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1.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190248, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence is inconclusive regarding the effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and periodontitis. To evaluate the effect of scaling and root planing (SRP) on the metabolic control and systemic inflammation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODOLOGY: A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE database via PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from their oldest records up to July 2018. Only randomized clinical trials (RCT) were considered eligible for evaluating the effect of periodontal treatment on markers of metabolic control [glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C)] and systemic inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)] in patients with T2D. The quality of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk assessment tool. Meta-analyses were performed for HbA1c and CRP using random effects models. The size of the overall intervention effect was estimated by calculating the weighted average of the differences in means (DM) between the groups in each study. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Q-statistic method (x2 and I²). The level of significance was established at p<0.05. RESULTS: Nine RCT were included. SRP was effective in reducing HbA1c [DM=0.56 (0.36-0.75); p<0.01] and CRP [DM=1.89 (1.70-2.08); p<0.01]. No heterogeneity was detected (I2=0%, p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: SRP has an impact on metabolic control and reduction of systemic inflammation of patients with T2D.


Assuntos
Raspagem Dentária/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/terapia , Aplainamento Radicular/métodos , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104553, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563004

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of replacing a saturated fat diet by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA), on alveolar bone loss in hypercholesterolemic rats with experimental periodontitis (PD). METHODS: Eight week old Wistar rats were assigned according to dietary intake. Control group (C, n = 15) fed a commercial diet throughout the experiment. Atherogenic group (AT, n = 30) fed AT diet for 3 weeks; thereafter, AT was randomized to receive either a n-3PUFA (n = 15) or to continue with AT (n = 15) diet. Subsequently, PD was induced in all groups by unilateral ligature (L) of the first molar (M1) of the left mandible, non-ligated contralateral molars served as controls. After every week of PD induction, 5 rats per group were euthanized. Serum was collected for lipids assays and hemi-mandibles were subjected to histomorphometric (% upper and lower interradicular bone volume and periodontal ligament height, hPDL) and radiographic analyses (periodontal bone support, PBS, in ligated teeth, between M1-M2). RESULTS: Rats fed n-3PUFA diet rapidly induced a significant reduction in the serum lipids (p < 0.001). In all rats the ligated teeth showed a greater bone loss as compared with the unligated molars. At the end of the experiment the AT + L was the worst in % lower bone volume (p < 0.01), hPDL and PBS (p < 0.05). In contrast, rats fed n-3PUFA + L was similar to those rats fed C diet (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alveolar bone and dyslipidemia improved by substituting saturated fat intake for a n-3PUFA rich diet, in hypercholesterolemic rats with PD.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/terapia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dislipidemias/terapia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 107-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732938

RESUMO

T helper 17 (Th17) cells were first described as a T helper subset involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune inflammation. Since then, these cells have been described as orchestrators of immunopathology in several human inflammatory conditions including psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease. More recently, the crucial role of Th17 cells in the regulation of immunity and protection of barrier sites has been unveiled. In the present work, we review the available evidence regarding Th17 cells in health and disease with a focus on the oral mucosa and their role in periodontitis pathogenesis. Recent mechanistic studies in animal models have demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and Th17 cells are critical mediators for alveolar bone destruction during periodontal inflammation. Observations in a cohort of patients with naturally occurring impaired Th17 cell differentiation supported these findings. However, interventional studies are needed to conclusively implicate Th17 cells in the immunopathogenesis of human alveolar bone and tissue destruction that characterize periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Células Th17 , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia
4.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(2): 1675-1678, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336540

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients comprise of interaction between traditional and non-traditional risk factors. This interaction is thought to play role in four-times increment of cardiovascular mortality risk in diabetic patients, compared to non-diabetics. Chronic inflammation is known to be one of atherosclerosis non-traditional risk factor and has a role on every phase of atherogenesis. Periodontitis is the most common cause of chronic inflammation in diabetic patient. Both periodontitis and diabetes have detrimental effect on each other in terms of alveolar bone destruction and poor metabolic control, by continuous inflammatory mediator activation. Defect of bacteria elimination ability and monocyte hyper-responsiveness in diabetic patients leads to persistent elevation of systemic inflammatory mediators. This process give rise to prolonged and augmented exposure to inflammatory cytokines. This exposure interacts with traditional risk factor could lead to initiation of endothelial dysfunction, the first phase of atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Inflamação/complicações , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
5.
Int J Oral Sci ; 11(3): 21, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257363

