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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 761-770, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480556

RESUMO

Increase of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat to health. The AMR profile of bacteria isolated from domesticated animals and free-ranging wildlife has been studied, but there are relatively few studies of bacteria isolated from captive wild animals. Understanding the dynamics of AMR in different populations is key to minimizing emergence of resistance and to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials. In this study, fecal samples were collected from 17 species of healthy ungulates from a zoological collection in southeast England, which yielded 39 Escherichia coli and 55 Enterococcus spp. isolates for further analysis. Antibiotic sensitivity was investigated using agar disk diffusion. Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to a range of antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin being the most common (28%). All E. coli isolates were susceptible to apramycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and florfenicol. None tested positive for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase or AmpC activity. Seven of 39 (18%) E. coli isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes. The E. coli isolates were further analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, which identified four pairs of identical sequence type isolates and 27 diverse strains. The Enterococcus spp. isolates were resistant to a range of antibiotics, with resistance to cefpodoxime seen in 95% of isolates. All Enterococcus spp. isolates were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and vancomycin. This study identified multidrug-resistant phenotypes in enterobacterial isolates that were like those commonly found in domestic ungulates. There was no apparent spatial clustering of the resistance profiles within the zoo. Review of the medical records of individual animals showed no direct relation to the AMR profiles observed. Observed resistance to antibiotics rarely or never used may have been due to coselection or directly acquired from other sources.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Artiodáctilos/microbiologia , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterococcus/classificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reino Unido
2.
Oecologia ; 194(3): 383-390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083848

RESUMO

Megaherbivores have been of particular interest to scientists because of the physiological and ecological challenges associated with their extreme body size. Yet, one question that has seldom been explored is how browsing megaherbivores cope with plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as tannins, found in their food. It is possible that the sheer body size of these megaherbivores allows them to ingest tannins with no deleterious effects. However, it is plausible that megaherbivores must rely on other mechanisms to cope with PSMs, such as the production of salivary tannin-binding proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether megaherbivore browsers produce tannin-binding proteins to further reduce the consequences of ingesting a tannin-rich diet. Using a series of laboratory assays, we explored whether elephants, black rhinoceros, and giraffe had tannin-binding proteins in their saliva. We tested for the presence of proline-rich proteins in the saliva using two different approaches: (1) SDS-PAGE using Laemmli's (Laemmli, Nature 227:680-685, 1970) destaining method, and (2) comparative SDS-PAGE gels using Beeley et al.'s (Beeley et al. Electrophoresis 12:493-499, 1991) method for staining and destaining to probe for proline-rich proteins. Then, to test for the tannin-binding affinity of their saliva, we performed an inhibition assay. We did not observe proline-rich proteins in any of the megaherbivore species, but they did have other protein(s) in their saliva that have a high tannin-binding affinity. Our results highlight that, despite their large body sizes, and their abilities to tolerate low-quality food, browsing megaherbivores have likely evolved tannin-binding proteins as a way of coping with the negative effects of tannins.


Assuntos
Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares , Taninos , Animais , Dieta , Perissodáctilos , Saliva
3.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 250-257, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045934

RESUMO

Following its capture in March 2014, an adult female Sumatran rhinoceros frequently showed profuse vaginal bleeding. An ultrasonography suggested the presence of multiple reproductive lesions, including two uterine masses which were suspected to be leiomyomas. Soon after, an open pyometra was confirmed. Later in November 2019, the patient died and necropsy confirmed the presence of two uterine masses; one was located at the cervico-uterine junction and another in the uterine body, with pyometra, and cystic endometrial hyerplasia. Based on histological, special stains, and immunohistochemical examination, it was shown that one of the masses was composed of large, ovoid and polyhedral neoplastic mesenchymal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and a few binucleated cells surrounded by collagen fibres. It was tested positive for SMA and vimentin, while negative for desmin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, EMA, CD34, and S100. The other mass was composed of mesenchymal cells undergoing myxoid degeneration as evidenced by the presence of glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix. It was tested positive for SMA, vimentin, partially positive for desmin, and negative for the other markers. With the aid of human medical nomenclature, these masses were diagnosed as epithelioid leiomyoma and myxoid leiomyoma, respectively. This report provides a clinical presentation, and histologic descriptions of the two variants of leiomyomas that have not been reported in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/veterinária , Perissodáctilos , Neoplasias Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Bornéu , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Leiomioma/diagnóstico , Malásia , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785261

