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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067261

RESUMO

The present in vivo study determined the microbiological counts of the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) among patients with fixed dental prostheses fabricated using three different techniques. A total of 129 subjects were divided into three study groups: first, cobalt-chrome-based, metal-ceramic prostheses fabricated by the conventional method (MC, n = 35); the second group consisted of cobalt-chrome-based, metal-ceramic prostheses fabricated by the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique (CC-MC, n = 35); the third group comprised zirconia-based ceramic prostheses fabricated using the CAD/CAM technique (CC-Zr, n = 35). The control consisted of 24 patients using prostheses fabricated with either MC, CC-MC, or CC-Zr. The GCF was obtained from the subjects before treatment, and 6 and 12 months after the prosthetic treatment. Bacteriological and bacterioscopic analysis of the GCF was performed to analyze the patients' GCF. The data were analyzed using SPSS V20 (IBM Company, Chicago, IL, USA). The number of microorganisms of the gingival crevicular fluid in all groups at 12 months of prosthetic treatment reduced dramatically compared with the data obtained before prosthetic treatment. Inflammatory processes in the periodontium occurred slowly in the case of zirconium oxide-based ceramic constructions due to their biocompatibility with the mucous membranes and tissues of the oral cavity as well as a reduced risk of dental biofilm formation. This should be considered by dentists and prosthodontists when choosing restoration materials for subjects with periodontal pathology.


Assuntos
Prótese Dentária/microbiologia , Líquido do Sulco Gengival/microbiologia , Dente/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cerâmica/uso terapêutico , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zircônio/uso terapêutico
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070915

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation induced by periodontitis is suggested to be the link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this work was to explore the oral microbiome in periodontitis in relation to disease severity and systemic inflammation. The saliva and subgingival microbiome from periodontal pocket samples of patients with severe (n = 12) and mild periodontitis (n = 13) were analyzed using metagenomic shotgun sequencing. The taxa and pathways abundances were quantified. The diversity was assessed and the abundances to phenotype associations were performed using ANCOM and linear regression. A panel of inflammatory markers was measured in blood and was associated with taxa abundance. The microbial diversity and species richness did not differ between severe and mild periodontitis in either saliva or periodontal pockets. However, there were significant differences in the microbial composition between severe and mild periodontitis in the subgingival microbiome (i.e., pocket samples) and, in a lower grade, in saliva, and this is positively associated with systemic inflammatory markers. The "red complex" and "cluster B" abundances in periodontal pockets were strongly associated with inflammatory markers interleukin-6 and the white blood cell count. Our data suggest that systemic inflammation in severe periodontitis may be driven by the oral microbiome and may support the indirect (inflammatory) mechanism for the association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/microbiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Humanos , Inflamação , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/genética , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/patologia , Periodonto/imunologia , Periodonto/patologia , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(3): 577-583, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028883

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease characterized by loss of periodontal attachment and resorption of alveolar bone. Dysregulated oral microbial community is the initial factor of periodontitis and causes excessive infiltration of immune cells in periodontal tissues. Macrophage, as an important part of the innate immune system, interacts continually with oral pathogens. Macrophages can recognize and phagocytize pathogens and apoptotic neutrophils and produce the specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs) playing an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of tissue microenvironment. However, macrophages may also induce abnormal immune responses with the overstimulation from pathogens, leading to the destruction of periodontal tissues and alveolar bone. Looking for targeted drugs that can regulate the activities of oral pathogens and the functions of macrophages provides a new idea for periodontitis treatment. This review summarizes the interaction between macrophages and periodontal pathogens in periodontitis, focusing on the pro-inflammation and anti-inflammation phenotypes of macrophages, and briefly concludes potential new methods of periodontitis therapy targeted at oral pathogens and macrophages.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/patologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/patologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Periodonto/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Modelos Biológicos , Periodontite/terapia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo
4.
J Oleo Sci ; 70(4): 541-548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814514