RESUMO

Growing evidence suggests close associations between periodontitis and atherosclerosis. To further understand the pathological relationships of these associations, we developed periodontitis with ligature placement around maxillary molars or ligature placement in conjunction with Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide injection at the ligature sites (ligature/P.g. LPS) in Apolipoprotein E knock out mice and studied the atherogenesis process in these animals. The mice were fed with high fat diet for 11 weeks and sacrificed for analyzing periodontitis, systemic inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Controls did not develop periodontitis or systemic inflammation and had minimal lipid deposition in the aortas, but mice receiving ligature or ligature/P.g. LPS showed severe periodontitis, systemic inflammation, and aortic plaque formation. The aortic plaque contained abundant macrophages and cells expressing both endothelial and mesenchymal cell markers. The severity of periodontitis was slightly higher in mice receiving ligature/P.g. LPS than ligature alone, and the magnitude of systemic inflammation and aortic plaque formation were also notably greater in the mice with ligature/P.g. LPS. These observations indicate that the development of atherosclerosis is due to systemic inflammation caused by severe periodontitis. In vitro, P.g. LPS enhanced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines from macrophages and increased the adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells by upregulating the expression of adhesion molecules from endothelial cells. Moreover, secretory proteins, such as TNF-α, from macrophages induced endothelial-mesenchymal transitions of the endothelial cells. Taken together, systemic inflammation induced by severe periodontitis might exacerbate atherosclerosis via, in part, causing aberrant functions of vascular endothelial cells and the activation of macrophages in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/imunologia , Inflamação , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Periodontite/patologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis
6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214946, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973902

RESUMO

Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death. The effect of tobacco is even more contundent in people with mental illness and, in general, cigarette smoking addiction is influenced by genetic factors. The opioid system is involved in the mesolimbic reward system, which is of great importance in addictive behaviors, such as smoking and is influenced by genes such as the OPRM1. The aim of this study was to evaluate if selecting a comparison group that include light smokers versus people that never smoked impacts the results of genetic association studies. In addition, to evaluate the genetic association in different groups of smokers by analyzing independent covariates such as mental illness and clinical dental data. All subjects were participants of the Dental Registry and DNA Repository project. Genotyping was carried out using TaqMan chemistry for two markers in OPRM1 (rs553202 and rs7755635). Logistic regression analyses were performed as implemented in PLINK. The established value for alpha was 5%, and the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was evaluated by the chi-square test with one degree of freedom for each marker. 1,897 patients were included, which were allocated to eight distinct groups, according to the frequency and quantity of cigarettes smoked and mental illness status. There was no significant association between the two markers in OPRM1 and smoking. When mental illness and dental clinical data (tooth loss, dental caries, and periodontitis) were used as covariates, there were associations between heavy smoking and OPRM1, when non-smokers were used as comparison. We did not have diet or microbiome data to consider for these dental analyses and suggest that these kinds of data should be always incorporated in the future. Significant results were found only when the covariables mental illness and oral clinical data were added to the analysis.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Fumar Cigarros , Cárie Dentária , Periodontite , Receptores Opioides mu/genética , Perda de Dente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Cárie Dentária/genética , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite/patologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Perda de Dente/genética , Perda de Dente/patologia , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 221, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological aspects of a Prospective Cohort Study of adult oral health in Piracicaba, Brazil. RESULTS: This Prospective Cohort Study evaluated adults (20-64 years old) between the years of 2011 and 2015, in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. The main objective was to evaluate the risk factors for tooth loss in adults. Data were collected at households and selected via probabilistic sampling, through clinical examination of caries, considering as variables the decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth index, need for caries treatment, periodontal disease (Community Periodontal Index and Periodontal Attachment Loss), use and need for dental prosthesis, and presence of visible biofilm. A questionnaire about demographic, socioeconomic and health habits, use of dental services, self-perceived quality of life (Oral Health Impact Profile-14) and health literacy (14-item Health Literacy Scale) was also employed. In 2011, 248 adults participated, and in 2015, 143 (follow-up rate = 57.7%). Despite the follow-up sample loss, most sociodemographic characteristics remained in the participant sample: for example, women (72.0%) (p = 0.534), family income between R$545,00 and R$1090,00 (63.9%) (p = 0.920), above 11 years of education (53.1%) (p = 0.200) and belonging to middle class (67.1%) (p = 0.909).