RESUMO

Iron Overload Disorder (IOD) is a syndrome developed by captive browsing rhinoceroses like black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis), in which hemosiderosis develops in vital organs while free iron accumulates in the body, potentially predisposing to various secondary diseases. Captive grazing species like white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) do not seem to be affected. The authors hypothesized that inflammation and oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of IOD in captive black rhinoceroses, making this syndrome a potential common denominator to various diseases described in captivity in this species. In this prospective study, 15 black (BR) and 29 white rhinoceroses (WR) originating from 22 European zoos were blood-sampled and compared for their iron status (serum iron), liver/muscle biochemical parameters (AST, GGT, cholesterol), inflammatory status (total proteins, protein electrophoresis) and oxidative stress markers (SOD, GPX, dROMs). Results showed higher serum iron and liver enzyme levels in black rhinoceroses (P < 0.01), as well as higher dROMs (P < 0.01) and a trend for higher GPX (P = 0.06) levels. The albumin/globulin ratio was lower in black rhinoceroses (P < 0.05) due to higher α2-globulin levels (P < 0.001). The present study suggests a higher inflammatory and oxidative profile in captive BR than in WR, possibly in relation to iron status. This could be either a consequence or a cause of iron accumulation. Further investigations are needed to assess the prognostic value of the inflammatory and oxidative markers in captive black rhinoceroses, particularly for evaluating the impact of reduced-iron and antioxidant-supplemented diets.


Assuntos
Sobrecarga de Ferro/imunologia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Perissodáctilos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Feminino , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236790, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726369

RESUMO

Overharvesting affects the size and growth of wildlife populations and can impact population trajectories. Overharvesting can also severely alter population structure and may result in changes in spatial organisation, social dynamics and recruitment. Understanding the relationship between overharvesting and population growth is therefore crucial for the recovery of exploited species. The black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis; black rhino) is a long-lived megaherbivore native to sub-Saharan Africa, listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Since 2009, the targeted illegal killing of rhino for their horns has escalated dramatically in South Africa. Given their slow life trajectories, spatial structure and social dynamics, black rhino may be susceptible to both direct and indirect impacts of overharvesting. Our study compared black rhino demography before and during extensive poaching to understand the impact of illegal killing. The population exhibited significant changes in age structure after four years of heavy poaching; these changes were primarily explained by a decrease in the proportion of calves over time. Population projections incorporating both direct poaching removals and decreased fecundity/recruitment were most similar to the observed demographic profile in 2018, suggesting that indirect impacts are also contributing to the observed population trajectory. These indirect impacts are likely a result of decreased density, through processes such as reduced mate-finding, population disturbance and/or increased calf predation. This study illustrates the combined effect of direct and indirect impacts on an endangered species, providing a more comprehensive approach by which to evaluate exploited populations.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/legislação & jurisprudência , Perissodáctilos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234826, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542033

RESUMO

Feeding practice in herbivorous mammals can impact their dental wear, due to excessive or irregular abrasion. Previous studies indicated that browsing species display more wear when kept in zoos compared to natural habitats. Comparable analyses in tapirs do not exist, as their dental anatomy and chewing kinematics are assumed to prevent the use of macroscopic wear proxies such as mesowear. We aimed at describing tapir chewing, dental anatomy and wear, to develop a system allowing comparison of free-ranging and captive specimens even in the absence of known age. Video analyses suggest that in contrast to other perissodactyls, tapirs have an orthal (and no lateral) chewing movement. Analysing cheek teeth from 74 museum specimens, we quantified dental anatomy, determined the sequence of dental wear along the tooth row, and established several morphometric measures of wear. In doing so, we showcase that tapir maxillary teeth distinctively change their morphology during wear, developing a height differential between less worn buccal and more worn lingual cusps, and that quantitative wear corresponds to the eruption sequence. We demonstrate that mesowear scoring shows a stable signal during initial wear stages but results in a rather high mesowear score compared to other browsing herbivores. Zoo specimens had lesser or equal mesowear scores as specimens from the wild; additionally, for the same level of third molar wear, premolars and other molars of zoo specimens showed similar or less wear compared specimens from the wild. While this might be due to the traditional use of non-roughage diet items in zoo tapirs, these results indicate that in contrast to the situation in other browsers, excessive tooth wear appears to be no relevant concern in ex situ tapir management.