RESUMO

Two mixed-ligand complexes on the basis of L ligand [L = 3,6-bis(imidazol-1-yl)pyridazine] have been prepared under the solvothermal reaction conditions via the Zn(II) salts reacting with the ligands of L in the existence of two positional isomerous carboxylic acid ligands and their chemical formula respectively are [Zn5(L)(1,2-BDC)4(µ3-OH)2] n (1, 1,2-H2BDC = 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid ) and {[Zn4(L)2(1,3-HBDC) (1,3-BDC)(µ3-OH)4]·ClO4·3H2O} n (2, 1,3-H2BDC = 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid). The inhibitory influence of the two compounds against the inflammatory response in periodontium was evaluated by measuring the inflammatory cytokines releasing with ELISA detection kit. The results of ELISA assay indicated that compound 1 showed much stronger inhibitory influences than compound 2 against the inflammatory cytokines releasing. In addition to this, the suppression activity of the compounds against the survival gene of Porphyria gingivalis was detected via the real time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction, and the results suggested that compound 1 could evidently suppresses the survival gene expression of Porphyria gingivalis, which is much better than the biological activity of compound 2. Above all, compound 1 was more outstanding than compound 2 on chronic periodontitis treatment by inhibiting the Porphyria gingivalis survival.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/genética , Periodontite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Complexos de Coordenação/farmacologia , Complexos de Coordenação/uso terapêutico , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Periodonto/metabolismo , Periodonto/microbiologia , Porfirias/genética , Compostos de Zinco/farmacologia , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Complexos de Coordenação/química , Cristalização , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Conformação Molecular , Polímeros , Compostos de Zinco/química
5.
Dis Mon ; 67(9): 101166, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the oral pathogenic microbes in human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive patients remains relatively unexplored. Thus, the present study assessed the effect of ART on the sub-gingival levels of 3 pathogenic microbes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups consisted of 60 human immunodeficiency virus-1 seropositive patients divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 had periodontitis and did not start with the ART. Group 2 had periodontitis and started with ART (Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate 300 mg + Lamivudine 300 mg + Efavirenz 600 mg) at least 6 months before the study. Group 3 with normal periodontium, and have not started ART. The sub-gingival loads of Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and the Porphyromonas gingivalis levels were assessed, along with the CD4 counts. RESULTS: The cytomegalovirus load was highest in group 1, followed by groups 2, and 3 (p-value of 0.271). The Epstein-Barr load was highest for group 2, followed by group 3, and 1 (p-value of 0.022). The P.gingivalis load was highest in group 2, followed by groups 1 and 3, (p-value of 0.028). The Epstein-Barr and Cytomegalovirus counts were significantly higher (p-value < 0.02) when the CD4 counts were less than 500 cells/cu3. CONCLUSION: ART did not cause any significant reduction in the sub-gingival levels of any of the 3 examined microbes. Given the lack of any significant effect on the sub-gingival microbial loads by the ART, human immunodeficiency virus patients may require additional anti-microbial agents and regular mechanical plaque removal to maintain their periodontal status.


Assuntos
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Citomegalovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 4/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Periodontite , Porphyromonas gingivalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/complicações , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/microbiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Periodontite/complicações , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodontite/virologia , Periodonto/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodonto/microbiologia , Periodonto/patologia , Periodonto/virologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435582

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to clarify whether orthodontic forces and periodontitis interact with respect to the anti-apoptotic molecules superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3 (BIRC3). SOD2, BIRC3, and the apoptotic markers caspases 3 (CASP3) and 9 (CASP9) were analyzed in gingiva from periodontally healthy and periodontitis subjects by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. SOD2 and BIRC3 were also studied in gingiva from rats with experimental periodontitis and/or orthodontic tooth movement. Additionally, SOD2 and BIRC3 levels were examined in human periodontal fibroblasts incubated with Fusobacterium nucleatum and/or subjected to mechanical forces. Gingiva from periodontitis patients showed significantly higher SOD2, BIRC3, CASP3, and CASP9 levels than periodontally healthy gingiva. SOD2 and BIRC3 expressions were also significantly increased in the gingiva from rats with experimental periodontitis, but the upregulation of both molecules was significantly diminished in the concomitant presence of orthodontic tooth movement. In vitro, SOD2 and BIRC3 levels were significantly increased by F. nucleatum, but this stimulatory effect was also significantly inhibited by mechanical forces. Our study suggests that SOD2 and BIRC3 are produced in periodontal infection as a protective mechanism against exaggerated apoptosis. In the concomitant presence of orthodontic forces, this protective anti-apoptotic mechanism may get lost.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ligamento Periodontal/metabolismo , Periodonto/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/metabolismo , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/genética , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fusobacterium nucleatum/fisiologia , Gengiva/citologia , Gengiva/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligamento Periodontal/microbiologia , Periodonto/citologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1113, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441919