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Perda de Dente/epidemiologia , Adulto , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cárie Dentária/economia , Cárie Dentária/fisiopatologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Prótese Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Higiene Bucal/psicologia , Periodontite/economia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Perda de Dente/economia , Perda de Dente/fisiopatologia , Perda de Dente/psicologia
8.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 89(1)2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968666

RESUMO

Both periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are among the most common diseases associated with smoking. These conditions frequently present alongside comorbidities including diabetes, coronary heart disease, duodenal ulcer, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. Chronic inflammation contributes to the pathology of both periodontitis and COPD, and in patients suffering from both conditions treatment of periodontitis may lead to relief from COPD symptoms as well. Smoking contributes to the underlying pathophysiology by causing local inflammation, increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and most importantly, by locally increasing the activity of proteolytic enzymes which degrade the extracellular matrix in both periodontal and lung interstitial tissue. The increase in protease activity and extracellular matrix degradation may explain why periodontitis and COPD comorbidity is so common, a finding which also indicates that therapeutic interventions targeting protease activity and the inflammatory response may be beneficial for both conditions.


Assuntos
Periodontite/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Periodontite/etiologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
Infect Immun ; 87(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885927

RESUMO

This investigation compared the microbiomes colonizing teeth during the initiation, progression, and resolution of periodontitis in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) at different ages. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline; 0.5, 1, and 3 months following ligature-induced periodontitis; and following naturally occurring disease resolution at 5 months. Samples were analyzed using 16S amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial profiles across age groups: young (<3 years of age), adolescent (3 to 7 years), adult (12 to 15 years), and aged (17 to 23 years). α-Diversity of the microbiomes was greater in the adult/aged samples than in the young/adolescent samples. ß-Diversity of the samples demonstrated clear age group differences, albeit individual variation in microbiomes between animals within the age categories was noted. Phylum distributions differed between the young/adolescent animals and the adult/aged animals at each of the time points, showing an enrichment of the phyla Spirochetes, Fusobacteria, and Bacteroidetes associated with periodontitis. Major differences in the top 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were noted in the young and adolescent microbiomes during initiation and progression postligation compared to the adult and aged animals. The proportions of a large number of species in the top 50 OTUs were lower at baseline and in resolved disease microbiomes in the young samples, while profiles in adolescent animals were more consistent with the disease microbiomes. Microbiome profiles for resolution for adults and aged animals appeared more resilient and generally maintained a pattern similar to that of disease. Use of the model can expand our understanding of the crucial interactions of the oral microbiome and host responses in periodontitis.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Macaca mulatta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Periodontite/veterinária , Doenças dos Primatas/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Feminino , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Masculino , Boca/microbiologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Filogenia , Doenças dos Primatas/fisiopatologia
10.
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 40(2): e1-e9, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed group of drugs in dentistry for managing postoperative pain and discomfort. Little is known regarding their effects on the healing of periodontal and peri-implant tissues. METHODS: The authors conducted a review of the literature to provide an overview of knowledge about NSAIDs and their potential effects on periodontal and implant wound healing. RESULTS: A Pubmed (MEDLINE) database search was conducted to identify articles evaluating the influence of administration of NSAID drugs on outcomes following periodontal treatments (nine clinical studies) and dental implant placement (four animal studies and two human clinical studies). Conflicting results were found on the effects of NSAIDs during periodontal wound healing. NSAID administration, specifically selective COX-2 inhibitors could inhibit bone formation around orthopedic implants. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this review, NSAIDs negatively affected osseointegration of titanium implants. However, quality of evidence from available human clinical studies is poor and there are conflicting results from animal models. Future and better clinical studies are needed to more precisely evaluate the potential effects of NSAIDs on dental wound healing. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dental surgeons must be aware of the potential effects of NSAID use on osseous healing following common oral surgical procedures such as periodontal and implant therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Implantação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Periodonto/fisiologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Implantes Dentários , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Osseointegração/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodonto/cirurgia , Titânio
11.
J Dent Res ; 98(2): 200-208, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30392438