Assuntos
Mastigação , Perissodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Perissodáctilos/fisiologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
8.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 26(3): 486-488, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436979

RESUMO

Animal-related injuries should be analyzed based on the behavior and anatomy of the attacking animal. Rhinoceros-related injuries in humans are extremely rare. Hereby, we report a life-threatening traumatic diaphragmatic hernia in a woman who presented three years after a rhinoceros gored her chest. A 47-year-old lady presented with abdominal pain, bilious vomiting and obstipation of one-day duration. She had recurrent attacks of colicky abdominal pain for a week before that. The patient gave the history of being admitted to the ICU three years before, after being gored by a rhinoceros into her chest while working as a veterinary assistant in the zoo. On examination, the abdomen was distended but soft and lax. Bowel sounds were exaggerated. Abdominal x-rays showed multiple air-fluid levels. A gastrographin follow through study hold up in the small bowel and did not reach the colon after seven hours. Abdominal and chest CT scan showed the splenic colonic flexure to be located in the left chest through a left diaphragmatic hernia. Urgent laparotomy showed a healthy splenic flexure of the colon that herniated through a 4 cm postero-lateral defect in the left diaphragm. The colon was reduced, and the defect was repaired with non-absorbable sutures. Postoperative recovery was smooth. The patient was discharged home 10 days after the surgery. Rhinoceros-related injuries in humans are extremely rare. Life-threatening traumatic diaphragmatic herniation may be delayed for few years. High index of suspicion is needed for its diagnosis.


Assuntos
Diafragma , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Diafragma/lesões , Feminino , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/diagnóstico , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/etiologia , Hérnia Diafragmática Traumática/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3987, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132560

RESUMO

A negative correlation between body size and the latitudinal temperature gradient is well established for extant terrestrial endotherms but less so in the fossil record. Here we analyze the middle Eocene site of Geiseltal (Germany), whose record is considered to span ca. 5 Myrs of gradual global cooling, and generate one of the most extensive mammalian Paleogene body size datasets outside North America. The δ18O and δ13C isotopic analysis of bioapatite reveals signatures indicative of a humid, subtropical forest with no apparent climatic change across Geiseltal. Yet, body mass of hippomorphs and tapiromorphs diverges rapidly from a respective median body size of 39 kg and 124 kg at the base of the succession to 26 kg and 223 kg at the top. We attribute the divergent body mass evolution to a disparity in lifestyle, in which both taxa maximize their body size-related selective advantages. Our results therefore support the view that intrinsic biotic processes are an important driver of body mass outside of abrupt climate events. Moreover, the taxonomy previously used to infer the duration of the Geiseltal biota is not reproducible, which precludes chronological correlation with Eocene marine temperature curves.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Clima , Perissodáctilos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Perissodáctilos/classificação
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3973, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132572

RESUMO

A molecular sexing method by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a portion of the sex-determining region Y (SRY) and the zinc finger (ZF) gene, as well as six equine Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite markers, were tested in the Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus). While the microsatellite markers did not yield any male-specific amplicons for sex-typing, the SRY/ZF marker system produced reliable molecular sexing results by accurately sex-typing 31 reference Malayan tapirs, using whole blood, dried blood spot (DBS), or tissue samples as materials for DNA extraction. The marker system was also tested on 16 faecal samples, and the results were in general consistent with the pre-determined sexes of the animals, despite some amplification failures. A preliminary estimation of wild Malayan tapir population sex ratio was estimated from the Wildlife Genomic Resource Bank (WGRB) database of the Malaysian Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN), zoos, and the Sungai Dusun Wildlife Conservation Centre (WCC), as well as from the results of molecular sexing 12 samples of unknown sex. The overall sex ratio favoured females, but the deviation from parity was statistically not significant when tested using the binomial test (p > 0.05), which may be due to reduced statistical power caused by small sample sizes.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Perissodáctilos/genética , Razão de Masculinidade , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Malásia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4117, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139707

RESUMO

Malayan tapirs are listed as endangered and are bred in captivity under governmental management. The success of captive breeding programs varies and the underlying causes are unclear. Here, we investigate how tapir reproduction is affected by previous breeding experience, enclosure type/size and visitor numbers so that appropriate steps can be taken to achieve self-sustaining captive populations. Data on social and reproductive behaviors were collected from six tapirs (three males, three females), from different breeding centers in Peninsular Malaysia for 18 weeks. Results revealed that social and reproductive behavior of both sexes was significantly influenced by social and environmental conditions. Larger enclosure size tended to increase social and reproductive behaviors, whereas high number of visitors reduced initial interaction between males and females. No specific breeding month was confirmed; however, reproductive behaviors were highest in April. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between social and reproductive behaviors, and captive environments on Malayan tapirs. In future, frequency of sexual interactions should be monitored regularly to identify animals exhibiting below-average frequency and who might, therefore, be prone to reproductive difficulties.