RESUMO

Smoking is a risk factor for periodontal disease, and a cause of oral microbiome dysbiosis. While this has been evaluated for traditional cigarette smoking, there is limited research on the effect of other tobacco types on the oral microbiome. This study investigates subgingival microbiome composition in smokers of different tobacco types and their effect on periodontal health. Subgingival plaques were collected from 40 individuals, including smokers of either cigarettes, medwakh, or shisha, and non-smokers seeking dental treatment at the University Dental Hospital in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. The entire (~ 1500 bp) 16S rRNA bacterial gene was fully amplified and sequenced using Oxford Nanopore technology. Subjects were compared for the relative abundance and diversity of subgingival microbiota, considering smoking and periodontal condition. The relative abundances of several pathogens were significantly higher among smokers, such as Prevotella denticola and Treponema sp. OMZ 838 in medwakh smokers, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar in cigarette smokers, Streptococcus sanguinis and Tannerella forsythia in shisha smokers. Subgingival microbiome of smokers was altered even in subjects with no or mild periodontitis, probably making them more prone to severe periodontal diseases. Microbiome profiling can be a useful tool for periodontal risk assessment. Further studies are recommended to investigate the impact of tobacco cessation on periodontal disease progression and oral microbiome.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Placa Dentária/microbiologia , Microbiota , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Fumar Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fumar Cigarros , Feminino , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Infect Immun ; 89(2)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257533

RESUMO

The majority of Gram-negative bacteria elicit a potent immune response via recognition of lipid A expressed on the outer bacterial membrane by the host immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, some Gram-negative bacteria evade detection by TLR4 or alter the outcome of TLR4 signaling by modification of lipid A species. Although the role of lipid A modifications on host innate immunity has been examined in some detail, it is currently unclear how lipid A remodeling influences host adaptive immunity. One prototypic Gram-negative bacterium that modifies its lipid A structure is Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic pathobiont that colonizes the human periodontium and induces chronic low-grade inflammation that is associated with periodontal disease as well as a number of systemic inflammatory disorders. P. gingivalis produces dephosphorylated and deacylated lipid A structures displaying altered activities at TLR4. Here, we explored the functional role of P. gingivalis lipid A modifications on TLR4-dependent innate and adaptive immune responses in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs). We discovered that lipid A 4'-phosphate removal is required for P. gingivalis to evade BMDC-dependent proinflammatory cytokine responses and markedly limits the bacterium's capacity to induce beta interferon (IFN-ß) production. In addition, lipid A 4'-phosphatase activity prevents canonical bacterium-induced delay in antigen degradation, which leads to inefficient antigen cross-presentation and a failure to cross-prime CD8 T cells specific for a P. gingivalis-associated antigen. We propose that lipid A modifications produced by this bacterium alter host TLR4-dependent adaptive immunity to establish chronic infections associated with a number of systemic inflammatory disorders.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Apresentação Cruzada/fisiologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/metabolismo , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Periodonto/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Porphyromonas gingivalis/imunologia
9.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 69-82, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation from inflamed periodontal pockets into coronary atheroma via systemic circulation is one of the proposed pathways that links periodontitis and myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this systematic review is to determine the reported prevalence of periodontal microorganisms in coronary atheroma and/or aspirated clot samples collected from MI patients with periodontal disease. METHODOLOGY: The "Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Six databases were systematically searched using Medical Subject Headings/Index and Entree terms. After a thorough screening, fourteen publications spanning over ten years (2007-2017) were eligible for this systematic review and meta-analysis. RESULTS: Out of 14 included studies, 12 reported presence of periodontal bacterial DNA in coronary atherosclerotic plaque specimens. Overall, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were the most frequently detected periodontal bacterial species. Meta-analysis revealed that the prevalence of P. gingivalis was significantly higher than A. actinomycetemcomitans in coronary atheromatous plaque samples. Apart from periodontal microbes, DNA from a variety of other microbes e.g. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Streptococcus species, Chlamydia pneumoniae were also recovered from the collected samples. CONCLUSION: Consistent detection of periodontal bacterial DNA in coronary atheroma suggests their systemic dissemination from periodontal sites. It should further be investigated whether they are merely bystanders or induce any structural changes within coronary arterial walls.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/microbiologia , Trombose Coronária/microbiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Trombose Coronária/epidemiologia , Trombose Coronária/patologia , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023121