RESUMO

Periodontitis is characterized by the progressive destruction of tooth-supporting alveolar bone, which is mainly caused by chronic inflammation in response to persistent bacterial insult. It has recently become clear that the pathogenesis of periodontitis is associated with a high ratio of proinflammatory M1 (classically activated) macrophages to anti-inflammatory M2 (alternatively activated). To decrease the inflammatory activity, we locally delivered the C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) using controlled-release microparticles (MPs). CCL2 is known to promote chemotaxis of M0 or M2 phenotype macrophages to the inflamed site and induce M2 phenotype polarization locally. Our in vitro data showed that CCL2 increased the number of M2 phenotype macrophages, decreased TNF-α secretion, and enhanced chemotaxis of RAW264.7 cells toward CCL2 MPs. Moreover, we induced periodontal disease in 2 animal models through inoculation of Porphyromonas gingivalis and ligature around the murine molar. Micro-computed tomography analysis showed significant reduction of alveolar bone loss in the CCL2 MP treatment group when compared with a blank MP group and a no-treatment periodontitis group in both models. Immunohistologic analysis showed a significant increase in the M2 phenotype subset and a decrease in the M1 phenotype subset in the CCL2 MP group of the P. gingivalis-induced model. Also, in both models, tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase staining showed significantly fewer numbers of osteoclasts in the CCL2 MP group in alveolar bone area. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed a significant increase in IL-1RA (interleukin 1 receptor antagonist) mRNA expression and a decrease in RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand) mRNA expression in the CCL2 MP group in the ligature model. In summary, manipulation of endogenous M2 phenotype macrophages with CCL2 MPs decreased the M1 phenotype:M2 phenotype ratio and prevented alveolar bone loss in mouse periodontitis models. The delivery of CCL2 MPs provides a novel approach to treat periodontal disease.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Camundongos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Microtomografia por Raio-X
12.
J Dent Res ; 98(1): 107-116, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199654