Assuntos
Perissodáctilos/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Comportamento Social , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Masculino
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 136349, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050371

RESUMO

Greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is one of the most iconic wildlife species in the world. Once reduced to fewer than 500 during the 1960s, its global population has been recovering and is now over 3500, thanks to effective conservation programs in India and Nepal, the only two countries in the world where this species is found. It is one of the greatest success stories in biodiversity conservation given that hundreds of other species have disappeared, and thousands of species are on the verge of extinction. However, poaching is not the only threat for the long-term survival of rhinoceros. Loss and degradation of grassland habitat and the drying-up of wetlands are emerging threats predicted to worsen in the future, but the published information on rhinoceros has never been synthesized. In order to better understand the trends and current status of rhinoceros research and identify research gaps inhibiting its long-term conservation, we analyzed the themes discussed in 215 articles covering a period of 33 years between 1985 and 2018. Our findings suggest that studies on both free-ranging and captive rhinoceros are skewed towards biological aspects of the species including morphology, anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. There are no studies addressing the likely effects of climate change on the species, and limited information is available on rhinoceros genetics, diseases, habitat dynamics and the impacts of tourism and other infrastructure development in and around rhinoceros habitat. These issues will need addressing to maintain the conservation success of greater one-horned rhinoceros into the future.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Índia , Nepal
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 606, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953519

RESUMO

The Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) is susceptible to habitat change and fragmentation due to illegal logging, rapid urbanization and non-forest use and therefore were confined in to isolated areas throughout its distribution. The present study was conducted in Gorumara landscape which is composed of two protected areas (PAs) viz., Gorumara National Park (GNP) and Chapramari Wildlife Sanctuary. Both PAs were separated by a territorial forest range (Bridge Area), which is between both the PAs and under high anthropogenic disturbance. The study was designed to understand the impacts of landcover change on habitat suitability of R. unicornis in a multi-temporal scenario from 1998 to 2018 using ensemble approach and also to simulate the future habitat suitability for 2028. Our result suggests a significant increase in woodland cover inside the PAs, whereas the grassland cover has increased outside the PA in territorial range. We found a strong positive association of R. unicornis with grasslands. The Comparison of the future suitability model of 2028 with that of 2018 indicates a substantial increase in rhino suitable area by 13% in the territorial forest. Hence, bringing the territorial forest into the PA network, will be a crucial step to increase the fodder availability and better connectivity for the long term survival of the species.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Perissodáctilos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Pradaria , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Nepal , Redes Neurais de Computação
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1000-1004, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926536

RESUMO

Mycobacterium orygis, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, has been isolated predominantly from hoofstock in eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, and sporadically in cattle (Bos taurus indicus), rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), humans, and a greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) in South Asia. In rhinoceros, tuberculosis typically presents as a chronic progressive respiratory disease. The report describes the postmortem diagnosis of tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium orygis in a greater one-horned rhinoceros with hind limb paresis due to neural granulomatosis. Serologic assays for detection of antibodies to M. tuberculosis complex proteins before culture results allowed for appropriate herd management protocols to be initiated. Mycobacterium genus-specific polymerase chain reaction assays with direct sequencing allowed timely confirmation of the serologic results. This is the first isolation of M. orygis in the western hemisphere, showing the need for mycobacterial testing of rhinoceros before international shipments and the urgency for validated antemortem M. tuberculosis complex screening assays in rhinoceros species.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Masculino , Nitrilos , Triazinas , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/microbiologia , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 521(1): 24-30, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cell fusion is a phenomenon that is observed in various tissues in vivo, resulting in acquisition of physiological functions such as liver regeneration. Fused cells such as hybridomas have also been produced artificially in vitro. Furthermore, it has been reported that cellular reprogramming can be induced by cell fusion with stem cells. METHODS: Fused cells between mammalian fibroblasts and mouse embryonic stem cells were produced by electrofusion methods. The phenotypes of each cell lines were analyzed after purifying the fused cells. RESULTS: Colonies which are morphologically similar to mouse embryonic stem cells were observed in fused cells of rabbit, bovine, and zebra fibroblasts. RT-PCR analysis revealed that specific pluripotent marker genes that were never expressed in each mammalian fibroblast were strongly induced in the fused cells, which indicated that fusion with mouse embryonic stem cells can trigger reprogramming and acquisition of pluripotency in various mammalian somatic cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results can help elucidate the mechanism of pluripotency maintenance and the establishment of highly reprogrammed pluripotent stem cells in various mammalian species.