RESUMO

In this present study, the bacteriostatic effect of Salistat SGL03 and the Lactobacillus salivarius strain contained in it was investigated in adults in in vivo and in vitro tests on selected red complex bacteria living in the subgingival plaque, inducing a disease called periodontitis, i.e., chronic periodontitis. Untreated periodontitis can lead to the destruction of the gums, root cementum, periodontium, and alveolar bone. Anaerobic bacteria, called periopathogens or periodontopathogens, play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. The most important periopathogens of the oral microbiota are: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and others. Our hypothesis was verified by taking swabs of scrapings from the surface of the teeth of female hygienists (volunteers) on full and selective growth media for L. salivarius. The sizes of the zones of growth inhibition of periopathogens on the media were measured before (in vitro) and after consumption (in vivo) of Salistat SGL03, based on the disk diffusion method, which is one of the methods of testing antibiotic resistance and drug susceptibility of pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, each of the periopathogens analyzed by the reduction inoculation method, was treated with L. salivarius contained in the SGL03 preparation and incubated together in Petri dishes. The bacteriostatic activity of SGL03 preparation in selected periopathogens was also analyzed using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests. The obtained results suggest the possibility of using the Salistat SGL03 dietary supplement in the prophylaxis and support of the treatment of periodontitis-already treated as a civilization disease.


Assuntos
Bactérias Anaeróbias/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Firmicutes/química , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4021-4047, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606662

RESUMO

Purpose: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with microbial accumulation. The purpose of this study was to reuse the agricultural waste to produce cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and further modification of the CNF with κ-carrageenan oligosaccharides (CO) for drug delivery. In addition, this study is focused on the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF towards periodontal pathogens. Materials and Methods: A chemo-mechanical method was used to extract the CNF and the modification was done by using CO. The studies were further proceeded by adding different quantities of surfactin [50 mg (50 SNPs), 100 mg (100 SNPs), 200 mg (200 SNPs)] into the carrier (CO-CNF). The obtained materials were characterized, and the antimicrobial activity of surfactin-loaded CO-CNF was evaluated. Results: The obtained average size of CNF and CO-CNF after ultrasonication was 263 nm and 330 nm, respectively. Microscopic studies suggested that the CNF has a short diameter with long length and CO became cross-linked to form as beads within the CNF network. The addition of CO improved the degradation temperature, crystallinity, and swelling property of CNF. The material has a controlled drug release, and the entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of the drug were 53.15 ± 2.36% and 36.72 ± 1.24%, respectively. It has antioxidant activity and inhibited the growth of periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis by preventing the biofilm formation, reducing the metabolic activity, and promoting the oxidative stress. Conclusion: The study showed the successful extraction of CNF and modification with CO improved the physical parameters of the CNF. In addition, surfactin-loaded CO-CNF has potential antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens. The obtained biomaterial is economically valuable and has great potential for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Celulose/química , Lipopeptídeos/química , Nanofibras/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Periodonto/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Sobrevivência Celular , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanofibras/ultraestrutura , Oligossacarídeos/química , Picratos/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Soja/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
12.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 27(4): 281-289, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32500479

RESUMO

High blood pressure (BP) and periodontitis are two highly prevalent conditions worldwide with a significant impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Poor periodontal health is associated with increased prevalence of hypertension and may have an influence on BP control. Risk factors such as older age, male gender, non-Caucasian ethnicity, smoking, overweight/obesity, diabetes, low socioeconomic status, and poor education have been considered the common denominators underpinning this relationship. However, recent evidence indicates that the association between periodontitis and hypertension is independent of common risk factors and may in fact be causal in nature. Low-grade systemic inflammation and redox imbalance, in particular, represent the major underlying mechanisms in this relationship. Neutrophil dysfunction, imbalance in T cell subtypes, oral-gut dysbiosis, hyperexpression of proinflammatory genes, and increased sympathetic outflow are some of the pathogenetic events involved. In addition, novel findings indicate that common genetic bases might shape the immune profile towards this clinical phenotype, offering a rationale for potential therapeutic and prevention strategies of public health interest. This review summarizes recent advances, knowledge gaps and possible future directions in the field.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Disbiose , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 129: 110362, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563981