RESUMO

Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a risk factor for periodontitis, and current therapeutics against PMO prevent the aggravated alveolar bone loss of periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Gut microbiota is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for PMO. Berberine extracted from Chinese medicinal plants has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes via regulating gut microbiota. Here, we hypothesize that berberine ameliorates periodontal bone loss by improving the intestinal barriers by regulating gut microbiota under an estrogen-deficient condition. Experimental periodontitis was established in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and the OVX-periodontitis rats were treated with berberine for 7 wk before sacrifice for analyses. Micro-computed tomography and histologic analyses showed that berberine treatment significantly reduced alveolar bone loss and improved bone metabolism of OVX-periodontitis rats as compared with the vehicle-treated OVX-periodontitis rats. In parallel, berberine-treated OVX-periodontitis rats harbored a higher abundance of butyrate-producing gut microbiota with elevated butyrate generation, as demonstrated by 16S rRNA sequencing and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Berberine-treated OVX-periodontitis rats consistently showed improved intestinal barrier integrity and decreased intestinal paracellular permeability with a lower level of serum endotoxin. In parallel, IL-17A-related immune responses were attenuated in berberine-treated OVX-periodontitis rats with a lower serum level of proinflammatory cytokines and reduced IL-17A+ cells in alveolar bone as compared with vehicle-treated OVX-periodontitis rats. Our data indicate that gut microbiota is a potential target for the treatment of estrogen deficiency-aggravated periodontal bone loss, and berberine represents a promising adjuvant therapeutic by modulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/complicações , Berberina/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Periodontite/complicações , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Perda do Osso Alveolar/fisiopatologia , Animais , Butiratos/sangue , Butiratos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/etiologia , Ovariectomia , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Ratos , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(52): e13903, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal neutrophils are involved in many chronic endocrine diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and in periodontitis (PD), which is a chronic inflammatory disease in which neutrophils play a vital role. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway participates in the apoptosis of many inflammatory cells. Additionally, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25VitD3) as a regulator can induce responses to infection and tumor cell apoptosis. However, the effect of 1,25VitD3 in the pathogenic relationship between T2DM and PD remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 1,25VitD3 on neutrophil apoptosis in patients with T2DM and PD and the p38-MAPK-relevant signaling pathway mechanism in this process in vitro. METHODS: Neutrophils were stained with Wright's stain, and apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. Apoptosis- and p38-related mRNAs and proteins were examined by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blotting and ELISA. The internal relationships were analyzed using a linear regression equation and Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The highest rate of neutrophil apoptosis occurred in cultures treated with 10 mol/L 1,25VitD3 in the T2DM-PD group. The apoptosis rate in the T2DM-PD-p38 inhibitor group was higher than that in the healthy control group. Western blot, ELISA and qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA and protein expression profiles of Caspase-3 and Bax were highly up-regulated and that Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the T2DM-PD-p38 inhibitor group. The expression levels of apoptotic mRNAs and proteins in the T2DM and T2DM-PD groups were significantly higher than those in the T2DM-p38 and T2DM-PD-p38 inhibitor groups. 1,25VitD3-induced neutrophil apoptosis and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) expression were partially inhibited by the p38 inhibitor. Expression levels of apoptosis-related genes and p-p38 in neutrophils were positively associated with increasing concentrations of 1,25VitD3. p-p38 protein expression was positively associated with the level of serum 1,25VitD3. CONCLUSION: 1,25VitD3 could promote peripheral blood neutrophil apoptosis in patients with T2DM and PD through activation of the p38-MAPK signaling pathway in vitro.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Masculino , Periodontite/epidemiologia , RNA Mensageiro , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420943

RESUMO

The protozoan Entamoeba gingivalis resides in the oral cavity and is frequently observed in the periodontal pockets of humans and pets. This species of Entamoeba is closely related to the human pathogen Entamoeba histolytica, the agent of amoebiasis. Although E. gingivalis is highly enriched in people with periodontitis (a disease in which inflammation and bone loss correlate with changes in the microbial flora), the potential role of this protozoan in oral infectious diseases is not known. Periodontitis affects half the adult population in the world, eventually leads to edentulism, and has been linked to other pathologies, like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. As aging is a risk factor for the disorder, it is considered an inevitable physiological process, even though it can be prevented and cured. However, the impact of periodontitis on the patient's health and quality of life, as well as its economic burden, are underestimated. Commonly accepted models explain the progression from health to gingivitis and then periodontitis by a gradual change in the identity and proportion of bacterial microorganisms in the gingival crevices. Though not pathognomonic, inflammation is always present in periodontitis. The recruitment of leukocytes to inflamed gums and their passage to the periodontal pocket lumen are speculated to fuel both tissue destruction and the development of the flora. The individual contribution to the disease of each bacterial species is difficult to establish and the eventual role of protozoa in the fate of this disease has been ignored. Following recent scientific findings, we discuss the relevance of these data and propose that the status of E. gingivalis be reconsidered as a potential pathogen contributing to periodontitis.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Entamoeba/patogenicidade , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/parasitologia , Biota , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/parasitologia , Humanos
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 26: e20180048, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Periodontitis is associated with endothelial dysfunction, which is clinically characterized by a reduction in endothelium-dependent relaxation. However, we have previously shown that impairment in endothelium-dependent relaxation is transient. Therefore, we evaluated which mediators are involved in endothelium-dependent relaxation recovery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rats were subjected to ligature-induced experimental periodontitis. Twenty-one days after the procedure, the animals were prepared for blood pressure recording, and the responses to acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside were obtained before and 30 minutes after injection of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME), cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Indomethacin, SC-550 and NS- 398), or calcium-dependent potassium channel blockers (apamin plus TRAM- 34). The maxilla and mandible were removed for bone loss analysis. Blood and gingivae were obtained for C-reactive protein (CRP) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) measurement, respectively. RESULTS: Experimental periodontitis induces bone loss and an increase in the gingival MPO and plasmatic CRP. Periodontitis also reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, 14 days after the procedure. However, the response was restored at day 21. We found that endothelium-dependent vasodilation at day 21 in ligature animals was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels. CONCLUSIONS: Periodontitis induces impairment in endothelial-dependent relaxation; this impairment recovers, even in the presence of periodontitis. The recovery is mediated by the activation of endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels in ligature animals. Although important for maintenance of vascular homeostasis, this effect could mask the lack of NO, which has other beneficial properties.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/metabolismo , Vasodilatação/fisiologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Perda do Osso Alveolar/fisiopatologia , Animais , Pressão Arterial/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Ligadura , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Peroxidase/análise , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Potássio/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
16.
Georgian Med News ; (282): 39-43, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30358538