Assuntos
Fusão Celular , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Animais , Aotidae , Bovinos , Equidae , Fibroblastos/citologia , Cavalos , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Perissodáctilos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Coelhos , Saimiri
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 711-723, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612644

RESUMO

The greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is listed as vulnerable by the IUCN Red List. Mycobacterium orygis-associated disease was identified in a single greater one-horned rhino in Chitwan National Park in February 2015 prior to a planned translocation of five greater one-horned rhinoceros from Chitwan National Park to Bardia National Park for conservation purposes. This paper describes a qualitative disease risk analysis conducted retrospectively post-translocation for Mycobacterium orygis and this translocation, with the aim to improve the understanding of disease threats to the conservation of greater one-horned rhino. The disease risk analysis method used was devised by Sainsbury & Vaughan-Higgins (Conservation Biology, 26, 2017, 442) with modifications by Bobadilla Suarez et al (EcoHealth, 14, 2017, 1) and Rideout et al (EcoHealth, 14, 2017, 42) and included the use of a scenario tree and an analysis of uncertainty as recommended by Murray et al. (Handbook on import risk analysis for animals and animal products. Volume 1. Introduction and qualitative risk analysis, 2004), and the first time this combination of methods has been used to assess the risk from disease in a conservation translocation. The scenario tree and analysis of uncertainty increased the clarity and transparency of the analysis. Rideout et al.'s (EcoHealth, 14, 2017, 42) criteria were used to assess the source hazard and may be useful in comparative assessment of source hazards for future conservation translocations. The likelihood of release into the destination site of Mycobacterium orygis as a source hazard was estimated as of low risk, the risk of exposure of populations at the destination was of high risk and the likelihood of biological and environmental consequences was low. Overall, the risk from disease associated with Mycobacterium orygis as a result of this translocation was found to be low. Recommendations on disease risk management strategies could be improved with a better understanding of the epidemiology including the presence/absence of Mycobacterium orygis in greater one-horned rhino to develop effective disease risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Perissodáctilos/microbiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium/virologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Parques Recreativos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
17.
Zoo Biol ; 39(2): 141-144, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797432

RESUMO

All extant species in the Rhinocerotidae family are experiencing escalating threats in the wild, making self-sustaining captive populations essential genetic reservoirs for species survival. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) will become increasingly important for achieving and maintaining ex situ population sustainability and genetic diversity. Previous reports have shown that a large proportion of captive southern white rhinoceros (SWR) females are irregularly cyclic or acyclic, and that cycling females display two different estrous cycle lengths of approximately 30 or 70 days. It has been suggested that the longer estrous cycle length is infertile or subfertile, as no term pregnancies have been observed following long cycles. Here we report the achievement of two pregnancies following long luteal phases, using ovulation induction and artificial insemination with either fresh or frozen-thawed semen. One female SWR conceived on the first insemination attempt and gave birth to a live offspring. A second female conceived twice in consecutive long cycles although the first embryo was resorbed by 33 days post-insemination. A pregnancy from this female's second insemination is ongoing with expected parturition in November 2019. Whether prolonged estrous cycles in SWR are subfertile or infertile in natural breeding situations remains unclear. However, our findings demonstrate that the application of ARTs following prolonged cycles can result the successful establishment of pregnancies in SWR. Therefore, with ARTs, female SWR otherwise considered nonreproductive due to long estrous cycles may still have the potential for representation and contribution to the ex situ population.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Fase Luteal/fisiologia , Perissodáctilos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Indução da Ovulação/veterinária , Gravidez
18.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 289: 113376, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881202

