perilla frutescens/genética , Transcriptoma , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 99(5): 2083-92, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25620368

RESUMO

Rosmarinic acid (α-o-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid; RA) is a naturally occurring hydroxylated compound commonly found in species of the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae and Boraginaceae, such as Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, and Perilla frutescens. RA is biosynthesized from the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine by eight enzymes that include phenylalanine ammonia lyase and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. RA can also be chemically produced by the esterification of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA and its numerous derivatives containing one or two RA with other aromatic moieties are well known and include lithospermic acid, yunnaneic acid, salvianolic acid, and melitric acid. Recently, RA and its derivatives have attracted interest for their biological activities, which include anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and anti-microbial functions. Clinically, RA attenuates T cell receptor-mediated signaling, attenuates allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma, and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms, protects from neurotoxicity, and slows the development of Alzheimer's disease. These attributes have increased the demand for the biotechnological production and application of RA and its derivatives. The present review discusses the function and application of RA and its derivatives including the molecular mechanisms underlying clinical efficacy.


Assuntos
Vias Biossintéticas , Biotecnologia/métodos , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Cinamatos/síntese química , Depsídeos/síntese química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/metabolismo , Salvia officinalis/metabolismo , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos
17.
Gene ; 559(2): 155-63, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25597767

RESUMO

Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. is a self-pollinating annual species and is widely cultivated in China, Korea and Japan as an economic crop and a source of medicine and spices. In this study, we sequenced one cultivar variety (PF98095) of P. frutescens (L.) var. frutescens Britt., which was assembled as reference and other three varieties (PF11109, weedy of var. frutescens, PF06336 and PF06353, cultivars of varieties crispa) in order to carry out comparative expression profiling within cultivar and weedy in varieties frutescens and between varieties frutescens and varieties crispa of cultivar type in P. frutescens. Assembly of PF98095, annotation mapping, DEG (differentially expressed gene) profiling, and comparative analysis were performed. We found that more than 65% of the reads were mapped to the reference of P. frutescens gene set. Moreover, we detected 22,962 DEGs in the weedy variety compared to the cultivar, and also, 22,138 and 23,845 DEGs were identified in two cultivars according to the reference, respectively. The DEGs and functional classification were developed to analyze the differences between weedy and cultivar and between varieties frutescens and varieties crispa of Perilla. Furthermore, candidate genes for the different color and seed size of Perilla were identified that could be further investigated in future study. The herein results may play a significant role, and contribute in functional transcriptome studies of Perilla.


Assuntos
Perilla frutescens/genética , Mapeamento de Sequências Contíguas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma
18.
Mol Med Rep ; 10(2): 1077-83, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24898576

RESUMO

Perilla leaves are widely used in Chinese herbal medicine and in Japanese herbal agents used to treat respiratory diseases. This study aimed to investigate the anti­inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PLE). Murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells were used as a model. Cell viability and morphological changes were studied by the MTT assay and microscopy. mRNA expression of pro­inflammatory mediators was assessed by both semi­quantitative reverse transcription­polymerase chain reaction (RT­PCR) and quantitative (q) RT­PCR. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production were analyzed by the Griess test and sandwich enzyme­linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. The activation of kinase cascades was studied by immunoblotting. Our findings showed that PLE slightly affects cell viability, but alleviates LPS­induced activation of RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, PLE significantly reduced the LPS­induced mRNA expression of the interleukin (IL)­6, IL­8, tumor necrosis factor­α (TNF­α), cyclooxygenase­2 (COX­2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), genes in a dose­dependent manner. In addition, PLE reduced NO production and PGE2 secretion induced by LPS. PLE also inhibited activation of mitogen­activated protein kinases (MAPKs), increased the cytosolic IκBα level, and reduced the level of nuclear factor (NF)­κB. Taken together, these findings indicate that PLE significantly decreases the mRNA expression and protein production of pro­inflammatory mediators, via the inhibition of extracellular­signal­regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c­Jun N­terminal kinase (JNK), p38, as well as NF­κB signaling in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Perilla frutescens/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 14(6): 4377-82, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24738399

RESUMO

The present investigation demonstrates a rapid biogenic approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using biologically active and medicinal important Perilla frutescens leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under ambient conditions. Gold and silver nanoparticles were first synthesized from Perilla frutescens leaf extract which was used as a vegetable and in traditional medicines for a long time in Korea, Japan, and China. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface plasmon resonance spectra of gold and silver nanoparticles were obtained at 540 and 430 nm and triangular and spherical shape respectively. TEM studies showed that the particle sizes of gold and silver nanoparticles ranges -50 nm and -40 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the biosynthesized nanoparticles were crystalline gold and silver. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of the nanoparticles produced. XRD and EDX confirmed the formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. This is a simple, efficient and rapid method to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles at room temperature without use of toxic chemicals. Obtained gold and silver nanoparticles can be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Prata/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Ouro/isolamento & purificação , Teste de Materiais , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Prata/isolamento & purificação
20.
Food Funct ; 5(5): 990-6, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24651157

RESUMO

Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/dietoterapia , Perilla frutescens/química , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Perilla frutescens/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Natação
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