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a bacteria-related chronic immune-associated condition that destructs bone and connective tissues around teeth. With a high incidence rate, it is regarded as a condition that impose substantial health burden. About half of the variance in the severity of periodontitis is attributed to genetic factors. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have crucial roles in the development of several disorders such as periodontitis. A number of studies have reported dysregulation of lncRNAs such as UCA1, ANRIL, FGD5-AS1, NEAT1, FAS-AS1, Linc-RAM and NKILA in gingival tissues or blood samples of patients with periodontitis in comparison with healthy subjects. Moreover, several single nucleotide polymorphisms within lncRNAs have been associated with the susceptibility to this disorder. In the current review, we discuss the most recent articles about the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Periodonto/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Periodontite Crônica/genética , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Periodonto/microbiologia , Periodonto/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 402, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent advances in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) allowed the metagenomic analyses of DNA from many different environments and sources, including thousands of years old skeletal remains. It has been shown that most of the DNA extracted from ancient samples is microbial. There are several reports demonstrating that the considerable fraction of extracted DNA belonged to the bacteria accompanying the studied individuals before their death. RESULTS: In this study we scanned 344 microbiomes from 1000- and 2000- year-old human teeth. The datasets originated from our previous studies on human ancient DNA (aDNA) and on microbial DNA accompanying human remains. We previously noticed that in many samples infection-related species have been identified, among them Tannerella forsythia, one of the most prevalent oral human pathogens. Samples containing sufficient amount of T. forsythia aDNA for a complete genome assembly were selected for thorough analyses. We confirmed that the T. forsythia-containing samples have higher amounts of the periodontitis-associated species than the control samples. Despites, other pathogens-derived aDNA was found in the tested samples it was too fragmented and damaged to allow any reasonable reconstruction of these bacteria genomes. The anthropological examination of ancient skulls from which the T. forsythia-containing samples were obtained revealed the pathogenic alveolar bone loss in tooth areas characteristic for advanced periodontitis. Finally, we analyzed the genetic material of ancient T. forsythia strains. As a result, we assembled four ancient T. forsythia genomes - one 2000- and three 1000- year-old. Their comparison with contemporary T. forsythia genomes revealed a lower genetic diversity within the four ancient strains than within contemporary strains. We also investigated the genes of T. forsythia virulence factors and found that several of them (KLIKK protease and bspA genes) differ significantly between ancient and modern bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we showed that NGS screening of the ancient human microbiome is a valid approach for the identification of disease-associated microbes. Following this protocol, we provided a new set of information on the emergence, evolution and virulence factors of T. forsythia, the member of the oral dysbiotic microbiome.


Assuntos
Restos Mortais/microbiologia , Fósseis/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Boca/microbiologia , Tannerella forsythia/genética , Tannerella forsythia/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Humanos , Metagenoma , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Dente/microbiologia
15.
Arch Oral Biol ; 114: 104695, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the citrulline level in the periodontium in association with the presence of or antibody levels against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. DESIGN: Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), subgingival biofilm and blood serum were sampled from 98 subjects (26 with RA, 72 without RA (NoRA)). GCF was analyzed for the level of citrulline, for interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-17, IL-10 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Microorganisms were identified in subgingival biofilms. Antibodies againstP. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were quantified in serum. RESULTS: GCF citrulline level was the lowest (by trend) in NoRA group without periodontitis. In NoRA, but not in RA an association between GCF citrulline level and P. gingivalis antibody levels was found and the GCF citrulline levels were higher in P. gingivalis positive samples. Any association of A. actinomycetemcomitans with GCF citrulline level did not exist. A model of univariate variance analysis (p = 0.001) showed a dependence of GCF citrulline level from the number of sites with PD (probing depth) ≥5 mm (p = 0.003) and the GCF MCP-1/CCL2 level (p = 0.019). Compared with NoRA in RA the number of teeth was lower, the number of sites with PD ≥ 5 mm was less, GCF levels of interleukin-17 and MCP-1/CCL2 were higher and those of IL-10 lower. Yeasts were only cultured in 15 RA patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Citrullination in periodontium might be associated with P. gingivalis supporting the potential role as a trigger in the development of RA. Pathogenesis of periodontal disease in RA patients seems to differ from that in NoRA and should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Citrulinação , Citrulina/análise , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodonto/química , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/patologia , Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Humanos , Periodonto/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/patogenicidade
16.
Dis Mon ; 66(7): 100918, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813526