RESUMO

Supersaturation of hydroxyapatite is very important in order to preserve the homeostasis of mineral metabolism in the oral cavity. This indicates to the ability of saliva to preserve the homeostasis of the tooth tissues. So it is very important to use inhalations and rinses with Tskhaltubo mineral water. It is the alpha radiation of radon contained in the water of Tskhaltubo that plays a very important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the preservation of homeostasis of the oral cavity. A lot of works have been published lately proving that these doses are characterized by the so-called "hormesis", so the object of our interest is to determine the mechanism of radon hormesis and its effects on preserving the homeostasis of mineral metabolism in the oral cavity. Inhalation with mineral water of Tskhaltubo and its use for rinsing in case of parodontitis leads to decrease and ultimately elimination of the developed inflammatory processes. Tests were conducted on 150 volunteers, 120 of which were sick and 30 were practically healthy (control). As a result of the research it was established that inhalations with mineral water of Tskhaltubo and its use for rinsing in case of parodontitis leads to decrease and ultimately elimination of the developed inflammatory processes of the oral cavity. The unique properties of the mineral water of Tskhaltubo are an important component of the treatment of parodontitis at the initial stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Águas Minerais/uso terapêutico , Boca/metabolismo , Periodontite/terapia , Radônio/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hormese , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Higiene Bucal , Periodontite/metabolismo , Periodontite/fisiopatologia
17.
Technol Health Care ; 26(5): 805-814, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis that leads to a series of periodontal tissue injuries. Egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) is procuded in egg yolk and inhibits P. gingivalis. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the effect of IgY on experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis. METHODS: The second molars of rats were ligatured using medical 5-0 silk and smeared with P. gingivalis to induce experimental periodontitis. Then, the rats were smeared with 2 mL IgY solutions or 0.9% NaCl in the oral cavity for up to 4 wk. The scores for gingival index, plaque index and probe on bleeding, the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, X-ray radiography and histology were used to determine the efficacy of the IgY on experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: The clinical indices improved; the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly (p< 0.05) decreased; the X-rays and histomorphological observations suggested that the periodontal inflammation and periodontitis were alleviated compared to the control. CONCLUSIONS: IgY showed significant effects on anti-inflammatory, anti-coaggregation activity, and protected against alveolar bone loss. Therefore, it had a beneficial effect on preventing experimental periodontitis caused by P. gingivalis.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Perda do Osso Alveolar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Índice de Placa Dentária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Índice Periodontal , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/biossíntese
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15532, 2018 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341355