RESUMO

To achieve self-sustaining and genetically diverse populations ex situ, captive breeding programmes must ensure good overall rates of reproduction, and equal contribution across individuals. Previous research in the critically endangered eastern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis michaeli) revealed a high incidence of irregular oestrous cyclicity; in particular extended cycle duration among nulliparous females and acyclic periods in parous females that have not bred for several years. Irregular ovarian activity could play a role in reduced reproductive output; however, the mechanisms underlying these anomalies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) concentrations and variability prior to and during periods of regular and irregular ovarian activity, and determine if adrenal activity influences the occurrence of different cycle types in this species. Faecal samples were collected every other day from parous (N = 6) and nulliparous (N = 12) females at eight European institutions for periods of 9-15 months. Concentration and variability in fGCM were compared between periods of regular and irregular cyclicity and between different cycle types (<20 days, 20-40 days, >40 days, acyclic) using generalized linear mixed models. Concentrations of fGCM were influenced by season and higher during the luteal than the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle. Taking this into account, fGCMs were increased during periods of irregular cyclicity (all types combined and during cycles >40 days in length) compared to 20-40 day cycles. This was predominantly driven by nulliparous females. The variation in fGCM concentration also differed between periods of regular and irregular cyclicity; higher standard deviation in fGCM preceded irregular cycles and >40 day cycles compared to 20-40 day cycles. These results suggest that although fGCM concentrations fluctuate across the oestrous cycle in this species, changes in adrenal activity at specific times could be one factor associated with irregular ovarian activity in the black rhinoceros.


Assuntos
Ciclo Estral/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Perissodáctilos , Reprodução
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226851, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the current poaching crisis in Africa, increasing numbers of white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) require opioid immobilisation for medical interventions or management procedures. Alarmingly, the results of both blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry regularly indicate severe hypoxaemia. Yet, the recovery of the animals is uneventful. Thus, neither of the techniques seems to represent the real oxygenation level. We hypothesized that unusual haemoglobin characteristics of this species interfere with the techniques developed and calibrated for the use in human patients. METHODS: Haemoglobin was isolated from blood samples of four adult, white rhinoceroses. Oxygen dissociation curves at pH 7.2 and 7.4 (37°C) were determined based on the absorbance change of haemoglobin in the Soret-region (around 420 nm). Absorbance spectra of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin extending into the infrared region were measured. RESULTS: Oxygen dissociation curves of rhinoceros haemoglobin showed the typical high oxygen affinity (p50 of 2.75 ± 0.07 and 2.00 ± 0.04 kPa for pH 7.2 and 7.4, respectively) under near-physiological conditions with respect to pH, temperature and DPG. The infrared absorbance spectra of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin showed only marginal deviations from standard human spectra, possibly due to the presence of a few percent of methaemoglobin in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our data enables the development of a rhinoceros-specific blood gas analysis algorithm, which allows for species-specific calculation of SaO2 levels in anaesthetized animals. The inconspicuous absorbance spectra do not contribute to the systematic underestimation of SpO2 by pulse-oximetry.


Assuntos
Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/sangue , Perissodáctilos/sangue , África , Algoritmos , Analgésicos Opioides , Animais , Gasometria/métodos , Gasometria/normas , Hemoglobinas/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Oximetria/normas , Espectrofotometria/métodos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225045, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703104

RESUMO

Deperetellidae is a clade of peculiar, Asian endemic tapiroids from the early and middle Eocene. The previously published material mainly comprises maxillae, mandibles, and some postcranial elements. However, the absence of cranial materials and primitive representatives of the deperetellids obscures their phylogenetic relationships within Tapiroidea. Furthermore, derived deperetellids have completely molarized premolars, but the pattern of their evolution remains unclear. Here, we report a nearly complete skull and some carpals of a new basal deperetellid tapiroid, Irenolophus qii gen. et sp. nov., from the late early Eocene of the Erlian Basin, Inner Mongolia, China. We suggest that deperetellids (along with Tapiridae) probably also arose from some basal 'helaletids', based on the reduced, flat, lingually depressed metacones on the upper molars, the trend towards the bilophodonty on the lower molars, and a shallow narial notch with the premaxilla in contact with the nasal. The molarization of the premolars in Deperetellidae from Irenolophus through Teleolophus to Deperetella was initiated and gradually enhanced by the separation between the paraconule and the protocone. That pattern differs from the protocone-hypocone separation in helaletids, tapirids, and most rhinoceroses, and the metaconule-derived pseudohypocone in amynodontids. However, the specific relationship of deperetellids within Tapiroidea and the roles of different patterns of premolar molarization in perissodactyl evolution need further and comprehensive study.


Assuntos
Esmalte Dentário , Fósseis , Paleontologia , Perissodáctilos/classificação , Animais
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