RESUMO

The present review summarizes the current updates on dental perspectives on leprosy and the affording factors that are responsible for the prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases in leprosy. It also highlights immunopathological phenomena and reactional episodes of leprosy that occur due to daedal interactions between the perio-odontopathic bacteria and M. leprae. In addition, a brief introduction, historiography, classification and clinicopathological aspects are also been covered.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Hanseníase/patologia , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Periodonto/microbiologia , Carga Bacteriana/tendências , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Imunidade Celular/fisiologia , Hanseníase/classificação , Hanseníase/história , Hanseníase/microbiologia , Mycobacterium leprae/metabolismo , Doenças Periodontais/complicações , Periodonto/patologia , Prevalência
17.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 377-382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880883

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Feminino , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1197: 165-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732941

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory infectious disease that compromises the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. The disease progression depends on the disruption of host-microbe homeostasis in the periodontal tissue. This disruption is marked by a shift in the composition of the polymicrobial oral community from a symbiotic to a dysbiotic, more complex community that is capable of evading killing while promoting inflammation. Neutrophils are the main phagocytic cell in the periodontal pocket, and the outcome of the interaction with the oral microbiota is an important determinant of oral health. Novel culture-independent techniques have facilitated the identification of new bacterial species at periodontal lesions and induced a reappraisal of the microbial etiology of periodontitis. In this chapter, we discuss how neutrophils interact with two emerging oral pathogens, Filifactor alocis and Peptoanaerobacter stomatis, and the different strategies deploy by these organisms to modulate neutrophil effector functions, with the goal to outline a new paradigm in our knowledge about neutrophil responses to putative periodontal pathogens and their contribution to disease progression.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Periodontite , Clostridiales/imunologia , Disbiose , Humanos , Microbiota/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , Periodontite/imunologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11762, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409865

RESUMO

Our purpouse was to identify quantitatively and qualitatively the subgingival flora in different gestational trimesters, compared to non-pregnant women; evaluating the correlations between epidemiological characteristics, clinical diagnosis, microbiological findings and levels of estradiol and progesterone. 52 pregnant women divided into 3 groups, according to the gestational trimester and 15 non-pregnant patients, without hormonal contraceptives, were evaluated. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were evaluated. Subgingival biofilm samples were processed by the qPCR technique and the serum levels of estradiol and progesterone quantified by chemiluminescence. Clinical diagnosis during gestation was correlated with the total bacterial count. A higher prevalence of Tannerella forsythia (Tf) was identified in first trimester of pregnancy and this periodontopathogen was correlated with the diagnosis of gingivitis among pregnant women. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) showed a positive correlation with progesterone levels in the first trimester. High prevalence of periodontopathogens was noticed in this population. Clinical diagnosis in gestation was positively correlated with the total amount of bacteria, without influence of the hormonal levels or the epidemiological factors evaluated. The presence of Tf favored occurrence of gingivitis during pregnancy and the progesterone levels in the first trimester enhanced the growth of Pg.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estradiol/sangue , Periodonto/microbiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Biofilmes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(4): 244-250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The periodontal tissues are continuously exposed to specific bacterial components that have the ability to alter many local functions. Normal endogenous infections in healthy mouths cause disease when their numbers increase significantly. OBJECTIVE: Determine the percentage of different periodontal pathogenic bacteria and their association with periodontal status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, analytical. SETTINGS: School children of both genders in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical examination consisted of measurement of the gingival and periodontal supporting tissue including attachment loss, probing pocket depth and furcation involvement following the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and taking samples of the subgingival bacterial flora. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentage of periodontal pathogenic bacteria and its association with periodontal status in Saudi Arabia. SAMPLE SIZE: Bacterial samples were collected from 277 subjects. RESULTS: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was present in 21.7% of the subjects, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 21.3%; Tannerella forsythia in 10.1%; Treponema denticola in 34.7% and Prevotella inter-media in 12.3%. The red complex bacteria were found in 2.9% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The percentages of bacteria varied but only T denticola was significantly associated with periodontal breakdown. In addition, the presence of more than 2 of the 5 species tested were significantly associated with tissue damage. LIMITATIONS: Cannot be generalized to all of Saudi Arabia. Larger controlled studies are needed. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Gengiva/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Treponema denticola/isolamento & purificação
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