RESUMO

Genetic haemochromatosis (GH) is responsible for iron overload. Increased transferrin saturation (TSAT) has been associated with severe periodontitis, which is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting tissues surrounding the teeth and is related to dysbiosis of the subgingival microbiota. Because iron is essential for bacterial pathogens, alterations in iron homeostasis can drive dysbiosis. To unravel the relationships between serum iron biomarkers and the subgingival microbiota, we analysed samples from 66 GH patients. The co-occurrence analysis of the microbiota showed very different patterns according to TSAT. Healthy and periopathogenic bacterial clusters were found to compete in patients with normal TSAT (≤45%). However, significant correlations were found between TSAT and the proportions of Porphyromonas and Treponema, which are two genera that contain well-known periopathogenic species. In patients with high TSAT, the bacterial clusters exhibited no mutual exclusion. Increased iron bioavailability worsened periodontitis and promoted periopathogenic bacteria, such as Treponema. The radical changes in host-bacteria relationships and bacterial co-occurrence patterns according to the TSAT level also suggested a shift in the bacterial iron supply from transferrin to NTBI when TSAT exceeded 45%. Taken together, these results indicate that iron bioavailability in biological fluids is part of the equilibrium between the host and its microbiota.


Assuntos
Disbiose/complicações , Gengiva/microbiologia , Hemocromatose/complicações , Mucosa Bucal/química , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Transferrina/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soro/química
19.
Food Funct ; 9(9): 4916-4925, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30178812

RESUMO

The increased incidence of periodontal disease in recent years has garnered considerable attention. Numerous studies have confirmed that probiotics, such as lactic acid bacteria, can ameliorate periodontal inflammation. The current study aimed to assess the effect of an ethanol extract of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented skimmed milk (NTU101FM) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontal inflammation in rats. NTU101FM ethanol extract significantly ameliorated the weight loss caused by periodontal inflammation. NTU101FM ethanol extract treatment also reduced the oral microbial levels and decreased the levels of alveolar bone loss. Finally, NTU101FM ethanol extract was found to ameliorate periodontal inflammation by decreasing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reducing oxidative stresses induced by LPS. Overall, our findings demonstrate that NTU101FM ethanol extract could be developed as a functional food that could ameliorate periodontal inflammation.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactobacillus paracasei/química , Periodontite/prevenção & controle , Periodonto/imunologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/etiologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/microbiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Etanol/química , Fermentação , Lactobacillus paracasei/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus paracasei/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/imunologia , Mucosa Bucal/metabolismo , Mucosa Bucal/microbiologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Periodontite/induzido quimicamente , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Periodonto/metabolismo , Periodonto/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Solventes/química
20.
J Dent Res ; 97(10): 1160-1169, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993312

RESUMO

Progression of inflammatory osteolytic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis, is characterized by increased production of proinflammatory mediators and matrix-degrading enzymes by macrophages and increased osteoclastic activity. Phenotypic changes in macrophages are central to the healing process in virtually all tissues. Using a murine model of periodontitis, we assessed the timing of macrophage phenotypic changes and the impact of proresolving activation during inflammatory osteolysis and healing. Proinflammatory macrophage activation and TNF-α overproduction within 3 wk after induction of periodontitis was associated with progressing bone loss. Proresolving activation within 1 wk of stimulus removal and markers of resolving macrophages (IL-10, TGF-ß, and CD206) correlated strongly with bone levels. In vivo macrophage depletion with clodronate liposomes prevented bone resorption but impaired regeneration. Induction of resolving macrophages with rosiglitazone, a PPAR-γ agonist, led to reduced bone resorption during inflammatory stimulation and increased bone formation during healing. In vitro assessment of primary bone marrow-derived macrophages activated with either IFN-γ and LPS (proinflammatory activation) or IL-4 (proresolving activation) showed that IL-4-activated cells have enhanced resolving functions (production of anti-inflammatory cytokines; migration and phagocytosis of aged neutrophils) and exert direct anabolic actions on bone cells. Cystatin C secreted by resolving but not inflammatory macrophages explained, in part, the macrophage actions on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This study supports the concept that therapeutic induction of proresolving functions in macrophages can recouple bone resorption and formation in inflammatory osteolytic diseases.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/fisiologia , Osteogênese , Osteólise/fisiopatologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Interferon gama/farmacologia , Interleucina-4/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Osteogênese/imunologia , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteólise/imunologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Microtomografia por Raio-X
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